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PRACTICE No 4

PRESSURE GRADIENT
SPEED PROFILE
Abstract
In the practice of 'pressure gradient' and 'speed profile' equipment was used which was
designed to enable a comprehensive study pipe flow, in laminar or turbulent region and in
the transition region. The first part consisted of measuring the mass flow of the tank, while
the 19 readings taken mercury pressure, each of these gauges is connected to a pipe
section, which can observe the pressure difference in the pipe, the second part took the
heights of the mercury manometers 12,18 and 20. These gauges were taken for its
location 12 is located in the center of the pipe 18 is at the end of the pipe 20 and a height
jack dynamic because there is seen the velocity profile required by varying the micrometer.
This applies to both laminar and turbulent regime.

Objectives

Observing the discharge characteristics for laminar and turbulent flow.

Obtaining static pressure gradients along the pipeline to these flows.

Get the velocity distribution profile for laminar flow and / or for one turbulent.

Introduction
In the practice of pressure gradient and velocity profile, it will analyze the types of flow
such as the laminar and turbulent, where you will get different pressures for different
sections of the pipe, as this will help us to get findings, in addition to obtaining the mass
flow and velocity profile for each regime.

After taking the data, we shall analyze the different graphs and draw our own conclusions
and see how it differs each regime.

Fundamento terico
Laminar flow

Stylized flow rate for a single phase fluid in which the fluid moves in parallel layers, or
sheets. Flowing layers uniformly on the other instabilities amortigundose by viscosity.
Laminar flow in straight pipes occurs when the Reynolds number is below a critical value.
For laminar flow in straight pipes, the velocity profile across the tube is parabolic,
increasing from zero at the pipe wall to a maximum at the center equal to twice the
average velocity

Turbulent flow
Turbulent flow is more commonly developed because nature tends toward disorder and
this means in terms of flows tendency toward turbulence. This type of flow is characterized
by erratic circular paths, similar to eddies. Turbulent flow occurs when the flow velocities
are generally very high or fluids in which viscous forces are very small.

Reynolds number

The Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless parameter whose value indicates whether
the flow is laminar or turbulent model.

Reynolds number depends on the flow velocity, the pipe diameter, or equivalent diameter if
driving is not circular, and the kinematic viscosity or otherwise dynamic viscosity and
density.

In a circular pipe is considered:

Re < 2300 the flow is laminar behavior.

2300 < Re < 4000 Transition zone from laminar to turbulent.

Re > 4000 The fluid is turbulent.

The formulas to be used is obtained by weighing tank mass flow to finally determine the
Reynolds number (Re).

V Dac
=
ac

But:

m=acV D

m
V=
acA

Also:

m
m=
t

2
D
A=
4

Then:
4m
V=
acD 2t

Finally:

4m
=
acDt

From static pressures, we get a graph of pressure vs. Length, the value of the experimental entry
length (Le) may be determined from the point where the pressure begins to be a linear function of
the length.

Pressure gradients are determined by the gauge 18 multitubular jacks located along the pipeline.
The velocity profile can be obtained from the total pressures measured by means of a Prandtl tube.

For experimental speed calculation we use the readings obtained in the Prandtl tube using the
following equation:

V e = 2ghdin

Hg ac
hdin ( mm . ac . )= ( ac )hdin (mm . Hg.)

hdin ( mm . Hg . )=htotalhestatico=h20 h18

The distribution of the theoretical speeds can be obtained according to the following
equations:

Laminar flow:

[ ( )]
2
r
V terica =2V 1
R

4m
V=
acD 2t

Turbulent Flow:
{ [
V terica =V 2.44
ac( Rr )V
ac ] }
+5.0

Tw 1/ 2
( Hgac )g h1218
V=
ac ( ) Tw =0.5R
L1218

Where:
R = radius = 9.5mm
r: radius varying from 0 to 8.5mm
D = diameter
= absolute viscosity (dynamic)
_ac= density of oil _ac
L = length
Tw = wall shear stress

Data:
D = 19 mm
ac = 856 kg/ m3
ac = 0.013 Kg/m*s
L1218 = 3414 mm
Hg = 13600 kg/ m3

Description of equipment
This equipment has been designed to enable a comprehensive study of flow in pipelines,
both in the region as laminar or turbulent in the transition region. The fluid is continuously
circulated in the following circuit:

The gear pump pumps the oil to a transparent chamber and tubing passes through a bell,
which serves to reduce losses at the entrance.

At the outlet of the hood there is a disturbing adjustable flow inducing turbulence, the oil
leaving the pipe passes through a transparent deflector, which allows observing the jet. A
heavy tank allows us to calculate the mass flow.
Pressure gradients are determined by taking static pressure ports 18 along the pipeline.
The velocity profile can be obtained from the total pressures measured by means of a
Prandtl tube.

Procedure
PRESSURE GRADIENT AND LENGTH OF ENTRY
1. Fully open the valve.
2. Ensure the flow disturbing is not acting.
3. Connect the oil pump.
4. Remove air from the oil chamber.
5. Remove air from pressure gauge ports.
6. By regulating the flow through the bypass valve, observe the characteristics of
laminar and turbulent downloads (use the flow disturbing).
7. Get laminar flow the maximum discharge possible (do not use the flow disturbing).
Record the pressure drops.
8. Measuring the mass flow with the aid of weighing tank and stopwatch.
9. Get the turbulent flow, record the pressure drop and flow measurement.
10. Fully open the gate valve, then disconnect the pump.

SPEED PROFILES

1. Fully open the valve.


2. Connect the oil pump.
3. Remove the transparent chamber air.
4. Remove air from pressure gauge ports 12, 18 and 20.
5. Varying the flow through the bypass valve (to obtain laminar flow) flow
measurement.
6. Take reading static head (18). Take the micrometer to the horizontal position, and
the values in the data table, taking readings of the total head (20).
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6.
8. For two reasons turbulent flow, repeat steps 5 and 6, measure head losses
between shots 12 and 18.
9. Slowly open the valve. Disconnect the gear pump.
10. Extracting oil from the chamber transparent. Measuring the oil temperature and
viscosity. Measuring the density.
Data
PRESSURE GRADIENT AND LENGTH OF ENTRY
No LA RGIME RGIMEN
TOM ENTRADA(m N TURBULENT
A m) LAMINA O
R
h(mm h(mm Hg)
Hg)

1 160 12,3 33,2


2 300 12,1 32,4
3 450 11,8 31,8
4 600 11,6 30,8
5 750 11,7 30,3
6 900 11,3 29,5
7 1050 11,1 28,8
8 1200 10,9 28,2
9 1350 10,6 27,4
10 1500 10,5 25,6
11 1800 10,1 25,4
12 2100 9,7 23
13 2400 9,4 22,4
14 2750 9 20,5
15 3500 8,1 17
16 4250 7,3 13,4
17 5000 6,4 9,7
18 5514 5,8 7,3
19 5747 6 8,8
SPEED PROFILES

Laminar Regime

MICRMETR 18.32 16.32 14.32 12.3 10.32 9.32 8.32 6.32 4.3 2.3
O
2 2 2
(mm)
RADIO (mm) 8.5 6.5 4.5 2.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 2.5 4.5 6.5
H 12(mm Hg) 9,7 9,8 9,8 9,9 9,9 9,9 9,9 9,9 10, 10,
0 0
H 18 (mm Hg) 5,8 5,9 5,9 5,9 5,9 5,9 5,9 5,9 6,0 6,0
H 20 (mm Hg) 6,3 6,6 7 7,4 7,6 7,6 7,5 7,2 6,9 6,4

Mass Flow Measurement

Masa (Kg) 20,0


Tiempo (seg) 80,6

Turbulent Regime

MICRMETR 18.32 16.32 14.32 12.3 10.32 9.32 8.32 6.32 4.3 2.3
O
2 2 2
(mm)
RADIO (mm) 8.5 6.5 4.5 2.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 2.5 4.5 6.5
H 12(mm Hg) 23,8 23,8 23,8 23,8 23,8 23,9 23,9 23,9 23, 23,
9 9
H 18 (mm Hg) 7,3 7,2 7,3 7,3 7,3 7,4 7,4 7,5 7,5 7,6
H 20 (mm Hg) 10,2 10,3 11,0 11,4 11,6 11,4 11,5 11,3 10, 10,
9 0

Mass Flow Measurement

Masa (Kg) 20,0


Tiempo (seg) 31,1
Calculations and results
PRESSURE GRADIENT AND LENGTH OF ENTRY

To calculate losses in the static pressure head within the pipe requires the difference of
two consecutive pressure.

No LA RGIME PRDID RGIMEN PRDIDAS


TOM ENTRADA(m N AS DE TURBULENT DE CABEZAL
A m) LAMINA CABEZA O
R L
h(mm R. h(mm Hg) R.
Hg) LAMINA TURBULENT
R O
h(mm h(mm Hg)
Hg)
1 160 12,3 - 33,2 -
2 300 12,1 0,2 32,4 0,8
3 450 11,8 0,3 31,8 0,6
4 600 11,6 0,2 30,8 1
5 750 11,7 -0,1 30,3 0,5
6 900 11,3 0,4 29,5 0,8
7 1050 11,1 0,2 28,8 0,7
8 1200 10,9 0,2 28,2 0,6
9 1350 10,6 0,3 27,4 0,8
10 1500 10,5 0,1 25,6 1,8
11 1800 10,1 0,4 25,4 0,2
12 2100 9,7 0,4 23 2,4
13 2400 9,4 0,3 22,4 0,6
14 2750 9 0,4 20,5 1,9
15 3500 8,1 0,9 17 3,5
16 4250 7,3 0,8 13,4 3,6
17 5000 6,4 0,9 9,7 3,7
18 5514 5,8 0,6 7,3 2,4
19 5747 6 -0,2 8,8 -1,5
SPEED PROFILES

Laminar Regime

To calculate the velocity experimental:

V e = 2ghdin

Where:

m
g= 9.8
s2
hdin = h20 h 18 / hdin = h20h 12

For calculating the theoretical speed:

[ ( )]
2
r
V terica =2V 1
R

Where:

4m
V= 2
acD t

R = radio = 9.5mm
r: radius varying from 0 to 8.5mm
MICRMETRO 18.32 16.32 14.32 12.32 10.32 9.32 8.32 6.32 4.32 2.32

(mm)
RADIO (mm) 8,5 6,5 4,5 2,5 0,5 0 0,5 2,5 4,5 6,5

H 12(mm Hg) 9,7 9,8 9,8 9,9 9,9 9,9 9,9 9,9 10 10
H 18 (mm Hg) 5,8 5,9 5,9 5,9 5,9 5,9 5,9 5,9 6 6

H 20 (mm Hg) 6,3 6,6 7 7,4 7,6 7,6 7,5 7,2 6,9 6,4

20 h(mm Hg)
h 0,0034 0,0032 0,0028 0,0025 0,0023 0,0023 0,0024 0,0027 0,0031 0,0036

20 h (mm Hg)
h 0,0005 0,0007 0,0011 0,0015 0,0017 0,0017 0,0016 0,0013 0,0009 0,0004

20 h(mm ac) 0,0506 0,0476 0,0416 0,0372 0,0357 0,0402 0,0461 0,0536
h 2 4 9 2 0,03424 0,03424 3 0 5 0

20 h (mm ac) 0,0074 0,0104 0,0163 0,0223 0,0238 0,0193 0,0134 0,0059
h 4 2 8 3 0,02531 0,02531 2 5 0 6
0,9960 0,9663 0,9039 0,8541 0,8368 0,8876 0,9511 1,0249
Ve (m/s) 6 2 1 1 0,81923 0,81923 5 2 0 3
0,3819 0,4519 0,5665 0,6615 0,6832 0,6159 0,5124 0,3416
Ve (m/s ) 7 5 5 9 0,70432 0,70432 9 1 7 4
1,0224 1,0224 1,0224 1,0224 1,0224 1,0224 1,0224 1,0224
V (m/s ) 1 1 1 1 1,02241 1,02241 1 1 1 1
0,4078 1,0875 1,5860 1,9032 2,0391 1,9032 1,5860 1,0875
Vterica(m/s ) 3 4 0 0 2,03915 2,04481 5 0 0 4

Turbulent Regime

To calculate the velocity experimental:


V e = 2ghdin

Where:

m
g= 9.8
s2
hdin = h20 h 18 / hdin = h20h 12

For calculating the theoretical speed:

{ [
V terica =V 2.44
ac( Rr )V
ac
+5.0
] }
Tw 1/ 2
( Hgac )g h1218
V=
( )
ac
Tw =0.5R
L1218

Where:
Tw = wall shear stress
ac = 856 kg/ m3
ac = 0.013 Kg/m*s
L1218 = 3414 mm
Hg = 13600 kg/ m3

MICRMETRO 18.32 16.32 14.32 12.32 10.32 9.32 8.32 6.32 4.32 2.32

(mm)
RADIO (mm) 8,5 6,5 4,5 2,5 0,5 0 0,5 2,5 4,5 6,5

H 12(mm Hg) 23,8 23,8 23,8 23,8 23,8 23,9 23,9 23,9 23,9 23,9

H 18 (mm Hg) 7,3 7,2 7,3 7,3 7,3 7,4 7,4 7,5 7,5 7,6

H 20 (mm Hg) 10,2 10,3 11 11,4 11,6 11,4 11,5 11,3 10,9 10
20 h(mm Hg) 0,0136 0,0135 0,0128 0,0124 0,0122 0,0125 0,0124 0,0126 0,013 0,0139
h
20 h (mm Hg) 0,0029 0,0031 0,0037 0,0041 0,0043 0,004 0,0041 0,0038 0,0034 0,0024
h
20 h(mm ac) 0,20247 0,20099 0,19056 0,18461 0,18163 0,18610 0,18461 0,18759 0,19354 0,20694
h
20 h (mm ac)0,04317 0,04615 0,05509 0,06104 0,06402 0,05955 0,06104 0,05657 0,05062 0,03573
h
Ve (m/s) 1,99211 1,98477 1,93263 1,90219 1,88679 1,90985 1,90219 1,91747 1,94767 2,01396
Ve (m/s ) 0,91991 0,95110 1,03907 1,09380 1,12016 1,08037 1,09380 1,05302 0,99606 0,83685
12 (mm Hg16,5000
) 16,6000 16,5000 16,5000 16,5000 16,5000 16,5000 16,4000 16,4000 16,3000
h 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
N 2,86712 2,88450 2,86712 2,86712 2,86712 2,86712 2,86712 2,84974 2,84974 2,83237
Tw ( 2 )
m
V (m/s ) 0,05787 0,05805 0,05787 0,05787 0,05787 0,05787 0,05787 0,05770 0,05770 0,05752
Vterica(m/s ) 0,82751 1,91444 2,98005 4,05633 5,13260 5,40167 5,13260 4,03262 2,96287 1,88245

Charts
PRESSURE GRADIENT AND LENGTH OF ENTRY
Laminar Flow
Graphic: Static Pressure vs Distance from the entrance
14

12

10
statc pressure(mmHg)

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

distance from the entrance(mm)

Graphic: Head Loss vs. Distance from the entrance


1

0.8

0.6
headloss (mmHg)

0.4

0.2

0
0 0
30 45 60
0 0 0
-0.2 75 90 50 00 50
10 12 00 00 00
13 15 18 00 50
21 24 00 50 00
27 35 42 14 47
50 55 57
distance from the entrance(mm)

Turbulent Flow

Graphic: Static Pressure vs Distance from the entrance


35

30

25
statc pressure(mmHg)

20

15

10

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
distance from the entrance(mm)

Graphic: Head Loss vs. Distance from the entrance


4

2
headloss(mmHg)

0
0 0
30 45 60
0 0 0
75 90 50 00 50
-1 10 12 00 00 00
13 15 18 00 50
21 24 00 50 00
27 35 42 14 47
50 55 57
-2

distance from the entrance(mm)

SPEED PROFILES
Laminar Regime

Graphic: experimental vs. Speed Radio

2.5

1.5
speed(m/s)

Ve(20-12)m/s
Linear (Ve(20-
1 12)m/s)
Ve(20-18)m/s

0.5

0
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8

inner radius of the pipe(mm)

Turbulent Regime
Graphic: experimental vs. Speed Radio
6

4
speed(m/s)

3
Ve(20-12)m/s
Ve(20-18)m/s
Vterica(m/s)
2

0
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8

inner radius of the pipe(mm)

Analysis of results
PRESSURE GRADIENT AND LENGTH OF ENTRY
In the graphs of static pressure vs. distance input can be seen clearly that the pressure
drops linearly with increasing distance input, this is because the friction of the particles
with the walls of the pipe and including same, this means that there power loss over the
distance go under the pipeline. This happens for both laminar and the turbulent regime, it
should be emphasized that the turbulent pressures are greater than the laminar regime.
With respect to the head losses graphical input vs distance, we see that the top of the pipe
there is a minor loss of pressure, this is due to start because there is greater friction with
the pipe walls, increasing the distance section clearly seen that where there is more
pressure loss than others. Likewise this happens for the two types of flows analyzed.

SPEED PROFILES

Analyzing the graph of speed vs. theoretical radius can be observed which has a quadratic
form, where the maximum speed is in the middle of the pipe where the radius bone is zero,
while near the pipe wall is the minimum speed , because the walls have no velocity, this
also depends on the fluid viscosity also in a laminar fluid layer forms runs. Meanwhile
graphs vs Radio theoretical speed, they are very different than the theoretical, note that
they have a quadratic form, and the speeds are higher in the walls of the pipe and lower in
the center thereof. So much for the laminar flow.

Now for the turbulent regime, it is observed that the theoretical speed has a shape linearly
until it reaches its maximum speed is in the middle of the pipe, almost similar to laminar
flow, and so the same theoretical speeds come completely different, where no much
difference between maximum and minimum speeds.

Observations and Recommendations


For the mass flow, one must be careful when you are instructed to take the time, also
keeping the valve closed when no longer in use because the tank can be filled and
watered the oil.

Take good gauges readings, since these depend much to the goals of our practice.

To properly handle micrometer radii good place orders for the desired analysis

Conclusions
As was expected, the turbulent mass flow is greater than the laminar flow.

Using the formula that Reynolds number laminar flow check was 1279.11, ie whether it
belongs to the range to be taken as laminar flow while for turbulent flow was 3391.33, in
which the range is to be considered with turbulent flow rather is in transition.

Both laminar and turbulent regime the fluid pressure in the tubing decreases as it travels
along the conduit, this is due to the loss of dynamic energy of the fluid by the friction of the
particles against the walls of the pipe.

The head loss at the beginning of the pipeline, where we could say that these are
negligible, but that the fluid moves in the pipe will make greater losses in certain sections.

The theoretical velocity profile for laminar flow has a quadratic form, the speed will do
more in the center of the pipe (zero radius), while the walls near the speed is lower, since
the walls of the pipe have zero speed .

The theoretical velocity profile is similar to turbulent laminar regime, the difference has a
linear schemes, the analysis is the same in the 2

The theoretical velocity profile for sections 12 and 18 were wrong, the graphics come out
completely different than the theoretical, where speeds are higher on the wall, lie the
center are smaller in the case of section 12, while in section 18 is not much difference
though in the center tends to greater speed.

Annexes
Fig. 1 Laminar flow Fig. 2 Turbulent flow

Fig. 3 Mercury manometers for Fig. 4 Micrometer


different sections.

Bibliography
Robert L Mott, Fluid Mechanics sixth edition, Pearson Education, Mexico 2006, ISBN :
970-26-0805-8, pp. (226-233)

White, F. M. (2008). Viscous flow in ducts. In F. M. White, Fluid Mechanics. Spain: Mc


Graw Hill.

FLUIDOS.Fay MECHANICS A. James, Editorial CECSA, Fourth Edition; Mexico 1995

* Mr. Mijail Arias Hidalgo, PhD, MSc. & Aza Gonzlez, C., (2013), Guide to Practices
Lab Fluid Mechanics, Guayaquil, Ecuador.