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180 Vllu.

e 32, Number 3 1115 Pales 180184

lautering at Higher Temperatures Q

By H. Nielsen, A. Hummer, O.V. larsen

Henning Nielsen is a Director and Senior Partner of Alfred Jorgensen Laboratory Ltd., Copenhagen.
He took a M.Sc. degree and became a Master Brewer in Copenhagen, and for
Manager of the Faxe Brewery in Denmark.
14 years he was Technical

Anders Hummer is a Brewing Consultant at Alfred Jorgensen Laboratory Ltd., Copenhagen.

In 19 3, he graduated with a B.Sc. degree from the Technical University of Denmark.

Olav Vind Larsen is studying for M.Sc. at the Technical University of Denmark.

r adition al lau tering and sparging at 75C -79C
has been
as a compromise between the two evils of either excessive
viscosity or dissolved starch in the wort.
EI Filtrado y lavado tradicional a 75 70
a grados centigrados han
sido escogidos como un compromiso entre dos diablos de ya sea exce
siva viscosidad 0 almidon disueIto en el mosto.

On the basis of trials - full scale as well as pilot - this paper out En la base de experimentos - escala total asi como piloto - este
lines some consequences of an increased temperature
lautering, showing considerable benefits as
backs, which can be circumvented.
well as a few draw
at papel describe algunas de las consecuencias del incremento de tem
peratura (95 grados centigrados) en la cuba fiItro, mostrando benefi
cios considerables asi como algunos inconvenientes los cuales pueden
ser soslayados.

When discussing the iodine-test, it is important to observe

that three different tests are in general use - and that none of
these measures the amount of dissolved starch:
The temperature chosen for mashing off and at filling of the
lauter tun seems to be a universal constant, being 77 2C all a) direct addition of iodine
over the world. While we accept endles trials and discussions of b) addition of iodine after sedimentation of starch
other mashing temperatures and even of the temperature at
which wort is boiled, we are convinced that we have found the c) photometric measurement of 570 nm after sedimentation
correct temperature for filling the lauter tun. This temperature is and addition of iodine
an accepted compromise between the avoidance of starch dis No well-defined relation has been found to the concentration
solved from the grains at higher temperatures and the avoidance of starch, as the color intensity strongly depends upon the struc
of excessive viscosity of the first wort at lower temperatures. ture of the starch. Low molecular amylose and branched mole
The idea of increasing the temperature during lautering is not cules (amylopectin) are much less highly colored than
new. It is based upon the ideas of the classic Schmitz process , long-chained and unbranched molecules of amylose.
but since it was last discussed some twenty years ag03).4) a con Furthelmore, the content of lipids influences the coloring by
siderable development has been achieved within the fields of iodine. When using the photometric measurement of starch, the
equipment and industrial enzymes available. extinction of 0.2 at nm 570 is traditionally used to distinguish
between positive and negative results.


After the first few hours of training in a brewhouse, we are all
taught how to check for dissolved starch in the wort in order to Even when the solubility of starch is low, dissolved starch is
ensure complete saccharification. We can certainly all agree on the a major concern in brewing. We take it as an indication of incom
need for complete saccharification. What will be discussed in this plete saccharification during the mashing process. Such a
paper is the possibility of some starch entering the wort after com process failure is likely to be followed by low yield, low attenu
plete saccharification. Could it be that the strong aversion to dis ation and hampered filtration of wort as well as of the final beer.
solved starch in the mash, which is part of our brewing tradition, However, starch could occur in wort and in beer even though
has led us to a similar aversion to starch later dissolved in the wort? the sacchari fication of the mash has been completed and has
1II/I/ITillg III /I
iglll'f /'1'I1II'ITIlII/I"I'I MBAA TO Volume 32, Number 3 1995

shown negative results in the iodine test. Some of the solid samples from breweries known to have filtration problems than
starch from husk and malt particles in the mash could be dis from other breweries. Unfortunately, we do not know if these
solved during the later phase of mashing or during lautering. If breweries had saccharification problems during mashing or, per
the temperature is allowed to rise above 80C, it will do so in haps, were using decoction mashes, including mash boiling,
most mashes. after the saccharification rest.
In the most commonly used text books5).6) mashing diagrams
which include a decoction to raise the temperature from saccha
rification to mashing-off are shown (see figures I and 2). Such
late boiling of mash is likely to introduce some dissolved starch
in the wort and in the beer.

TEMP. C 20
10090 Figure 3
Distribution of
"Blue Values" in

8700 10 65 Beer Samples

0 60 120 +---
11 80 240 MIN.
--r----.---.-- In 1972, a Canadian study3) was made running more than 50
lautering trials in a pilot brewery at temperatures of 80 - 93C.
No negative observations were reported on the chemical stabili
A Double Decoction Mashing Procedure ty or the taste of the beer even though a positive iodine test result
was achieved in all trials.
The general aversion of the brewers against positive iodine
test results should perhaps be modified to concentrate upon the
TEMP. C saccharification of the mash rather than on starch dissolved later
in the brewing process.
19000 'LAIII

8700 It is the limited heat stability of the amylases of the malt

which dictates the limitation of the temperature at mashing-off
and during lautering. Alpha-amylase and beta-amylase in malt
will only be stable at temperatures of up to 75C and 70C,
6050 respectively. This means that they will not
to convert starch dissolved at 80C and above.
be sufficiently active

Industrial heat stable alpha-amylase is available, however,

and is active when added to wort at temperatures of up to 100C,
4030 although it becomes inactive after 30 minutes or more of boiling.
When added to the mash after saccharification or to the wort
0 60 120 +---
180 240 MIN.
Figure 2
after lautering, such enzyme preparation completes the sacchar
ification of dissolved starch, if any.
As an alternative, subsequent saccharification of dissolved
A Double Decoction Mashing Procedure
be starch could arranged by the addition of other industrial amy
lases during fermentation. This enzyme treatment is less con
trollable, as the enzyme will remain active until halted by
pasteurization, if any. It may influence the degree of attenuation
Some years ago, a European survey which investigated the to a greater extent than does the treatment in the brewhouse with
content of starch in commercial beer products7) was made. heat-stable alpha-amylase.
Among 65 brands, only 50% (33 samples) were iodine-negative, Naturally, industrial enzymes should be used only if the dis
giving a photometric "blue value" of 0.2 or less (see figure 3). solved starch has a negative influence on the filtration of wort or
The authors found higher frequencies of "blue values" among beer or on the chemical stability of the beer.
182 MBAA TO Volume 32, Number 3 1995
/ lIlI/l'ril lI/ "ilil'/" /I' I P('/"lI/I I'1
The viscosity of the wort running through the lauter tun has a
strong influence on the filtration time (the lautering capacity) as
well as on the volume of water required to wash out the extract 1.8
left in the grains, The lower the viscosity, the better!
In general, the rate of run-off from a lauter tun will be direct
ly related to the wort viscosity in accordance with Poiseuille's
1.6 WORT AT 8O'C

OSity ) 1.4
The influence of the temperature on the viscosity of the wort
is important. As can be seen in figure the viscosity drops about
4, 1.2
0.00S-0.020 cP per degree Centigrade increased, depending on
the strength of the wort. This means that a total of 20-2S% lower
wort viscosity can be obtained if the temperature is raised from
7S0C to 9SoC.
2.0 0.4
1.8 0.2
1.6 0 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
1.4 5% Figure
Viscosity of Wort (10-20 P) at 80DC
0.8 An increased color is to be expected when the brew is kept at
a higher temperature during the complete lautering process.
0.6 -0.D1 cP PER C -
However, the impact of the temperature will, to a great extent,
depend upon the pick-up of oxygen during the mashing and lau
0.4 -0.005 cP PER'C /
tering. A simple laboratory trial illustrates this (figure As can
be seen, the coloring of the wort at increased temperatures is
greatly diminished by the exclusion of oxygen. Furthermore, the
0.2 difference is less significant at measurements after the wort boil
ing than after the lautering.
0 0 20 +---.
60 4 100 .--r---r----.--,--.
A reduction of oxygen uptake during mashing and lautering
is recommendable for other reasons; for instance, a better degra
Figure dation of the starch has been foundS).
Viscosity of Hot Wort

The influence of this can be imagined if we compare it to the

influence of the wort gravity on the wort viscosity (figure S). As I +7SCOXYI G9ENSC II 7S-OC XYI G9ENSC I
can be seen, each percent of Plato reflects 0.2 cP of the wort vis
cosity. A decrease of about 20% in viscosity can thus be
obtained, either by reducing the gravity from 17%P to lS%P or

by increasing the temperature from 7SOC to 9SC.
Due to the difference in gravity, the run-off of the first wort is 8.4 9.6 6.0 6.6
much more critical than the subsequent run-off during sparging.
Thus in the performed trials, only the mashing-off tempera
ture was increased, whereas the temperature of the sparge water Figure 6%
remained at 77C 2C. Color of Wort at 12 P
l.lluterillR lit IIiRllcr Ji'II/{Jert/tun'l MBAA TO Volume 32, Number 3 1995 1B3

In each of four European breweries, several full scale trials


1. WORT. 90 min I
SPARGING. 102 min

have been performed. All four breweries use lauter tuns. The fol
lowing concept was designed for the trials:

The normal brewing procedures of the breweries were
1800 8

maintained. In two of the trials, this involved brewing with
100% malt using infusion-mashing. In the other trials,
maize grits were used as an adjunct, applying a single


II -

I 660 hi

decoction mash. 500 10

At mashing-off the control brews were transferred at the 403000 8
normal temperature (77e 2C), whereas the trial brews
were transferred at 95C

All brews were sparged with water at normal temperatures 200 4

(77e 2C). 100 2

To all trial brews, heat stable amylase (Termamyl 120 L 1.0 %P
from Novo Nordisk Ltd.) was added in equal amounts to 0 60 120 180 240
the mash and to the first wort (100 g per ton malt in each
The subsequent brewing process did not differ from the nor
mal procedures of the individual breweries. The trial brews were


1. WORT. 135 min

not observed during fermentation and the later processes in any 8800
900 1 17.3 %P I
detail in addition to the normal production. In some of the brew
eries, precautions were taken to control the oxygen uptake in the 16

brewhouse, while in others no such precautions were taken.

700 14

600 12

RESULTS 500 10

As the beer produced in the four trial breweries differs and as

the analyses made are not identical, a full survey of results will
not be given here. In figures 7 and we have summarized some
8, 403000 8

trial results, on which we have the following comments: 200 4

Rate of run-off
Generally, the run-off of the first wort from the lauter tun was
accelerated considerably when the temperature was raised to
0 60 120 180 240

95C In one of the breweries, the total time of run-off was cut
down by about 30%, and the run-off time of the first wort was
reduced by 50%. In one of the trials, no change in the rate of run Figure 7
off was found. (A reason for this could be limitations in pumps Run-Off Diagrams
or in the control system.)
Even though the sparge water was no hotter than usual, the
total sparging period was generally shortened. The reasons for
this were the generally higher wort temperature as well as the
reduced amounts of sparge water required. In figure 7, a typical,
accelerated run-off is illustrated.
Sparging efficiency
In general, less sparging water was required for extracting the
grains. In one brewery, the sparging was controlled by volume,
In the lauter tuns which generally run cloudy wort, no differ
ence was found. In modern lauter tuns, however, the run-off and
and here the resulting last wort was thinner than usual. In other
trials, the sparge was halted at a special run-off gravity. In these
trials, the total run-off volume was reduced by up to 10%, with
the use of "knives" are controlled by the pressure difference and out any change in brewhouse yield.
the haze. In these lauter tuns, the hot run-off will result in a con In one brewery, no difference was found.
siderably reduced use of "knives" and thus in a brighter wort.

Brewhouse yield
The brewhouse yield in the trials was not influenced signifi
Wort color
In all trials, the color was increased. The color increase of the
first wort could be as great as 2EBC The final wort after boil
cantly. ing and the final beer, however, differed 0.5-I.ooEBC
lB4 MBAA TO Volume 32, Number 3 1995 I.III1Millg IIl l1iglil'I /1'IIII'I'IIIIIII'n


12.. 0., ll, 81725,16,19 , 1959.
KOLBACH, P., "Varialionen Zum Maischveliahren Nach Schmitz;'
Monatschr. Brau.
Kaiserliches Patentamt, 1896.
34.. 0.0., , 192-194, 19729.45-920, 1974.
SCHAUSS, "Elevaled
Technical Quart. 1, pp.
SCHAUSS, Canadian-Patent No.
Temperalure Laulering," MBAA


second ed.
I , 3 6 ,
"Malting and Brewing Science" Vol. p. Chapman & 2,Hall,

Figure 8
+/- 76.. 169, NARZISS, L., "Die Technologie Del' Wiirzebereitung" Vol.

Ferdinand Enke Verlag,

H. ,
Trial Wort Composition
8. 35-42, 19 4li2.. , 124-132, 1978.
Rundschau No.8, pp.
"Technological Approach to Improve Beer Foam," Ferment, 2"J.e.,

Wort composition
In half of the trial brews, a low intensity in the blue-coloring
was found using the iodine test on the final wort (E57o=0.2-1.5),
indicating that the total amount of Termamyl 120 Lused Q. Have you considered or tested higher lautering temperatures with
(2x 100 g/ton malt) was on the low side. -
mash filters? George Martin
The limiting degree of attenuation was not influenced signif A. Not yet - but as mash filters are often less influenced by viscosity
icantly in the trials. Various analyses were run to detect changes than lauter tuns, they may react less dramatically to higher tempera
in the amount of amylose, amylopectin and other carbohydrates. tures.
The differences found were not conclusive or significant. In gen Q. Could the amylase applied be modifying any glucans ill the wort? -
eral, the differences were minor ones, but a more detailed study Paul Witt
of the chemical composition of the wort is currently being made. A. I find this very unlikely.
No abnormalities were observed in the further processing of
the trial brews either in filterability, taste or stability. More
detailed studies of these aspects are planned for trial brews both
with and without the addition of heat-stable alpha amylase.

From the trials described, it is easy to recommend that all
breweries should pay attention to the mashing-off temperature
and should try to increase it if additional lautering capacity or
stronger wort is required.
How high should the temperature be, then? The answer to
this question should be based upon trials performed in each indi
vidual plant. A certain amount of blue-coloring with iodine
could probably be acceptable. The following parameters will
have to be studied in detail for the trial production:

The color of the beer

The degree of attenuation

The filterability of the beer

The chemical stability

The taste and taste stability
We expect quality variations to be comparatively small if the
temperature is raised only 5-lOoC, but the run-off capacity will
still be improved.
The addition of an enzyme is recommended if very high
temperatures are tried out or if starch problems (filterability
or stability) are encountered in the subsequent production. At a
limited increase in temperature, however, the use of additional
enzymes is hardly necessary.