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RATIFICATION PAGE

Complete report of Animal Structure practicum with title Regeneration that arranged
by:
Name : Andi Nurhidayah
ID : 1114040171
Class : ICP of Biology A
Group : III (three)
After checked by Assistant and Assistant Coordinator, so this report was accepted.
Makassar, December 04rd 2012
Asistant Coordinator, Assistant,

Sygit Frank Sananta Iswati Sakra


ID. 081404022 ID. 101404155
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Background
If an organism that have a injury or defect on the body, is it a small injury or big
injure so that, the body will to heal by repairing the injury allocation of the body. Its
caused by each body of an organism have specific systems in their body that have
specific function to repairing every broken tissue. This ability is called as regeneration.
So that, regeneration is a ability an organism to repairing or growing the part of body that
injured or escaped, as like recovering injury, reorganization of tissue, and differentiation.
The ability to regenerate of the structure that lost almost consist in a living thing,
at least in specific extend. Regeneration ability its so clear in the spons, coelenterate,
worm, moreover many that have a ability to form new organism from their fragments of
the body.
B. Purpose
The students can more understanding about the development concepts on the
animal, regeneration, and regeneration process.
II. PREVIEW OF LITERATURE
Regeneration, in biology, the process by which some organisms replace or restore
lost or amputated body parts.Throughout the life of organisms, some of its parts can be
damaged or lost. Most of the organisms to some extent have the ability to replace body parts
that are damaged or lost. The process of change is called regeneration (Kimball, 1999).
Organisms differ markedly in their ability to regenerate parts. Some grow a new
structure on the stump of the old one. By such regeneration whole organisms may
dramatically replace substantial portions of themselves when they have been cut in two, or
may grow organs or appendages that have been lost. Not all living things regenerate parts in
this manner, however. The stump of an amputated structure may simply heal over without
replacement. This wound healing is itself a kind of regeneration at the tissue level of
organization: a cut surface heals over, a bone fracture knits, and cells replace themselves as
the need arises (Anonym a, 2012).
Regeneration, as one aspect of the general process of growth, is a primary attribute
of all living systems. Without it there could be no life, for the very maintenance of an
organism depends upon the incessant turnover by which all tissues and organs constantly
renew themselves. In some cases rather substantial quantities of tissues are replaced from
time to time, as in the successive production of follicles in the ovary or the molting and
replacement of hairs and feathers. More commonly, the turnover is expressed at the cellular
level. In mammalian skin the epidermal cells produced in the basal layer may take several
weeks to reach the outer surface and be sloughed off. In the lining of the intestines, the life
span of an individual epithelial cell may be only a few days (Anonym b, 2012).
Regeneration process consists of various activities ranging from severe damage
restoration until the turn of the minor damage that occurs in the normal process.
Regeneration can also form as a local proliferation and differentiation of cells lining the
marginal. Can also be the accumulation of cells in the wound is still not differentiated called
the blastema that will form part of the missing. Blastema can come from special reserve cells
that migrate to the place or origin of the injury (Sugiyanto, 1996)
The motile, hairlike cilia and flagella of single-celled organisms are capable of
regenerating themselves within an hour or two after amputation. Even in nerve cells, which
cannot divide, there is an endless flow of cytoplasm from the cell body out into the nerve fibres
themselves. New molecules are continuously being generated and degraded with turnover times
measured in minutes or hours in the case of some enzymes, or several weeks as in the case of
muscle proteins. (Evidently, the only molecule exempt from this inexorable turnover is
deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] which ultimately governs all life processes) (Carlson, 1996).
Not all organisms regenerate in the same way. In plants and in coelenterates such as
the hydra and jellyfishes, missing parts are replaced by reorganization of preexisting ones.
The wound is healed, and the neighbouring tissues reorganize themselves into whatever parts
may have been cut off. This process of reorganization, called morphallaxis, is the most
efficient way for simple organisms to regenerate. Higher animals, with more complex bodies,
regenerate parts differently, usually by the production of a specialized bud, or blastema, at the
site of amputation (Anonym c, 2012)

III. OBSERVATION METHOD


A. Time and Place
1. Day/Date : Tuesday/December 20th 2012
2. Time : 13.00 untill 15.00 p.m
3. Place : Laboratory of Biology on 3rd floor east of FMIPA UNM
B. Tools and Materials
1. Tools
a. 4 of Top les
b. 1 of Ruler
c. 1 of Cutter
d. 4 of Label
e. 1-2 of Camera
2. Materials
a. 4 of Peroksis elongate
b. Pool water
c. Hydrilla sp
d. Food of the fish
C. Work Procedure
1. Determinate size of length the tail of I fish without to cut and it as a control.
2. Took the II fish, then measured the tail length from the base until the tip of tail
with vertical cutter.
3. Took the III fish, then measured the tail length from the base until the tip of tail
with diagonal cutter.
4. Took the IV fish then measured the tail length from the base until the tip of tail
with triangle cutter.
5. After cut the II, III, and IV of tail fish, then measured again that tail was cutterd.
Then, each of the fish reduce with first length to the last cutter.
6. Measured the addition each fish tail in every 3 days time.
7. Recorded the measured of fish tail in the table observation.
IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Result of Experiment
a. Before cutting the tail

Control Vertical Diagonal Triangle


b. After cut the tail

Control Vertical Diagonal Triangle


c. After 23 days cut the tail

Control Vertical Diagonal Triangle

Table Observation Result


The length of tail in the days

Type of First Last


No
Treatment Length Length 3 6 9 12 15 18 21

1,3 1,5 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,4


1 Control 1,2 cm 1,2 cm
cm cm cm cm cm cm cm

1,2 1,3 1,4 1,6 1,7 1,8 2,0


2 Vertical 1,6 cm 1 cm
cm cm cm cm cm cm cm

1,1 1,3 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8 1,9


3 Diagonal 1,7 cm 1 cm
cm cm cm cm cm cm cm

1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7


4 Triangle 1,6 cm 1 cm
cm cm cm cm cm cm cm

B. Analysis of Data
1. Formula :
a. Additional length is quarrel between first length and last length, where :
L = Lt - Lo

Explanation:
L = Additional length (cm)
Lt = Last length (cm)
Lo = First length (cm)

b. Average on additional length of tail (L)

L =

c. Rate of regeneration (v)

v=

2. Analysis of Data
a. Sample I (Control)
1) Observation 1 to 0 = 1,3 1,2 = 0,1 cm
2) Observation 2 to 1 = 1,5 1,3 = 0,2 cm
3) Observation 3 to 2 = 1,6 1,5 = 0,1 cm
4) Observation 4 to 3 = 1,8 1,6 = 0,2 cm
5) Observation 5 to 4 = 2,0 1,8 = 0,2 cm
6) Observation 6 to 5 = 2,2 2,0 = 0,2 cm
7) Observation 7 to 6 = 2,4 2,2 = 0,2 cm

Average on additional length of tail =

= 1,2 cm

Rate of growth =

= 0,06 cm/day

b. Sample II (Vertical cutter)


1) Observation 1 to 0 = 1,2 1,0 = 0,2 cm
2) Observation 2 to 1 = 1,3 1,2 = 0,1 cm
3) Observation 3 to 2 = 1,4 1,3 = 0,1 cm
4) Observation 4 to 3 = 1,6 1,4 = 0,2 cm
5) Observation 5 to 4 = 1,7 1,6 = 0,1 cm
6) Observation 6 to 5 = 1.8 1,7 = 0,1 cm
7) Observation 7 to 6 = 2,0 1,8 = 0,2 cm

Average on additional length of tail =

= 1,0 cm

Rate of growth =

= 0,05 cm/day

c. Sample III (Diagonal cutter)


1) Observation 1 to 0 = 1,1 1,0 = 0,1 cm
2) Observation 2 to 1 = 1,3 1,1 = 0,2 cm
3) Observation 3 to 2 = 1,5 1,3 = 0,2 cm
4) Observation 4 to 3 = 1,6 1,5 = 0,1 cm
5) Observation 5 to 4 = 1,7 1,6 = 0,1 cm
6) Observation 6 to 5 = 1.8 1,7 = 0,1 cm
7) Observation 7 to 6 = 1,9 1,8 = 0,1 cm

Average on additional length of tail =

= 0,9 cm

Rate of growth =

= 0,042 cm/day

d. Sample IV (Triangle cutter)


1) Observation 1 to 0 = 1,1 1,0 = 0,1 cm
2) Observation 2 to 1 = 1,2 1,1 = 0,1 cm
3) Observation 3 to 2 = 1,3 1,2 = 0,1 cm
4) Observation 4 to 3 = 1,4 1,3 = 0,1 cm
5) Observation 5 to 4 = 1,5 1,4 = 0,1 cm
6) Observation 6 to 5 = 1.6 1,5 = 0,1 cm
7) Observation 7 to 6 = 1,7 1,6 = 0,1 cm

Average on additional length of tail =

= 0,7 cm

Rate of growth =

= 0,03 cm/day
C. Graphic of Regeneration
D. Discussion
1. Sample I (control of fish)
For the sample I (fish of fish), we dont cut the tail with the length 1,2 cm. This is
to control the length of tal fish of sample II, III, AND IV. At te observation there are a
changed og length of tail there is at th observation 2 is 1,3, the observation 3 is 1,5, the
observation 4 is 1,6 , the observation 5 is 1,8, the observation 6 is 1,8, the observation
7,8,,9, and 10 is 2,0, 2,2, and 2,4. The average on additional length of tail is 1,2 cm
and the rate of growth is 0,06 m/day. Although te length of ail fis have a changed but
this is not called rgeneration, because regeneration is organism that have a injury or
defect on the body, is it a small injury or big injure so that, the body will to heal by
repairing the injury allocation of the body. The additional length of tail is not
regeneration but a growth.
2. Sample II (Vertical cutter)
On the sample II (vertical cutter) there is a changed length of tail fish with the
first length is 1,7 cm and after cutting is 1 cm. the observation about the tail in every
three days there are a changed from day to the nxt day with the average on additional
length of tail is 1,0. And the rate of regeneration is 0,05 cm/day. So its called
regeneration caused there is a injure or defect on the body, is it a small injury or big
injure so that, the body will to heal by repairing the injury allocation of the body.
3. Sample III (Diagonal cutter)
On the sample III (Diagonal cutter) there is a changed length of tail fish with the
first length is 1,6 cm and after cutting is 1 cm. the observation about the tail in every
three days there are a changed from day to the nxt day with the average on additional
length of tail is 0,9. And the rate of regeneration is 0,042 cm/day. Although the
movement of lngth of vertical cutter more then it. So its called regeneration caused
there is a injure or defect on the body, is it a small injury or big injure so that, the body
will to heal by repairing the injury allocation of the body.
4. Sample IV (Triangle cutter)
On the sample III (Triangle cutter) there is a changed length of tail fish with the
first length is 1,6 cm and after cutting is 1 cm. the observation about the tail in every
three days there are a changed from day to the nxt day with the average on additional
length of tail is 0,7. And the rate of regeneration is 0,03 cm/day. Although the
movement of lngth of diagonal cutter more then it. So its called regeneration caused
there is a injure or defect on the body, is it a small injury or big injure so that, the body
will to heal by repairing the injury allocation of the body.
V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion
Based on lab work done, it can be concluded that every living being has the
ability to replace body parts that are damaged or injured through the regeneration
process. Of all the samples experiments have been conducted, all three samples were
given preferential treatment has been proven that the body of organisms that damage or
injury will continue to regenerate. However, the fish that did not get the treatment,
regeneration did not occur despite the length of the tail but only the growth process.
Regeneration process consists of several stages of wound healing, tissue overhaul
(histolisasi), blastema formation, morphology and differentiation.

B. Suggestion
1. Before doing this experiment we have to checked out all of the tools and materials
that we would used and in doing this experiment we should have enough time so
we could observed with accurate observation.
2. For the assistant should give explanation or give the apprentices some guide about
what they should do in observation and making of complete report of experiment.
3. For the apprentice should take attention for the instruction of assistant while doing
experiment and be more patient to the assistant.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anonym a, 2012. Regeneration. http://www.daviddarling.info /regeneration.
Accessed at December 17st 2012
Anonym b, 2012. Regeneration.http://www.iaaf.uwa.edu.au/smbunt/Hilary/fisher.
Accessed at December 17st 2012
Anonym c, 2012. Regeneration. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topicregeneration
Accessed at December 17st 2012
Carlson, Bruce M. 1996. Pattens Foundations of Embryology. New York: The
McGraw-Hill Companies
Kimball, J.W. 1999. Biologi Edisi Kelima Jilid 2. Jakarta: Erlangga
Sugiyanto, J. 1996. Perkembangan Hewan. Malang: UGM