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STUDENT NAME: Cel Gaddie G. Abing

DEPARTMENT: Department of Chemical Engineering
SIGNATURE: ______________________________

STUDENT NAME: Kenneth D. Andrew

DEPARTMENT: Department of Chemical Engineering
SIGNATURE: ______________________________

STUDENT NAME: Erman Chris R. Baron

DEPARTMENT: Department of Chemical Engineering
SIGNATURE: ______________________________

STUDENT NAME: Alyza A. Sasing

DEPARTMENT: Department of Chemical Engineering
SIGNATURE: ______________________________

SUPERVISOR: Engr. Edwin Richard Ortiz




1. Introduction

For years, abaca has been used to make fishing netsits fibers are especially

strong against saltwaterand wrappings for electrical conductors, as well as the

manufacture of specialty paper for banknotes, cigarettes, baby napkins, toilet paper,

machine filters, hospital textiles (aprons, hats, gloves), tea bags, etc. [1]. The earliest

applications of soda and alkaline processes to abaca pulping date from the 1970s

and provided yields of 5072% [2].

With the wide variety of usage of abaca fiber, in counterpart with its high

demand, is the increase of the amount of waste generated from stripping of abaca

leaf sheaths to produce the abaca fiber. Although a biodegradable waste,

composting the material takes a relatively great amount of resource and giving a low

profit. Application such as extracting the cellulose from the stripping waste is one of

prospected paths of utilizing the waste material. Pulping methods such as soda

pulping can be applied and the pulp produced will be made into craft paper. An

increased utilization of abaca pulp from abaca stripping waste (ASW) as raw material

for craft paper production can greatly aid in addressing economic and environmental

problems (e.g. the accumulated waste will be reduced) as well as help local

community to have a livelihood of small-scale production.

2. Theoretical Framework

The pulp yield of the soda pulping method is to be studied where the variable;

soda concentration, pulping time will provide greater pulp yield (i.e. if increased) at
parameters such as temperature and pressure of the pulping vessel, and the

composition of the abaca stripping waste.

The reaction system will be batch-type with constant stirring. NaOH reacts with

the abaca stripping waste in which it removes the hemicellulose, lignin, wax and oils

that surround the external surface of the fiber where the percentage in cellulose

content increases after the alkali treatment [3]. After which, the cellulose-rich product

is made into a handmade craft paper by using a deckle to form a flat sheet of pulp

placed upon a sheet of thin cloth. It is then to be dried until the paper consistency is


increase in pulp yield Pulp Yield from AWS

increase in soda increase in Controlled Variable:

concentration pulping time of 1. ASW composition(constant), Pulping
ASW temperature (constant), pulping pressure Measured
(constant) Variables:
2. ASW composition(constant), Pulping 1. Pulping time 2.
temperature (constant), pulping pressure Soda concentration

3. Statement of the Problem

Abaca is obtained from a tree-like banana plant. It is scientifically called as Musa

textiles and is one of the important products that the Philippines produces. It is very

durable and environmentally friendly which makes manufacturers, especially those in

Europe favor abaca over synthetic fibers. On 1960's the use of Abaca in the pulp

industry for the production of specialty paper products such as tea bags, meat and

sausage casings, currency paper etc. had caused an increase on the demand of
abaca pulp. Filipino investors became interested in domestically producing abaca pulp

and Philippines remains the world's largest producer. [5]

Being the abaca capital of the world, Philippines generates as much as 438

million kilos of raw materials per year but also produces large volume of waste from

these raw materials. The abaca fiber which is used in the pulp industry is extracted

from the stalk of the plant. According to Katigbak, three-fourth of the abaca plant is left

as waste after the tuxy or good fiber is extracted. The leaf-sheaths in the stalk are

classified according to the quality of fiber that can be derived from it. The quality of

abaca fiber is determined by the strength, cleaning, color, texture and length of the

fiber. The leaf sheaths are then stripped through hand stripping or through a stripping

machine. Pulp industries who uses abaca fiber produces large volume of stripping

waste. [6]

In the study, the abaca stripping waste of Newtech Pulp Incorporated will be

utilized by using it as a raw material for the production of craft paper. A method of soda

pulping will be used and the effect of the pulping time and soda concentration on the

amount of pulp yield (by weight) and the stretch and tear, tensile index of paper

produced will be investigated.

This study seeks to answer the following research question:

1. What is the optimal pulping time of abaca stripping waste at 170C and different

NaOH concentration?

2. What is the effect of NaOH concentration with the pulping yield at 170C and

different pulping time?

General Objectives:
To determine the effect of pulping time and soda concentration on the amount of pulp

yield (by weight), stretch and tear, tensile index of paper produced from stripping waste

of Abaca.

Specific Objectives:

a. To determine at what pulping time and soda concentration has a maximum pulp


b. To compare the breaking index, stretch and tear, tensile index of the paper

produced to a commercial craft paper.

c. To make hand-made craft paper from the pulp produced at the optimum


4. Statement of the hypotheses

An experimental problem should be stated as one or more hypotheses. In this

section, you will state the expected or tentative conclusions that may be reached by

your research. Forming a hypothesis begins an essentially deductive process that

moves from a generalization to the specific facts or arguments supporting it. The

hypothesis is the central question being researched. It should be expressed in

straightforward terms. Hypotheses are usually defined in "cause-effect" relationships.

Any corollary hypotheses or secondary research questions should also be stated. Any

supplemental definitions or discussion necessary to explain the hypothesis should be

offered. Most experimental research can be posed in the form of a hypothesis. In

scholarly work that is more empirical in nature, it may be more difficult to postulate a

working hypothesis at the beginning of the work. In this case, it is important to develop

a concise statement of the objective of the research.

5. Significance and purpose of the Study

Production of paper from non-wood plants especially abaca is one of the best

substitute for wood pulping. Abaca tree also known as Manila Hemp can be

harvested 18 months after planting unlike trees which takes years to fully grow.

Abaca is stripped before being used for pulp production. In stripping the outmost

leave sheath of abaca is being discarded. In the study that will be conducted, the

stripping waste of abaca from Newtech Pulp Incorporated will be used for the

production of pulp. The influence of pulping time and soda concentration to the yield

of pulp will be studied. After which, a handmade crafting paper will be produced from

this pulp (at optimum conditions) which can help in uplifting the livelihood of the

residents Balo-i Lanao del Norte. Furthermore, waste that will be produced and the

currently accumulated waste will be used economically and will solve many

environmental problems- i.e. by reducing the waste by creating a useful product out

from it.

6. Scope and Limitations of the Study

For this study, the raw material, abaca waste stripping, will be collected from

New Tech Inc. located at Bo. Maria Cristina, 9217 Balo-I, Lanao del Norte. Prior to

the experiment proper, the abaca waste stripping will be characterize using Fourier

Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) at Mindanao State University- Iligan Institute

of Technology (MSU-IIT). All of the experiments will be conducted in the unit

operations laboratory at Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan. The extraction will

be done using NaOH solution to produce a cellulose-rich product. Evaluation of the

produced pulp product will also be conducted using FTIR. Comparing the FTIR

analysis of the untreated raw materials and the produced pulp product will determine

the pulping efficiency- e.g. the percent increase of cellulose with respect to lignin,

hemicellulose, etc. removed. The pulp produced at which extraction efficiency is at

optimum will undergo handmade paper making to produce a craft-paper by using a

deckle to form a flat sheet of pulp placed upon a sheet of thin cloth. It is then to be

dried until the paper consistency is achieved. The produced craft paper will be then

evaluated in terms of density (gsm), tear stress, thickness and tensile properties.

This study limits to the determination of extraction efficiency at different

parameters, including alkalization time, temperature and soda concentration, and to

make a hand-made crafting paper from the pulp produced. Furthermore, soda

pulping was adapted as the base process as used by studies relating to abaca [3],


7. Definition of Terms

Soda pulping. The process of removing the lignin and hemicellulose that

surrounds the cellulose in the fiber using caustic soda.

Soda. This caustic soda or NaOH used as the pulping solution for the pulping


Abaca Stripping waste (ASW). The waste produced during hand or

mechanical stripping of the abaca leaf sheaths in extracting the fibrous material.

Craft paper. The paper that is produced from the abaca stripping waste pulp

by means of hand deckle-and-cloth method.

Pulping time. The amount of time required to adequately delignify the abaca

stripping waste to produce the cellulose-rich pulp.

Stretch. It is the percentage elongation of a paper at the instant of failure is

called stretch. [7]

Tensile strength. It is the maximum stress to break a strip of paper sheet. It is

one of the most important basic physical properties of paper and paper-board. [8]
8. References

[1] Silvario, B.N., 1976. Isarog makes specialty pulps Philippine abaca fiber. Pulp and

Paper International 18(9), 36-37.

[2] Heyse, W.T., 1973. Cleaning, cooking, washing and screening abaca and other

musa species for papermaking. TAPPI-CA-Ren., 52. Atlanta.

[3] M. Chandrasekar, M. R. Ishak, S. M. Sapuan, Z. Leman & M. Jawaid

(2017) A review on the characterisation of natural fibres and their composites after

alkali treatment and water absorption, Plastics, Rubber and Composites, 46:3,

119-136, DOI: 10.1080/14658011.2017.1298550

uez, M. De la Torre and J. Ferrer, "Optimization

[4] L. Jimnez, E. Ramos, A. Rodrg

of pulping conditions of abaca. An alternative raw material for producing

cellulose pulp", Bioresource Technology, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 977-983, 2005.

[5],Abaca the countrys premier natural fiber,

2014.[online]. Available:

the-countrys-premier-natural-fiber/ [Accessed: June 14 2017]

[6], Turning abaca wastes into export grade

handicraft,2014.[Online]. Available:

aft.htm. [Accessed: June 14 2017]



[Accessed: 14- Jul- 2017].

[8] Tensile strength of paper", pulp paper mill, 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 14- Jul-