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Module 5
Lecture 29
Consolidation-3
Topics

1.1.6 Standard One-Dimensional Consolidation Test and Interpretation
1.1.7 Preconsolidation pressure.
 Compression index
 Effect of sample disturbance on the e vs. log cirve

1.1.8 Calculation of one-dimensional consolidation settlement

1.1.6 Standard One-Dimensional Consolidation Test and Interpretation

The standard one-dimensional consolidation test is usually carried out on saturated specimens about 1 in
(25.4 mm) thick and 2.5 in (63.5 mm) in diameter (Figure 5.25). The soil sample is kept inside a metal ring,
with a porous stone at the top and another at the bottom. The load P on the sample is applied through a lever
arm, and the compression of the specimen is measured by a micrometer dial gauge. The load is usually
doubled every 24 hours. The specimen is kept under water throughout the test. (F0r detailed test procedures,
see ASTM test designation D-2435.)

Figure 5.25 Standard one dimensional consolidation apparatus

Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 1

26 Typical sample deformation vs.27. the excess pore water pressure generated by the incremental loading is dissipated to a large extent. effective pressure relationship plotted on semilogarithmic graph paper is shown in Figure 5. Upper curved portion (stage I). This is called secondary consolidation. Once the specific gravity of the soil solids. Figure 5. During this stage. the initial specimen dimensions. A straight-line portion (stage II). 2. the specimen undergoes small deformation with time.26 shows a typical deformation vs. Figure 5.NPTEL. and the specimen deformation at the end of each load has been determined. log-of-time plot for a given load increment Note that at the end of the test for each incremental loading the stress on the specimen is the effective stress. . A typical void ratio vs. Figure 5. log t graph. there must be immeasurably small excess pore water pressure in the specimen during secondary consolidation. 3. At the end of the primary consolidation. This is mainly the result of precompression of the specimen. The graph consists of three distinct parts: 1. log plot Dept. the sample deformation and the corresponding time t is plotted on semilogarithmic graph paper. the corresponding void ratio can be calculated. A lower straight-line portion (stage III). in fact. of Civil Engg. Kanpur 2 . This is referred to as primary consolidation.Advanced Geotechnical Engineering For each load increment. Indian Institute of Technology.27 Typical e vs.