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Heat (Q) is energy associated with unit of Q:

changes in temperature. 1 joule = 1J


1 calorie = 1cal
Q=C T =mc T 1 British thermal unit = 1Btu
1 cal = 3.968 x 10-3Btu = 4.1868J
where 1 food calorie = 1Cal = 1,000cal
Q = energy gained or lost by an object
C = heat capacity of the object When an object gains heat, it increases in
T = change in temperature of the temperature. Whereas when an object
object loses heat, it decreases in temperature.
m = mass of the object
c = specific heat of the material Heat is energy in transition. No object
comprising the object possesses heat energy.
= heat capacity per unit mass Q
Qgain = positive (+) = heat gain
Qloss = negative (-) = heat loss
Heat flows from hot to cold. When
two objects are in thermal contact, heat
will flow the object with higher
temperature to the object with lower
temperature until thermal equilibrium is
reached.

Reading Assignment
molar specific heat
EXAMPLE 1 Q gain +Q loss=0
A copper slug whose mass is 75g is heated to a (Q c +Q w +Q g ) gain +(Q c +Q w +Q g )loss =0
0
temperature of 312 C. The slug is then
(0+Q w +Q g )+(Q c +0+0)=0
dropped in a glass beaker containing 220g of
water. The glass beaker has a heat capacity of (m w c w T w +C g T g )+(mc c c T c )=0
45cal/K. The glass beaker and the water both (220)(1)(T f 285.15)+(45)(T f 285.15)
have an initial temperature of 120C. The +(75)(0.0923)(T f 585.15)=0
specific heat of copper is 0.0923cal/gK.
(271.9225)T f =79,615.45088
Assuming that the water does not vaporize,
determine the final temperature of the system T f =292.7872864 K
at thermal equilibrium.
T f =292.788 K =19.6370 C
m c =75 g=0.075 kg
m w =220 g=0.220 kg EXAMPLE 2
c c =0.0923 cal / gK A small electric immersion heater is used to
c w =1 cal / gK =4,187 J /kgK heat 170g of water for a cup of instant coffee.
C g =45 cal / K The heater is labeled 180 watts. Calculate
0 the time required to bring all this water from
T c =312 C =585.15 K 23.00C to 1000C.
0
T w =T g =12 C=285.15 K m w =170 g =0.170 kg
c w =1 cal / gK =4,187 J / kgK
Heat is a form of energy and as such, T w =77C 0=77 K
conservation of energy tells us that the total
energy of the system cannot change. P heater =180 W =180 J / s
Q heater Matter can exist in three common states:
P heater = Q heater =P heater t solid, liquid, and gas (or vapor).
t
Q gain +Q loss =0
(Q w +Q heater )gain +(Q w +Q heater )loss=0 Melting. When a sample gains heat while
it is at its melting point temperature, the
(Q w +0)+(0Q heater )=0
sample changes from solid state to liquid
m w c w T w P heater t =0 state.
m w c w T w (0.170)(4,187)(77)
t= =
P heater 180 Q=+mL F
t=304.4879444 s
LF = heat of fusion (unit: 1 J/kg)
t =304.488 s
Freezing. When a sample loses heat
while it is at its freezing point
temperature, the sample changes from
liquid to solid.
When energy is absorbed as heat, the
temperature of a sample does not Q=mL F
necessarily rise. Under the right
conditions, the sample may change from For most materials,
one phase (or state) to another instead of
undergoing temperature change. T melting =T freezing
Vaporizing. When a sample gains heat For most materials,
while it is at its boiling point temperature,
the sample changes from liquid to gas. T boiling =T condensing

Q=+ mLV Reading Assignment


evaporation (i.e. vaporization at room
LV = heat of vaporization (unit: 1 J/kg) temperature)
solid-to-gas transition
Condensing. When a sample loses heat
while it is at its condensation point EXAMPLE 3
temperature, the sample changes from gas How much heat must be absorbed by ice of
to liquid. mass 720g at -100C to take it to the liquid state
0
at 15 C?
Q=mLV
m=720 g =0.720 kg EXAMPLE 4
c ice=2,220 J / kgK What mass of steam at 1000C must be mixed
c water =4,187 J / kgK with 250g of ice at its melting point, in a
thermally insulated container, to produce
L Fice =333,000 J / kg
liquid water at 500C?
T 1=10 0 C =263.15 K
T 2 =00 C =273.15 K T s =1000 C =373.15 K
0
T 3 =15 C=288.15 K T i =00 C =273.15 K
Q 1=mc ice T ice 0
T =50 C=323.15 K
Q 1 =(0.720)(2,220)(273.15263.15) mi =250 g =0.250 kg
Q 1=15,984 J L Fi =333,000 J / kg
Q 2 =+ mL F =(0.720)(333,000) LVs =2,256,000 J / kg
Q 2 =239,760 J c w =4,187 J / kgK
Q 3 =mc water T water Q gain +Q loss=0
Q 3 =(0.720)(4,187)(288.15273.15) (Q s +Q w +Q i )gain +(Q s +Q w +Q i )loss =0
Q 3=45,219.6 J (0+Q w +Q i )+(Q s +Q w +0)=0
Q total =Q 1 +Q 2 +Q 3=300,963.6 J m w c w T w +m i L Fi m s LVs + m s c w T s =0
m s ( LVsc w T s )=m w c w T w + mi L Fi
Q total =300,963.600 J m w c w T w + mi L Fi
m s=
LVsc w T s
(0.25)(4,187)(50)+(0.25)(333,000) (2,200)(33.33333333)2
ms = mw =
2,256,000(4,187)(50) 2(2,256,000)
135,587.5 m w =0.5417651693 kg
m s= =0.05499726205 kg
2,465,350
m w =0.542 kg
ms =0.055 kg=54.997 g

EXAMPLE 5
A pick-up truck whose mass is 2,200kg is
speeding along the highway at 120kph. If you
could use all this kinetic energy to vaporize
water already at 1000C, how much water could
you vaporize?
mt =2,200 kg
v t =120 kph=33.33333333 m/ s
LVw=2,256,000 J / kg
Q=K
1 2
+m w LVw = mt v t
2
2
mt v t
mw =
2 LVw