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Yearly Exam

Study Notes

Denise Benasa
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY
Word & Balanced Equations AB A + B
Writing the Equation: Other Notable Reactions:
o Chemical formulas of reactants are listed
on the left-hand side of the equation.
o Reactants are the chemicals that are
allowed to react and are written on the left-
hand side of the arrow.
o Products are the chemicals produced in the
Classifications of Matter
reaction and are listed on the right-hand
side of the equation. o An element is a pure substance. They are
o Reactants and products are separated by made of one atom and cannot be broken
putting an arrow between them to show the down into simpler substances by chemical
direction of the reaction. Reactions at means. Examples: Iron (Fe), Barium (Ba)
equilibrium will have arrows facing both o A compound is a pure, homogenous
directions. substance that contains two or more
elements in a fixed proportion, and can be
Balancing the Equation:
broken down into simpler substances by
o Apply the Law of Conservation of Mass to chemical means. Examples: Table Salt
get the same number of atoms of every (NaCl), Pure Water (H2O)
element on each side of the equation. Tip: o A mixture is an impure substance
Start by balancing an element that appears containing two or more pure substances
in only one reactant and product. which can be broken down by physical
o Once one element is balanced, proceed to means such as filtering, boiling or the use
balance another, and another, until all of a magnet. It can be heterogeneous or
elements are balanced. homogenous. Examples: iron filings in
o Balance chemical formulas by placing sand, sugar dissolved in water
coefficients in front of them. Do not add
subscripts, because this will change the
formulas.
Indicate the States of Matter of the Reactants
and Products:
o Use (g) for gaseous substances.
o Use (s) for solids.
o Use (l) for liquids.
o Use (aq) for species in solution in water.
o Write the state of matter immediately An element has one type of particle. Compounds
following the formula of the substance it and mixtures have two or more different particles.
describes.
Diagram of Atoms of Each Classification of
Example: Matter:

General Reactions:

o Single replacement:
A + CD AD + C
o Double replacement:
AB + CD AC + BD
o Combination/Synthesis
A + B AB
Additional Terms:
o Decomposition
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY
o A homogeneous matter is matter which o The hydrosphere is the zone composed of
has a uniform composition throughout all of the water on or near the earth. This
within the sample. includes the oceans, rivers, lakes, and even
o A heterogeneous matter is matter which the moisture in the air.
has variable compositions, where foreign Examples of Mixtures: saltwater,
substances are present within the sample. oxygen, nitrogen and compounds
o A pure substance is one which cannot be dissolved in it
decomposed by simple physical separation Most Abundant Elements: oxygen
techniques. These substances also have (86%), hydrogen (10.8%)
constant properties and chemical Most Abundant Form of Substance:
composition throughout the whole sample Compound
regardless of how it is prepared or
subjected to purification processes. It also o The biosphere is the region of the earth
has composed of all living organisms: plants,
o An impure substance is a mixture (i.e. a animals and one-celled organisms alike. It
substance contaminated with small includes the lithosphere, atmosphere and
amounts of other substances). They have hydrosphere.
variable composition and variable Examples of Mixtures: carbon-
properties. They can be separated into their containing compounds (wood,
components by various physical separation blood etc.), carbohydrates, protein
techniques fats and vitamins, free elements
(extremely rare)
Regions of the Earth Most abundant elements: oxygen

The area near the surface of the earth can be (60%), carbon (21%), hydrogen
divided into four interconnected spheres: (11%)
Most Abundant Form of Substance:
lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and
atmosphere. The names of the four spheres are Element
derived from the Greek words for stone (litho),
o The atmosphere is the low-density
air or vapor (atmo), water (hydro), and life (bio).
gaseous layer of the earth held in place by
The Various Zones of Earth: Earths gravity. It extends from surface to
the edge of space.
Examples of Mixtures: water, water
vapor, oxides
Most Abundant Elements: mainly
gases nitrogen (78%), oxygen
(21%), argon (1%)
Most Abundant Form of Substance:
Element

Separation Techniques
o The lithosphere, refers to all of the rocks Solids of Different Sizes:
of the earth. It is the solid, rocky outer layer o Sieving: Larger solids are trapped in the
of the earth which includes the crust and sieve while smaller solids fall through the
upper rigid part of mantle. sieve. Example: soil
Examples of Mixtures: rocks, sand, Property: difference in particle size
soils, mineral ores, coal, oil and o Magnetism: Magnetically susceptible
natural gas material is extracted from a mixture using
Most Abundant Elements in Earths
a magnetic force. Example: iron fillings in
Crust: oxygen (46.6%), silicon
sand
(27.7%)
Property: one substance is
Most Abundant Form of Substance:
magnetically attracted
Compound
Solids and Liquids:
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY
o Filtration: Solids gets captured by filter o Liquefaction and fractional distillation:
while the liquid falls through, creating the The gases are first cooled down to a very
filtrate. Example: sand and water low temperature. It is then that fraction
Property: difference in state, distillation is used. Example: nitrogen and
difference in particle size oxygen
o Decantation: Heavier substances settles difference in boiling points
to the bottom of the container while the Naming for Inorganic Compounds
lighter substance remains on top.
Example: rice and water. o For metals and non-metals, name the metal
Property: difference in densities
first and the second non-metal with the
o Centrifugation: Spinning a vessel at a name ending with -ide.
high speed which causes the heavier o For two non-metals, name the first non-
substance to settle outside the container metal and then the second non-metal, with
where they are collected. Example: blood a prefix.
If the first nonmetal has more than
Property: difference in densities,
size, shape, viscosity of the one atom, add a prefix.
medium and rotor speed. o First element named is the one that occurs
Dissolved Solids in Liquids (solid wanted): further to the left of the Periodic Table.
If both are in the same group the one
o Evaporation: Liquid evaporates while the
solids does not. Example: salt and water. lower down is named first.
Property: difference in boiling points
(Exception: oxygen is named last in
o Crystallization: Once the solvent compounds with Cl, Br and I)
evaporates, the solute forms o For two metals, name the metal (with roman
geometrically-shaped large particles which numerals) and then the complex
are left behind. Example salt from compound.
saltwater Polyatomic Ions:
Property: difference in boiling points
Dissolved Solids in Liquids (liquid wanted): Polyatomic ions with a charge of minus 1
o Distillation: Substance evaporates then H2PO4 is Dihydrogen Phosphate
condenses into the condenser and is C2H3O2 is Acetate
called the distillate. Example: ethanol and HSO3 is Hydrogen Sulfite
water. HSO4 is Hydrogen Sulfate
Property: difference in boiling points HCO3, Hydrogen carbonate
Liquids: NO2 is nitrite
o Separation Funnel (immiscible): denser NO3 is nitrate
liquid leaves the funnel at the bottom when CN is cyanide
the tap is opened while the lighter OH, hydroxide
substance is left in the funnel when the tap Now you're halfway done with the charge minus
is closed. Example: oil and water. 1...
Property: difference in densities ROUND 2
and miscibility MnO4 is permanganate
o Fractional Distillation (miscible): both ClO is hypochlorite
liquids boil and move up the distillation ClO2 is chlorite
column and substances re-condense and ClO3 is chlorate
are collected. Example: crude oil And ClO4 is perchlorate
Property: significant difference but Minus 2 charge starts with HPO4, that's
similar boiling points. Hydrogen Phosphate
o Chromatography: Different dyes will C2O4 is oxalate
adhere to a surface by varying amounts. SO3 is Sulfite
The dyes that adhere more strongly will SO4 is Sulfate
move up the paper slower than those less CO3, carbonate
attracted. Example: forensics (blood CrO4 chromate
testing) Cr2O7 is dichromate
Property: rates of absorption and And SiO3 is silicate
solubility I just have minus 3 and plus 1,
Gases: Minus 3 charge is easy and small
Only 2 names that you have to recall
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY
Both of which start with P The double triple bonds (look at the
I know it's just too easy smallest number and use this as a
PO3 is Phosphite guideline for everything else)
PO4 is Phosphate Halogens in alphabetical order
Plus 1 charge, has only one name Alkyl groups also in alphabetical
NH4 is ammonium order
That concludes the end of my song
Naming for Inorganic Compounds o NOTE: If the carbon chain is circular, it is
known as a cyclic hydrocarbon.
Hydrocarbons with single bonds are called For example if pentane was drawn
alkanes, double bonds are called alkenes and as a circular chain it would be
triple bonds are called alkynes. known as cyclopentane. All of the
o Alkanes general formula: CnH2n+2
other rules apply as per normal.
o Alkenes general formula: CnH2n
o NOTE: An isomer is a substance that has
o Alkynes general formula: CnH2n-2
the same molecular formula to that of
The name for a carbon compound consists of a another substance.
stem which tells us the length of the carbon It however has a different structural
chain (how many carbons) and a suffix which formula, different physical properties and
tells us how it is bonded.
Series General Bonding in C Diagram
Formula Series

Alk- CnH2n+2 Single Bond C-


The name for a carbon compound consists of a ane C
stem which tells us the length of the carbon Alk- CnH2n Double Bond
chain (how many carbons) and a suffix which ene C=C
tells us how it is bonded. In order to name a
hydrocarbon: Alk- CnH2n-2 Third Bond
yne CC
1) Look for the longest carbon chain. (Note
chain may be bent or circular) slightly different chemical properties.
2) Identify whether it is an alkane, alkene or
alkyne and also name the bond number.
If there is more than one double or triple Carbon Allotropes
bond an appropriate prefix is attached to
Allotropes are same elements with the same
the name.
atoms. They have different atomic
3) Look for any alkyl groups then name
arrangements and physical properties.
these according to the bond number and
also the number of alkyl groups. Carbon is one of the elements which
4) Look for any other elements present shows allotropy. Allotropic of carbon can
(called halogens) in the chain. These are be either amorphous or crystalline.
also named to the number of carbon atom Carbon due to its capability of having
that they are attached to. There are variable oxidation states and/or
orders of preferences if two or more of all coordination number makes carbon one
the previous things are present. Always of the few elements to have multiple
name the substances in each group numbers of allotropic forms.
alphabetically. Allotropes of carbon:

Graphite is a soft, black and slippery solid. This


property of graphite persists because it cleaves
easily between the layers. It also has metallic
luster which helps in the conduction of electricity.
Graphite has a unique honeycomb layered
structure. Each layer is composed of planar
hexagonal rings of carbon atoms in which
carbon-carbon bond length within the layer is
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY
141.5 picometers. Out of four carbon atoms Diamond
Property Explanation
three forms sigma bonds whereas the fourth structure
carbon forms pi-bond. The layers in graphite are Many strong covalent bonds holding
held together by Vander Waal forces. Hard
the structure together

Graphite is widely used as a lubricant All of the bonds are directional and
stress will tend to break the structure
only because of its soft and slippery (In a malleable substance, such as for
nature. One of the most important Brittle example a metal, the bonding is non-
properties of graphite is that it is used as directional and can still act if the
particles are displaced with respect to
a dry lubricant for machines at high one another).
temperature where we cannot use oil.
All of the valence (outer shell)
Graphite is used to make crucibles which electrons are used in bonding. The
have the property that they are inert to bonds are sigma and the electrons are
Insulator
dilute acids as well as alkalis. located between the two carbon nuclei
being bonded together. None of the
Diamond is another important allotrope of electrons are free to move
carbon. In diamonds, each carbon atoms has
sp3 hybridization and forms covalent bonds with There are only very weak Van der
Waal's attractions between the carbon
four other carbon atoms at the corners of the Insoluble atoms and the water molecules
tetrahedral structure. A diamond of good gem whereas the carbon atoms are bonded
quality will contain a vast number of carbon very tightly to one another.
atoms that are bonded by a covalent bond in one Very Many strong covalent bonds holding
molecule. Diamond was the hardest material high the structure together - it requires
melting massive amounts of energy to pull it
known to man at one point in time, but stronger point apart
materials have been discovered now like
carbyne and advanced geometrical forms of
graphene. Property Explanation
Graphite
structure
These are used to make precious jewelry Many strong covalent bonds holding
because of its brilliant shining property. Soft and
the structure together but only in 2
They are also used as a tool for cutting dimensions. The layers are free to
slippery
Property slide easily over one another. Graphite Fullerene
Explanation
glass because of its hardness. powder is used as a lubricant. structure
It is hard because breaking a diamond crystal
Few
All covalent
of the bonds are bonds holding
directional thea
within
involves rupturing a large number of strong Soft and molecules
layer together
and stress but aonly
across weak
layer will
covalent bonds. Breaking Covalent bonds is no slippery
Brittle Vander
tend Waalsthem.
to break forces between
Graphite rods
easy task, just this property makes diamond molecules.
used for electrolysis easily break when
dropped.
hard. Soft weak crystals typical of covalent
Brittle
substances
Only three of the valence (outer shell)
Buckminsterfullerene (C60) is also one of the electrons are used in sigma bonding.
No movement
The other electron of electrons
is in a available
'p' orbital
allotropes of carbon. The structure of fullerene from one
which canmolecule
overlapto the next. The
laterally with
is like in a cage shape due to which it looks like Electrical exception could
neighbouring be the making
'p' orbitals formation of
giant
conductor
Electrical molecular
nano-tubes that are
a football. pi orbitals that capable
extend over of
insulator the conducting
whole of eachelectricity along their
layer. Electrons are
length.
free These
to move arethese
within the delocalised
subject of
The bucky-balls have not yet found a
pisome
orbitals. experiments in micro
practical use, but they have potential for electronics
use as high temperature lubricants, for There are only very weak Van der
There attractions
are only very weakthe Van der
Waal's between carbon
making super-conducting polymers or Insoluble Waal's and
atoms attractions
the water between the
molecules
even as specialized capsules for in water. in carbon atoms and the water
Insoluble whereas the carbon atoms are bonded
water. molecules
very tightly to whereas
one another. the carbon
administering medicines atoms are bonded very tightly to one
another
Many in thecovalent
strong molecules. bonds holding
V. high
the layers together - it requires
melting Typical of covalent crystals where
Low m.p. massive amounts of energy to pull it
point only Van der Waal's interactions
apart
solids
have to be broken for melting.
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY
Density of Water & Ice

Each oxygen atom is surrounded by four


hydrogen atoms arranged in a tetrahedron. Two Shapes of Molecules
of the hydrogen atoms are close to the oxygen
Lewis-Dot Structures
atom and these are the ones that are covalently
bonded to that oxygen. The other two are slightly Can be used to show the formation of ions in
further away and are part of two other water ionic compounds and the sharing of electrons in
molecules but are attracted to an adjacent covalent bonds. It only shows the valence
oxygen by hydrogen bonding. When ice melts electrons in an element in order to make it look
the water molecules gain energy. The crystalline neater.
structure present in ice begins to disappear as
Ionic Compounds
molecular motion increases and positioning of In order to become
the molecules becomes more random. stable, the Chlorine atom
will have to take the
Sodium's electron.

This leaves Sodium in a


positively charged state
and the Chlorine in a
negatively charged state.

Because of the electrostatic force between the


positive and negative, an
ionic bond is formed
between them.

An ionic compound is
formed; Sodium
Chloride.

Covalent Molecules
These two Fluorine
atoms will need to share
their lone in order to
achieve the octet rule
having one pair of shared
electrons.

Each pair of shared


electrons is represented
by a line. Since this has
one pair of shared
electrons, it has one line.
The two sole Fluorine (2F) atoms has turned into
one Fluorine
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY
Additional Information

Physical Metals Semi- Non-


Properties metals metals
Lustre Lustrous Lustrous Dull
Malleability Malleable Malleabl Non-
e malleabl
e
Electrical and Conductiv Non- Non-
Heat e conducti conducti
Conductivity ve ve
Ductility Ductile Ductile Non-
ductile
Hardness Hard Hard Soft
State (25C) Solid Solid Gas
(except
Mercury)
Melting and High High Low
boiling points

Physical Properties

Metals Reacting with Acids, Oxygen & Water

Trends in the Periodic Table

Recycling of Aluminium
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY
Summary of Trends in the Periodic Table

Metals
Copper: Highly conductive, extremely ductile and malleable. Used for
circuits.
Gold: Extremely lustrous, malleable. Used for jewellery.
Non Metals
Carbon (graphite): Extremely brittle. Used for lead pencils.
Carbon (diamond): Extremely hard (covalent network lattice). Used for
cutting and jewellery.

The Mole Concepts


Problems Involving Equations
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY

Empirical Formula
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY
Copper Age (3200 - 2300 BC): Copper was
the first metal to be extracted from its ore.
Molten copper was used to make
ornaments and utensils. Its MP was very
high and its products were soft.
Bronze Age (2300 1200 BC): Heating
copper with tin produces bronze. Bronze
was much harder than copper and had a
lower MP and was used for making tools
and weapons.
Iron Age(1200 BC 1AD): Iron was more
reactive than copper so it required a higher
temperature to extract. Hematite (Fe2O3)
was mixed with charcoal and heated in a
primitive furnace to obtain a high
temperature. It replaced bronze for making
weapons as it had a higher tensile strength
and was harder than bronze.
Modern Age (1 AD present): The modern
age was characterized by the extraction
and use of many other metals such as
aluminum, chromium, and alloys. Although
iron and its alloys are still the most widely
used metal today, many other metals have
come into common use due to
advancements in extraction technology.

Reaction Rates

Factors That Affect Rate


Temperature: When you raise
the temperature of a system, the molecules
bounce around a lot more. They have
more energy. When they bounce around more,
they are more likely to collide. That fact means
they are also more likely to combine. When you
lower the temperature, the molecules are slower
and collide less. That temperature drop lowers
the rate of the reaction.

Concentration: If there is more of a substance


in a system, there is a greater chance that
molecules will collide and speed up the rate of
the reaction. If there is less of something, there
will be fewer collisions and the reaction will
probably happen at a slower speed.

Pressure: When you increase the pressure, the


molecules have less space in which they can
move. That greater density of molecules
increases the number of collisions. When you
decrease the pressure, molecules don't hit each
other as often and the rate of reaction
Metals in Society decreases.
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY
together.
Non-Conductivity of Electricity (SOLID): ions
are held together in fixed positions by strong
ionic bonds that extend throughout the lattice.
High Melting/Boiling Points: ions are held
strongly due to strong electrostatic forces.
When heated enough to change state, a lot
of energy is needed to break the bonds.
Good Electrical Conductors (MOLEN):
heating makes ions vibrate which breaks the
Energy Profiles bonds and ions are free to move and carry
the current.
Good Electrical Conductors (SOLUTION):
water moves between the ions, pushing them
apart and breaking the bonds, which makes
the ions free to carry electrical charge.
Covalent Molecular (elements 5, 6, 7 of the
periodic table). They have strong intermolecular
bonds holding the atoms together and weak
dispersion forces within the molecule.
High Melting/Boiling Points: when the
substance is heated enough to change state,
Bonding & Structure the intermolecular forces break.
Soft & brittle: forces between molecules are
Metallic Electrostatic force caused by the random weak intermolecular attractions.
motion of delocalised outer shell electrons of metal Low Conductivity: molecules are uncharged
atoms and their attraction to the positively charged and electrons are localized
Covalent Network non-metal elements that extend
indefinitely throughout the crystal.
Very Hard & Brittle: atoms are strongly bound
in 3D, distortion breaks the bonds.
Low Conductivity (ALL STATES): atoms are
ions holding the crystal together. localized.
High Melting/Boiling Points: strong metallic High Melting/Boiling Points: strong covalent
attraction between the metal ions and bonds in 3D
electrons existing throughout the lattice. The Combustion Reaction
more delocalised present (because of higher
valency), the greater the melting/boiling
points.
Conducts Heat & Electricity: outer shell
electrons are delocalised and are thus,
mobile so they are free to carry charge in an
electric field.
Insoluble: strength of the attraction between
the metal ions and the electrons.
Malleable/Ductile/Variable Hardness: no
direct bonds between metal ions, so they
can slide over each other when a force is
applied and the delocalised electrons are
able to stabilise the lattice during change. Bond Polarity Solubility
Ionic Repeating 3-D lattice of positively and
negatively charged ions held together by strong The quick answer is that Like dissolves like.
forces which extend throughout the lattice.
Hard & brittle: any force will cause ions of Explanation:
similar Polar substances tend to dissolve in polar
charge
solvents, and nonpolar substances
to come
closer dissolve in nonpolar solvents.
When a solute dissolves in a solvent the
individual particles of the solute separate
from their neighbours and move between
the spaces of the solvent particles.
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY
The solvent particles collide with the
solute particles and the intermolecular
forces of attraction between solute and
solvent particles "hold" the solute
particles in the spaces.

Formulae
Dilute solution using the equation:
M1V1 = M2V2

M1 = concentration in molarity (moles/Liters) of


the concentrated solution
V2 = volume of the concentrated solution
M2 = concentration in molarity of the dilute
solution (after more solvent has been added)
V2 = volume of the dilute solution.

q = mCAT
Heat change = mass of water x specific heat
capacity x change in temperature

n = m/M = v/V = c.V

n= number of moles (mol.)


m= mass (g)
M= molar mass (g.mol^(-1))
v= volume (L)
V= molar Volume (L.mol^(-1))
c= concentration (mol.L^(-1))

N = n x NA

N = number of particles in the substance


n = amount of substance in moles (mol)
NA = Avogardro Number = 6.022 x 1023 particles
mol-1