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CIHEAM

Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Mditerranennes


Institut Agronomique Mditerranen de Montpellier

WATER EFFICIENCY AND EQUITY IN AN IRRIGATION


SYSTEM: MULTI-LEVEL MODELING FOR THE
UNDERSTANDING
OF WATER ALLOCATION IN
WALAWE RIVER BASIN, SRI LANKA

par Francesc Xavier BELLAUBI FAVA


Sous la direction de Philippe LE GRUSSE
Co/encadr par Franois MOLLE (IWMI) et Jean Christophe POUGET (IRD)

Jury

M. Mahmoud ALLAYA, Enseignant-Chercheur CIHEAM/IAM ........................................................Prsident


M. Patrick LE GOULVEN, Directeur US DIVHA IRD ........................................................................Membre
M. Jean-Christophe POUGET, Ingnieur hydrologue modlisateur US DIVHA IRD ..........................Membre
M. Philippe LE GRUSSE, Enseignant-Chercheur CIHEAM/IAM .......................................................Membre

MEMOIRE PRESENTE EN VUE DE L'OBTENTION


DU DIPLOME DE HAUTES ETUDES DU CIHEAM

MASTER OF SCIENCE

16 juillet 2004

Institut Agronomique Mditerranen de Montpellier


3191, route de Mende,
34093 MONTPELLIER Cedex 5 (FRANCE)
Tel. : 04.67.04.60.00 - Fax : 04.67.54.25.27 - Internet : http://www.iamm.fr
The Institut Agronomique Mditerranen de Montpellier, the International Water
Management Institute and the Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement do
not intend giving any approbation or disapprobation to the opinions expressed in
this thesis.

These opinions only commit its author.

1
2
Abstract
This thesis focuses on the efficiency and equity analysis of water allocation in
Walawe river Basin, in order to find a possible relationship between both concepts.
Our methodology consists of representing the Uda Walawe Basin through a multi-
level modeling, by using two softwares (HYD2002 and OLYMPE) which allow us to
understand the irrigation system management through an efficiency analysis. Once
efficiency of water allocation is characterized, we can observe its impact on crop
yields in order to evaluate the equitability of water allocation. Furthermore, we take
into account the simulation of different water allocation scenarios and future
extension of irrigation area.
Two main hypotheses are formulated. First, the efficiency of the system depends
largely on water management. Second, there are inequities in water distribution
along the canals, which lead to a differentiation between top and tail-end farm types.
Results display that water deficits can be reduced as well as yield variability when
water allocation rules are changed involving a managerial overload.

Keywords: water allocation, water management, modeling, efficiency, equity, farm


types.

Rsum

Ce travail a pour objectif danalyser le niveau defficacit et dquit dans lallocation


de la ressource en eau en agriculture dans le bassin versant du Walawe au Sri
lanka. Pour reprsenter le fonctionnement de ce systme, nous avons dvelopp
une modlisation plusieurs niveaux en utilisant deux modles (HYD2002 et
Olympe) permettant respectivement de reprsenter le fonctionnement hydraulique et
les systmes de production agricole du bassin versant. Aprs la caractrisation des
niveaux defficience de lallocation de leau, nous avons pu valuer les impacts sur
les rendements des cultures dans les diffrents types dexploitations agricoles
prsentes sur le bassin. Cette analyse nous permet ainsi une mesure de lquit
dans lallocation de leau
Deux hypothses ont t formules :
Lefficience du systme dpend fortement de la capacit de gestion dans lallocation
de leau.
La distribution de leau dans le systme nest pas quitable le long des canaux, ce
qui conduit diffrencier les agriculteurs localiss en amont et en aval.
Lanalyse de lexistant effectue, nous avons valu les impacts de diffrents
scnarios de gestion de lallocation de leau et dune extension du primtre
Les rsultats montrent que les dfaillances deau peuvent tre rduites, ainsi que la
variabilit des rendements constate quand la gestion de lallocation de leau est
amliore. Cette amlioration entrane cependant une importante augmentation de
la charge de travail en terme de gestion du systme.

Mots cls : allocation de leau, gestion, modlisation, efficience, quit, typologie


dagriculteurs.

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4
Contents
List of figures....................................................................................................................................8

List of tables ...................................................................................................................................10

List of annexes................................................................................................................................11

Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................11

Table of abbreviations and local terminology ...............................................................................12

Sri Lanka General Highlights .........................................................................................................15

1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 17

2 CONTEXT, OBJECTIVES AND METHOD ....................................................... 19

2.1 Theoretical Framework ......................................................................................................21

2.1.1 The local optimum 21


2.1.2 Indicators of the classical concept of water efficiency 22

2.2 Problematic ........................................................................................................................24

2.3 Objectives and methodology.............................................................................................25

2.3.1 Tools 26

2.4 Hypotheses for water allocation in Walawe river Basin ...................................................28

2.5 Data availability for the present study...............................................................................29

3 THE CASE STUDY OF WALAWE BASIN RIVER ........................................... 33

3.1 Description of the Walawe River Basin and antecedents.................................................35

3.1.1 Previous studies 35


3.1.2 Rehabilitation of Uda Walawe Project 36
3.1.3 Walawe Left Bank Irrigation Upgrading and Extension Project (WLBIU & EP) 37

3.2 Elements of the Uda Walawe Irrigation System................................................................38

3.2.1 Uda Walawe Reservoir 38


3.2.2 Samanalawewa Reservoir 39
3.2.3 Minor Tanks 40
3.2.4 Right Bank Area 42
3.2.5 Left Bank Area 42
3.2.6 Liyangastota Anicut 42
3.2.7 Kaltota Irrigation Scheme 42
3.2.8 Domestic water supply and other uses 43

3.3 On going Projects in Walawe River Basin.........................................................................45

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3.3.1 Mau Ara diversion Project 45
3.3.2 Weli Oya augmentation Project 45
3.3.3 Thimbolketiya diversion 45

4 THE FUNCTIONING OF THE WALAWE RIVER BASIN SYSTEM.................. 47

4.1 Uda Walawe hydrological basin balance...........................................................................49

4.1.1 Irrigation and hydraulic units in Uda Walawe irrigation system. The return flows 51

4.2 Water management in Uda Walawe irrigation system ......................................................54

4.2.1 Water allocation 54


4.2.2 Irrigation water requirements in Uda Walawe irrigation system 55
4.2.2.1 Target volumes calculated by MASL ....................................................................58
4.2.2.2 Target volumes calculated considering non-fixed efficiency..................................59
4.2.2.3 Results discussion ...............................................................................................62
4.2.3 Water distribution among the blocks 66
4.2.3.1 Rotations inside the block ....................................................................................69

4.3 Agricultural performances in Uda Walawe irrigation system at farm level .....................74

4.3.1 Farming system 75


4.3.2 Crop budget 76
4.3.3 Farmer organizations and irrigation management 78
4.3.4 Irrigation Practices 79
4.3.4.1 Paddy..................................................................................................................79
4.3.4.2 Banana................................................................................................................79
4.3.4.3 Paddy and banana ..............................................................................................80
4.3.5 Farm typology 80

5 WALAWE RIVER BASIN SYSTEM SIMULATION MODEL............................. 83


5.1 Model choice ......................................................................................................................85

5.2 Water allocation with HYD .................................................................................................87

5.2.1 How does HYD work? 87


5.2.2 Management rules and general description of the model 88
5.2.3 Elements of the water allocation model 89
5.2.3.1 Flows and structures regulating flows (reservoirs) ................................................90
5.2.3.2 Command areas (blocks): plot needs and irrigation demand ................................94
5.2.3.3 Return flows and drainages .................................................................................96
5.2.4 Results of current water management (Baseline scenario) 98
5.2.4.1 Changing the current water allocation rules in baseline scenario ........................ 101
5.2.4.2 Testing the water allocation model ..................................................................... 102
5.2.4.3 Basin return flow analysis .................................................................................. 105
5.2.4.4 Basin water losses analysis ............................................................................... 107

5.3 Impact on agricultural performances using OLYMPE .................................................... 109

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5.3.1 How does OLYMPE work? 109
5.3.2 Linking water allocation and socioeconomic models 110
5.3.3 Results analysis of current water management (Baseline scenario) 115

5.4 Future development scenarios in Walawe River Basin system ..................................... 117

5.4.1 Scenario Identification 117


5.4.2 Scenarios description and hypotheses 117
5.4.2.1 Increasing irrigation area and developing all diversions planned (Expansion
Scenario)...117
5.4.2.2 Improving water allocation by readjusting target and comfort volumes (Expansion
Scenario with reallocation)................................................................................. 119
5.4.3 Comparison of development scenarios on water allocation and farm performances 120
5.4.3.1 Basin and Block Level Impacts .......................................................................... 120
5.4.3.2 Farm Level Impacts ...........................................................................................123
5.4.3.3 Water Balance with current management and all diversions on going (Expansion
scenario - alt. 2 - )..............................................................................................125

5.5 Increasing equity: water negotiation?............................................................................. 127

5.5.1 Water pricing vs. quota system 128

6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................. 131

BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................... 135

ANNEXES .............................................................................................................. 139

7
List of figures

Figure 1 Water accounting diagram (Categories of water use). Source: Molden (1997) .....................23
Figure 2 General methodology by linking models. .............................................................................27
Figure 3 Main tanks and land use of Walawe river basin showing on-going projects..........................36
Figure 4. Critical water levels in Uda Walawe reservoir .....................................................................39
Figure 5 Inflow-outflow relation for Uda Walawe Dam for the 1985-2002 period.................................39
Figure 6. Inflow-outflow relations for Samanalawewa Dam for the 1997-2002 period. ........................40
Figure 7 Balance Chandrikawewa Tank for the 1994-1996 period. (Due to the lack of spill records, spill
has been estimated between 0% and 42% of total inflows, depending on the year)...................41
Figure 8 Schematic of the study area. Source: SAPI (2002), modified. ..............................................44
Figure 9. Different inflows series at Uda Walawe dam site, as given by earlier reports.......................49
Figure 10. Sub-basins, gauging stations and rainfall station in Walawe river Basin used to 41 years
reconstitution inflows. Numbers show yearly average rainfall (in mm) for each Thiessen polygon.
................................................................................................................................................50
Figure 11. Inflows calculated by linear regression for the 1940-2000 period.......................................51
Figure 12 Irrigation units and drainage units in Uda Walawe Irrigation System ..................................53
Figure 13 Weekly water deliveries for Yala 03 and Yala 02 for two blocks of RB, where variations in
Uda Walawwe storage are also displayed (VT: target volumes; VA: actual volumes).................56
Figure 14 Fluxes of water within a block (EMB block Yala 2003 season; units in mm)........................60
Figure 15 Conceptual water fractions per block break up...................................................................62
Figure 16 Comparison between MASL and calculated DWR values by using MMP parameters. Real
demand is also included ...........................................................................................................63
Figure 17 Relation land use (as ratio Paddy/OFC) and MASL target volumes by block for Yala 01
(squares) and Yala 03 (triangles). .............................................................................................65
Figure 18 Relation Efficiencies-Comfort by block for Yala 02 poor season- (triangles) and Yala 03
good season- (squares). ...........................................................................................................66
Figure 19. Relationship between target and real crop areas (right side) by block (units in ha) and
target and released volumes compared with ET, plot need and real demands (left side) by block
(units in MCM). .........................................................................................................................67
Figure 20YALA 03 (good season) .....................................................................................................71
Figure 21YALA 02 (poor season) ......................................................................................................71
Figure 22 MAHA 99-00 (good season) ..............................................................................................72
Figure 23 MAHA 02-03 (poor season) ...............................................................................................72
Figure 24 Water usages by FC level in volume. Source: Jayakodi (2003). .........................................73
Figure 25. Total volumes transferred to field through FCs (in water depth) and rainfall. Source:
Jayakodi (2003)........................................................................................................................73
Figure 26 Crop areas by block in RBC ..............................................................................................74
Figure 27 Crop areas by block in LBC...............................................................................................75
Figure 28: Net value added in Uda Walawe (Rs 2002 actualized) Source: Molle and Renwick (2004) 76
Figure 29. Actions and information between MASL and FOs. Source: SAPI (2000), modified. Actions
in green are by MASL and actions in blue by FOs.....................................................................78
Figure 30 Relation land use- water deliveries at plot level. Source: Jayakodi (2003). .........................79
Figure 31. Conceptual model of a Socio-Ecological System and its application to Uda Wallawe
Irrigation System ......................................................................................................................85
Figure 32. Water system framework (Source: Pouget, 1999). ............................................................87
Figure 33 Upper part representation of Uda Walawe Project in HYD .................................................92
Figure 34 Lower party representation of Uda Walawe Project in HYD................................................92
Figure 35. Management of Uda Walawe reservoir in the model .........................................................93
Figure 36. Block representation in the model. Priorities by water fraction and season are displayed in
colored boxes (green for good season and red for poor season with penalties in parenthesis). .95
Figure 37. Two different representations of return-flows depending on whether they are draining to the
main flow (left), or to several downstream blocks (right). ...........................................................98
Figure 38. Water deficit occurrence on plot needs CD- (left bar chart) in percentage by years and
deficit distribution on irrigation fractions demands NCD- (right bar chart) in percentage by
volume for Baseline scenario in RBC. (BS VT: target volume in poor season, BS C: comfort in
poor season, GS VT: target volume in good season, GS C: comfort in good season). ............. 100
Figure 39 Water deficit occurrence on plot needs CD- (left bar chart) in percentage by years for
Baseline scenario in LBC. (BS: poor season, GS: good season). ............................................ 101

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Figure 40 Deficit comparison (Yala and Maha season) by blocks for actual situation with current
allocation and reallocation ...................................................................................................... 102
Figure 41 Comparison of scenarios simulation for Uda Walawe storage .......................................... 103
Figure 42 Average Uda Walawe Inflow with and without Samanalawewa Dam ................................104
Figure 43. Scenario simulation for Liyangastota anicut .................................................................... 105
Figure 44 Accumulative return-flows from upper to lower blocks for Baseline scenario .................... 106
Figure 45 Estimated volume fraction taken by the homesteads and deep infiltration at Liyangastota 108
Figure 46 General structure of OLYMPE Simulator; Source: Attonaty, J.M and Le Grusse, P., (2000)
.............................................................................................................................................. 109
Figure 47 Yield variation along the canal by type farm for Yala and Maha seasons (good GS- and
poor BS- seasons). Source: Field Survey 2003..................................................................... 110
Figure 48 Yield-water volume relationship along the canal. .............................................................111
Figure 49 Conceptual schema showing the link between the both models. ...................................... 112
Figure 50 Top and tail farm total net incomes variation depending on season: A normal Yala season
without yield reduction, B poor Yala season with yield reduction, C normal Maha season
without yield reduction, D poor Maha season with yield reduction (units: Rs/ha). (OLYMPE
model results)......................................................................................................................... 113
Figure 51. Yield reductions for Yala and Maha season in actual scenario by block and farm type
(blocks not affected by yield reduction are not displayed by the charts). .................................. 115
Figure 52 The decision-making tree for HYD basic scenario selection (OLYMPE scenarios are colored
in green)................................................................................................................................. 117
Figure 53. Proposed and on going diversions in Uda Walawe Project Area. .................................... 118
Figure 54 Baseline, Expansion (alternative 1 and 2) and Expansion (alternative 1 and 2)+Ruhunapura
yearly average deficits comparison (expansion alternative 1: increasing 39% demand on LBC;
expansion alternative 2: reducing 28% comfort on RBC and increasing 44% demand on RBC)
.............................................................................................................................................. 121
Figure 55 Baseline, Expansion (alternative 2) and Expansion with Reallocation yearly average deficits
comparison.............................................................................................................................122
Figure 56 Yield reductions for Yala and Maha season by block and farm type (Baseline, Expansion
alternative 2- and Expansion with Reallocation scenarios) ...................................................... 124
Figure 57. Hypothetical production function and marginal return to the land for head and tail end
farmers in a typical canal system. Source: Madhusudan and Sakthivadivel (2002), (adapted from
Bromley et al. 1977) ............................................................................................................... 128
Figure 58 Rice yield per irrigation days (Irrigation is given in days with the purpose to include drained
water as return-flows for tail-enders). ...................................................................................... 129
Figure 59 Net incomes augmentation per irrigation water unit deviation (where irrigation water unit is
half day). (Red points display actual net incomes per farm type). ............................................ 129
Figure 60. Organization structure of MEA. Source: JICA (1998) ...................................................... 148
Figure 61. Inflow correlation between Embilipitiya and Uda Walawe ................................................ 162
Figure 62. Calculated run-off at Embilipitiya and Uda Walawe. ........................................................ 163
Figure 63. Inflow correlation between Uda Walawe and Samanalawewa ......................................... 164
Figure 64. Samanalawewa inflow-outflow before and after full capacity operation (units in average
MCM) ..................................................................................................................................... 164
Figure 65. Historical and calculated inflows correlation at Thimbolketiya.......................................... 165
Figure 66. Factorial graphic displaying farm samples distribution (green square are top-enders; blue
circles are middle farmers and red triangles tail-end farmers) and relationship among the
variables.................................................................................................................................192
Figure 67 Distribution of farms sampled on RBC. Bar chart shows irrigation and the time in which the
plot dries up (in days). Possible yield reduction due to water shortage is also specified (spots).
.............................................................................................................................................. 193
Figure 68 Storage variation for Samanalawewa reservoir (1992-1999) ............................................ 198
Figure 69 Storage variation for Uda Walawe reservoir (1999-2003) ................................................. 198
Figure 70. Water releases at RMBC, aggregated releases by blocks and relation with rainfall for
available seasons................................................................................................................... 199

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List of tables

Table 1 Farm sampling by block. Source: Field Survey 2003.............................................................30


Table 2. MASL water issues data availability for the present study (numbers represents duration of the
season in weeks). (Target volumes are not available in the marked seasons for SEV and SUR
blocks. SUR block water issues not include distribution canals because data were unavailable)31
Table 3 MASL area data availability for the present study (1 = available; " " = non-available)............31
Table 4 Water issues starting dates ..................................................................................................31
Table 5. Main reservoirs in Uda Walawe Project. Source: Statkraft (2000), modified..........................41
Table 6 Domestic and industrial water uses in Uda Walawe Project ..................................................43
Table 7 Yearly average inflows for Uda Walawe sub-basins..............................................................51
Table 8. Return-flow ratio between diversion water requirement and estimated amount of water. JICA
(1998) ......................................................................................................................................52
Table 9. Physical parameters used for CWR-DWR calculation and comparison between different
reports......................................................................................................................................57
Table 10 Paddy and OFC irrigation water requirements from Equation 1 and Equation 2 with MMP
parameters (above) and real infiltration coefficients (below) respectively, where effective rainfall
is not included. .........................................................................................................................63
Table 11 Released volumes (VA) in mm by block for Maha 99-00; Maha 02-03; Yala 02; Yala 03. ....67
Table 12 Table shows that top end farmers (red) enjoy additional days of supply, while tail-end
farmers(blue) are restricted to scheduled amount (the rotation was established in 2.5 days).
Source: Jayakodi (2003)...........................................................................................................73
Table 13. Crop budget under irrigated conditions. Source: SAPI Fields Survey (2000).......................77
Table 14. Monthly labor requirements for Paddy and OFC. Source: SAPI Fields Survey (2000).........77
Table 15 Farm sampled grouped by top and tail-enders. ...................................................................81
Table 16 Comparison of return-flows between those given by JICA (1998) and those from model
simulation...............................................................................................................................107
Table 17 Liyangastota inflows records by season............................................................................ 108
Table 18 Net incomes by crop and farm type for Yala and Maha season as result of OLYMPE model.
Source: Field Survey 2003...................................................................................................... 114
Table 19 Consumptive and non-consumptive demand for RBC and LBC for Expansion Scenario.... 119
Table 20 Yield reduction occurrences (Actual, Expansion -alternative 2- and Expansion with
Reallocation) ..........................................................................................................................123
Table 21. Water balance results for JICA (1998), SAPI (2000) and model simulated with all the
diversions on going................................................................................................................. 125
Table 22. Rainfall stations used with historical series ...................................................................... 153
Table 23. Gauging stations with historical series of inflows..............................................................161
Table 24 Management properties for Uda Walawe reservoir and RMBC-LMBC non-consumptive
demands ................................................................................................................................208
Table 25 Percentages of target and comforts volumes by block depending on a good or poor season
.............................................................................................................................................. 209
Table 26 Disaggregated surface of irrigation units........................................................................... 246
Table 27. Water volume fractions for Actual, Expansion (alternative 2) and Expansion with reallocation
scenarios (in mm)................................................................................................................... 246
Table 28 Fail, longest deficit and maximum deficit by season and block for Actual, Expansion
(Alternative 2) and Expansion with reallocation scenarios. ...................................................... 248

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List of annexes

Annex 1 (Section 3.2) Reservoirs main features in Uda Walawe Basin ........................................ 143
Annex 2 (Section 3.2) Canals Schema ........................................................................................ 146
Annex 3 (Section 3) - Actual Operation and Maintenance (O&M) in Uda Walawe irrigation schemes
.............................................................................................................................................. 147
Annex 4 (Section 4.1) Reports comparaison................................................................................. 149
Annex 5 (Section 4.1) Rainfall series reconstitution ...................................................................... 153
Annex 6 (Section 4.1) - Run-off calculation...................................................................................... 161
Annex 7 (Section 4.2.2 and 4.2.2.2) Components Equation 1 and Equation 2...............................174
Annex 8 (Section 4.2.2 and 4.2.2.2) - Weekly crop factor (Kc) values for selected crops.................. 176
Annex 9 (Section 4.2.2 and 4.2.2.2) Real and MMP coefficients................................................... 177
Annex 10 (Section 4.2) - Crop surfaces and crop water requirements.............................................. 178
Annex 11 (Section 4.2.2.3) - Efficiency Analysis.............................................................................. 188
Annex 12 (Section 4.3) - Crop patters for paddy and banana...........................................................189
Annex 13 (Section 4.3) - Marketing ................................................................................................. 190
Annex 14 (Section 4.3) - Agriculture extension services .................................................................. 191
Annex 15 (Section 4.3.5) Multivariable Analysis ........................................................................... 191
Annex 16 (Section 4.3.5) Distribution of farms sampled................................................................193
Annex 17 (Section 4.3.5) Field Survey ......................................................................................... 194
Annex 18 (Section 5.2.2) Main patters of Uda Walawe and Samanalawewa reservoirs................. 198
Annex 19 (Section 5.2.3.1) HYD model management properties for Uda Walawe reservoir ........... 208
Annex 20 (Section 5.2.3.2) Percentages of target and comforts volumes by block ........................ 209
Annex 21 (Section 5.2.3.2) Inputs to the model: water issues ....................................................... 210
Annex 22 (Section 5.2.4 and 5.4.3.1) HYD Scenario Results........................................................ 228
Annex 23 (Section 5.2.4.1) Uda Walawe Dam simulation storage................................................. 236
Annex 24 (Section 5.2.4.1) Liyangastota anicut simulation storage.............................................. 241
Annex 25 (Section 5.4.3.1) - Water volume fractions for Actual, Expansion and Expansion with
reallocation scenarios............................................................................................................. 246
Annex 26 (Section 5.4.3.1) - Fails, longest deficit and maximum deficit by season and block........... 248
Annex 27 (Section 5.3.3 and 5.4.3.2) Yield reductions.................................................................. 249
Annex 28 (Section 5.5) Relationship yield-irrigation...................................................................... 257

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Franois Molle for his full support and his patience through the
entire thesis. I had the pleasure to learn from him and to work with him.

Also, I would like express my gratitude to Phillipe Le Grusse for his personal support,
especially in the difficult moments, Patrick Le Gulven, who gave the opportunity to
develop my thesis at IWMI, Jean Christophe Pouget, who followed attentively and
patiently my progress with the model, and finally to Nicolas Faysse, who accepted to
examine the thesis in the last moment.

Particular thanks go to each one of my friends, who encouraged me during all the
time, and to all the people that I met on the way, from the mountains of Sri Lanka to
the streets of Montpellier. Thank you very much indeed.

11
Table of abbreviations and local terminology

ADB Asian Development Bank


ANG Angunokolapelessa Block in RBC
Anicut A diversion weir to abstract water from a natural channel
BC Branch channel
BIN Binkama Block in RBC
Block Irrigation command area
C Comfort volume or comfort margin. Difference between VA and VT
CD Consumptive demand equivalent to depleted water fraction or plot needs
CEB Ceylon Electricity Board
CW Chandrikawewa Dam
CWR Crop water requirements
DA Department of Agriculture
DWR Diversion Water Requirements or Irrigation Water Requirements (see NCD)
CHA Chandrika Block in RBC
DC Distributary channel
DSL Death Storage Level
DM Department of Meteorology
ET Crop evapo-transpiration
FA Field Assistant
FC Field canal
FOs Farmer Organizations
FSL Full Storage Level
EMB Embilipitiya Block in RBC
FSL Full Supply Water Level
GA Government Agency
Ganga River
GDP Gross Domestic Product
ha hectare
ID Irrigation Department
JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
KIR Kiriibbanwewa Block in LBC
km kilometre
LBC Area served by Left Bank Canal or aggregated water deliveries of blocks in
Left Bank Area
LBMC Water deliveries in Left Bank Main Canal from Uda Walawe reservoir
LEA Left Extension Area in LBC (or EXT block)
Maha North-east monsoon season (approx. Oct.-Mar.)
MASL Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka
MC Main Canal
MCM Million cubic meters
MEA Mahaweli Economic Agency
MMP Motto MacDonald Group (former Sir M. MacDonald & Partners)
MUR Muraweshena Block in RBC
NCD Non-consumptive demand equivalent to management irrigation demand which
involves target and comfort volumes
paddy Non-processed rice
O&M Operation and Maintenance
OFCs Other Field Crops, meaning all field crops other than paddy rice
Oya, Ara River
RBC Area served by Right Bank Canal or aggregated water deliveries of blocks in
Right Bank Area
RBMC Water deliveries in Right Bank Main Canal from Uda Walawe reservoir
Rs. Sri Lanka Rupee
UM Unit Manager
RWS Relative Water Supply (ratio between actual supply and the estimated
demand)
SEV Sevangala Block in LBC

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SML Samanalawewa Dam
SUR Suriyawewa Block in LBC
UW Uda Walawe Dam
VA Actual recorded water volumes released by MASL
VT Target volumes calculated by MASL
Wewa Water Tank
Yala Southwest monsoon season (approx. Apr.-Aug.)

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14
Sri Lanka General Highlights1

The island of Sri Lanka is located in South Indian Ocean with an area of 65,600 km2.
The Indian Ocean Monsoon brings in rich but unevenly distributed precipitations in
different seasons and locations in Sri Lanka. The average annual rainfall is 1,900
mm, varying from 900 mm in dry areas in the South to 6,000 mm in the central hills.
According to the World Resources Institute, Sri Lanka has 43.2 billion cubic meters of
usable water resources.

Sri Lanka had a population of 18.8 million in year 1998. Annual growth is about 1.5
percent. An increased population of 23 million by year 2025 is predicted. About 30%
population lives in urban areas, and the figure is predicted to grow to 50% by year
2025.

The nations per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was US $800 in year 1998.
Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, contributed 21% that GDP. Traditional Sri
Lanka agricultural crops include tea, rubber and coconut. Paddy rice has taken a
faster growing pace in the recent decades and a growing area is planted with rice.

Agriculture sector is the largest water use sector in Sri Lanka. About 85% of the
nations water resources are used for agriculture, while 11% only are used in the
industrial and domestic sectors. Hydropower is the major electricity supply source in
Sri Lanka (60%). It does not directly consume water but competes with irrigation and
other water use sectors in terms of water allocation schedule. Food security and
hydropower are two priority considerations in the nations water utilization.

1 Source: Data Book The Ruhuna basin IWMI Benchmark Basin in Sri Lanka, 2001.

15
16
1 Introduction

As pointed out by several authors, the concepts of irrigation efficiency and irrigation
water requirements are frequently based on rough estimations where heterogeneity
as well as complexity of irrigation system are ignored. Furthermore, in many irrigation
systems, water is considered as a scarce resource and consequently only studied
from an economic point of view.

Throughout our thesis, we will deal with both efficiency and equity concepts in order
to reconsider the above-mentioned ideas. On one hand, efficiency does not only
depend on physical parameters but also largely on water management. On the other
hand, water management has a direct influence on equity of water distribution.

The case study was developed in Walawe river Basin in Sri Lanka. This river basin,
with a surface of almost 3,000 km2, is one of the most ancient irrigation systems in
Sri Lanka. After 1960, several studies, financed by foreign donor agencies, were
conducted to increase the irrigated area of the original planned project. At present,
more than 12,000 ha in Right Bank and 6,000 ha in Left Bank are irrigated by the
project.

The basin is characterized by a high complexity due to great variability of soils where
irrigation is conducted as a system of interrelated tanks. Problems of land tenure and
lack of farmers empowerment in the canals maintenance are critical in the systems
management.

In opposition to other irrigation systems, particularly to those where water scarcity is


a fact, management is done on the concept of water full supply in order to be
minimized. Consequently, the irrigation system is characterized by low efficiency at
block level. Furthermore, an unequal water distribution among the farmers is
acquired at farm level.

The present study is going forward to the understanding of the Uda Walawe irrigation
system, focusing on the efficiency and equity of current management. With the aim of
finding out a relationship between both concepts, we have analyzed how water
allocation is done and how water is efficiently distributed among the different irrigated
blocks. This analysis is taking into account four season types (good and poor Maha
and Yala seasons).

In order to estimate future behaviors (inflows and demands) and to evaluate their
consequences (water deficits) on the irrigation system with current or different
management (which are featured by a particular efficiency), we develop a basin-
block water allocation model (HYD). Subsequently, we asses the impact of particular
water allocation on yields variability (which refers to the equity of water distribution) at
farm level scale by using a socioeconomic model (OLYMPE).

The result is a multi-level (integrated) model at two scales, which is made up of two
simulation models.

17
The structure of this thesis is as follows. The next chapter makes a brief revision of
water use efficiency in irrigation schemes.

The third chapter is organized in three sections. Its first section carries out a
hydrologic balance at basin level for 41 years data. Then the second section goes
through the functioning of the system at block level, studying the comprehension of
current management by the traditional concept of water demand (irrigation water
requirements). In addition, we have taken into account the return flows generated by
the system considering real soil infiltration parameters and analyzing efficiency
derived from actual water allocation. Third section describes the agricultural
performances.

Once empirical management had been formalized, the firth chapter builds up a model
(HYD) to simulate water allocation rules in order to get the fails of different blocks as
deficit occurrences. At this point, a farm typology is established and equity of water
distribution inside the block is studied using a socioeconomic model (OLYMPE).
Finally, the impact of water deficit on yield variation for different farm types by block is
simulated.

Main scenarios are displayed as a simulation of water allocation. Firstly, current


water allocation with existing irrigated surface is simulated (baseline scenario). In
addition, we show that results concerning the water deficits on this scenario can be
modified when allocation rules are changed (reallocation scenario). Secondly, we
consider the extension of irrigation surface as well as projected diversions by two
possible water allocation alternatives (expansion scenario alternative 1 or alternative
2). Finally, water allocation rules on expansion scenario (alternative 2) are changed
following the same criteria that the reallocation scenario above-mentioned. For each
scenarios water failures and impact on yields variations are analyzed.

In addition to the knowledge of management in Uda Walawe irrigation system, the


present study allowed us to develop a multi-level modeling simulation as a tool of
forecasting and future water allocation management (scenarios), considering the
impact on agricultural performances.

The current study was funded by the International Water Management Institute
(IWMI), the Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD) and the
International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Institut
Agronomique Mditerranen de Montpellier (CIHEAM-IAMM).

18
2 Context, objectives and method

Throughout this chapter, we briefly mention some classical irrigation efficiency


concepts. The use of these concepts become difficult for the analysis of water
management in irrigation schemes with relative abundance of water resources for a
given water demand. In these schemes, there exists an important disparity between
theoretical management based on planned targets and real management where rules
are focused on minimizing the labor burden of the system. As a result, such systems
are characterized by low efficiency and irrigation practices follow the principle of as
much water as possible.

The second part of this chapter presents the problematic of Uda Walawe Irrigation
Project in Sri Lanka, where water management is conducted by the above mentioned
principle and where exists an inequity of water distribution along the canals inside
each command area.

Finally, we propose a multi-level modeling for the better understanding of water


allocation rules at block level and to evaluate the impact of such water distribution at
farm scale.

19
20
2.1 Theoretical Framework

2.1.1 The local optimum

Some irrigation systems are characterized by abundant water supply (Relative Water
Supply >> 1). In such schemes water availability is sufficient to meet crop demand in
most circumstances and the risk of water shortage is very low.

Definition 1
Relative Water Supply (RWS)

We define Relative Water Supply as the relationship between available water and estimated demand.

In such environment, as described by Molle (1999), real supply does not consider
crops needs2 but, rather, discharges that incorporate a comfort margin and that
minimizes both management/labor burden and farmers complaints. As a rule and
from such perspective, continuous flow at full supply level is the preferred option of
managers and farmers.

Such managerial choices are rational as long as there is abundant, since they
substitute water for labor. It must be noted, however, that abundance of does not
mean that every plot is well served. Even with such a high application, slack
management, uncontrolled permanent diversion, absence or poor enforcement of
rotations, result in the infamous head-end/tail-end problem typical of canal irrigation.

Definition 2
Equity

The equitability in a given irrigation system occurs when the water distribution across the system and
across the reaches of canals matches the water allocation for each on of all sub-irrigation units of the
system (where water allocation in based in irrigation water requirements calculations).

When water shortages of water occur, such systems are generally ill-prepared to
adjust their behaviors. Free-riding and permanent diversion (either illegal or due to
broken structures) is not easily turned into stricter discipline.

A broader overview is required to examine how to improve water management by


shifting the local optimum to a more equitable water distribution.

2
Theoretical managements based in planned targets are ignored because are dealing with spatial heterogeneity
and based in macro level water estimation which is using average or estimated parameters. Instead of that, field
staff find more convenient to minimise the risk of complaints and labour burden by following a full supply as-
much-water-as-possible policy rather than bothering with constantly rectifying gate-settings in order to stick to
some crude guidelines

21
2.1.2 Indicators of the classical concept of water efficiency

FAO (1989) defines irrigation efficiency as the relationship between the percentage
of irrigation water used efficiently and the percentage of water lost.

The scheme irrigation efficiency (in %) is that part of the water diverted through the
scheme inlet (Diversion Water Requirement) which is used effectively by the plants3.
The scheme irrigation efficiency can be sub-divided into:

conveyance efficiency (ec) which represents water transport efficiency in


canals, and

field application efficiency (ea) which represents water application efficiency in


the field.

Conveyance efficiency (ec) mainly depends on the length of the canals, the soil type
or permeability of the canal banks and canal conditions. Field application efficiency
(ea) mainly depends on the irrigation method and farmer discipline level

Once the conveyance and field application efficiency have been determined, the
scheme irrigation efficiency (e) can be calculated, using the following formula:

ec ea
e=
100
e : scheme irrigation efficiency (%)

ec : conveyance efficiency
ea : field application efficiency

Definition 3
Efficiency

We define Irrigation Efficiency as the relationship between water consumed by crops and water
supplied.

However, the classical concept of irrigation efficiency presents two main


inconveniences. In one side, as it is pointed out by several authors as Roost (2002),
it does not take into account the value of return-flows, which are traditionally
considered as losses, and as consequence a system made up of individually
inefficient water uses can be efficient as a whole.

In the other side, management efficiency, in habitual daily operations and


maintenance, is mistreated. This efficiency varies broadly depending on type of water
allocation and deliveries as well as the considered level inside the irrigation schema.

3
Is generally accepted that water used by the plants should correspond to crop water requirements (CWR) in
instead of real depleted water

22
In order to deal with this fact, a distinction between consumptive a non-consumptive
uses of water can be helpful (this distinction will be used further in the presented
model). The objective is to split real water consumed by the crops, water effectively
used during the conveyance and application process and water served.

In this sense, Moldel (1997) makes a worthy contribution by developing a generic


framework to categories of water use and water accounting indicators. The
procedure uses a water basin balance approach and classifies different outflow
components or flow paths into water accounting categories (Figure 1)4.

Figure 1 Water accounting diagram (Categories of water use). Source: Molden (1997)

4
Distinction is made between the part of the net inflow (defined as the total amount of surface and subsurface
water flowing into the domain of interest plus any changes in storage) that is depleted (evaporation, flows to sinks,
pollution and incorporation into a product) and the part that flows out of the domain. In terms of depletion,
distinction is further made between process (e.g., crop transpiration) and non-process (e.g., evaporation from
soils or free water surfaces, flow to a saline water body) depletion. A fraction of the non-process depletion can be
deemed beneficial, from example when the trees that enhance the environment consume water diverted for
irrigation purposes. Finally, outflow is classified as committed when it is related to the rights or needs of
downstream users (including the environment), and as uncommitted if it remains available for use.
On the basis of the proposed classification, Molden introduced three types of performance indicators, all
presented in the form of fractions:
1. Depleted fraction indicators, which relate the total depletion (by both process and non-process uses) to
the net inflow, gross inflow or available water;
2. Process fraction indicators, expressed as the ratio of the process depletion to the total depletion or
available water;
3. Water productivity indicators, which relate the physical mass or economic value of production to the net
inflow, total depletion, process depletion or available water. Roost, (2003).

23
2.2 Problematic

In Sri Lanka, extensive irrigation works flourished before Christian era. With the
arrival of the British many ancient infrastructures were restored. After independence,
the government of Sri Lanka went ahead with new irrigation projects, assisted by
foreign donor agencies.

However, while the irrigation area has been increased, the expectation regarding rice
(paddy) production differs greatly of the projected plans. The causes have been
broadly reported by Ostrom (1990).

To understand the discrepancy between the project design and actual agriculture
performance with regard to the amount of water applied and its relation with paddy
yield, we should consider the following. Paddy, as opposite to other crops, is
sensitive to water scarcity while an excess of water has little effect on it. In addition
abundant water means less labor for water management and better control of weeds.
Therefore the main agricultural practice consists in maintaining paddy fields flooded
as long as possible during the growing season. In other words, farmer has the
interest to obtain the maximum of water (through legal or illegal methods) and no
interest at all in conserving water.

Farmers apply more water than is agronomical justified in order to reduce their own
personal agricultural labor5. The results of such practice is a difference between the
upper reaches of the system, which are taking water in excess of that they need to
meet crop requirements, and the downstream areas with a lesser amount of water in
terms of accessibility and availability on time. The total agricultural yield of the system
is likely to be lower than the projections made by the irrigation project.

5
This reduction of own farmer labour force should be understood in two senses. On the one hand, keeping fields
flooded reduces the weeding that a farmer must do. One the other hand, the management of the system is
reduced to a minimum.

As is pointed by Ostrom (1990), the use of water for weed control to reduce the demands for labour in
cultivation seems to make good economic sense for individual families, even though the subsidized water is
actually more expensive than would be the marginal cost of an underemployed labour force.

24
2.3 Objectives and methodology

Given that the remarks of Ostrom are still valid, the main objective of our study
focuses on the analysis of the efficiency and the equity of water allocation in Walawe
river Basin in order to find a possible relationship between these two concepts. In this
point, two main questions are exposed: is an augmentation of the efficiency of the
irrigation system increasing the equitability of water distribution? If it is possible, what
level of the irrigation system are both concepts related?

Our methodology consists of representing the Uda Walawe Basin through a multi-
level modeling in order to understand the irrigation system management and the
efficiency of water distribution. Once efficiency is characterized, we can observe its
impact on crop yields to evaluate the equity of water allocation. Furthermore, our
methodology allows us to take into account the simulation of different water allocation
scenarios. Proposed methodology includes the three following steps.

First, at basin level, we used a water allocation model to the understanding of the
irrigation system through a representation of water management rules among the
different irrigated blocks. As consequence, the efficiency of the system can be settled
up. (Figure 2).

Definition 4
Irrigation Management

We define Management of the irrigation system as the dealing between the water allocation (set by
the irrigation water requirements) and the water distribution (given by the available water in the
irrigation system).

A second tier concerned the block level. Here, it was planned to use a cropping
simulation model with the purpose to link water allocation and crop production by
simulating the effect of water shortages on crop productivity through a crop yield
function. This application was later dropped6 because it was found impossible to
characterize patterns of inflow at the plot level for different blocks and levels of water
scarcity.

Finally, at the farm level, a field survey has been conducted to characterize farming
systems, establish a typology, and investigate the consequences of present and
future water allocations in terms of yield and net income variations for each of the
types identified (Figure 2).

6
At this level a working hypothesis could be to divide the whole area into sub areas denoted as Land Unit (LUs)
and to consider each LU as homogenous. Each LU is defined by its soil type. However the great spatial
heterogeneity inside the plots and the subsequent management of each one not recommended the approach. In
its place, a monitoring of three selected areas was conducted at different scales, from branch canal level to plot to
plot management.

25
2.3.1 Tools

Two softwares have been used to model the different levels and to simulate different
scenarios of water allocation as well as their respective consequences on agricultural
performances.

HYD (version 2002) software is developed by Institut de Recherche pour le


Dvelopment (IRD) and addresses the issue of allocation of available water, defined
with its stochastic variability at the monthly level, within a basin or hydro-system.

On the other hand, OLYMPE developed by the Institut National de Recherche


Agricole (INRA) allowed us to represent farm typology subject to certain levels of risk
and uncertainty on prices and/or yields (tendencies or random). The results can be
calculated in terms of net income or any other index chosen.

These two softwares are different in their conception and application, but it was
attempted to link them to suit our objectives.

The final result can be seen as the effect of certain water allocation patterns on farm
types, instead of on the whole area, as is usually considered. The model can help us
achieve a better water allocation inside the system by developing management tools
and allocation rules with a view on their respective impact in terms of efficiency and
equity.

26
Hydrological balance Crop water
at basin level requirements by block

Water allocation AGRICULTURAL APPROACH


model at block level by irrigation blocks
HYD Model

Culture 1

Block 1 Culture 3

Culture 2

Block 2

Culture 1

Impact on farm yield


AGROECONOMIC APPROACH
variation
by farm types
OLYMPE Model

TYPE A

Block 2

Block 1
TYPE A
TYPE B

TYPE B

Figure 2 General methodology by linking models.

27
2.4 Hypotheses for water allocation in Walawe river Basin

The following main hypotheses have been considered to describe the management
of the Uda Walawe irrigation system.

1. In irrigation systems efficiency is not a fixed given of the system (intrinsic feature),
but depends on water management, which varies with the degree of Relative
Water Supply (RWS) depending on site-specific parameters.

2. Where scarcity is not a limiting factor (RWS >> 1), then efficiency is low and we
need to resort to the notion of comfort margin.

3. Farm typologies result from different farm managements which are related with
the amount of water allocated along the canal. We can find two localizations
inside the irrigation system: top-enders and tail-enders. As a consequence of
unequal water distribution, the system is characterized by a high inequity.

4. It is possible to improve water distribution and, consequently, the equity in the


system, when the level of management input is increased.

5. HYD is a suitable tool to represent the water allocation in Uda Walawe irrigation
system at the basin-block scale. OLYMPE is a suitable tool to assess the
economic impact from water allocation on farmers incomes at the household
level.

28
2.5 Data availability for the present study

A large bibliography is available about Walawe river Basin. The following reports
have been selected for providing the principal highlights and figures allowing the
understanding of the basin. Each one corresponds to a specific step of the
development of the Uda Walawe Irrigation Project. They will be widely used along the
following chapters and they are therefore listed here:7, 8

A Report on a Reconnaissance Survey of the Resources of the Walawe


Ganga basin. The Photographic Survey Corporation, Limited. Toronto,
Canada. 1960.

Termination Report Water Management Uda Walawe Irrigation Project. PRC


Engineering Consultants, INC. Colorado, USA 1982.

Walawe Irrigation Rehabilitation and Improvement Project. SOGREAH


Consultants. Grenoble, France. 1985.

Walawe Irrigation Improvement Project: Inception report. M. MacDonald and


Partners. Cambridge, UK. 1986.

Feasibility Study on Walawe Irrigation Upgrading and Extension Project.


Japan International Cooperation Agency. 1993 and Review Report on
Feasibility Study for Walawe Left Bank Irrigation Upgrading and Extension
Project. Nippon Koei CO, Ltd. Tokyo Japan 1995.

Special Assistance for Project Implementation (SAPI) Walawe Left Bank


Irrigation Upgrading and extension Project. SAPI Team 2000

Further, IWMI has developed his own database for Ruhuna Basin9, of which Walawe
is a sub-basin. Archived data sheets were collected by IWMI staff through
collaboration with many Sri Lanka governmental agencies and local authorities,
particularly the collaborations with the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources
(MIWR), Ministry of Meteorology (MM), Ministry of Agriculture and Lands (MAL),
Ministry of Health and Indigenous Medicine (MHIM), and Anti-Malaria Campaign
(AMC).

7
A detailed historical description of the development of irrigation systems in the basin is present in The Politics
and Economics of Water Resource Development: A case study in the Walawe river basin, Sri Lanka, Renwick
and Molle (reference study all along our research).

8
Statkraft Grner (2000), which used Mike Basin Software, is not considering the total area of the basin
(Kachchigal Ara not included). The Water Resources Management (WRM) Studies is one of the five components
within Package C of the Third Water Supply and Sanitation Project; it has been carried out under the auspices of
the National Water Supply and Drainage Board with the Water Resources Secretariat as the host agency.
9
IWMI is establishing a series of benchmark basins. These basins will provide a platform for research and
integrated water resource management. The Ruhuna basin in southern Sri Lanka is one of the basins chosen to
develop and test the benchmark basin methodology.

29
Concerning the household field survey, a Rapid Rural Appraisal methodology was
applied. This methodology, well known and widely used in rural development
projects, aims at a rapid pre-assessment of a socioeconomic situation, considering
that some elements of the sample are already known.

The size of the household sample has been fixed at 30, because of time constraints.
The sample was distributed based on the irrigation blocks of the RBC, since these
are believed to represent different situations10.(Table 1).

Finally, water issues and cultivated areas data were provided by MASL and used to
formalize the management rules in the allocation model (Table 2, Table 3,Table 4).

Table 1 Farm sampling by block. Source: Field Survey 2003


Farm Block Branch Canal Location
F20 CHA Chandrikawewa Middle
F19 CHA Chandrikawewa Tail enders
F21 CHA Chandrikawewa Top enders
F28 CHA Chandrikawewa Top enders
F29 CHA Chandrikawewa Top enders
F30 CHA Chandrikawewa Top enders

F04 MUR Mamadala Middle


F06 MUR Mamadala Middle
F07 MUR Mamadala Middle
F09 MUR Mamadala Tail enders
F01 MUR Mamadala Top enders
F02 MUR Mamadala Top enders
F10 MUR Mamadala Tail enders
F05 MUR Mamadala Middle
F03 MUR Mamadala Top enders
F08 MUR Mamadala Middle

F15 BIN Manamperigama Tail enders


F27 BIN Manamperigama Tail enders
F14 BIN Manamperigama Tail enders
F16 BIN Gurugodella Tail enders
F18 BIN Gurugodella Tail enders
F26 BIN Manamperigama Tail enders
F17 BIN Gurugodella Middle
F25 BIN Gurugodella Tail enders

F12 ANG Bata Ata Tail enders


F11 ANG Bata Ata Tail enders
F22 ANG Gajamangama Tail enders
F24 ANG Bata Ata Top enders
F13 ANG Bata Ata Tail enders
F23 AANG Gajamangama Middle

10
EMB and CHA irrigation blocks have been pooled together because they both have a rather abundant and
reliable supply. On the other hand, downstream blocks, MUR, BIN and ANG have been considered separately in
that they are affected by scarcity to a different degree. Therefore, four strata have been sampled: EMB and CHA
blocks on one side and MUR, BIN and ANG blocks, separately, on the other side.
As the size of the sample has been fixed at 30 homesteads for four strata, an average of 7.5 household by block
should be surveyed. However, the number of samples by block has been readjusted proportionally to the block
area

30
Table 2. MASL water issues data availability for the present study (numbers represents duration of the season in weeks). (Target volumes are not available in
the marked seasons for SEV and SUR blocks. SUR block water issues not include distribution canals because data were unavailable)
SEASON UW RBC EMB CHA MUR BIN ANG SEASON UW LBC SEV KIR SUR
Maha 99-00 22 22 22 22 21 21 Maha 99-00 22
Yala 00 22 22 22 22 21 21 Yala 00 22
Maha 00-01 20 Maha 00-01 20
Yala 01 22 22 22 22 21 21 Yala 01 22
Maha 01-02 19 Maha 01-02 19 19
Yala 02 22 22 22 22 21 21 Yala 02 22 20
Maha 03-02 18 18 18 18 18 18 Maha 03-02 18 18 18 18
Yala 03 20 20 20 20 20 20 Yala 03 20 20 20 20

Table 3 MASL area data availability for the present study (1 = available; " " = non-available)
SEASON EMB CHA MUR BIN ANG SEASON SEV KIR SUR
Maha 99-00 Maha 99-00
Yala 00 Yala 00
Maha 00-01 Maha 00-01
Yala 01 1 1 1 1 1 Yala 01 1 1 1
Maha 01-02 1 1 1 1 1 Maha 01-02 1 1 1
Yala 02 1 1 1 1 1 Yala 02 1 1 1
Maha 03-02 1 1 1 1 1 Maha 03-02 1 1 1
Yala 03 1 1 1 1 1 Yala 03 1 1 1

Table 4 Water issues starting dates

DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF WATER ISSSUE ACTIVE STORAGE OF LAST DATE OF WATER ISSUE ACTIVE STORAGE OF
SEASON RESERVOIR ON FIRST RESERVOIR ON LAST
RB LB DATE OF WATER ISSUE RB LB DATE OF WATER ISSUE
15/10 (42)
134.10
1999-2000 Mkbc, Cwbc, Ggbc, Mpgbc, 31/01 (6)
15:10 (42) 144.54 10/03 (11) 240.55
Maha Babc, Gagbc 01/11 (45) Mkbc 05/03 (10)
224.70
(Track 2-4)
2000 230.67 17/79
15/04 (16) 01/05 (19) 01/09 (36) 15/09 (38
Yala 238.33 13/05
2000-2001
No water issue due to deficit of water at Uda Walawe reservoir
Maha
2001 216.21 39.43
05/03 (10) 15/03 (11) 06/08 (32) 15/08 (33)
Yala 205.28 36.15
2001-2002
15/11 (46) 15:11 (46) 101.53 13/03 (11) 13/03 (11) 13.05
Maha
2002 8.08
05/05 (18) 05/05 (18) 125.65 15/09 (37) 03/09 (36)
Yala 11.97
2002-2003
15/11 (46) 15/11 (46) 103.57 08/03 (19) 08/03 (19) 49.40
Maha
2003
20/04 (17) 20/04 (17) 235.78 20/08 (34) 15/08 (34) 148.68
Yala

31
32
3 The case study of Walawe Basin River

Chapter 2 gives a broad description of Uda Walawe Irrigation Project with emphasis
on the functioning of the main elements of the system such as Uda Walawe and
Samanalawewa dams, Chandrikawewa tank, Right and Left command areas and
Liyangastota anicut.

Domestic and industrial water use in the basin and water demand forecasted by
future projects (Weli Oya, Mau Ara and Timbolketiya diversions) are also taken into
account.

33
34
3.1 Description of the Walawe River Basin and antecedents11

The Walawe River basin12,13 covers approximately 3,000 km2 and extends from the
ridge of the central highland of Sri Lanka at an altitude of over 2,000 m- down to the
southern coast. The basin offers a clear contrast between, on the one hand, its
highlands and its intermediate mountainous association of ridges and valleys, and,
on the other hand, the lowland plain itself (Figure 3). Precipitations vary accordingly,
from over 3,000 mm in the north-western tip down to less than 1,000 m along the
seashore. Half of these precipitations are transformed in runoff on average.
Groundwater is available in the plains but the aquifers are quickly drained after the
rainy seasons and drop. The highlands are cut by many valleys in which small
streams, often perennials, can be found. They feed the Walawe River which has an
average discharge to the sea corresponding to 1.6 billion m3 per year.

It is believed that the basin was a prosperous area from the second century BC to
some troubled times around the thirteenth century, when it started to decline. During
this time numerous small irrigation tanks and anicuts were built.

Despite some settlement and rehabilitation works on tanks and anicuts undertaken
by the British, the population was still sparse in the second half of the nineteenth
century. In the early 1940s, surveys and studies for the establishment of a Walawe
Ganga reservoir scheme were initiated. In 1948, just after independence, the
Government of Ceylon reconsidered development plans for the Walawe Basin.
During the 1950s, numerous preliminary studies were carried out.

3.1.1 Previous studies

In 1969 the Government of Sri Lanka requested the ADB to assist in the
development the Right Bank area (RB). The main objectives were to develop and
irrigate the full extension of RB with a total of 12.369 ha, to accommodate 3.440 new
settlers for intensive farming and improve productivity.

The executive agency of the project was the River and Valleys Development Board
(RVDB). The project started in 1970 and was completed in 1979.

11
Present description has been summarised from The Politics and Economics of Water Resource Development:
A case study in the Walawe river basin, Sri Lanka. Renwick, M & Molle, F. IWMI Research Report (2004)

12
Walawe River basin is a part of Ruhuna basin includes three larger rivers, Walawe Ganga, Kinridi Oya, and
Menik Ganga, which form three main sub-basins. There are also several other smaller rivers, including Malala
2
Oya, Kachchigala Ara, Karagan Oya, and Weligatta Ara. The total area of Ruhuna is about 5,500 km .
13
The Kachigal ara and Karagan oya basins, which are small basins adjacent to the lower Walawe basin have
been pooled with it since they are part of the irrigation scheme under the Uda Walawe Project.

35
Figure 3 Main tanks and land use of Walawe river basin showing on-going projects

HIGHLANDS Weli Oya Diversion


Samanalawewa
UPLAND PLATFORM
Kaltota Scheme
#
S
Y
LE

Hambagamuwa
AL
V
D
AN

Udawalawe Mau Ara D iversion


S
GE

LOW LAND PLAIN


PLAIN
D
RI

Kiriibban
Timbolketiya Diversion

Mahagama
Chandrika
Liyangastota Anicut

Ridiyagama Left Extension Area


#

Ruhunapura Diversion

Tanks
Rivers Karametiya Kalapuwa
Paddy
Gardens
Uda Walawew basin
Figure 12

3.1.2 Rehabilitation of Uda Walawe Project

As a result of several problems encountered during the development of the Uda


Walawe Irrigation Project Plan (UWIRP 1969), such as the inability to develop the
total area14, the very high water application observed, and the increasing problem of

14
Until 1982, only 56% of the planed command area had been developed (1982 ADB Project Performance Audit
Report).

36
encroachment by illegal settlers, the management of the project was transferred from
RVDB to the Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka15 (MASL) in 1982.

MASL focused on increasing agricultural production by establishing two clear


growing seasons (Yala and Maha), introducing rotational irrigation schedules and
addressing the problem of encroachers who were the cause of land and water right
conflicts16.

Nevertheless problems related to inequitable water distribution, with some farmers


(top-enders) receiving more water than others (tail-enders) and the high
heterogeneity in yields between down and upstream areas, remained.

Therefore the Government and ADB decided to launch an improvement and


rehabilitation project (WIRP). SOGREAH was in charge of the feasibility study for the
rehabilitation, further to earlier consultant reports (Wolf 1983, PRC 1982) but ADB
disagreed with the results.

WIRP had as main objectives to achieve the goals of the original UWIRP, improving
agricultural productivity, rural employment and farm income through rehabilitation
and improvement of the existing Right Bank Area covering 12,000 ha.

The works started in 1988 and Sir MacDonald and Partners (MMP) was hired as
international consultant. Original inaccurate estimations about the cost shifted the
original budget from $13.7 to $25.3, and consequently the lower part of the Right
Bank (RB) Area was not rehabilitated.

Another problem concerned drinking water supply. The initial ADB proposal included
the construction of shallow wells but this option was not reliable because shallows
well are fed by sub-surface flows and dry up during the dry season. Deep wells were
drilled but, as was pointed by SOGREAH, problems of water quality due to excessive
levels of fluoride were identified.

3.1.3 Walawe Left Bank Irrigation Upgrading and Extension Project (WLBIU &
EP)

The Walawe Left Bank Irrigation Upgrading and Extension Project (WLBIU & EP) is
being implemented with funds of the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund of Japan
(OECF, now JBIC). After a feasibility study conducted by the Japan International
Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 1992, the project targets the following objectives:

1. Upgrading of the Existing irrigation facilities covering 2,900 ha in the old area
to provide timely and equitable irrigation supplies to increase yields of paddy
and diversified crops.
15
Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka (MASL) is the organisation responsible for settling farmer families and
promoting socio economic development in the settlement area under the Walawe special Project. MASL was set
up by an Act of Parliament (MASL Act N 23 of 1987) to implement the Accelerated Mahaweli Development
Program (AMDP). In order to facilitate MASL to carrying out the stipulated functions, the Act conferred on MASL a
wide range of powers. Two core organisations were established in MASL: the Mahaweli Engineering and
Construction Agency (MECA) and the Mahaweli Economic Agency (MEA)
16
Between 1979 and 1984 the annual irrigated area increased from about 11.000 ha to 16.000 ha and paddy
yields from 3.6 t/ha to 4 t/ha.

37
2. Construction of a new irrigation and drainage system in the old and extension
area- and to assist farmers.

3. Development of settlements and farm lands suitable for paddy and diversified
crops.

4. Provision of economic and social infrastructure such as rural road network,


domestic water supply, schools, health and medical centre, market etc.

5. Strengthening of agricultural supporting activities particularly to promote crop


diversification.

In 1995, Nippon Koei Co. Ltd. was hired to review and update the 1992 feasibility
study conducted by JICA.

In 1996, rehabilitation and modernization works began in the Old Area. In 2001, the
construction of the infrastructure in the extension area started and the first quarter
should be operational in Yala 2004.

3.2 Elements of the Uda Walawe Irrigation System

The Uda Walawe irrigation system is mainly supplied by the Uda Walawe reservoir.
From this point two main channels, the Right Bank Canal (RBC) and Left Bank Canal
(LBC) supply water to 12.143 ha and 6.397 ha respectively.

3.2.1 Uda Walawe Reservoir

This dam, initiated in 1963, was completed in 1967 and has as a main purpose to
irrigate the command areas of Right and Left Bank Canals with rice, Other Field
Crops (OFCs) and sugar cane. Uda Walawe Dam is also providing power through
two turbines with a total capacity generation of 5,4 MW. After power is generated the
water released can be directed either to the main canals or to a bypass directly to the
river.

An important particularity of Uda Walawe Dam resides in its small capacity to stock
water, as indicated by the fact that its spill level is quite low with regard to its
maximum capacity and storage beyond that point is regulated by radial gates
controlling the spillway. In case of huge flood, excess water can be released quickly
by opening the gates. In fact this is a dam where storage management across
seasons is hardly possible.

The main features of the Uda Walawe reservoir are displayed in Figure 4 and Annex 1.

38
Figure 4. Critical water levels in Uda Walawe reservoir

90.21 m (337 MCM)

Flood control zone 337 MCM 88.39 m (268 MCM)

SPILL 82.18 m (112 MCM)

Normal operating zone 268 MCM 80.90 m (93 MCM)

74.98 m (28 MCM)

Inactive 28 MCM

Figure 5 shows the relation between inflows and outflow at Uda Walawe Reservoir.
Significant (average) spill is observed around April and November.

Figure 5 Inflow-outflow relation for Uda Walawe Dam for the 1985-2002 period.

Uda Walawe Dam


350 0

300
100

250
200
volume (MCM)

rainfall (mm)
200

300

150

400
100

500
50

0 600
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
month

RB LB Spill Rainfall Storage Inflow

3.2.2 Samanalawewa Reservoir

Samanalawewa reservoir is located in the upper part of the catchment. It was


completed in 1992 but due to leakage problems, it is only managed at full capacity
since 1997. The main purpose of this dam is power generation (120 MW) but it also
releases water to Kaltota Irrigation Scheme. The intake for power generation is
located on the side of the reservoir and water is channeled through a tunnel to the
powerhouse. The outflow re-merges with Walawe river at a point located downstream
of Kaltota scheme. Samanalawewa dam also regulates the flow to Uda Walawe
Reservoir (Figure 6 and Annex 1).

The Guidelines for power generation through Samanala Wewa reservoir are as
follows:

39
Spillage at Uda Walawe and Samanala Wewa reservoirs should be minimized.

Power generation should satisfy the integrated power generation pattern of the
Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB). This means that the logic of water releases
depend on the situation of the national power grid and cannot be fully planned
in advance.

Power releases should satisfy the irrigation demand of the Uda Walawe
project.

Figure 6. Inflow-outflow relations for Samanalawewa Dam for the 1997-2002 period.

Samanalawewa Dam

80

70

60

50
volume (MCM)

40

30

20

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
month

OutLeak OutIrr OutPower Inflow

3.2.3 Minor Tanks

Other minor tanks can be found in Uda Walawe. These tanks have basically two
purposes. When they are situated along the RBC or LBC they just convey canal
water and collect water from small lateral basins. When they are located within the
scheme, along drainage lines, they collect the return flows from upper irrigated fields.
This cascade system allows significant reuse of generated return flows. This will be
studied in the next chapter.

Among the most important tanks situated along the canals, the most important is
Chandrikawewa (Figure 7 and Annex 1). This medium tank receives water from
Hulanda Oya but the greater part comes from the RBC. On the other side,
Mahagama tank, although outside the official command area, is a special case.
Mahagama receives water from Mau Ara sub-basin and also the return flows from the
field irrigated by the LBC. If requested, water can also be released from LBC through
a gate.

40
Figure 7 Balance Chandrikawewa Tank for the 1994-1996 period. (Due to the lack of spill
records, spill has been estimated between 0% and 42% of total inflows, depending on the year)
Year (Tous)

Chandrikawewa Tank

60

50

40

30

20
volume (MCM)

10

-10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
-20

-30

-40

-50
month
Donnes
From Main Canal Storage diff From River Chandrika Branch C To RBMC Difference
Month

Table 5 shows the main features of the three major reservoirs in Walawe River basin

Table 5. Main reservoirs in Uda Walawe Project. Source: Statkraft (2000), modified

Description Samanalawewa Uda Walawe Chandrikawewa


Date of completion 1992 1968 na
Catchment (sq km) 340 1.156 180
Capacity at FSL (MCM) 278 268.76 28.6
Capacity at DSL (MCM) 60 28.26 3.5*
FSL m msl 460 88.39 62.9
DSL m msl 424 74.98 56.6
HFL m msl na 90.21 na
Spillway capacity (cumecs)* 3600 na na
Spillway level (m)* 446.7 82.18 61.3
Spillway length (m)* na 366 na
Spillway gates (m)* 3 Nos./8.96x6.6 5 Nos./8.96x6.6
Capacity - LB (MW) 3.9
Capacity - RB (MW) (2x60) 1.8
Min. Op. Level na 79.4 58.5
3
Power Discharge rate (m /s) 40.2 na
* RBC Outlet Sill Level
na: not available

41
3.2.4 Right Bank Area

Nowadays the RBC is serving a total area of 12,430 ha. The original irrigation system
was modified under ADB rehabilitation project implemented during the period of 1983
to 1990. The main achievement was to set rotational water issues by establishing a
proper irrigation schedule, and improving maintenance of the canals. A central
objective was to promote cultivation of field crops other in well drained soils. Many
farmers who cultivated rice on well drained soils switched over to banana, mainly due
to the possibility of getting high incomes, while significantly reducing water use.

3.2.5 Left Bank Area

The area under the LBC totals 6.397 ha (actual area served), 35% of which (2.267
ha) is planted to sugar cane. This last figure is grossly underestimated17. Data from
remote sensing put the net sugar-cane area at around 3,500 ha. This area is
managed by the Sevanagala Sugar Company. The remaining area is cultivated with
paddy, banana and OFCs.

This area is currently under extension (Left Bank Extension) and 5,340 ha will be
added to the actual area served, totaling 11,737 ha, including 60% suitable to OFCs.

3.2.6 Liyangastota Anicut

Liyangastota anicut (Figure 3) is the first large-scale irrigation infrastructure built by


the British in Walawe Basin. Constructed in 1880 (on the site of a much older anicut)
it diverts water to the downstream part of the basin to both the right and left banks of
the river.

The actual demand of Liyangastota is almost entirely met by the return flows
generated by Uda Walawe irrigation system. The Timbolketiya and Mau Ara rivers,
which are not intercepted by the two main canals, also contribute to the flow of
Walawe River at that point and the anicut spills abundantly during the rainfall period.

The Left Canal, who is feeding Ridiyagama reservoir, supplies a total area of 2.553
ha but suffers from sedimentation, which reduces the capacity of the canal.

3.2.7 Kaltota Irrigation Scheme

Two anicuts located in the upper part of the basin also divert water from the Walawe
to the Kaltota irrigation scheme (Figure 3), which had been first established some two
thousand years ago. This diversion supplies water to a total of 880 ha.

After the construction of Samanalawewa Dam, Kaltota catchment area was reduced
from 410 km2 to 56 km2, which implies that water had to be released from the
reservoir to ensure cultivation.

17
One reason for this is that Sevanagala Company pays a water fee based on the number of acres declared.

42
3.2.8 Domestic water supply and other uses18

Estimated annual water requirement for non-irrigation purposes are summarized in


Table 6

Table 6 Domestic and industrial water uses in Uda Walawe Project


Item Previous studies SAPI (2000)

2.4 MCM (JICA,1993),


Right-bank Area 30.0 MCM
30 MCM (ADB, 1992)

Left Bank Area


3.2 MCM 5.0 MCM
(including the extension area)
9.2 MCM
Hambantota-Ambalantota Water
1.0 MCM (JICA, 1993) (NWSDB proposal,
Supply Scheme
1999)

Industrial Park 1.0 MCM (JICA, 1993) 1.0 MCM

Proposed Oil Refinery plant 1.0 MCM (JICA, 1993) 1.0 MCM

The right-bank annual water demand for non-irrigation uses was estimated by the
ADB at 30 MCM mainly due to consideration of the demand for inland fisheries
(Aquaculture Development Center).

The other major increase in demand is the Hambantota-Ambalantota water supply


scheme. National water Supply and Drainage Board (NWSDB) is now proposing to
expand the capacity of the scheme. Its projected demand in 2015 is 25.114 m3/day in
peak days. Therefore the annual demand of the supply scheme is taken at 9.3 MCM.
As pointed out by SAPI (2000), this does not significantly affect the total water supply
to Uda Walawe since the water supply scheme receives more return flow from
Liyangastota irrigation scheme than this peak demand.

In the long-term, the planned development of a large industrial and port facility along
the coast (Ruhunapura) will request the supply of about 100 million m3 a year.

For the purpose of this simulation the domestic and industrial demand is assumed to
be constant and is taken at 3.9 MCM/month.

18
From SAPI (2000).

43
Figure 8 Schematic of the study area. Source: SAPI (2002), modified.

Weli Oya
Samanalawewa Inflow

Diversion
Channel
to Dam

Kaltota Irr Hambegamuwa


Samanalawewa Dam Scheme Tank

Weli Oya
Scheme
Walawe River

Kaltota Irr
Scheme
Diyawini Oya

Mauara River
Kuda Oya
Uda Walawe Dam

RB Area: R LB Area: L
Timbolketiya River

Right Bank Sevanagala Sugar


Irr Scheme Area
Proposed
Timbolketiya (Embilipitiya)

Mahagama Tank
Diversion
Scheme
Right Bank
Chandrikawewa Tank

Irr Scheme
(Chandrikawewa ) Left Bank Old
Hulanda River Mauara
Area (Kiriibban) Diversion
Scheme under
construction
Mahagama
Schema

Right Bank Left Bank Old Area


Irr Scheme (Suriyawewa)
(Murawasihena)
Liyanagastota Anicut

Ridiyagama Tank

Right Bank
5,300 ha. of new development
and 60% OFC are proposed

Irr Scheme
LB Extension Area

(Binkama)
Liyanagastota Irr
Liyanagastota Irr

Scheme
Scheme

RB Irr Scheme
(Angunakolapelessa )

Industrial Park and Oil


Refinery Plant
Requirements
Industrial and
Domestic

Ambalantota Water Supply


Scheme

Indian Ocean

44
3.3 On going Projects in Walawe River Basin

3.3.1 Mau Ara diversion Project

The Mau Ara river flows into the Mahagama tank, which supplies the Mahagama
irrigated area (generally considered as part of the Kiriibanwewa block, in the left-bank
command area), before flowing to the Walawe River, upstream of the Liyangastota
Anicut (Figure 3).

A reservoir and a diversion channel have now just been constructed on the river,
upstream of the intersection with LBC, reducing the flow to Mahagama. This
diversion sends water to the Badagiri system in the neighboring water-short Malala
river basin, to the east. Mau Ara diversion is reducing water availability in the Left-
bank area by about the equivalent of the requirements of the Mahagama block, 22.8
MCM/year.19

3.3.2 Weli Oya augmentation Project

This project aims at increasing agricultural productivity by diverting water from Weli
Oya to the project area (Figure 3). Weli Oya is one of the main tributaries of Walawe
Ganga. The project area is considered as one of the poorest and most
underdeveloped areas in the country, with hardly any facilities. In addition, it is
planned to provide other infrastructures, develop livestock farming and provide better
marketing facilities in order to alleviate poverty in the area. The project will benefit
950 farm families.

The project includes the construction of a diversion canal with a capacity of 4 m3/sec.
The expected impacts of the projects output on the beneficiary are:
1. To improve the cropping intensity from 70% to 200 % and to increase yield of
farms in existing village cascade system covering 800 ha.

2. To increase the cropped area under gravity irrigation by 400 ha in areas


presently cultivated.

3. To provide lift irrigation facilities to 280 ha in areas presently cultivated.

3.3.3 Thimbolketiya diversion

A proposal to divert approximately 77.0 MCM from the Thimbolketiya River to the
right-bank canal, upstream of Chandrikawewa tank, has been made in various

19
The SAPI model assumes that the full demand of the Mahagama block is satisfied by the existing discharge in
the Mau Ara River, supplemented by return flows from existing left-bank irrigation blocks. Construction of the Mau
Ara diversion will result in the full demand of the Mahagama block having to be supplied from the Uda Walawe
reservoir, directly by left-bank diversions and return flows as at present. This is more conservative than the
approach reported in the 1995 review of the Feasibility Study. The 1995 study assumed that, even after diversion
of the Mau Ara, about 12.5 MCM would continue to be available at Mahagamawewa tank as a result of flows
generated in the remaining catchment area supplying the tank.

45
studies20 (Figure 3). Although considered technically feasible, concerns over the
available water resources and over the impact of the diversion on water availability at
Liyangastota anicut have delayed implementation of the proposal. Recent studies
have confirmed that the available water resources are adequate to support the
proposed annual diversion of 76 MCM with over 80% probability of exceedence. The
river channel at possible diversion sites is incised and construction of a diversion weir
may induce relatively frequent flooding. Continued resistance by water users further
downstream, particularly those supplied by the Liyangastota systems may prevent
the construction of this diversion21.

20
The diversion to the Uda Walawe reservoir has also been proposed but it seems that it is not feasible because
of the topography.
21
Proposed Diversion (MCM/Month) Timbolketiya River (Annex 7, SAPI. 1993)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Diversion 2.5 4.8 6.9 8.6 7.5 5.8 4.6 5.2 5.7 8.5 10.2 7.1 77.4

46
4 The functioning of the Walawe River Basin system

This chapter is divided into three parts. The first part includes a hydrological balance
by calculating a 41 years inflow series for the Uda Walawe six sub-basins. These
data constitute one of the inputs for the water allocation model.

The second part discusses the water management in Uda Walawe Irrigation Project.
The current water allocation and the relationship between Uda Walawe Dam
management and water distribution at block level are described. At this point, we
identify the existence of a surplus that is released in addition to target volumes by
block. This surplus, called comfort, is not equally distributed by block. Its
relationship with classical concept of irrigation efficiency is carefully analyzed.

Irrigation water requirements, used by MASL, which determine block target volumes,
are compared into different reports and with our own calculations (taking into account
real infiltrations). Furthermore, the differences encountered between results have
been discussed.

Finally, in the third part of this chapter, we describe the agricultural performances
with special emphasis on irrigation practices and farm types. Different farm types
prove that an obvious inequity in water distribution exists inside the block depending
on farm location along the canal.

47
48
4.1 Uda Walawe hydrological basin balance

The different reports mentioned in section 2.5 have used different methods in their
attempt to understand the water balance in Walawe River Basin. A summary with the
different figures considered by these studies is given in the Annex 4.

Most of these reports were faced with the problem of dealing with the limited series of
rainfall and run-off available. In contrast, PRC (1982) and SOGREAH (1984) are
giving long series22. So, it is interesting to note that different calculations methods for
the same period (1959-1980) produce significantly different results, especially SAPI
Report among the last ones (Figure 9).

Figure 9. Different inflows series at Uda Walawe dam site, as given by earlier reports

Uda Walawe Inflow by differents reports

2500

2000

1500
volume (MCM)

1000

500

0
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
year

PRC 1982 Statkraft SAPI 2000 SOGREAH 1984


.

With the aim to get an accurate and as long as possible inflow series and improve
the mismatches shown above, a series of 41 years inflow (from 1960 to 2000) has
been calculated. The method used is based on linear relationship between rainfall
and run-off (Annex 5, Annex 6).

22
Differences between PRC and SOGREAH Report during the period 1967-1980 are due to the fact that while
SOGREAH Report is using data from reservoir operation record, PRC is calculating the inflow in Uda Walawe by
the following methods:
1. October 1942 April 1957; April 1960 September 1967. By adjusting the flow records at Moraketiya
(Embilipitiya) according to the relation established between stations.
2. May 1957 March 1960. Using the actual gauging records at Uda Walawe station
3. October 1967 March 1972. From the monthly rainfall data through the rainfall-runoff relations.
4. April 1972 November 1980. By the reservoir balance method.
This illustrates very well how the different methods used affect results.

49
Rainfall for each sub-basin has been calculated by the Thiessen Method by using the
stations displayed in Figure 10. The Figure 10 also shows the gauging stations where
historical inflows recorded are available.
Figure 10. Sub-basins, gauging stations and rainfall station in Walawe river Basin used to 41 years
reconstitution inflows. Numbers show yearly average rainfall (in mm) for each Thiessen polygon.

2266
2310 2260 W est Haputa
Bogawantawa


Bandara Eli
Nagrak Esta
Alupolla Gr

1195
Sam analawewa
3964 Balangoda P

W eragala
2235
Ham begamuwa
1782
Godakawela 1358 1272

Lauderdale Uda
W alawe
Uda W alawe

Timbolketiya
Tim#Uda Ham begamuwa

2957
Em bilipitiya Em bilipititiya

Panamure
Mahagam a
Halmillaketiya
Ga uging inflow station s
Rainfall stations 1220 882
Rivers
Tanks
Ridiyagama
Weli oya
Am balantota

Ch andrika
Liyangastota
Samanalaw ewa
Timbolketiya
Ud a Walawe
Up per Manuara

The graphic below (Figure 11) shows the different calculated inflows (thin lines) for the
sub-basins of Figure 10. At the same time, it displays the historic inflow records (bold
lines).

50
Figure 11. Inflows calculated by linear regression for the 1940-2000 period.

Run-off calculated by rainfall-run-off regression

1800
THI HAL MA
Uda Walawe Samanalawewa Mahagama
1600 Timbolketiya Halmillaketiya UW
WO Weli Oya SML

1400

1200
volume (MCM)

1000

800

600

400

200

0
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
year

Table 7 Yearly average inflows for Uda Walawe sub-basins

Yearly average Maha average Yala average


Sub-basin
inflow (MCM) inflow (MCM) Inflow (MCM)
Samanalawwewa 540 288 252
Weli Oya 197 122 75
Uda Walawe 1,083 639 444
Timbolketiya 169 102 67
Hulanda Oya 48 30 18
Mau Ara 32 22 10

4.1.1 Irrigation and hydraulic units in Uda Walawe irrigation system. The return
flows

In Sri Lanka, as in other similar regions of South India and elsewhere, irrigation water
management is improved by storing water in small reservoir or tanks. These tanks
allow the storage of runoff during the rainy season for subsequent release for
irrigation according to the requirements of rice and other crops. Many of the irrigation
tanks are interconnected and form cascades, allowing surplus flow from the
upstream tank(s) and return flow from the upstream command area(s) to reach the
tank that is immediately downstream. This facilitates reuse of water in the command
area of the downstream tanks, and in effect, increases available water for irrigation.

51
JICA (1998) and SAPI (2000) reports calculated return-flows but values are based on
theoretical estimations (Table 8). In contrast, our return-flows estimation will supplied
by the model, as it will be exposed later.

JICA (1998) is assuming that 90% of the percolation of the upstream paddy fields
could be re-used in downstream irrigation area where a collection facility such as
village tank and pickup anicut on the drainage canals is provided. Total return-flow
to the Walawe River results from the operational losses and excess of water of
return-flows yielded by percolation.

Table 8. Return-flow ratio between diversion water requirement and estimated amount of water. JICA
(1998)

Crop Return Flow rate (%)


Paddy (low drain) 28
Paddy (moderate drain) 41
Paddy (well drain) 49

The Figure 12 shows the command areas (irrigation blocks) and hydraulic-drainage
units, in order to clarify which areas are under which return flow influence, for Uda
Walawe irrigation system.

52
M ain tan ks
A ll can als
M ain riv ers
Irri gation u nits
ANG
C HA
EMB
LE A Ma in tan ks
ANG Ma in riv ers
B IN Uw d ra in ag e un it s
K AC H
Ext e n s ion
K IR Ka c hic higa l A ra
LIY R IG H T 1 LB o n U da W a law e
LIY L E FT RB o n U da W a law e
LIY R IG H T 2 O ru b ok a
M UR Ud a W a la we B a sin
S EV UW e x tra b as in
SUR
U da W a law e Ba sin
U W ex tra ba s in

Figure 12 Irrigation units and drainage units in Uda Walawe Irrigation System

53
4.2 Water management in Uda Walawe irrigation system

As observed at field level and confirmed by interviews with MASL engineers, water
management is done in the following way. For each season (Maha and Yala)23 a
target area is established by MASL and proposed to farmers, who have little latitude
to refuse it, since it is supposed to be based on evaluations of the water stock.
Therefore, the volume allocated is a direct function of the volume of water in Uda
Walawe reservoir, as is the crop mix (rice and Other Field Crops-OFC)
recommended by MASL. In case the water level in Uda Walawe reservoir is low,
MASL request farmers to plant more OFCs (but there is no means to enforce this
request).

The Uda Walawe reservoir is the main determining element in the system. In a
normal season (good season), when the reservoir volume is around 112 MCM the
season can be started and spill gates will be opened as soon as the volume is close
to 268 MCM, in order to keep a minimum flooding absorption capacity especially
when heavy rainfall is forecasted. In the opposite situation, when reservoir volume is
below 122 MCM, we face a poor season and the beginning of the season can be
delayed until end of November for Maha and until end of April for Yala, waiting for the
reservoir to fill up as much as possible. Chandrikawewa reservoir also plays an
important role, especially during Maha season. During these seasons,
Chandrikawewa reservoir brings almost an extra 10% of water to the RBC and the
season can sometimes start first in the downstream blocks, in case Uda Walawe has
not yet enough water (like in Maha 1999-00).

During the season, water releases (actual delivered volumes, VA) will be made in
order to ensure full supply as long as the level of Uda Walawe is kept over 112 MCM.
If the level drops beyond that point, releases will be reduced (e.g., Yala 2002). If a
situation of deficit occurs during the season, exceptional releases from
Samanalawewa dam can be requested from CEB, like in Maha 02-03, with a
maximum of 30 MCM. These releases are decided by mutual agreement. Figure 13
well exemplifies these two situations for two different blocks with different rice-OFC
ratios.

4.2.1 Water allocation

Theoretical water allocation is done based on the target volume calculated from
irrigation water requirements by MASL. In reality, actual delivered volume (VA, blue
line of Figure 13) is higher than the target volume (VT, yellow line of Figure 13). This
quantity varies spatially along the irrigation system, during the year, and depends on
the season. The difference between target and actual volumes is an excess volume
that can be called comfort margin (VA VT = C). It varies from one block to the
other and from poor (e.g., Yala 2002) to good season (e.g., Yala 2003), depending
on the availability of water in the dam (red line - storage volume of Uda Walawe) as
described above. From the point of view of management, comfort margin can be
23
The cropping calendar can be synthesised approximately as follows: from April to May a first period of rain
corresponds to Yala season. First harvesting is around August. Afterwards, inter-season period, when canals are
almost empty (only minimum releases for domestic use and banana cultivation, but apparently not enough). From
nd
October to November a second period of rainfall corresponds to Maha season. The 2 harvest is around March
of the following year, followed by a second inter-season.

54
understood to minimize work load and managerial input, while satisfying plant needs
by releasing water in excess of the target. Figure 13 shows how EMB block has more
comfort margin than ANG block, which sees its margin reduced as soon as Uda
Walawe stocks falls bellow 112 MCM.

The peaks of volume appearing in the graphs are related to the policy of alternating
releases for paddy and banana, with smaller releases for paddy only, based on the
idea that banana can be irrigated only every second week. According to MASL
explanations, the peaks at the beginning of the season are related with land
preparation, full supply being ensured to reach distant areas.

Mismatches between target volumes and actual water deliveries at the end of the
season can be explained by the staggering.

4.2.2 Irrigation water requirements in Uda Walawe irrigation system

All the studies carried out in Uda Walawe have estimated irrigation water
requirements by following the method establish by FAO (1992). Nevertheless, one of
the main limitations of this method is the fact that efficiencies are considered as
invariable and depending of physical canal features rather than related to managerial
issues. Table 9 is pointing out the differences in crop and irrigation water
requirements given by different reports, depending on the used methods and
physical parameters taken into account to justify the augmentation of irrigated
surface.

As consequence, different reports have dealt with the increasing of the irrigation
surface of the Uda Walawe irrigation system in many ways. PRC (1982) and
SOGREAH (1984) reports, gave special attention to seepage losses. A problem
appeared in that it was impossible to increase crop areas to target values without
reducing these values. Both reports envisaged different solutions, from shifting from
paddy to OFC to reducing the period of land preparation or establishing rotation
turns, respectively.

In 1986, MMP identified effective rainfall and deep percolation as critical factors but
only considered percolation of 5 mm/day. The report tried to solve the question of
water availability by improving infrastructure, maintenance, and by empowerment of
the farmers.

In JICA Report (1993), several soil tests were done and percolations losses
estimated. The very high values obtained were compensated by generous
assumptions on return-flows and field application. Latest review, JICA (1996) and
SAPI (2000), opted to reduce the estimates of crop requirements in the Left Bank
Extension area from 169 MCM to 123 MCM.

55
Figure 13 Weekly water deliveries for Yala 03 and Yala 02 for two blocks of RB, where variations in Uda Walawwe storage are also displayed (VT: target
volumes; VA: actual volumes).
Season Yala 03 week
Season Yala 02
(number)

Relation Target Volume-Actual Volume Yala 03 EMB block Relation Target Volume-Actual Volume Yala 02 EMB block

Uda Walawe storage volume (MCM) 300 5 300 5

Uda Walawe storage volume (MCM)


EMB block water deliveries (MCM)

EMB block water deliveries (MCM)


250 250
4 4

200 200
3 3

150 150

2 2
100 100

1 1
50 50

0 0 0 0
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

2003 2002

week (number) week (number)


Donnes Donnes

Storage Uda Walawe EMB VA EMB VT Storage Uda Walawe EMB VA EMB VT
Year Week Year Week

Season Yala 03 Season Yala 02

Relation Target Volume-Actual Volume Yala 03 ANG block Relation Target Volume-Actual Volume Yala 02 ANG block

300 5 300 5
Uda Walawe storage volume (MCM)

Uda Walawe storage volume (MCM)

ANG block water deliveries (MCM)


ANG block water deliveries (MCM)
250 250
4 4

200 200
3 3

150 150

2 2
100 100

1 1
50 50

0 0 0 0
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

2003 2002

week (number) week (number)


Donnes Donnes

Storage Uda Walawe AN VT AN VA Storage Uda Walawe AN VT AN VA


Year Week Year Week

56
Table 9. Physical parameters used for CWR-DWR calculation and comparison between different reports.
SOGREAH (ADB) - 1984 MMP - 1986 JICA - 1993 SAPI - 2000 ACTUAL

ET (mm/day) Penman Method Penman Modified No especified JICA JICA

Eff Rainfall USDA Method 70%R80 Re = 0.67*(R-25) Average 70%R80

Efficencies Conveyance 0.89 to 0.86 - 0.80 0.85 calculated by canal lenght


Field Canal 0.8 0.9 0.85 0.82 to 0.90 -
Field Application 0.7 0.8 1 Paddy - 0.60 OFC 0.9 Paddy - 0.5 to 0.68 OFC 0.8

Land Preparation (mm) Poor drain 725 470 509


Moderate drain 381 465 Maha - 360 Yala 1175 720 614
Well drain 1850 1095 824

Days 30 21 Maha - 14 Yala 45 30 21

Percolation (mm/day) Poor drain 1 to flat lands, 5 mm/day 3 5 5 5


Moderate drain on slope (3 mm/day for 15 10 10
5
Well drain the project) 30 20 20

Crop Stage (days) Paddy Total 133 Maha - 98 Yala - 105 103 133

CWR Paddy (mm) Poor drain 2921 2908 1890 (1958)*****


Moderate drain 2748 3104 4703 4133 2653 (2722)
Well drain 7815 6583 4180 (4249)

Diversion Water Req (MCM) irrigation 405 346 405 428 213 (524)****
domestic and industrial 30 30 30 46 47
Total RBC 435 376 435 474 260
Return Flow 127 136 127 125 165***

irrigation** - - 340 394 240 (425)****


domestic and industrial - - 3 - -
Total LBC - - 343 394 240
Return Flow - - 82 110 206***

* No revision was made for the irrigation efficency during the feasibility study and the previous study. Considering a concrete canal lining on D and F canals,
irrigation efficency was decided by referring to the references of FAO (Irrigation and drainage Paper No 24)
** Including Left Extension Area
*** Including return flows to Right Liyangastota for the RB and returns flows to Mahagama block for LB
**** Plot needs, management issues in parenthesis
***** Yala season between parenthesis

57
Our purpose in this section is to illustrate how in the calculation of irrigation water
requirements as target volumes, the efficiency of the irrigation system largely
depends on management and it cannot be considered as a constant. For that reason,
we have tried to find out how MASL target volumes have been calculated using MMP
soil infiltration coefficients and equation, which are supposed to be used by MASL.
Later on, we have calculated the irrigation water requirements using more realistic
soil infiltration coefficients (higher than those used by MMP), as well as changing the
former equation. This new equation takes into consideration the hydraulic flows
inside the block and look at the efficiency as a non-fixed term. Finally, we have tried
to argue existing differences between results obtained by our own calculation and
values given by MASL.

This discussion is essential for the upcoming water allocation model because it will
allow differentiating between consumptive (depletion) and non-consumptive demand
(irrigation demand).

4.2.2.1 Target volumes calculated by MASL

As described in precedent section, theoretical management is done based on the


target volume calculated from irrigation water requirements (DWR) by MASL. MASL
is supposed to use Equation 1, which takes into consideration MMP parameters on
land preparation, losses by seepage and effective rainfall. This equation differs fairly
from FAO (1992) method24. Besides, the efficiency is taken as an unchanged term.

Equation 1

n ET + Lp + Sp 1
Demand k = i
rice
Ea
i
Raineff i Areai F

Ec

i =1 i k

Demand k : irrigation water requirements for block k (MCM).

ETi = Kc i ETo : crop i water need in block k

ETo : reference evapotranspiration (mm)

Kc i : crop i coefficient
25

Lprice : land preparation requirement for rice in block k (mm)

Spi : seepage and percolation allowances for crop i in block k (mm)

24
Crop water requirements (CWR) correspond to the net irrigation water need (IN net) for the entire command
area (block k). FAO (1992) defines CWR as:
n

((ET + Lp
i =1
i rice )
+ Spi Raineff i Areai F ).
The nominal diversion water requirements (DWR) correspond to the gross irrigation water need (IN gross) for the
entire command area (block k). FAO (1992) defines DWR as:
n ETi + Lprice + Spi Raineff


i =1
Eai Eck
i
Areai F



58
Eai : application efficiency (MASL is using an application efficiency 1 for rice and 0.6 for OFC)

Eck : conveyance efficiency in block k

Areai : area of for crop i in block k (ha)

F: conversion factor from mm/ha to MCM (mm * 1/100.000)

Raineff i : effective rainfall (in mm)

n ETi + Lp rice + Sp i
Raineff i Areai F = Crop Water Re quirementk

i =1 Ea i

This value should match the MASL target volume (VT), but in fact it is not

Components of above-mentioned equation are described in Annex 7.

4.2.2.2 Target volumes calculated considering non-fixed efficiency

Water management in Uda Walawe irrigation system is done based on continuous


water flow or full supply level (FSL)26 and very little based on stocks. In other words,
efficiency depends on supply and management, which in turn depends on the
availability of water in the system and on the allocation by command areas (blocks).

Under this approach, efficiency is not a fix variable. It is changing temporally and
spatially, as a function of water management at all nested levels from the system
down to the plot level.

Because efficiencies depend largely on water supply and management, Equation 1


occurs in some problems to determine distribution and conveyance efficiencies and
as a result to estimate irrigation water requirements. It is for this reason that we have
chosen an efficiency approach to determine irrigation water requirements, setting up
plots needs and considering remaining water fraction as return flows.

Figure 14 attempts to clarify the diverse losses that occur between the dam and the
plot, as taking as example EMB block. Once water volume is released from dam
(2088 mm), conveyance losses occur as consequence of infiltration along the canal
(247 mm). At same time, intermediate side-flows generate an additional flow to the
canals. A water fraction of total delivered volume by block is committed by evapo-
transpiration (701 mm). Other fraction flows from upstream to downstream plots
draining to the river and another water part entering to the plot percolates by
seepage. A water fraction of return-flows, which are constituted by infiltration,
seepage and surface drainage, is taken out of the system by home-gardens and lost
in deep infiltration (427 mm).

25
The crop factors, Kc, are determined for each week following the FAO guidelines explained in CROPWAT
manual. All the data are arranged according to the growth stages from seedling to maturity stage. Crop
requirements in the project area are not homogeneous due to staggered planting dates adopted by farmers.
Therefore, crop water requirements also vary due to the staggering of planting dates.
26
In FSL-driven irrigation systems, the real demand is never taken into account in management but, rather,
ensuring FSL is known to be the simplest way to minimise complaints, whatever water wastage may come along,
while allocating additional water supply is recognised as the easiest way to avoid the increased labour and the
burden that goes together with more demanding management rules. (Molle, 1999)

59
Figure 14 Fluxes of water within a block (EMB block Yala 2003 season; units in mm).

Supply by
the canal

701
2088
Drain
Intermediate
side-flows Evapo-transpiration
along canal Block

2001
PLOT 1 PLOT 2

Losses by infiltration Losses by Subsurface


along the canal seepage dranaige

Conveyance Eff Percolation Eff


+ Application Eff

1124

427

Homegardens
+
Deep infiltration

Considering the block as made up of a set of plots, application efficiency depends


largely on water management practices at farm level27, meanwhile percolation
efficiency is related to type of soils. It is noteworthy that application efficiency cannot
be considered as a lost but direct inflow for downstream plots in a cascade irrigation
system. However, at block level this surface water flows to the drain.

The relation displayed on the graphic can be expressed through Equation 2 and by
the way the irrigation water requirements as defined in Equation 1 are changed.
Demand for block (k) is given by:

Equation 2

n ET + Lp rice + Spi
Demand k = i
C
Raineff i Areai F + Lc k

i =1
Demand k : irrigation water requirements for block k (MCM).

ETi = Kci ETo + Ev : agricultural water need for crop i in block k

Kci : crop i coefficient

ETo : reference evapotranspiration (mm)

27
Chandrikawewa Block Field Survey (Jayakodi, 2003), has found efficiencies values at field canal level around
0.80 but they correspond to a determined level of water supply.

60
C constant coefficient equivalent to 0.8.

Ev : evaporation during land preparation. Evaporation rate is estimated by average evaporation rate in the land
preparation period of 5 mm in Mar-Apr and Sep-Oct, pan coefficient of 0.80 and 21 days for land preparation

F: conversion factor from mm/ha to MCM (mm * 1/100.000)

n
ETi

i =1
C
Areai F = Plot Needsk : block k depleted water.

n
ETi + Lp rice + Spi

C
Raineff i Areai F = Re al Demandk

i =1

irrigation water requirements to maintain fully flooded block paddy fields taking into account realistic soil infiltration
parameters.This value should match the MASL target volume (VT), but in fact the "real demand" is higher than VT

Lprice : land preparation requirement for rice in block k (mm) (Annex 7)

Sp i : seepage and percolation allowances for crop i in block k (mm)

If we consider that Water Re leases k = (Volume T arg et by MASL + Comfort by MASL )k matches the actual
delivered volume by MASL (VA), then is possible to calculate the conveyance losses along the canals

n d
Lc k = UdaWalawe Re leases


i =1
Water Re leases k k : conveyance losses along the canals
dt

dk
: ratio between length of canals in block k and total length of canals
dt

Comparing Equation 1 with Equation 2, we observe the following variations:

Equation 2 is adjusting evaporation during land preparation on ET component.


Land preparation component is more accurately estimated in Equation 2.
It is noteworthy that Equation 2 does not take into consideration distribution
efficiency. Application efficiency is considered as a constant and percolation
efficiency is considered when calculating real demand. Conveyance losses
are empirically calculated.

As consequence, because plot needs are depleted water, then difference between
plot needs and water releases (actual delivered volumes) constitutes the return-flows
by surface drainage (application efficiency), seepage (percolation efficiency) and
infiltration (conveyance efficiency) Figure 15 gives us the schematic of the water
fraction break up.

Conveyance losses are due to losses along the canal (i.e.; as due to infiltration) and
cannot be related to with managerial concerns. On the contrary, the comfort water
fraction is associated with water management28.

28
However, the surplus released (comfort) will allow to the farmers to manage the water fraction allocated in order
to reach as much as possible the real demand which depends on soil parameters.

61
It is noteworthy that the MASL target volumes do not correspond to the real
irrigation water requirements, as calculated with more realistic soil infiltration
parameters, but it is more than enough to satisfy minimum plant needs (depletion).

Figure 15 Conceptual water fractions per block break up


conveyance

infiltration
losses by
losses
actual

irrigation demand = non-consumptive demand


return flows

irrigwater r eq. with Eq. 2and realistic


by MASL -C
actual delivered volume by MASL

seepage and
comfort

soil infiltration: "real demand"


drainage
surface
irrigwater r eq. with Eq. 1
and MMP soil infiltration
target volume by MASL
VA

consumptive
plot needs=
VT

demand
ET

4.2.2.3 Results discussion

With the aim to validate block irrigation water requirements, we have compared
MASL block target volumes with our calculations using MMP soil coefficients by
Equation 129.We also compared these results with those given by using more realistic
soil infiltration coefficients by Equation 2. Mismatches in obtained values are following
discussed and justified.

Table 10 displays irrigation water requirements for paddy and OFC resulting from
Equation 1 and Equation 2. Higher values for paddy are because Equation 2 considers
higher soil infiltration coefficients. On contrary, Equation 1 gives higher values for OFC
because the use of application efficiency of 0.6 for OFC.

29
Calculations have been done using a model used by SAPI (2002) under Microsoft Excel (Version 6.0) which
has been adapted to Equation 1. For the present comparison conveyance efficiencies of Equation 1and Equation
2 were not considered.

62
Table 10 Paddy and OFC irrigation water requirements from Equation 1 and Equation 2 with MMP
parameters (above) and real infiltration coefficients (below) respectively, where effective rainfall is
not included.
Season Paddy (mm) OFC (mm)
WD Soils MD Soils PD Soils Chillies Vegetables Pulses Banana Sugar
MAHA 2265 1813 1184 975 756 508 1096 1438
YALA 2320 1868 1239 1344 821 548 1932 1729

Season Paddy (mm) OFC (mm)


WD Soils MD Soils PD Soils Chillies Vegetables Pulses Banana Sugar
MAHA 4180 2653 1890 731 567 381 822 1078
YALA 4249 2722 1958 1008 616 411 1449 1297

Figure 16 displays block irrigation water requirements calculated using Equation 1 with
MMP parameters and MASL target volumes. The results show a mismatch between
Equation 1 and MASL values that could be partly explained by the staggering applied
by MASL to different blocks depending on the season. Figure 16 also displays
irrigation water requirements using more realistic and higher soil infiltrations
coefficients calculated by Equation 2, which are always much elevated than targeted
volumes, as can be expected.

Another interpretation of these mismatches, between MASL values and those using
Equation 1 using MMP parameters, could be that the values considered here refer to
the whole system, while the heterogeneity of soils within the blocks and inside the
plots is high. Irrigation water requirements (target volume) are probably calculated by
MASL in an empirical manner, by readjusting seepage and percolation values for
each block. Therefore, we can conclude that a perfect correlation between MASL and
MMP-based values using Equation 1 is not possible30.

Figure 16 Comparison between MASL and calculated DWR values by using MMP parameters. Real
demand is also included
Dposer champs de page Ici

Actual records - MMP calculations - Real Demand Embilipitiya Block

60
50
volume (MCM)

40
Donnes
30
20

10
0
Yala 01 Yala 02 Yala 03
Volume Target 23.25 17.11 17.72
MMP CWR 22.56 23.81 22.48
Real DEMAND 24.55 24.52 23.50
season

Season

30
MASL follows MMP reports for their calculations. According to them, they collect next season crop extents as
estimation before the start of the season and calculate the target volumes. Later they adjust the volumes to
correct crop extents. MASL gave the following values for calculations: 5 inch/week/acre for land preparation, for 3
inch/week/acre paddy rotation, 1.5 inch/week/acre for OFC rotation.

63
Dposer champs de page Ici

Actual records - MMP calculations - Real Demand Chandrikawewa


Block

60

volume (MCM)
50
40
Donnes
30
20
10
0
Yala 01 Yala 02 Yala 03
Volume Target 33.14 19.58 23.56
MMP CWR 26.79 25.32 23.42
Real DEMAND 37.77 35.44 31.29
season

Season

Dposer champs de page Ici

Actual records - MMP calculations - Real Demand Muraweshena


Block

60
volume (MCM)

50
40
Donnes
30
20
10
0
Yala 01 Yala 02 Yala 03
Volume Target 42.13 34.23 32.05
MMP CWR 38.94 41.25 40.99
Real DEMAND 51.08 55.09 54.05
season

Season

Dposer champs de page Ici

Actual records - MMP calculations - Real Demand Binkama Block

60
50
volume (MCM)

40
Donnes
30
20
10
0
Yala 01 Yala 02 Yala 03
Volume Target 34.63 21.94 26.78
MMP CWR 32.93 33.96 32.24
Real DEMAND 47.45 51.63 46.56
season

Season

Dposer champs de page Ici

Actual records - MMP calculations - Real Demand Angunokolapelessa


Block

60
volume (MCM)

50
40
Donnes
30
20
10
0
Yala 01 Yala 02 Yala 03
Volume Target 34.20 26.19 31.58
MMP CWR 27.94 22.76 26.04
Real DEMAND 35.47 30.29 34.27
season

Season

64
In an attempt to find a possible relationship between irrigation water requirements
and crop land use, a relation between paddy-OFC target areas31 and MASL targets
volumes was done. As shown in Figure 17, only a rough correlation could be found
between land use and these targets32.

Figure 17 Relation land use (as ratio Paddy/OFC) and MASL target volumes by block for Yala 01
(squares) and Yala 03 (triangles).

Relation Paddy/OFC - Volume Target by block


(Yala 01, Yala 03)
6

y = 0.145x - 1.2278
5 2
R = 0.5665 EMB
Paddy/OFC Surface

4 CW

3 MW

BI
2

AN
1

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
volume target (MCM)

Figure 18 illustrates changes in efficiency (Definition 3) when differences between


target and actual delivered volumes are increased (comfort). Furthermore, there is a
sharp contrast between blocks such as EMB and ANG, where an inverse
proportionality relationship can be observed between efficiency and rice-OFC area as
result of comparing Figure 18 with Figure 18. An attempt to relate efficiency and
comfort, assuming that efficiency would be reduced when comfort is increased, was

31
OFC are represented in equivalent rice area, it means 0.6 per paddy area unit.
32
Further, another interrogation about MASL calculations is the relationship between target area of paddy-OFC
and volume target, as it can be showed in the following example.

VT 1 = k (SR1 + 0.6 (ST1 SR1 ))


VT 2 = k (SR2 + 0.6 (ST2 SR2 ))
VTi : volume target for season i SRi : area paddy for season I; STi : total target area for season I

Taking ANG block as an example, the volume targeted was reduced by 30% and Banana area increased by 25%
for Yala 01 and Yala 02. The above relation shows that an increase of about 53% in Banana area would be
necessary to reduce target volumes by 30% (R1 = 78%, R2 = 53%).

65
done but no close relation could be established between efficiencies and comforts
due to few seasonal data available in spite of displaying trends on the figures33.

Taking into account Figure 18, we grouped the blocks for further consideration in the
following way:

EMB block with low efficiencies and high comfort.


Blocks as CHA, MU and BIN, which display intermediate efficiencies and
comforts.
ANG block with higher efficiency and low comfort levels.

Figure 18 Relation Efficiencies-Comfort by block for Yala 02 poor season- (triangles) and Yala 03
good season- (squares).

Relation Efficencies - Comfort by block


(Yala 02, Yala 03)
1.0

0.8 EMB
Efficency = Plot Needs / VA

CHA
0.6
MUR

0.4 BIN

ANG
0.2

0.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Comfort = VA - VT (MCM)

4.2.3 Water distribution among the blocks

Subsequently, as pointed out at the beginning of the present chapter (4.2.1), if


expected supply at the start of the season is low, then the managers request farmers
to plant only a part of their plots, or to stick to field crops. These calls are unlikely to
be fully heard, but for the managers they also serve as protection against criticism of
poor management in case they have to reduce water supply dramatically. In
consequence, the comfort margin is reduced as result of a poor season, but how are
the different blocks affected?

33
This trend can be expressed as:
k
y=
2 w k
y efficiency; k plot needs; x target volume (VT); wk comfort (VA VT)

66
The evidence exposed above can be summarized by the following graphic34 (Figure
19), which illustrates this situation for each block by comparing several seasons
(where Yala 03 is considered as a good season and Yala 02 as a poor one). The first
graphic (left column) concerns the different target volumes as well as comfort
margins. At the same time, a comparison is made with ET, plot needs and "real
demand" using more realistic infiltration coefficients calculated with Equation 2. The
second one (right column) displays target and actual crop areas grouped by season.

As we can see in Figure 19, EMB block, where most of the area is planted to OFCs
(mainly banana), takes 19% of total water of the system, where 44% is target volume
and 56% is comfort. Thus it has a good margin, partly because of its head-end
position in the system, and partly because its requirements have dramatically
decreased over the years, with the shift to Banana. However, EMB which only makes
up 15% of the cropped area of the RB, takes 28% of total comfort available in the
system.

Table 11 Released volumes (VA) in mm by block for Maha 99-00; Maha 02-03; Yala 02; Yala 03.

Irrigation Units Area (ha) Maha 02-03 (mm) Maha 99-00 (mm) Yala 02 (mm) Yala 03 (mm)
RBMC 11368 1408 1841 1701 2088
LBMC 7040 1436 1957 1715 2076
RBC 11368 1413 1964 1622 1882
EMB 2032 1355 2288 2084 2001
CHA 1790 1497 2175 1747 1886
MUR 3017 1474 1813 1558 1793
BIN 2305 1361 2001 1397 1837
ANG 2224 1368 1663 1422 1937
LBC 7040 965 na na 1093
SEV 3527 874 na na 874
KIR 1545 855 na 1087 1164
SUR 1968 1217 na na 1431

Figure 19. Relationship between target and real crop areas (right side) by block (units in ha)35 and
target and released volumes compared with ET, plot need and real demands (left side) by block (units
in MCM).
60 3000

50 2500

40 2000
23.9

25.2

30
22.9

1500

20 1000
23.2

10
17.7
17.1

500

0
0
Yala 01 Yala 01 MASL Yala 02 Yala 02 MASL Yala 03 Yala 03 MASL Y01 T Y01 A Y02 T Y02 A Y03 T Y03 A

ET EMB Plot Needs EMB Real DEMAND EMB VT EMB COMFORT EMB PADDY T OFC T PADDY A OFC A

34
OFC are represented in equivalent rice area, it means 0.6 per unit. Values compared referred to actual values.
35
As regard targeted surfaces, a rough empirical relation from own observations could be established for good
and poor seasons as follows. In good seasons Total Cultivated Surface = Sum Served Area of all blocks where it
exists a relation R/OFC>1 for the total cultivated area. When a poor season becomes, then surface is reduced as
Total Cultivated Surface = (Served Area EMB*1) + (Served Area CW*0.9) + (Served Area MW*0.9) + (Served
Area BI*0.6) + (Served Area ANG*0.6) where it exists a relation R/OFC 1 for the total cultivated area.

67
3000
60

2500
50

2000
40

8.1 1500
30

10.2
11.7
1000
20
33.1

23.6
19.6
10 500

0 0
Yala 01 Yala 01 MASL Yala 02 Yala 02 MASL Yala 03 Yala 03 MASL Y01 T Y01 A Y02 T Y02 A Y03 T Y03 A

ET CW Plot Needs CW Real DEMAND CW VT CW COMFORT CW PADDY T OFC T PADDY A OFC A

3000
60

2500
15.8

50

22.1
12.8

40 2000

30 1500
42.1

20 1000
34.2

32.0

10 500

0
0
Yala 01 Yala 01 MASL Yala 02 Yala 02 MASL Yala 03 Yala 03 MASL Y01 T Y01 A Y02 T Y02 A Y03 T Y03 A

ET MW Plot Needs MW Real DEMAND MW VT MW COMFORT MW PADDY T OFC T PADDY A OFC A #REF!

3000
60

50 2500
11.7

40 2000
15.6

30 1500
10.3

20 1000
34.6

26.8
21.9

10 500

0 0
Yala 01 Yala 01 MASL Yala 02 Yala 02 MASL Yala 03 Yala 03 MASL Y01 T Y01 A Y02 T Y02 A Y03 T Y03 A

ET BI Plot Needs BI Real DEMAND BI VT BI COMFORT BI PADDY T OFC T PADDY A OFC A

60 3000

50 2500

40
9.9

2000
11.5

30 1500
5.4

20 1000
34.2

31.6
26.2

10 500

0 0
Yala 01 Yala 01 MASL Yala 02 Yala 02 MASL Yala 03 Yala 03 MASL Y01 T Y01 A Y02 T Y02 A Y03 T Y03 A

ET ANG Plot Needs AN Real DEMAND AN VT AN COMFORT AN PADDY T OFC T PADDY A OFC A

In downstream tail-end blocks such as ANG, where the percentage of rice area is
larger, the situation is different. ANG receives 20% of total water available in the
system but most of it corresponds to the target volume (73%) and only 27% to the
comfort margin. This represents 14% of the total comfort, for a share of the irrigated
area of almost 20%. The comfort margin is smaller both in absolute and relative
terms.

68
When situations of deficit are faced the repartition changes in the following way:
Blocks such as EMB tend to compensate for the deficit by maintaining their allocation
in terms of volume, thus increasing their relative share within the system (23% of the
total available in the system) and the percentage of comfort they enjoy (39% of the
total). In contrast, ANG receives less water both in absolute and relative terms, and
sees it comfort margin critically reduced (only 17% of water inside the block, but less
than 1% of the total comfort). While BINs behavior is similar to ANGs, intermediate
situations can be found in CHA and MUR blocks. Upstream blocks enjoy more
comfort in absolute and relative terms. Distant blocks undergo opposite situations.

The differences mentioned here are related to the spatial distribution of water for
each block, which takes us to examining how water is distributed inside the system.
This is well exemplified in the following maps (Figure 20 to Figure 23), where 4
seasons are represented: Yala 03 and Maha 99-00 as a good seasons and Yala 02
and Maha 02-03 as a bad season. The maps display the distribution of water
releases for each block in fraction of the total water released (sum of water served in
RBC and LBC blocks). Total releases from Uda Walawe and the aggregated inflows
into the blocks are indicated near the upper reach of the RB and LB canals. Circles
represent the percentage of rice, banana and OFC normalized by total area
cultivated.

We can see that EMB gets the bigger piece of the cake. When a bad season occurs
the piece will be bigger in percentage, to compensate for the deficit. In contrast, BIN
and ANG, that usually get a smaller share, will receive even less in a poor season (a
smaller piece of a smaller cake). Finally, CHA and MUR blocks get a rather constant
share, with the problem that in a bad season the cake is smaller, which reduces the
amount of water available36.

4.2.3.1 Rotations inside the block

Some Distribution Canals (DCs) inside the block have adopted rotations while some
others have continuous flow. Figure 25, Figure 25 and Table 12 provide evidence from
a field survey in Chandrikawewa Block37. They show that despite head and tail
enders being attributed 2.5 days of supply each, head-enders end up tapping more

36
The empirical rules in the system management here described are based on observations of Yala season. It is
more difficult to develop similar rules for Maha due to the fact that rainfall is more prevalent importance, as are the
roles played by Chandrika and Kiribanwewa tanks.
37
The study selected one sample subsystem in Uda Walawe project, for intensive data collection and analysis.
The sample subsystem comprised the total command area of one distributor canal, the D8 of the Chandrikawewa
block. It has 117 allotments and 14 FC canals. It represents both well drain and poorly drain soil conditions. The
Chandrikawewa branch canal has 22 distributaries. The study was conducted along the Yala 2003 season.

The main objective of the study was to monitor land preparation and irrigation stages to assess the difference
between theoretical planning/water management, and actual water management; to assess whether the current
time allocated to the DC canal is too short or is long enough and gives way to significant loss to the drainage
system. To observe interaction between farmers, conflict resolutions, plot level water management practices,
constrain from paddy banana mix cropping etc, and to observe interaction between farmers and field officers. Also
evaluate whether there are potential for reducing the land preparation period under the changed cropping
patterns. This study will be referred, as Chandrikawewa Block Field Survey, all along our work with special
attention in the chapter 4.3.4. Jayakodi (2003).

69
water by not respecting the rotation discipline and opening their Field Canals (FCs)
inlets when they should be closed.

To sum up, we can distinguish between two levels of water allocation. At block level,
water allocation corresponds to a full supply level with irregular changing flows, as
the peaks of Figure 13 are corroborating. At farm level or tertiary off-take (DC-FC)
level, water allocation is done by delivery scheduling and water delivery follows an
intermittent full supply due to rotations38 (Horst 1998).

38
Distinction should be made between irrigation scheduling concerning supply to the plant and water delivery
scheduling concerning supply to the farmers or tertiary units. Horst, 1998 (from FAO, 1982).

70
LMBC 121
LMBC 146
LBC 77 RMBC 193
RMBC 237
RBC 214 RBC 184
0.40
0.23
0.19
0.23
0.37

0.17
0.16

0.17
0.20
0.25
0.25
0.20 0.17

Figure 20YALA 03 (good season) Figure 21YALA 02 (poor season)

71
LMBC 138 LMBC 101
LBC 68
RMBC 209 RMBC 160
RBC 223 RBC 161 0.45
0.20 0.17
0.19
CW 22 CW 16
0.35

0.17 0.17

0.21
0.20
0.25 0.28
0.17 0.19

Figure 22 MAHA 99-00 (good season) Figure 23 MAHA 02-03 (poor season)

Right and left top values show RMBC and LMBC Uda Walawe releases. Values below show total aggregated block volumes (RBC and LBC). Chandrika
inflows (CW) are also displayed on tank for correspondent season. Circle size is proportional to irrigated surface by bloc, where percentage of land uses are
specified: green as paddy, orange as banana, red as OFC and brown as sugar cane.

72
Figure 24 Water usages by FC level in volume. Source: Jayakodi (2003).

3000 90
80
2500
70
2000 60
Depth (mm)

Banana %
50
1500
40
1000 30
20
500
10
0 0
FC1 FC2 FC3 FC4 FC5 FC7 FC8 FC6 FC9 FC10 FC11 FC12 FC13 FC14
Total Banana %
Canal

Figure 25. Total volumes transferred to field through FCs (in water depth) and rainfall. Source:
Jayakodi (2003).

2500 100

2000 80

1500 60

Rainfall mm
Depth mm

1000 40

500 20

0 0
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15
Rotation Number

Rain fall mm Total mm

Table 12 Table shows that top end farmers (red) enjoy additional days of supply, while tail-end
farmers(blue) are restricted to scheduled amount (the rotation was established in 2.5 days). Source:
Jayakodi (2003).
Number of Total
Days/Canal 0 1 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 number
name rotations
FC1 0 0 0 1 7 1 2 1 3 15
FC2 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 12 15
FC3 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 9 15
FC4 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 11 15
FC5 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 8 15
FC7 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 12 15
FC8 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 11 15
FC6 1 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 3 15
FC9 1 0 0 10 1 0 0 0 3 15
FC10 1 0 0 10 1 0 0 0 3 15
FC11 1 0 0 11 0 1 0 0 2 15
FC12 1 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 2 15
FC13 1 0 0 12 0 0 1 0 1 15
FC14 1 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 2 15

73
4.3 Agricultural performances in Uda Walawe irrigation system at farm
level39

The crops under irrigated conditions in the project area are rice (paddy), banana, and
other field crops (OFCs). In the RBC, the actual percentage (Yala 03) is 59% paddy
and 26% banana and 15% OFC, whiles in the LBC the percentage is 47% for paddy,
18% for banana, 30% for sugar cane and 5% for OFC 64% respectively (Figure 27,
Figure 27).

The vegetables cultivated in the area are mainly tropical types of vegetables such as
eggplant, okra, cucurbits and varied types of gourd. Red onion, chilies, pulses, green
gram and cowpea can also be found but in small proportion compared with banana,
which has the highest profitability.

An important fact is that all reports on UWIP note that the shift to OFC is necessary in
view of water savings. In reality banana cultivation soared when its economic
benefits were obvious (with the backdrop of declining rice prices during the 1990s)
and with the efforts of extension services. It seems that saving water was more a
consequence than a cause. At present, some banana price fluctuations are
experienced and some farmers are reverting to paddy.

At the end of 1980s, the OFC crop area was 10% of the total irrigated land. In early
1990s the OFC area expanded from 20% to reach the actual figures. In the RBC,
OFC area has increased but not equally over the whole area. The highest ratio of
OFC is found in the head-end blocks: EMB, with a percentage of over 70% and CHA,
with over 45%. Other blocks are below 40%. In the LBA the OFC did not spread as
much as in the RBC, but SUR block has an OFC ratio around 36%. One must
remember, however, that SEV Block is largely devoted to sugar cane cultivation.

Figure 26 Crop areas by block in RBC

Paddy - OFC relation RBC blocks (Yala 03)

100%
134 11

411 507 546


624
80% 917
OFC
Surface (% -ha)

286
401
60% SUGAR CANE
823
BANANA
40% 1787
1966 1392 PADDY
979
20%
585

0%
EMB CHA MUR BIN ANG

Blocks

39
All the figures given in this section have as a source a field survey conducted by SAPI Team between January
and February 2000.

74
Figure 27 Crop areas by block in LBC

Paddy - OFC relation LBC blocks (Yala 03)

100%
118 156

80% 204 560


290 OFC
Surface (% - ha)

60% SUGAR CANE


3500
OFC
40%

607 325 1252 PADDY


20%

527
0%
SEV KIR MAH SUR

Blocks

4.3.1 Farming system

It is evident that not all the farmers have been settled down on the same type of soils.
So, the main constraint about agriculture performances is land suitability and land
size40. The third important variable is access to water.

Most farmers who were cultivating land in the project area before the initiation of the
project were re-settled or kept their land. Farmers were settled officially by the project
with allotments of regular size, in conformity with the design and policy of RVDB.

Allotments included irrigable lands classified as paddy lands or subsidiary food crop
lands, and non-irrigable land for homesteads or other use. The average size of
irrigable allotments was 1 ha. Non-Irrigable lots were 0.2 ha on average but it is not
unusual that farmers have their homesteads far from their irrigated plots. When this
happens, and the homestead is more than 500 meters distant from the plots, the
farmer is often reluctant to grow high-value crops such as vegetables or chilies for
fear of thieves.

To buy and sell land is not authorized but legal settlers can rent or lease part of his
lands informally. There are also a high number of illegal settlers (encroachers) but no
reliable figure on their number is available. When MASL took over the Uda Walawe
Project from RVCB in 1982, there were only about 7.000 legal settlers. About 25,000
encroachers have been regularized by 1999.

To regularize such situations MASL acts as a go-between. In case land has already
been sold and bought, a declaration of relinquishment by the former owner and the
corresponding request from the present buyer are necessary to officialize the
transfer.

40
Two different types of soils can be observed in the area with the following proportion: 70% of well drained RBE
soils and 30% of poorly drained LHG soils. Drainage parameters vary widely over the whole area with significant
consequences on seepage losses.

75
Differences between farms are mainly linked to their access to water. The worst
condition is to be found in ANG and BIN blocks where great areas of irrigable land
suffer delays in water issue at the beginning of the season or shortages at the end of
the season. These differences are mirrored in the yields obtained, typically an
average of 4 t/ha paddy in well supplied areas, against 3 t/ha paddy or less in areas
suffering from frequent deficits.

4.3.2 Crop budget

Based on SAPI Field Survey crop budgets as well as monthly labor requirement for
crop cultivation are shown in Table 13 and Table 14. The gross income per ha of OFC
is generally higher that for paddy and the gross income of banana is more than three
times that of paddy. The production cost of OFCs is also far higher than for paddy.
The cost for seed and fertilizer are the main ones in the case of banana. For other
OFCs, it is the labour cost which occupies this position. The net income of banana
also shows the profitability of this crop compared with paddy. At the project level, we
can see the contribution of banana to the total gross and net values in the 1990s.
(Figure 28).

Figure 28: Net value added in Uda Walawe (Rs 2002 actualized) Source: Molle and Renwick (2004)

4000 Banana
Other crops
Net value added actualized (Million Rs, 2002)

3500
Rice
3000 Gross value added

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
70

72

74

76

78

80

82

84

86

88

92

96

98

02
90

94

00
19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

20
19

19

20

76
Table 13. Crop budget under irrigated conditions. Source: SAPI Fields Survey (2000).
Crop Paddy Banana Green Chilli
Unit Quantity Unit price Cost/Ha Quantity Unit price Cost/Ha Quantity Unit price Cost/Ha
Seed Kg/Ha 193 20.00 3 860 1 111 15.00 16 665 2 1 176.00 2 352
Fertilizer Kg/Ha 549 11.00 6 039 1 375 14.20 19 525 35 245.00 8 575
Weedicide ml 5 445 0.90 4 901 2 000 1.30 2 600
Insecticide ml 1 976 0.40 790 7 10.20 71 7 570 0.80 6 056
Fungicide ml 4 400 0.60 2 640
Supporting
Labour
Family md/Ha 66 207.00 13 662 36 200.00 7 200 172 187.00 32 164
Employed md/Ha 87 210.00 18 270 36 200.00 7 200 58 187.00 10 846
Contract md/Ha
Yield 5 060 19 804 9 880
Price/Kg Rs 13 Rs 10 Rs 36
Gross income Rs 65 780 Rs 198 040 Rs 355 680
Production Cost Rs 47 522 Rs 53 261 Rs 62 633
Net income Rs 18 258 Rs 144 779 Rs 293 047

Crop Red onion Groundnut Snake gourd


Unit Quantity Unit price Cost/Ha Quantity Unit price Cost/Ha Quantity Unit price Cost/Ha
Seed Kg/Ha 2 1 176.00 2 352 95 34.00 3 230 3 1 450.00 4 350
Fertilizer Kg/Ha 35 245.00 8 575 333 13.70 4 562 17 888 7.90 141 315
Weedicide ml 4 000 0.60 2 400
Insecticide ml 7 570 0.80 6 056 1 679 2.40 4 030 4 816 23.10 111 250
Fungicide ml 4 400 0.60 2 640 5 151 1.30 6 696 3 200 2.40 7 680
Supporting
Labour
Family md/Ha 172 187.00 32 164 86 187.00 16 082 380 250.00 95 000
Employed md/Ha 58 187.00 10 846 20 188.00 3 760 144 250.00 36 000
Contract md/Ha
Yield 9 979 2 022 56 394
Price/Kg Rs 31 Rs 28 Rs 10
Gross income Rs 309 349 Rs 56 616 Rs 563 940
Production Cost Rs 62 633 Rs 38 360 Rs 397 995
Net income Rs 246 716 Rs 18 256 Rs 165 945

Table 14. Monthly labor requirements for Paddy and OFC. Source: SAPI Fields Survey (2000).

Crop/Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual Total

Paddy 5 53 0 26 23 20 5 4 48 26 23 20 253
Banana 13 9 8 11 13 9 12 9 15 8 8 14 129
Chilli 8 8 8 61 10 32 36 16 32 58 30 27 326
Red Onion 58 14 8 49 17 44 14 8 49 0 0 3 264
Snake Gourd 13 16 25 29 5 5 2 20 35 24 15 5 194
Groundnut 0 0 0 0 24 52 5 2 15 0 0 0 98
Unit: man day/Ha

77
4.3.3 Farmer organizations and irrigation management

The farmers organizations have as their members the farmers who have plots in the
same D-canal area. For the management of the organizations, 3 officer bearers
(chairperson, secretary and treasurer) are elected annually among the members.

The main activities conducted by the FOs are mainly to operate and manage the
irrigation facilities at DC and FC levels but activities can also concern distribution of
fertilizers and chemicals, community developments works, loan arrangements for
farm operation and cultivation and solving members problems.

Participatory management was developed by MASL since 1992 with the purpose to
ensure the durability of the project. MEA and FOs shared the responsibility
concerning all the activities related to water management and O&M in the system.
The irrigation networks at the D-canal level and subordinate canal levels are
operated and maintained by the FOs. MEA operates and maintains the main and
branch canals (Figure 29).

Figure 29. Actions and information between MASL and FOs. Source: SAPI (2000), modified. Actions
in green are by MASL and actions in blue by FOs
Main & Branch Canal
A1 A2 A3
Intake gate
at Uda
Walawe
Dam
F - Canal D - Canal
B1

F Canal Group

B2

F2 F1

D Canal FO D Canal FO D Canal FO

Necessity of irrigation Necessity of gate on-off Necessity of water supply Intake gate
Farmers observation at Farmers observation observation of MASL and controll
fields Farmers information MASL
Gate on-off F1 F2 Gate on off B1 B2 Gate on off A1 A3

78
4.3.4 Irrigation Practices

As shown in section 4.2.3, variability in water allocation is more related to


management and position along the canal, rather than to the type of crop, plot size or
rainfall. Observing plot level water management (Chandrikawewa Block Field
Survey), we can confirm this by describing how plot water management differs
depending on the crop mix and the soil type (what follows is drawn from Jayakodi,
2003) (Figure 30).

Figure 30 Relation land use- water deliveries at plot level. Source: Jayakodi (2003).

120 2500

100
2000

80

Depth mm
1500
Crop %

60
1000
40

500
20

0 0
1002
1003
1004
1005
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1027
1028
1024
1023
1512
1510
1507
1058
1057
1451
1493
1487
1488
1489
FC2FC2FC2FC2FC2FC2FC2FC2FC2FC2FC7FC7FC7FC7FC7FC7FC7FC7FC7FC7
FC12
FC12
FC12
FC12

Plot Number
Paddy% Banana % mm/season

4.3.4.1 Paddy

When the plots are planted to paddy only, farmers are more concern about water
management, and they know that paddy will suffer from interruption of supply. So
they put their maximum effort in irrigating their land. Normally water distribution is by
plot to plot, where excess water passes to the lower plots and eventually to the
drainage canal. They keep control points in the last plots to act as a spill level. No
rotation is found within the FC canal; hence farmers leave their farm inlet open
throughout the season. Even though they receive enough water to their field, they do
not close their farm inlet and allow water to pass to the drain. This shows that water
use is eventually little dependent on farmers behaviour: the amount of water they
receive is determined by the number of days in which MASL supplies water to their D
canal. All what is in excess of soil and paddy-field storage capacity goes back to the
drain, regardless of plot management. In a situation of relative shortage, farmers will
receive less water but still get satisfactory supply. When the shortage is more severe,
some individuals will start to have insufficient supply.

4.3.4.2 Banana

Water management practices in banana plots mainly depend on the leveling status of
the land. Normally in paddy cultivation farmers have to level their land before sowing,
but in banana cultivation this is not necessary. Some farmers have maintained the
earlier leveling of the paddy fields and can more easily manage water at the plot

79
level. They just open the inlet and allow for flood irrigation just like paddy plots. If the
land is not well leveled farmers have to stay in the field during rotation and have to
guide water flows to go closer to the banana plant using their mamoty. Even though
some plots were very flat in the early stage of cultivation, with time the soil surface
became undulated and it became very difficult to practice surface irrigation. Farmers
have to stay in the field during the rotation times to make sure that their fields receive
enough water.

4.3.4.3 Paddy and banana

When banana and paddy share a same plot, farmers give priority to their paddy plots.
When the paddy plots are located in the upper part of the plots, they directly receive
water from farm inlets. After feeding the paddy plots, water spills to the banana plots.
When the banana plot is in the upper part of the land, farmers dig furrows through
their banana plantation that lead water to paddy plots. They first irrigate paddy plots
and then banana.

Drainage observations clearly indicate a good deal of water goes to the drains.
Farmers try to maximize access to water also because of the uncertainty on the next
rotation. In some case farmers live far away from their plots and it is difficult for them
to come to their fields. To get a clearer understanding about water usage, correct
drainage volumes should be quantified.

Therefore, we could say that the rotational system is more an attempt to balance the
inequity of water allocation due to differences in water management, type of soil and
position along the canals, rather than a tool to save water (Floch, P. 2004,
discussion).

4.3.5 Farm typology

The aim of the present analysis is to define head and tail-end farm types. We have
taken as a hypothesis that tail enders, as opposed to top-enders, receive less water
and, consequently, suffer from yield reductions.

The whole sample (30 surveys on RBC blocks) has been quantitatively analyzed by
comparing the relation between yield reduction, position along the canals, availability
of water in the plot (rotation ratio canal irrigation days on/off- and type of soil -how
long plot dries up-), land use (relation paddy/OFC) and plot size. The analysis has
been done variable by variable. (Annex 15, Annex 16, Annex 17).

Table 15 shows good relation between farm localization along the canal and yield
reduction. On the contrary, a coarse relation is found when yield reduction is due to a
low irrigation-turnout (days of irrigation). As shown in the upper part of the table, a
low turnout can be compensated by a low drying rate of the plot. Also noteworthy is
that intermediate positions along the canal are difficult to characterize (F17). Further,
cases such as F24, in a head-end position but in a lower block, or F19, in the
opposite situation, can both have yield reductions.

80
The assertion that top enders maintain a proportional relation plot size or land use
with FC ratio, contrary to tail enders, could be discussed because no relation was
found between land use (paddy-OFC ratio), plot size and FC ratio.

A comparison between head and tail-end farmers by block is not possible because
the sample is not statically representative (an ideal sample would allow us to
characterize head and tail-end farmers by blocks because blocks get different water
supplies and as a consequence suffer from different deficits).

Finally, current head and tail-end types were split by dominant crops. Net benefits of
main crops were compared in order to define sub-types by crop.

The following farm types have been retained:

Top-end farm type with rice-banana mixing crop


Top-end farm type with banana single crop
Tail-end farm type with rice-banana mixing crop
Tail-end farm type with rice crop
Tail-end farm type with rice single crop and low agricultural performances
(giving low yield)

Table 15 Farm sampled grouped by top and tail-enders.


DC Ratio FC Ratio Irrigation Possible
Dried Plot Dried Plot Yield
(days on/ (days on/ Turnout Reduction Farm Block Branch Canal Location
Upper (days) Lower (days) Reduction
days off) days off) (days) (days)
0.5 0.5 1 1 4 4 F01 MW Mamadala Top enders no
1.33 0.17 1 1 3 3 F02 MW Mamadala Top enders no
1 0.33 2 1 2 5 F24 AN Bata Ata Top enders yes
2.5 0.4 2 1 2 4 F03 MW Mamadala Top enders no
0.5 0 3 3 3 3 F21 CW Chandrikawewa Top enders no
0.75 0 3 2.5 0 0 F28 CW Chandrikawewa Top enders no
0.43 0 3 2 3 3 F29 CW Chandrikawewa Top enders no
6 0.75 3 2 0 0 F30 CW Chandrikawewa Top enders no

DC Ratio FC Ratio Irrigation Possible


Dried Plot Dried Plot Yield
(days on/ (days on/ Turnout Reduction Farm Block Branch Canal Location
Upper (days) Lower (days) Reduction
days off) days off) (days) (days)
0 0 0 0 4 4 F12 AN Bata Ata Tail enders yes
0.8 0.5 1 1 1 4 F04 MW Mamadala Middle yes
6 1.33 1 0.75 2 7 F06 MW Mamadala Middle yes
0.75 0.75 1 1 0.12 2 F07 MW Mamadala Middle yes
6 0 1 1 4 6 F09 MW Mamadala Tail enders yes
1.33 0.4 1 1 1 1 F15 BI Manamperigama Tail enders yes
0.4 0.17 1 1 4 4 F20 CW Chandrikawewa Middle yes
0.17 0.17 1 1 1 1 F27 BI Manamperigama Tail enders yes
0.4 0 1.5 1.5 1 3 F10 MW Mamadala Tail enders yes
1.33 0 1.5 1.5 4 4 F14 BI Manamperigama Tail enders yes
1 0 1.5 1.5 2 2 F16 BI Gurugodella Tail enders yes
1 0.33 2 1 2 4 F05 MW Mamadala Middle yes
1 0 2 2 1 1 F11 AN Bata Ata Tail enders yes
0.4 0 2 1 1 2 F18 BI Gurugodella Tail enders yes
0.4 0 2 2 0 0 F22 AN Gajamangama Tail enders yes
1 0.33 2 2 2 3 F26 BI Manamperigama Tail enders yes
6 0.4 2 2 1 2 F08 MW Mamadala Middle no
2.5 1 2 2 2 2 F13 AN Bata Ata Tail enders no
0.75 0 2 2 1 1 F17 BI Gurugodella Middle no
0.75 0.75 3 2 2 3 F23 AN Gajamangama Middle yes
0 0 3 3 1 7 F25 BI Gurugodella Tail enders yes
0.75 0.75 3 1 2 2 F19 CW Chandrikawewa Tail enders no

YIELD REDUCTION BY WATER SHORTAGE NO YIELD REDUCTION BY WATER SHORTAGE

81
82
5 Walawe River Basin system simulation model

This chapter is structured as follows. Section 5.1 gives the conceptual framework for
an integrated simulation model based on a water allocation at irrigation block level
and the impact of the water allocation on yield variability at farm level.

Section 5.2 describes how HYD software works as well as the elements of the
corresponding water allocation model.

In order to show that water deficits on the blocks are related with current water
allocation, we propose an alternative water allocation scenario displaying how block
water deficits can be reduced when allocation rules are changed.

Besides, the impact of Samanalawewa dam on possible water shortages in the


irrigation system is assessed. Mismatches between downstream recorded inflows
and block return flows derived from the model simulation at Liyangastota anicut are
further discussed.

Section 5.3 introduces OLYMPE, as socioeconomic software based on farm typology


study. In this section we expose how difficult becomes to find the link between both
models due to the constraint in deriving a yield function that relates water allocation
at the block level to crop production. To solve this problem, we consider a linear yield
diminution regarding water along the canal from top to tail end farmers and we
analyze yield variability depending on the occurrence of poor and good seasons.

Section 5.4 displays different future scenarios which involve the expansion of Uda
Walawe Irrigation Project (expansion scenario) and shows a different alternative with
reallocation rules. Impacts on yield variability at farm level scale are also assessed.

Finally, section 5.5 gives a general overview about water management tools, such as
quotas or water pricing, which MASL is trying to implement in Uda Walawe Irrigation
Project.

83
84
5.1 Model choice

For a better understanding of the relationship between the different elements and
their respective role in Uda Walawe irrigation system, the system can be represented
as a socio-ecological system (Ostrom, 2003)41 (Error! Reference source not
found.). It is noteworthy that the central point in the relations among resource (water)
resource users (farmers) public providers (MASL) public infrastructure (dam,
tanks, canals) is water allocation, which is featured by efficiency and equity.

Figure 31. Conceptual model of a Socio-Ecological System and its application to Uda Wallawe
Irrigation System

EXTERNAL
DISTURBANCE

Introduction of RESOURCE USERS


new crops

Climatic Farmers
changes Water deliveries:
Availability of water
by season rotations

RESOURCE PUBLIC
Water allocation INFRAESTRUCTURE
PROVIDERS

Water
MASL

Durability: Maintenance +
area expansion enforcing rules
OLYMPE domain
Dam, tanks and
canals

HYD domain PUBLIC


INFRASTRUCTURE

We have considered that the simulation approach best fits our needs for the
understanding of the irrigation system for the following reasons:

As it has been described in the introduction, our water systems is based on a


local optimum, which it not necessary equal to the optimum. So, there is no
reason for a model by using optimization techniques.

Our objective is the comprehension of the system in terms of efficiency and


equity of water allocation by trying to reproduce current management rules
rather than improving them.

41
Socio-ecological Systems (SESs) can be defined as (1) complex systems composed of biophysical and social
components and (2) systems where individuals have self-consciously invested resources in some type of physical
and institutional infrastructure that affects the way the system functions over time in coping with diverse external
disturbances and internal problems.

85
We have chosen an integrated model (Feuillete, 2002) of two levels. At the higher
level, we find basin-block water allocation, which is characterized by a particular
efficiency. At the lower level, farm performances are represented. These farm
performances result from the inequity in water allocation inside the block with a direct
impact on yields variability.

Due to the spatial distribution of the irrigation system in branch, distributaries and
field canals constitute the layout on which efficiency and equity are determined, and
then the link of the water allocation model with the socioeconomic module is added at
two levels.

At first level or block level, we consider how much water is distributed among the
blocks and how efficiently distribution is. At second level or farm scale, we consider
whether water is equitability distributed or not inside the blocks by analyzing yield
variations as a result of water allocation impact. We paid special attention to the
cases in which deficits are indicated at the block level by the water allocation model.

86
5.2 Water allocation with HYD

5.2.1 How does HYD work?

HYD is a modeling environment to test water resources allocation. The main


performances of HYD are:

It allows us to build a water system in an interactive manner by adding


reservoirs, aquifers, demands and natural or artificial arcs (flows). Each
element is described and characterized by structural and management
properties, where demands are served by fixing a priority degree (i.e., volume
level in a reservoir) (Figure 32).

The basic model can simulate the application of management rules (reservoir
rule levels, demand priorities, demand restrictions, etc) on long chronicles of
inflows, regarded as representative of the hydrological risk. Simulations can
be daily, ten-daily or monthly and climatic series are aggregated accordingly.
At the same time rules can be changed at each simulation to improve the
satisfaction of objectives.

Evaluation of results can be done comparing the quantities requested with the
actual volumes delivered. Reliability (percentage of failure), vulnerability
(magnitude of deficits) and flexibility (water shortage lengths) can be
determined. For each element of the water system, results can be displayed to
observe how they are affected by different management rules or when new
components are added to the system.

HYD functioning principle is based on two flow objects: resources-flows and demand-
flows, which correspond to available resources and requested demand fraction
respectively, flowing throughout one arc. Calculations are done starting from
downstream and up, in such a way that demands are satisfied accordingly to
resource availability, for each time step.

Figure 32. Water system framework (Source: Pouget, 1999).

87
5.2.2 Management rules and general description of the model

The following paragraphs discuss how the allocation model has been constructed by
incorporating the current management rules and block water allocation studied in the
preceding chapters.

Our main objective is to represent the response of each block to water shortage and
the sharing rules set up by managers to allocate deficit among the different blocks.
With this purpose, basics rules for management have been established based on an
if then else logic, that suits the representation of the functioning of the system.

The model tries to represent the different sources of supply of the system, described
in section 4.1, as well as the patterns of water allocation to the various command
areas, in relation with the management of Uda Walawe, Samanalawewa and
Chandrikawewa reservoirs (section 4.2).

The system is characterized by a continuous return flow from the command area to
Walawe River or to other command areas, since returns flows sometimes contribute
to the inflow into other elements of the system. The main canals are single-bund
contour canals and also collect side-flows along their course.

Special attention is given to the RBC, because it is the most well-known area. At the
same time, it could be the area most affected by new possible irrigated area
extensions and new diversions. Main patterns of Uda Walawe reservoir management
for both good and bad seasons, as well as the water released into the canals by
season are displayed in Annex 18. Annex 18 also displays the management patterns
for Samanalawewa reservoir.

As mentioned in section 4.2.1, the beginning of the season is indicated by the spilling
of Uda Walawe. If at the beginning of the season the volume of the dam is below 112
MCM level, then deficits are more likely to occur and we will consider that as a bad
season, as opposed to the first case described (good season). As the spill level of
the dam is lower than FSL, the optimum or objective level is fixed at 112 MCM
(where the spill gates are). The objective of the manager will be to maintain the level
of the reservoir as close to 112 MCM as possible, especially at the end of the season
in order to keep a minimum stock for the inter-season period and to avoid starting the
next season with a very low level. During the inter-season period the volume
released to RBC and LBC is significantly reduced and only a minimum is kept for
banana irrigation and domestic uses.

As a consequence of heavy rainfall, water deliveries can be interrupted because the


whole area is saturated and water needs not be delivered. When this happens, the
sum of water flows entering the branch canals is higher than the releases at Uda
Walawe reservoir gates.

The main feature of water volumes delivered to each block is that they include a
target volume plus an excess volume that has been called comfort margin. The
target volume is calculated by MASL and is supposed to be high enough to meet
irrigation requirements. The comfort is an extra volume that is released. Comfort
volume does not follow a constant pattern along the season, but is irregular, as

88
explained in section 4.2.1. Also depending on whether the season is good or poor,
the magnitude of comfort changes, both in overall terms and to different degrees
depending on the block (see section 4.2.3).

Return-flows are a consequence of losses by conveyance along the canals and


percolation and application losses at plot/farm level (Figure 14). Return-flows due to
losses by conveyance and percolation occur by infiltration and seepage while return-
flows by applications losses are due to direct surface drainage of the plot. Because
plot needs by block (as defined in Equation 2) have been considered in the water
allocation model as consumptive demand (depleted water fraction), water volumes
delivered to each block, but not taken by plot needs, flow downstream as a block
return-flow.

Management during the season can be affected by different constraints, such as


variation in the storage level of Uda Walawe dam and rainfall. When the water level
in Uda Walawe Dam falls below its objective level and rainfall is almost negligible (<
50 mm), MASL can request CEB, which is in charge of Samanalawewa Dam
management, to release water by around 30 MCM. On the contrary, in case of heavy
rainfall (> 220 mm), MASL stops water deliveries to RBMC and LBMC to make use of
rainfall and avoid flood problems.

5.2.3 Elements of the water allocation model

The model is composed of different elements such as natural or artificial arcs


(segments linking two nodes), reservoirs (nodes having the capacity to store water),
junctions nodes (where several reaches gather), consumptive demands (depletion)
and non consumptive demands (demand for an object where water is needed but not
consumed and is totally fed back to the system after use).

Elements such as reservoirs and demand nodes have structural and management
properties. A structural property refers to physical features (e.g., storage capacity of a
reservoir) meanwhile management features are related with the subsequent
management of this element (e.g., objective level of a reservoir). Arcs are
characterized by maximum or minimum flow capacity.

As for management rules, a concept of penalties42 by levels is introduced. In such


way, different demands can be ranked, or a single demand can be split in various
levels or rates with different ranks (priority), as we will see in the next section.

42
Penalties and priorities have the same meaning in what follows: a high priority is expressed by a high penalty in
the model. With the priorities showed in the example below, water is distributed as follows:
Demand rate
type penalty
to be satisfied (in %)
Minimum ecological flow 100% 1
irrigation 50% 3
Irrigation 50% 4
Drinkable water 10% 4
Drinkable water 90% 5

Water will be served with the following priority: first, it will serve 90% of drinkable water. Second, it will serve 50%
and 10% of irrigation and drinkable water respectively. In the third place, 50% of irrigation will be served and

89
In case of reservoirs, the concept of penalties is also applied by zones (volume
ranges). This allows us to define storage targets that change with time (objective
curve). Each zone is defined by a positive and negative penalty. The positive penalty
applies when the volume is higher than the objective volume, while levels below the
objective volume receive a negative penalty, where the penalty values express the
priority to reach or keep the objective volume.

5.2.3.1 Flows and structures regulating flows (reservoirs)

For analytical purposes, the basin has been split into an upper and a lower part. The
inflows to the different sub-basins have been represented as junctions on each sub-
basin.

Upper basin (Figure 33)

Samanalawewa reservoir is represented by 2 zones. The first zone, with a volume of


60 MCM (minimum level for power generation or DSL), has a penalty of 100 to avoid
lower levels. The second zone, up to 278 MCM (FSL), has a positive penalty of 043
and as a result downstream demands will be satisfied as long as the water stock is
above the objective volume. Because negative penalty in this zone is as low as 1,
releases will follow to serve downstream prior demands even if reservoirs level is
under objective volume.

The objective volume is fixed at 278 MCM, so management will be done in the
second zone, between 28 MCM and 278 MCM. This objective volume is considered
as constant all along the year.

From this point, one arc represents the natural flow to Kaltota irrigation schema and a
second (artificial) arc the tunnel that channels water to the power generation house.
A maximum flow of 100 MCM has been fixed for this arc (based on historical
records). Power generation is represented as a non-consumptive demand.

Kaltota schema is fed by the leakage from the dam, which has been considered as a
minimum flow of the natural arc, plus irrigation releases.

During the season, water deficit in Uda Walawe (volume below 112 MCM and
monthly rainfall < 50 mm) can trigger water releases from Samanalawewa (30 MCM),
but this is not currently modeled44.

Lower basin (Figure 34)

fourth, 100% of minimum ecological flow. Because we are not doing an optimization, the values of these penalties
do not have any meaning in absolute terms, but their relative order fixes the priorities for delivering water.
43
In fact it is not possible to keep water further than 278 MCM because objective volume has been fixed at 278
MCM.
44
This condition has been modelled but it is giving higher deficits for non-consumptive downstream blocks.
Basically, it is due to actual management rules for both reservoirs Uda Walawe and Samanalawewa which reach
low levels at same time and as consequence a deficit occurrence on such non-consumptive demands in order to
keep Samalanawewa level up 60 MCM.

90
Uda Walawe reservoir is the main element of the system. When dam stocks are at
spill level then the season can start. The objective volume is fixed at 112 MCM
because it defines a minimum management level to be maintained.

Two management zones have been defined in the dam with the following penalties:
the first zone is fixed at 28 MCM (DSL) with very high negative penalty (100), to
ensure the level is kept over 28 MCM. The second zone is the slice between 28
MCM and 268 MCM (FSL) with a positive penalty of 0, because there is no interest to
meet objective volume which is fixed at 112 MCM (water is released to canals in
order to satisfy downstream demands when stocks exceed 112 MCM). A negative
penalty as low as 1 for the second zone also allows water releases under 112 MCM
because of higher priority of downstream demands. In contrast, this negative penalty
is shifted to 3.5 in the inter-season period (Mar-Apr and Sep-Oct), when only
minimum water issues for domestic use and banana are made.

Two artificial and one natural arcs corresponding to RBC, LBC and Walawe river in
that order, branch off Uda Walawe reservoir (leakage of the dam has been included
as a minimum flow to the river). Both RBC and LBC water issues are defined as non-
consumptive demands with two different rates, one for a poor season and the other
for a good season, with relative priorities of 4 and 3.4, respectively. By comparing
these penalties with those mentioned above, we can see that during the inter-season
only minimum issues, which correspond to poor season, will be made to ensure
banana needs and domestic uses, as occurs in reality. Likewise, the purpose of
maintaining the volume close to the objective volume just before starting the season
is ensured too.

This management is adjusted in order to reproduce observed management rules as a


consequence of rainfall and actual water level in Uda Walawe reservoir. In such way,
two conditions, linked by an or45 operator, has been set up by using the principle of
restriction if, then. These conditions are applied to RBC and LBC non consumptive
demands which control water deliveries during the season along the RMBC and
LMBC (Annex 19).

If Uda Walawe volume during the season is below its objective volume (112
MCM), then volumes of water corresponding to a good season will not be
issued; this is ensured by setting up in the restriction a penalty higher than the
penalty related to these levels.

If rainfall is higher than 220 mm per month, only the volumes corresponding to
a poor season will be issued on RMBC and LBMC; this is obtained by setting
up in the restriction a penalty higher than the penalty related to these levels.

45
This operator can be and or or depending on the situation. Second condition can be also adjusted by
changing its comparator as <, <=, or >.

91
Figure 33 Upper part representation of Uda Walawe Project in HYD Figure 34 Lower party representation of Uda Walawe Project in HYD

Different elements are represented as follows: junctions as a blue spots, consumptive demands as taps, non-consumptive demand as yellow
squares, reservoirs as blue triangles, rivers (natural arcs) as blue dark lines, canals or conductions (artificial arcs) as blue lines.

92
Figure 35 gives the management rules for Uda Walawe according to downstream
demands.

Figure 35. Management of Uda Walawe reservoir in the model

Natural run-off Evaporation


Max storage 268 MCM
surplus - z.2 (0)
deficit - z.2 (1) surplus z.2 Zone 2 Normal
Target volume 112 MCM operating zone
deficit z.2

surplus - z.1 (0)


Min storage 28 MCM Zone 1
deficit - z.1 (100)
Inactive zone
Max capacity spill Max capacity
3 3
RMBC 25 m /s LMBC 28 m /s
Max RMBC Max LMBC
Non-consumptive UW River Non-consumptive
demand Infiltration demand
losses
+
demand domestic uses demand
good season (3.4) good season (3.4)
demand demand
poor season (4) min flow (100) poor season (4)

Summing up, Uda Walawe reservoir management can face several situations:

1 During the irrigation season period:

If Uda Walawe volume > Uda Walawe target volume then we have a
surplus in zone 2 of the reservoir and water releases are made in order to
entirely meet downstream objective demands.

If Uda Walawe volume < Uda Walawe target volume then, we have a
deficit in zone 2 of the reservoir, which triggers the restriction mentioned
above. Water is released proportionally to RMBC and LMBC non-
consumptive demands to reach objective volumes equivalent to a poor
season, infiltration losses and domestic uses.

If Uda Walawe volume < Uda Walawe minimum storage then the only
water releases are due to infiltration losses and domestic uses, in order to
keep the level at 28 MCM.

2 During the inter-season period:

In this case, water is committed in the following order of priority. In the first
place, releases will try to meet, proportionally to RMBC and LMBCs
demands, the objective volumes needed in a poor season (minimum
water releases). Secondly, water is supplied in order to avoid deficits in
zone 2 and meet the objective volume of the reservoir. Finally, water is
supplied to RMBC and LMBC on the basis of the good season rates.

Chandrikawewa tank has the problem of not having records available for the last
seasons. Two zones have been considered: up to 6.8 MCM for the first one, and

93
from 6.8 to 17.5 MCM for the second one. A negative penalty of 100 to maintain the
releases on the RBC (outlet of sill level) has been set up. As the objective volume is
set up at 17.5 MCM and negative penalty is as low as 1 it allows to satisfy
downstream demands when level volume is between 6.8 and 17.5 MCM.

No other specific management has been described for the dam due to the lack of
data. The objective volume is considered at 17.7 MCM during the whole year.

5.2.3.2 Command areas (blocks): plot needs and irrigation demand

To represent water block distribution as well as return-flows, HYD integrates the


notion of non-consumptive demand46 and as consequence, an important difference
must be made between consumptive and non-consumptive demand.

Consumptive demands by block are defined as the plot needs (Equation 2); it equals
to the depleted water fraction47. Penalties are set at 4 for all consumptive demands.

The total water allocated to each irrigation block is considered as an objective


irrigation management demand for the block and matches the MASL actual delivered
volumes (VA). Irrigation management demand is represented as a non-consumptive
demand divided in two levels of priority which correspond to the MASL target
volumes (VT) and to the comfort margin (C), respectively. As noted in earlier
sections, the target volume is higher than the consumptive demand, except for the
inter-season periods.

Volume targets and comfort change depending on whether the season is good or
poor. In order to reproduce this behavior, two levels were added to the first ones.
Water is issued with the following priorities: (1) volume target for a poor season; (2)
comfort for a poor season; (3) volume target for a good season; (4) comfort for a
good season. Penalties are 4 3.8 3.4 3, respectively.

Figure 36 illustrates the block model representation choice as well as the relation
between efficiencies, allocated and consumed water, and return flows, inside the
block. (This can be compared with Figure 14).

By choosing this model representation, we have implicitly made the following


hypotheses:

We suppose that there is no storage of water in the soil and delay in sub-
surface water flows. Because the model runs with a monthly time step,
infiltrations are quite high and water is permanently flowing during all the year,
this assumption is reasonable. (However, it is also possible to represent
aquifers under HYD).

46
HYD integrates the notion of non-consumptive demand. Thus, water demand for natural reaches can be
incorporated, allowing us in particular to consider water allocation for low flows support or to provide adequate
flows for environmental preservation and for recreation (De Sa, 2002).
47
Total blocks considered are 5 for RB and 4 for LB (including new left extension area). The former structure of
the blocks has been considered in an attempt to disaggregate as much as possible the understanding of the
system at the block level.

94
No storage is done by paddy fields. Some cascade irrigation systems studies
(Stanzel, 2002), consider paddy fields as a simple reservoir model. However,
in our case, we focus in water allocation at the block level rather than on the
hydrologic functioning of the block. This should not alter expected block return
flows as results of present water allocation.

Intermediate tanks have also been omitted for the same reason. Both,
intermediate tanks and paddy fields could be represented in the model, if we
wished, by using a reservoir.

This degree of simplification appears acceptable in an allocation model, since it is not


the objective to represent internal management rules at a shorter time step and
smaller spatial resolution.
Figure 36. Block representation in the model. Priorities by water fraction and season are displayed in
colored boxes (green for good season and red for poor season with penalties in parenthesis).

Block A comfort (3)


non-consumptive
demand target (3.4)
Effective Rainfall
=
Target Volume comfort (3.8)
+ target (4)
Comfort

comfort (3) Block A Return-flows


Block B + C + consumptive demand
non-consumptive target (3.4)
=
demands Plot Needs
comfort (3.8)

target (4)
demand (4)

Some additional important assumptions must be taken into consideration to proceed


with this model representation:

As regards to non-consumptive demands, the considered block target


volumes, as well as comfort margins, correspond to recorded maximum water
issues by month and by block. Target and comfort water fractions for both
poor and good seasons match with Yala 03-Maha 99-00 and Yala 02-Maha
02-03, respectively, which have been taken as representative of these season
types.

Because of side flows entering the canal as a consequence of heavy rainfall,


the sum of water flows entering the branch canals may be higher than the
releases at Uda Walawe gates (Yala season). Besides, Chandrikawewa
reservoir plays a notable role in providing extra supply to the blocs situated
downstream of the tank. This additional inflow and supply has been estimated
and taken as 10% of Uda Walawe releases on RMBC (Maha season).

95
Conveyance losses along the canals have the opposite effect, reducing flows.
Because losses and intermediate inflows cannot be separated, the difference
between Uda Walawe releases and the sum of the recorded water issues to
all blocks has been shared proportionally, accordingly to the length of the
canal reaching each block, and added to the non-consumptive demands.

It is noteworthy that, the model does not calculate conveyances losses: rather
these have been added to non-consumptive demand of each block as it is
showed in Equation 248.

70% of the effective rainfall has been taken into consideration for each block,
in addition to water supplied by the canals. Effective rainfall is considered as a
40 years chronic (in opposition to Equation 9 - Annex 7, where it is expressed
as an occurrence). Effective rainfall complements plot needs when water
deliveries from canals are insufficient. Rainfall water exceeding plot needs
flows to the drain.

Non-consumptive demands are also set up where an intermediate inflow is added


along the canal (Figure 34). This is the case upstream of Chandrikawewa tank and
Kiriibbanwewa tank. The role of non-consumptive demand in these points is to fix the
water volume corresponding to downstream blocks49.

Finally, no difference between top and tail-enders has been considered. From our
point of view, the performance of the model does not allow us to detail any further the
block level (detailed management should be well-known inside the block: branch,
distribution and fields rotations for the whole irrigated area, for which there is a
considerable lack of information). It seems to be more realistic to considerer top and
tail-enders differentiation by using a socioeconomic model at a lower level (farm
level)50.

5.2.3.3 Return flows and drainages

A very rough knowledge of the return-flows and drainage flows is available and
calculations made by the main reports are based on fixed efficiency parameters.

The model represents the different return-flows by natural or artificial arcs. These
arcs, which do not necessarily correspond to any physical link such as a canal or
stream but, rather, indicate the direction of the flow, drain to the Walawe River, to

48
This point is controversial. Because model is not calculating the conveyance losses in order to be recovered
downstream and main assumption is not existence of losses by deep infiltration in the system, it should not be
necessary to include them as an objective demand.
49
It must be noted that when an inflow (and by default a reservoir) is added along the canal, HYD will do an
inflow-outflow balance at this point. Otherwise, non-consumptive demands must be introduced as a way to fix the
flow at a given point. In such way, the requested volume by the downstream blocks is forced to cross and a
balance at the point is avoided. This is because a non-consumptive demand is authoritative and its introduction
at a location replaces all downstream demands. Zaigham Habib, (2004).
50
Such differences can be observed at this scale. Further, water allocation at block level does not consider top
and tail ender positions as determinant for water issues.

96
Kachchigal Ara, or to downstream blocks, and in that latter case should be
considered as inflows to these blocks51.

All the blocks located upstream of Liyangastota drain to Walawe river. Concerning
the RBC, MUR block drains to two different hydrological units: Walawe river
(Liyangastota Anicut, Right Liyangastota Block and Ambalantota) and Kachchigal
Ara. Binkama block drains to Kachichigal Ara. ANG block can be split in Bata Ata
sub-block, which drains to Uruboka (located outside Walawe River Basin), and
Gajamangama sub-block, which drains to Kachchigal Ara (Figure 12).

The LBC, SEV, KIR and SUR blocks drain to Walawe River upstream of Ligangastota
anicut. MAH sub-block is fed by the return flows of SEV and KIR command areas
plus Mau Ara River. The Left Extension Area (LEA) drains downstream of
Liyangastota and on coastal lagoons.

When a block drains two different units, return-flows are represented by artificial arcs
to which are attached small downstream non-consumptive demands. These non-
consumptive demands, characterized by low penalty, redistribute return-flows to
downstream units accordingly to different volume fractions. In our case, where no
estimations are available about return flow percentages draining to downstream
units, e.g. MUR block draining to Walawe river, Right Liyangastota block and
Kachichigal Ara, non-consumptive demands are set up with low values accordingly to
drainage surfaces and, as a consequence, return flows are proportionally distributed
(Figure 37).

The return-flows in the model are represented as follows. Water not depleted by a
consumptive demand (plot needs), flows downstream as return-flow to the drainage
system (Walawe River or Kachchigal Ara River) and/or to lower blocks. In this way,
plot percolation losses and subsurface drainage are included in the model.
Conveyance losses, which also contribute to return flows, have been added to the
non-consumptive demand of each block, correcting the volumes released in the block
accordingly to the length of the canals. Therefore, each block is characterized by an
efficiency which depends on how much water is going to the drainage system52 as a
result of infiltration, seepage and subsurface drainage, part of the groundwater being
taken up again by orchard and other surrounding vegetation.

51
The main beneficiary of this returns flows is Liyangastota.
52
HYD consider the possibility to include monthly losses in the junctions to simulate infiltration or seepage losses
but these losses would be considered by the model as not recovered downstream.

97
Figure 37. Two different representations of return-flows depending on whether they are draining to
the main flow (left), or to several downstream blocks (right).

Return-flows
Return-flows
Return-flows
demand 1 (1)

demand 1 (1)

This kind of representation has as the main advantage to allow the test of several
assumptions concerning different percentages of return flows, which are usually
unknown, draining to downstream blocks.

5.2.4 Results of current water management (Baseline scenario)

One of the main objectives of the developed model has been the simulation of
current management and allocation rules, reproducing the actual functioning of the
system as well as the possible one (baseline scenario).

Results of the model are processed under Excel and displayed in charts as showed
in Figure 38 and Error! Reference source not found.. Because no data available
regarding target volumes and comfort water fraction in LBC blocks, current analysis
focus mainly on RBC blocks.

For each block of RBC, results as charts show the monthly deficit occurrence
(percentage of failures or reliability) for consumptive demand (plot needs) in
comparison to the volumes requested, as areas. These volumes match the actual
delivered volumes by MASL (VA) plus conveyance losses. Charts allow us to get a
clear picture of how deficits are distributed along the year and their frequency of
occurrence. In addition, charts (right column), also display the deficit repartition by
demand level or water fraction for both consumptive and non-consumptive demand
(magnitude of deficits or vulnerability)53 by season. The distribution of deficits by level
allows us to understand how much of the comfort or volume target is reduced, in a
good or bad season, when deficits occurs and if this deficit is large enough to affect
plot needs (consumptive demand). The deficit breakdown by level is not possible for
LBC blocks as due to the reason above-mentioned.

53
This is a cumulated percentage. For the one month some years are giving more or less deficit so it is not true
that deficit is equally shared along all the years for this month. So this cumulative deficit must be used carefully
especially concerning to deficits by levels. A more exact idea of the percentage of deficit per month is given in the
next chapter by linking the models.

98
Because target and comfort volumes have been set taking into account only 4
seasons, results on blocks deficits must be carefully interpreted. The understanding
of the results obtained by simulation of actual water management and allocation rules
is as follows:

1. Blocks on RBC, such as MUR, undergo a deficit in plot needs during inter-
season periods in April and October when plot needs demand (blue line) is
higher than delivered volumes (target and comfort volumes) during these
months. BIN block gets only a deficit in April while EMB block gets a very
small deficit in October. Water shortage during the inter-season period affects
banana.

In seasonal periods, the crop the most affected by deficits on plot needs is rice
because its growth is shortened at the end of the season. This is the case for
BIN block in March (end of Maha season) and EMB block, which is affected by
a very small deficit in September (end of Yala season).

Nevertheless, deficits on EMB plot needs are not reliable as confirmed by field
observations and they are related to how model was set up. These deficits can
be explained as follows. Because EMB has a target volume water fraction
closer to plot needs than other blocks, when deficits occur on target fraction,
they will be equally shared by all the blocks, as far fixed priorities on target
volumes are the same for each water fraction per block. But if deficits are large
enough, then EMB block could get deficit on plot needs before other blocks.

Concerning deficits on management irrigation demands (non-consumptive


demand), blocks as CHA, MUR, BIN and ANG suffer deficits on comfort
fraction during Yala-Maha seasons with deficit percentages increasing from
head-blocks to tail-blocks (7% to 25%) with the exception of EMB which gets
the highest deficits on comfort especially during Maha season (72%).

2. In opposition to RBC blocks, blocks on LBC do not get deficits during the inter-
season period on plot needs, except SEV where deficits has higher
occurrence. This is due to the fact that the former has little banana cultivation,
while sugarcane is grown in the latter

Concerning seasonal periods, they are as follow. At the end of Maha season
(Mar.), only SEV block undergoes permanent deficit. Deficits occurrence is
reduced at the end of Yala season (Sep.).

3. The fact that downstream blocks get lower deficits than head-blocks (such as
EMB and SEV) on comforts water fractions can be explained as a
consequence of intermediate inflow additions (Chandrikawewa and
Kiriibbanwewa Tank) along the canals.

4. Comparing results of Figure 38 with those of Figure 18, we cannot assert that
blocks with lower efficiency, such as EMB, are getting more deficits on non-
consumptive demands.

99
Figure 38. Water deficit occurrence on plot needs CD- (left bar chart) in percentage by years and
deficit distribution on irrigation fractions demands NCD- (right bar chart) in percentage by volume
for Baseline scenario in RBC. (BS VT: target volume in poor season, BS C: comfort in poor season,
GS VT: target volume in good season, GS C: comfort in good season).
Deficit Occurrence on plot needs in relation with demands Deficit repartition by demand levels EMB Block
levels EMB Block 1.0
DEFICIT C GS
20 0 0.9
Demand GS C
18 10 0.8
DEFICIT VT GS
16 20 0.7
Demand GS
VT 0.6
volume (MCM)

14 30
DEFICIT C BS
0.5

% (years)
12 40 Demand BS C
10 50 0.4
0.3
DEFICIT VT BS
8 60 Demand BS
VT 0.2
6 70
% Deficit Plot 0.1 DEFICIT Plot
4 80 Needs
Needs 0.0
2 90
Plot Needs

Yala
0 100 Demand

Maha
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
months

Deficit Occurrence on plot needs in relation with Demands Deficit repartition by demand levels CHA Block
CHA Block 1.0
DEFICIT C GS
20 0 0.9
Demand GS C
18 10 0.8
DEFICIT VT GS
16 20 Demand GS 0.7
14 30 VT 0.6
volume (MCM)

Demand BS C DEFICIT C BS
% (years)

12 40 0.5
10 50 0.4
Demand BS DEFICIT VT BS
8 60 0.3
VT
6 70 0.2
% Deficit Plot DEFICIT Plot
4 80 Needs 0.1
Needs
2 90 0.0
Plot Needs
Demand
Yala

0 100
Maha

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
months

Deficit Occurrence on plot needs in relation with Demands Deficit repartition by demand levels MUR Block
MUR Block 1.0
20 0 Demand GS C DEFICIT C GS
0.9
18 10
0.8
16 20 Demand GS DEFICIT VT GS
0.7
14 30 VT
volume (MCM)

0.6
Demand BS C
% (years)

12 40 DEFICIT C BS
0.5
10 50
Demand BS 0.4
8 60 DEFICIT VT BS
VT 0.3
6 70
% Deficit Plot 0.2
4 80 DEFICIT Plot
Needs 0.1
2 90 Needs
Plot Needs 0.0
0 100 Demand
Yala

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Maha

months

Deficit Occurrence on plot needs in relation with Demands Deficit repartition by demand levels BIN Block
BIN Block 1.0
20 0 DEFICIT C GS
0.9
Demand GS C
18 10 0.8
16 20
DEFICIT VT GS
Demand GS 0.7
14 30 VT 0.6
volume (MCM)

DEFICIT C BS
% (years)

12 40 Demand BS C 0.5
10 50 0.4
8 60 Demand BS 0.3 DEFICIT VT BS
VT
6 70 0.2
% Deficit Plot DEFICIT Plot
4 80 0.1
Needs Needs
2 90 0.0
Plot Needs
Yala

0 100 Demand
Maha

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
months

Deficit Occurrence on plot needs in relation with Demands Deficit repartition by demand levels ANG Block
ANG Block 1.0
20 0 DEFICIT C GS
Demand GS C 0.9
18 10
0.8
16 20 Demand GS DEFICIT VT GS
0.7
14 30 VT
volume (MCM)

0.6
Demand BS C DEFICIT C BS
% (years)

12 40 0.5
10 50 0.4
Demand BS DEFICIT VT BS
8 60 0.3
VT
6 70 0.2
% Deficit Plot
4 80 Needs 0.1 DEFICIT Plot
Needs
2 90 Plot Needs 0.0
Demand
Yala

0 100
Maha

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
months

100
Figure 39 Water deficit occurrence on plot needs CD- (left bar chart) in percentage by years for
Baseline scenario in LBC. (BS: poor season, GS: good season).
Deficit Occurrence on plot needs in relation with Demands
SEV Block
20 0
Demand GS
18 10

16 20

volume (MCM)
14 30 Demand BS

% (years)
12 40

10 50
8 60 % Deficit ET
6 70
4 80
Plot Needs
2 90
Demand
0 100
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
months

Deficit Occurrence on plot needs in relation with Demands


KIR Block
20 0
18 10 Demand GS
16 20
14 30
volume (MCM)

Demand BS

% (years)
12 40
10 50
8 60
% Deficit ET
6 70
4 80
2 90 Plot Needs
0 100 Demand
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

months

Deficit Occurrence on plot needs in relation with Demands


SUR Block
20 0
Demand GS
18 10

16 20
14 30 Demand BS
volume (MCM)

% (years)

12 40
10 50
8 60 % Deficit ET
6 70
4 80
Plot Needs
2 90
Demand
0 100
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
months

5.2.4.1 Changing the current water allocation rules in baseline scenario

Deficits encountered in such simulation can be reduced when target and comfort
volumes for block irrigation management demands (non-consumptive demands)
match plot needs and real crop requirements respectively (where a distinction
between good and poor season is not taken into account). This reallocation involves
that irrigation demand is reduced by 16% and 6% in RBC and LBC respectively54.
The consumptive demand as plot needs is kept as unchanging.

Figure 40 compares both actual allocation simulation and reallocation simulations,


where current objective irrigation management volumes (pink line) have been
changed as mentioned above (orange line). Differences between both allocations,
especially those related to elimination of deficits affecting EMB and SEV blocks, are
large enough to bring forward a change in current management practices.

54
Of course, this means an increasing management effort that is not certain to be achieved by all the actors
concerned in operational management of the system.

101
Figure 40 Deficit comparison (Yala and Maha season) by blocks for actual situation with current
allocation and reallocation

Plot needs - irrigation management demand deficits by block under


actual allocation (Yala season)
10 3000

8 2500
2000
6

MCM
%

1500
4
1000
2 500
0 0
EMB CHA MUR BIN ANG SEV KIR SUR
Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Actual Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Reallocation
C demand NC demand - Actual
NC demand - Actual with Reallocation

Plot needs - irrigation management demand deficits by block under


actual allocation (Maha season)
10 3000

8 2500
2000
6

MCM
1500
%

4
1000
2 500
0 0
EMB CHA MUR BIN ANG SEV KIR SUR
Deficit CD (Plot Needs) Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Reallocation
C demand NC demand - Actual
NC demand -Actual with Reallocation

5.2.4.2 Testing the water allocation model

To check the consistency of simulation results two upstream (Uda Walawe reservoir)
and downstream (Liyangastota anicut) points have been selected to compare historic
and simulated flow records. Moreover, for the understanding of Samanalawewa
reservoir management and the role played by the dam in the whole system, 2 sub-
scenarios have been developed out of the current scenario (baseline scenario or
actual).

Samanalawewa reservoir has been transformed in a mere series of inflow to


the lower system (Annex 6-Figure 64). The representation of the reservoir has
been omitted in the model and it is considered as merely generating a
transformed inflow to Uda Walawe (with SML or transformed inflow sub-
scenario).

To observe the effect of Samanalawewa reservoir on the whole system, it is


possible to use a series of natural flow corresponding to Samanalawewa
catchment area (without SML sub-scenario).

Figure 41 displays for the tree sub-scenarios considered (actual in gross blue line,
with SML in fine blue line and without SML in fine yellow line) and the evolution of
storage in Uda Walawe dam.

102
volume (MCM)

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
1985 01
1985 04
1985 07
1985 10
1986 01
1986 04
1986 07
1986 10
1987 01
1987 04
1987 07
1987 10
1988 01

Stockage Record of Uda Walawe Dam


1988 04
1988 07
1988 10

DSL
1989 01
1989 04
1989 07
1989 10

SPILL
1990 01
1990 04
1990 07

FSL
1990 10
1991 01
1991 04
1991 07
1991 10
1992 01
Figure 41 Comparison of scenarios simulation for Uda Walawe storage

1992 04
1992 07
1992 10
1993 01
month

103
1993 04
1993 07
Samanalawewa Dam Construction

1993 10
1994 01
1994 04
1994 07
1994 10
1995 01
Current UW storage and simulated storage (Baseline Scenario)

1995 04
1995 07
1995 10
1996 01
1996 04
Simulation WITHOUT SML DAM

1996 07
1996 10
1997 01
1997 04
1997 07
1997 10
1998 01
1998 04
1998 07
Simulation WITH SML DAM

1998 10
1999 01
1999 04
1999 07
1999 10
2000 01
2000 04
2000 07
Simulation ACTUAL

2000 10
Storage simulations are compared with historic records (blue area) for the period
1985-200055. It must be noted that the comparison between simulations and historic
records along the period is not possible due to construction of Samanalawewa dam
(upper red line). For these reason, the period considered has been split as follows:
from 1985 to 1992, prior to Samanalawewa dam construction; from 1992 to 1997,
after dam construction but no complete operational capacity of Samananlawewa (due
to leakage); from 1997 to 2000, full operational capacity of Samanalawewa.

From 1997 to 2000, the simulation which better match up with historical
records is that with SML dam. Actual simulation is always giving higher
storage levels during inter-season season which can be related to SML water
releases for this period.

From 1992 to 1997, SML reservoir is built. After that, dam is not operational at
full operational capacity and as consequence the without-SML dam simulation
is the most accurate one.

From 1985 to 1992 the closest simulation to reality is without SML dam.
Throughout this period a comparison can be done between simulations with
dam (actual) and without dam, to evaluate SML dam impact. Differences in
storage level of Uda Walawe reservoir due to SML dam are hardly perceptible.

In order to evaluate possible impacts on deficits blocks as consequence of SML dam


functioning, scenarios considering transformed inflow (with SML dam) and without
SML dam have been compared throughout 1960-2000. Because differences of
average inflow on Uda Walawe dam are 6% higher with SML dam, we can conclude
that SML have no impact on the deficit occurrence of the irrigation system (Figure 42).

Figure 42 Average Uda Walawe Inflow with and without Samanalawewa Dam

Uda Walawe average inflow comparison with and without SML dam (1960-2000)
300
Average storage volume (MCM)

250

200

150

100

50

0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Months

without SML dam with SML dam (transformed inflow)

55
For this period, a daily balance is available in Uda Walawe reservoir.

104
Concerning second downstream checkout point, historical records at Liyangastota
anicut are available from 1977 to 1991 and from 1995 to 199756. It allows us to test
the consistency of simulation results at monthly level in this point.

Figure 43 shows historic record flows at Liyangastota anicut compared with simulated
flows (actual scenario). The magnitude of historical peak flows records is maintained
but mismatches in base flows can be due to water taken up by home-gardens 57
around paddy fields and waterways (beneficial non-process depletion - Figure 14).
Further discussion is given in section 5.2.4.4.

Figure 43. Scenario simulation for Liyangastota anicut

Current flow at Liyangastota Anicut and simulated flow (Baseline scenario)

600

500

400
volume (MCM)

300

200

100

0
1992 09
1992 11
1993 01
1993 03
1993 05
1993 07
1993 09
1993 11
1994 01
1994 03
1994 05
1994 07
1994 09
1994 11
1995 01
1995 03
1995 05
1995 07
1995 09
1995 11
1996 01
1996 03
1996 05
1996 07
1996 09
1996 11
1997 01
1997 03
1997 05
1997 07
1997 09
1997 11
1998 01
1998 03
1998 05
1998 07
1998 09
1998 11
1999 01
1999 03
1999 05
1999 07
1999 09
1999 11
2000 01
month

Historic Record Actual Simulation

5.2.4.3 Basin return flow analysis

Figure 44 shows generated return-flows grouped by RB and LB drainage units for


actual scenario with current management and allocation. There is a certain level of
uncertainty in the calculation of return flows because:

Part of return-flows cannot be represented as it is mentioned in section


5.2.3.3.

Part of the return-flow is taken up by home-gardens or lost by deep infiltration.


(Considerations on home-gardens and returns-flows relationship are given in
the next section).

However, some conclusions can be drawn:

56
Potential Water Resources for Development of Ruhunupura. Draft Report, Pre-feasibility Study. Irrigation
Department, Planning Brach. Vol 3, Annexes. 2002.
57
At present a study is conducted for a whole water balance in Uda Walawe basin by considering land uses.

105
Figure 44 Accumulative return-flows from upper to lower blocks for Baseline scenario

RBC Return flows on Uda W alawe River drainage syst em

300

250

200
volume (MCM)

150

100

50

0
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
years

EMB-LIY CHA-LIY MUR-LIY MUR-RIGHT LIY

RBC Return flows on KachchigalAra drainage system

300

250

200
volume (MCM)

150

100

50

0
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

years

MUR-KACH BIN-KACH ANG-KACH

LBC Return flows on Uda Walawe River drainage system

300

250

200
volume (MCM)

150

100

50

0
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

years

SEV-LIY KIR-MAH SUR-LIY

Return flows have a regular distribution along different years because a


constant consumptive and non-consumptive demand has been set-up in the
model. There exist only small variations as due to deficits on the demands.
The model calculates returns flows as a balance, but probably real return-

106
flows changes greatly from bad to good seasons due to soil characteristics
and management practices.

Return flows volumes in LBC are quite higher than in RBC. It can be because
return flows on MAH block from SEV and KIR blocks has been included in the
total (when these return flows are not computed, total return flow for LBC
match 127 MCM/year).

By comparing simulated return-flows with those given by JICA (1998), we get the
following results (Table 16):
Table 16 Comparison of return-flows between those given by JICA (1998) and those from model
simulation.
Yearly average return flows to Walawe River
Area (MCM)
JICA (1998) Simulation Model
RB 126 165*
LB 82 206**,
Kaltota Scheme 38 85
LiyangastotaScheme 29
Right Bank 12 32***
Left Bank 17 16
Kachchigal Ara 177
Total 252 681
* Including return-flow to Right Liyangastota (32 MCM)
** Including return-flows to Mahagama block, but not Mahagama block return-flow
*** Return-flow generated by Right Liyangastota including to Kachichigalara (16 MCM)
Water demand for the Sevanagala Sugar Area was considered at 61 MCM per year based on the
agreement between MASL and Sugar Industries in 1987 for a total of 2.750 ha. In 1996, JICA carried
out a revision of the area that gave 1.830 ha of sugar cane and 610 ha of paddy, so the water demand
was assessed at 53.8 MCM/year for a total of 2.440 ha. Concerning Bahirawa area (660 ha) cropping
area is distributed in 140 ha of paddy and 170 ha OFC giving a total of 310 ha developed with a water
demand of 7.44 MCM/year. On the contrary, the present study considers for the total Sevangala block
a total area of 4.027 ha where 527 ha are paddy and 3.500 ha of sugar cane. These adjustments were
governed by evidence from satellite images58.

A significant difference between figures given by JICA and the simulation can be
observed for LBC return-flows. This mismatch is because water deliveries (non-
consumptive demand) according to current management in LBC, are quite above KIR
and SUR block plot needs. As consequence, remaining water is flowing as return
flow.

5.2.4.4 Basin water losses analysis

One the one hand, we have considered the total amount of water supplied to each
block as the target volume plus the comfort margin (non-consumptive demand or
irrigation management demand). One the other, the total water amount delivered

58
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
JICA, 1987 4.0 8.6 4.9 4.3 4.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 3.5 8.1 0.2 0.2 61.0
JICA, 2003 4.8 10.8 6.4 5.7 5.5 9.3 9.3 9.5 4.7 10.2 0.2 0.2 76.8
Plot needs 9.0 8.2 10.9 7.8 7.4 9.0 7.3 9.0 6.1 5.8 5.8 7.8 94.5

107
onto a block can be split in plot needs (depletion) and return flows (application,
percolation and conveyance losses of Figure 14). In order to explain the mismatches
between the historical and simulated flows (actual scenario) at Liyangastota anicut
(Figure 43), we have assumed following hypothesis to keep a correspondence with
the recorded flows at this point. The excess of return-flows water fraction in the
anicut point is taken up by the homesteads and lost in deep infiltration and removed
from the system. The other remaining return-flows water fraction flows downstream
as losses matching the recorded historical flows. Because Liyangastota anicut is a
hydrological accounting point, only returns-flows generated by blocks draining on
Walawe River have been taken into account.

Error! Reference source not found. displays both water fraction taken as
homesteads and deep infiltration and losses along the year at Liyangastota anicut.

Figure 45 Estimated volume fraction taken by the homesteads and deep infiltration at Liyangastota

Return flows (homesteads+deep infiltration and losses) at Liyangastota


anicut (1995-1997)
250

200
volume (MCM)

150

100

50

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

months

Homesteads+deep infiltration Losses Historical Record

Table 17 shows that the percentage of water taken by homesteads and by deep
infiltration (where the percentage corresponding to each fraction could not be
estimated) constitutes 39% of the total yearly return flows generated by the blocks59.
Accordingly, this percentage was applied to calculate the real amount of water
flowing downstream60 (losses) on the one hand and the homestead together with
deep infiltration fraction on the other hand.

Table 17 Liyangastota inflows records by season

Liyangastota Liyanagastota Homestead + deep infiltration


Season
historical flows modeled flows
MCM %
Maha 331 495 164 33
Yala 176 304 128 42
Total 507 799 292 39

59
Our assumptions take into account that homesteads consumption is maximum throughout the year (ETP) with
30% from rainfall and 70% from aquifer, which it is, nevertheless, a very hard hypothesis.
60
BIN and ANG as well as a part of MUR, are not draining to Liyangastota anicut. However, in order to do the
balance at basin level, they have been considered as contributing to the water fraction taken by the homesteads.

108
5.3 Impact on agricultural performances using OLYMPE

5.3.1 How does OLYMPE work?

OLYMPE (Attonaty, 2001), software is a budget simulator of economic and technical


farm performances. Using OLYMPE an agriculture region can be represented as a
set of small farms grouped by types (typology). Each type has a relative weight within
the whole region61.

A simple farm is a set of productive activities with their relative structural and
operational costs, incomes, and expenses for the family or the firm. The farm is
therefore the sum of the activities developed, whether farm or crop production. All
products can also be grouped by type.

Finally, each farm is characterized by different inputs and outputs by area or animal
unit. Produced quantities are sold at different prices and the gross and net income
finally calculated. The same happens with operational costs, where externalities can
be included.

Error! Reference source not found. presents the general framework of OLYMPE
software. In addition to aiding farmer decision-making, OLYMPE can allow us to
introduce collective actions using a business game where decision-making is the
results of collective negotiation62.

Figure 46 General structure of OLYMPE Simulator; Source: Attonaty, J.M and Le Grusse, P., (2000)

OLYMPE Simulator

Products
Charges
Fixed Charges Zones
Family
General Crops
Animals
data Trees

Cropping plan Other Inputs Zone


Farms Animals Output Number
Orchard
data

Uncertainty Risk - Trend

Farms - Zone - Whole


Result
s
61
Also it is possible to consider an average typology for the whole area.
62
A business game is addressed to stakeholders, farm advisers, where farmers have to decide each year a
cropping plan for their farm without. Conditions for the region can be fixed, as for example limited markets or
certain water quantity. OLYMPE simulator is used in the farmer making decision process and to calculate global
results. Game is played in two steps without negotiation or knowledge of others players decisions and with
negotiation (free market information)

109
5.3.2 Linking water allocation and socioeconomic models

The difficulty to link water allocation and socioeconomic model is due to the
constraint in deriving a yield function that relates water allocation at the block level to
crop production, thus simulating the effect of water shortage on crop productivity. For
this reason, results given here should be taken carefully.

As consequence of above-mentioned constraint, we have considered the following


previous hypothesis to link both models:

The only factor of inequity concerning water allocation inside the block is the
farm location along the canal. Water deficits affect the whole block area and
farm type yield responses varies accordingly. Average farm types have been
established by using OLYMPE.

Water distribution inside the block, is reduced from top to tail end farm types
following a linear trend. In such way, yields decrease proportionally to the
distance to the canals head (Figure 47).
Figure 47 Yield variation along the canal by type farm for Yala and Maha seasons (good GS- and
poor BS- seasons). Source: Field Survey 2003

Type yield variations Yala good (GS) - poor seasons (BS).

7000

6000

5000
Yield (kg/ha)

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
Top Rice-Banana Tail Rice Tail Rice-Banana Tail Rice (low yield)

distance augmentation - water quantity reduction

Yield GS Yield BS

Type yield variations Maha good (GS) - poor seasons (BS).

7000

6000

5000
Yield (kg/ha)

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
Top Rice-Banana Tail Rice Tail Rice-Banana Tail Rice (low yield)

distance augmentation - water quantity reduction

Yield GS Yield BS

110
Yields variations are referred to rice because this is the most suitable crop to
be affected by seasonal water shortage. Meanwhile, banana is a perennial
crop also cultivated during inter-season periods63.

The same top and tail end farm types are considered for the 5 block sampled
even if we know that a differentiation exists amongst top and tail enders by
blocks.

As result, the relationship between water allocation at block level and yield variation
at farm level, considers that maximum yields are reached when plot needs are fully
supplied. Water deficits on block plots needs (consumptive demand), obtained from
the simulation of water allocation model using HYD, are converted into yield
reductions proportionally to the water shortage. In such way, a tentative relationship
between rice yield variation and water distribution along the canals can be
established. This relationship can be called transfer function. The transfer function,
showed in Figure 48, widely depends on water management inside the block (at DC
and FC level) and can be defined as the diminution of one mm water deficit below
plot needs reduces rice production by 7.8 kg.
Figure 48 Yield-water volume relationship along the canal.

Yield - Water volume relation for Yala - Maha good seasons

8000

y = 7.8521x
7000
2
R = 0.9109
6000
Yield (kg/ha)

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Water Volume (mm)

In order to proceed with a socioeconomic analysis, OLYMPE allow us to calculate


farm type net incomes taking into consideration rice, banana and vegetable64 yields
variations for different defined season types. Yield variations are a result of water
deficits on water distribution along the canal. Total net incomes depend on
production system for each farm type, such as operational charges. Figure 49 sums
up the method followed up to link both models.

63
For this reason, top-enders cultivating banana as a single crop have been not included in the current analysis.
64
Each type farm is made up by an average of sampled farms where each farm is proportionally weighted Only
the types appearing below, out of all types considered in section 4.3.5, have been analyzed (tail-end farmer
typologies where off-farm income represents a percentage of total incomes have not been considered because
total income is not directly related to water allocation).

111
Figure 49 Conceptual schema showing the link between the both models.

Deficits on plot needs by block and season type


are converted in water volume (mm) diminution

HYD domain

Yield (kg) water volume (mm) linear relationship


(maximum yield matches plot needs)

OLYMPE domain

Average farm type Yield variation depending Net incomes variation (in Rs.)
by location on season type (net incomes = gross benefit -operational charges)

Yala good season (GS) Yala good season (GS)

Yala bad season (BS) Yala bad season (BS)


Top Rice Banana
to tail-end farm types s along the canal
There is a yield reduction from top-end

Maha good season (GS) Maha good season (GS)

Maha bad season (GS) Maha bad season (GS)

.
.
Top Banana .
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

Once transformation to net incomes is done, we can observe as follows by


comparing Figure 50 and Table 18:

By observing Table 18, we can say that rice yields tally with those given in
Table 13. We can sort farm types from those getting more to less water (from
top to tail-enders) according to yields diminution, as follows: top rice-banana,
top banana, tail rice, tail rice-banana, tail rice- low yield (cultivated with low
performance).

Rice yields show differences between good and poor seasons, while banana
yields keep constant whatever the season is. It allows asserting that banana is
cultivated where water is supplied with certain reliability.

112
There exists a clear differentiation between top and tail end farmers because
of unequal water allocation along the canals, which gives higher yields for top
than for tail end farmers. However, tail enders doing rice-banana can get
higher incomes than tail enders doing rice, because banana cultivation
increases farmer net incomes as due to higher profitability than rice.

Top-end farmers have no income variability because they are not affected by
water shortage between good and poor season and as consequence they
dont get low yields in those seasons. Top-end farmers with both rice and
banana crops have the highest income of the irrigation system and they get
higher net incomes than top-enders cultivating only banana, which is related to
high operation costs on banana cultivation.

On the contrary, tail-end farmers display incomes variations as a result of yield


fluctuation when a poor season occurs. Tail-end farmers growing rice
(cultivated with low performance) get the lowest incomes of the whole system.

In general, a common strategy among farmers to reduce risk is to have a rice-


banana mix, because of banana prices fluctuations even if banana cultivation
allows increasing incomes.

At this point, we can assert that banana cultivation is more a consequence of


farm location along the canal that a choice.

Figure 50 Top and tail farm total net incomes variation depending on season: A normal Yala
season without yield reduction, B poor Yala season with yield reduction, C normal Maha season
without yield reduction, D poor Maha season with yield reduction (units: Rs/ha). (OLYMPE model
results).

Net incomes variation by farm type and season type

100

80
Rs (thousands)

60

40

20

-20 Top Rice-Banana Top Banana Tail Rice Tail Rice-Banana Tail Rice (low yield)

A "Good Yala" B "Poor Yala" C "Good Maha" D "Poor Maha"

113
Table 18 Net incomes by crop and farm type for Yala and Maha season as result of OLYMPE model. Source: Field Survey 2003
Yala season Maha season
Net Incomes Yield normal Yield poor Net Incomes Yield normal Yield poor
Typology Benefit Rice Charges Rice Benefit Rice Charges Rice
Rice season season Rice season season
Top Rice-Banana 50.690 83.250 6.660 6.660 32.560 47.315 79.875 6.390 6.390 32.560
Top Banana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tail Rice 31.483 69.882 5.591 3.247 38.400 34.130 72.529 5.802 3.368 38.400
Tail Rice-Banana 31.238 62.250 4.980 2.380 31.012 39.113 70.125 5.610 2.462 31.012
Tail Rice (low yield) 16.417 37.063 2.965 830 20.646 11.117 31.763 2.541 839 20.646
Net Incomes Benefit Yield normal Yield poor Charges Net Incomes Benefit Yield normal Yield poor Charges
Typology
Banana Banana season season Banana Banana Banana season season Banana
Top Rice-Banana 107.932 155.037 28.711 28.711 47.105 107.932 155.037 28.711 28.711 47.105
Top Banana 37.353 98.415 18.225 18.225 61.063 37.353 98.415 18.225 18.225 61.063
Tail Rice 89.549 92.160 17.067 17.067 2.611 89.549 92.160 17.067 17.067 2.611
Tail Rice-Banana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tail Rice (low yield) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Net Incomes Benefit Yield normal Yield poor Charges Net Incomes Benefit Yield normal Yield poor Charges
Typology
Veg Vegetables season season Vegetables Veg Vegetables season season Vegetables
Top Rice-Banana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Top Banana 24.000 24.000 1.200 60 0 24.000 24.000 1.200 60 0
Tail Rice 206.919 295.380 14.769 738 88.461 207.369 295.380 14.769 738 88.011
Tail Rice-Banana 5.000 5.000 250 13 0 5.000 5.000 250 13 0
Tail Rice (low yield) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

114
5.3.3 Results analysis of current water management (Baseline scenario)

As result of current water allocation simulated at block level, Uda Walawe dam
provides a poor Yala and Maha season occurrence one season out of seven (1/7)
and one season out of eleven (1/11), respectively.

Figure 51 displays relative yield reductions for the RBC blocks accordingly to water
deficits on plot needs for both good-poor Maha and Yala seasons. Following
assertions can be done:

During Yala season, EMB is the only block affected by yield reductions (with
an occurrence of one Yala season out of twenty -50% occurrences in good
season and 50% in poor season-). It is noteworthy that yield reduction effect is
slightly stronger on top-end than on tail-end types.

Here displayed results concerning yield reductions in EMB block are unreliable
as it is revealed by the conducted field survey. The fact that EMB block,
located in a head position, is affected by water deficits is justified in section
5.2.4 (points 1 and 3). Nevertheless, we consider interesting since a
functioning point of view of the model to show such yield variations.

On the contrary, during Maha season, BIN is the only block affected by yield
reductions (with an occurrence of one Maha season out of ten -100%
occurrences in good season).

We can conclude that tail-end farms growing rice with low performance in BIN
block are considered as the most vulnerable farm type, from an economical
point of view, in the Uda Walawe Irrigation Project.

Figure 51. Yield reductions for Yala and Maha season in actual scenario by block and farm type
(blocks not affected by yield reduction are not displayed by the charts).

Yield reduction by farm type and block


Yala good (GS) and poor season (BS). Actual scenario
EMB Yala GS
20
EMB Yala BS
CHA Yala GS
15 CHA Yala BS
Yield reduction (kg/ha)

MUR Yala GS

EMB Yala BS MUR Yala BS


10
BIN Yala GS
BIN Yala BS

5 ANG Yala GS
EMB Yala GS
ANG Yala BS

0
Top Rice-Banana Tail Rice Tail Rice-Banana Tail Rice (low yield)

115
Yield reduction by farm type and block
Maha good (GS) and poor season (BS). Actual scenario
20 EMB Yala GS
EMB Yala BS

CHA Yala GS
15
Yield reduction (kg/ha)

CHA Yala BS

BIN Yala GS MUR Yala GS

MUR Yala BS
10
BIN Yala GS
BIN Yala BS
5 ANG Yala GS

ANG Yala BS

0
Top Rice-Banana Tail Rice Tail Rice-Banana Tail Rice (low yield)

Considering farm yields variations by block at the same time that we look at blocks
grouped by efficiency and comfort as mentioned in section 4.2.2.3 (where top end
types are not taken into account because of they are unchanging)65, we will like to
remark the following observations.

Farmers in BIN block are affected by yield reductions (Maha season). Moreover, BIN
block gets medium efficiencies and comforts compared to other blocks. EMB block,
which has a low efficiency but high comfort margins, also gets yield reductions (Yala
season). On the other hand, ANG block, with high efficiencies but low comfort
margins, do not present any yield reduction.

As a conclusion, no clear evidences exist to assert that there is a direct relationship


between efficiency and equity of water allocation. Lack of data concerning to
seasonal water issues and the impossibility to set a yield function do not seem to be
an impediment for such assertion.

65
We are confident that such attempt is fairly accurate because efficiencies inside the blocks can change and
largely depend on established turn-outs at distribution and field canal level. Nevertheless some doubts can arise.

116
5.4 Future development scenarios in Walawe River Basin system

5.4.1 Scenario Identification

The two main feasible scenarios of development identified in Uda Walawe irrigation
system are (Figure 52):

Increasing service area and developing all projected diversions (Expansion


Scenario)

Improving water allocation by readjusting target and comfort volumes (Re-


allocation Scenario)

These water allocation scenarios have been modeled by HYD and the results
concerning the occurrence of supply failures (deficit) were analyzed. Furthermore,
agriculture responses to yield variations by farm type and block have been simulated.

Outputs are graphically displayed in terms of water deficit on plot needs and yield
variation at farm level by block, for each scenario.
Figure 52 The decision-making tree for HYD basic scenario selection (OLYMPE scenarios are
colored in green)

Current allocation and Climatic change


management practices Land use change

Increasing irrigation
surface
(Maintaining supply)

Increased supply

NOT MODELED

With Samanalawewa Dam With all diversions +


Without Left Extension
Left Extension
SAMANALAWEWA without
Dam BASELINE SCENARIO EXPANSION SCENARIO TIMBOLKETIYA
(alternative 1 and 2)

EXPANSION
SCENARIO
+ RUHUNAPURA
BASELINE SCENARIO EXPANSION SCENARIO
+ +
changing allocation changing allocation

ACTUAL RE-ALLOCATION EXPANSION REALLOCATION

5.4.2 Scenarios description and hypotheses

5.4.2.1 Increasing irrigation area and developing all diversions planned (Expansion Scenario)

This development scenario is considering all the proposed diversions on the irrigation
system (section 3.3), as well as the extension of the LBC (5.340 Ha) (Figure 53). The
hypotheses considered are:

117
Figure 53. Proposed and on going diversions in Uda Walawe Project Area.

Welioya diversion
Thimbolketiya
diversion

Mau Ara diversion

Left Extension Area

Ruhunapura
diversion

Mau Ara diversion supplying 22.8 MCM/year (1.9 MCM/month) to the adjacent
water-short Malala oya basin.

Weli Oya diversion, supplying water for 1.600 Ha with a maximum canal
capacity of 10.7 MCM/month (4 m3/sec).

Timbolketiya diversion to RBC, downstream EMB block, which supplies 77.4


MCM/year. To evaluate the impact of Timbolketiya diversion on whole
irrigation area an independent sub-scenario has been considered and its
impact compared with former reports.

Water management is done following the same rules than in the actual
scenario but two allocation alternatives have been taken into account as
regards water allocation between RBC and LBC (Table 19).

In the first alternative, the total LBC management irrigation demand has
been increased by augmentation of 39% as a result of LEA block

118
addition. Other partial management irrigation demands on RBC and
LBC blocks have been kept constant. In other words, this hypothesis
involves that augmentation of management irrigation demand, as result
of LEA addition block, is not equally shared between RBC and LBC
because enough water is still available at Uda Walawe dam.

In the second alternative, management irrigation demands for the


whole irrigation system (RBC and LBC) have been fix in such way that
part of RBC block comfort must be taken to feed LBC extension in a
equitable way accordingly to plot needs. It involves an augmentation of
44% the management irrigation demand in LBC as consequence of
LEA and a reduction of 28% the management irrigation demand (on
comfort fraction) in RBC.

Management irrigation demand (non-consumptive demand) assumed for LEA


block is 120 MCM/year, which match the "real demand" by following our
calculations (Equation 2). Plot needs are estimated in 85 MCM/year66.

Expansion scenario+Ruhunapura (industrial pole with port facilities in the


vicinity of Hambantota), with 100 MCM of demand per year, 50% coming from
Walawe, has been considered as a sub-scenario.

Table 19 Consumptive and non-consumptive demand for RBC and LBC for Expansion Scenario

EXPANSION EXPANSION
ACTUAL
Alternative 1 Alternative 2
Area Non Consumptive Non Consumptive Non Consumptive
Consumptive Consumptive Consumptive
demand demand demand
demand demand demand
(irrigation (irrigation (irrigation
(plot needs) (plot needs) (plot needs)
management) management) management)
RBC 213 524 213 524 213 389
LBC 155 304 240 425 240 439
Total 368 828 453 949 453 828

5.4.2.2 Improving water allocation by readjusting target and comfort volumes (Expansion Scenario
with reallocation)

This scenario could be possible although unlikely because it means an extensive


review of how water management is done by MASL in Uda Walawe irrigation system.
Taking the former all-development-scenario as a basis, a water re-allocation has
been done with the following criteria.

In the expansion scenario, water fractions of management irrigation demand,


as target volumes and comfort, matched MASL served water volumes.
Hereafter, target volumes are adjusted to plot needs and comfort to irrigation

66
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
JICA, 1998 9.2 16.2 7.5 4.6 19.2 13.9 18.0 16.2 5.4 1.4 12.6 10.6 108.9
Plot needs 8.6 10.2 8.1 4.9 5.7 8.6 13.6 9.4 4.3 1.6 2.6 7.3 85.3
Real demand 11.5 13.2 10.4 12.1 8.5 11.6 17.3 12.3 4.0 1.9 7.0 10.5 120.8

119
water requirements from Equation 2 ("real demand"), where no distinction
being made between poor and good season. Conveyance losses have been
added to required final water volumes.

Plot needs (depleted water fraction), as consumptive demand, are kept


constant for all the blocks.

5.4.3 Comparison of development scenarios on water allocation and farm


performances

5.4.3.1 Basin and Block Level Impacts

Figure 54 displays simulation results at block level for the 3 scenarios considered:
baseline, expansion (alternative 1 and 2) and expansion (alternative 1 and 2)
+Ruhanapura diversion. Because the main purpose is scenarios comparison, we
have chosen seasonal block deficit percentage on plot needs (consumptive demand)
as the most performing indicator. We also show management irrigation demands
(non-consumptive demand). Conclusions are discussed below.

As a consequence of LEA block, during Yala season period, LBC blocks


increase their deficit on plot needs with alternative 1, but only SEV and LEA
blocks undergo deficit when alternative 2 is taken into account. During Maha
season, SEV block gets higher deficit with alternative 1, while LEA block
deficit is higher with alternative 2.

SEV is the block getting the most important deficit whatever the situation is,
especially in Maha season.

When LEA is carried out, all RBC blocks get deficit with alterative 1 and only
EMB block with alternative 2. No significant differences exist during Maha
season between alternative 1 and alternative 2. In this period, only BIN
undergoes a very small deficit.

Deficits on EMB block are related to explanations given in section 5.2.4 (points
1 and 3).

Even if Timbolketiya67 diversion is on going, EMB block gets a higher deficit


than downstream blocks, which have the positive influence of intermediate
inflow coming from Chandrikawewa tank.

Noteworthy is the fact that MAH block increases its deficit because of return-
flows reduction from SEV and KIR blocks (alternative 1 shows a yearly
average deficit 3% higher than alternative 2).

Mauara diversion presents high deficit (57.6% yearly average deficit) on its
demand, possibly due to low flows of Mauara River.

67
Timbolketiya inflow is proportionally distributed between EMB and downstream accordingly to respective
demands.

120
Figure 54 Baseline, Expansion (alternative 1 and 2) and Expansion (alternative 1 and 2)+Ruhunapura yearly average deficits comparison (expansion alternative 1: increasing
39% demand on LBC; expansion alternative 2: reducing 28% comfort on RBC and increasing 44% demand on RBC)

Plot needs deficit and Irrigation Management demands by block Plot needs deficit and Irrigation Management demands by block
(Yala season) - alternative 2 (Maha season) - alternative 2
25 4000 25 4000

20 20
3000 3000

15 15

MCM
2000 2000

MCM

%
%

10 10

1000 1000
5 5

0 0 0 0
EMB CHA MUR BIN ANG SEV KIR SUR EXT EMB CHA MUR BIN ANG SEV KIR SUR EXT
Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Actual Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Actual Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion
Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion + Ruhunapura CDemand Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion + Ruhunapura CDemand
NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion (alt 2) NCDemand (VT+C) - Actual NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion (alt 2) NCDemand (VT+C) - Actual
NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion (alt 2)+Ruhunapura NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion (alt 2)+Ruhunapura

Plot needs deficit and Irrigation Management demands by block Plot needs deficit and Irrigation Management demands by block
(Yala season) - alternative 1 (Maha season) - alternative 1
25 4000 25 4000

20 20
3000 3000

15 15

MCM
MCM
2000 2000

%
%

10 10

1000 1000
5 5

0 0 0 0
EMB CHA MUR BIN ANG SEV KIR SUR EXT EMB CHA MUR BIN ANG SEV KIR SUR EXT

Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Actual Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Actual Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion
Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion + Ruhunapura CDemand Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion + Ruhunapura CDemand
NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion (alt 1) NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion (alt 1)+Ruhunapura NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion (alt 1) NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion (alt 1)+Ruhunapura
NCDemand (VT+C) - Actual NCDemand (VT+C) - Actual

121
Under Ruhunapura extension, we do not observe any deficit on
Ambalantota+Ruhunapura demand for alternative 2 and only a very small
deficit of 0.1% (with a occurrence of one year out of thirteen) when alternative
1 is applied. These almost null deficits can be due to the fact that return flows
from upstream blocks are large enough to supply the increased downstream
water demands and also because infiltration losses at Uda Walawe Dam (64.1
MCM/year) have been considered as full recoverable downstream. Besides,
water demand priorities were set up in such a way that
Ambalantota+Ruhunapura demand is served before Liyangastota Right and
Left blocks.

Differences between expansion (alternative 2) and expansion with water


reallocation, where the target volume and the comfort water fractions of
management irrigation demand match respectively the plot needs and the
"real demand" (Equation 2), can be viewed in Figure 55. Figure 55 shows that
deficits can be reduced by shifting allocation rules.

Figure 55 Baseline, Expansion (alternative 2) and Expansion with Reallocation yearly average
deficits comparison.

Plot needs deficit and Irrigation management demands by block


(Yala season)
10 4000

8
3000
6

MCM
2000
%

4
1000
2

0 0
EMB CHA MUR BIN ANG SEV KIR SUR EXT

Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Actual Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion


Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion+Reallocation CDemand
NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion (alt 2) NCDemand (VT+C) - Actual
NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion with Reallocation

Plot needs deficit and irrigation management demands by block


(Maha season)
10 4000

8
3000
6
MCM

2000
%

1000
2

0 0
EMB CHA MUR BIN ANG SEV KIR SUR EXT

Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Actual Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion


Deficit CD (Plot Needs) - Expansion+Reallocation CDemand
NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion (alt 2) NCDemand (VT+C) - Actual
NCDemand (VT+C) - Expansion with Reallocation

122
5.4.3.2 Farm Level Impacts

Figure 56 displays top and tail enders yield variability for expansion (alternative 2) and
expansion with reallocation scenarios. In addition, Table 20 displays deficit
occurrences by block comparing actual (baseline), expansion (alternative 2) and
expansion with reallocation scenarios. Conclusions are as follows:

As a result of LEA block, Uda Walawe dam provides a poor Yala and Maha
season occurrence of one season out of seven (1/7) and one season out of
thirteen (1/13), respectively. Occurrence is reduced to one Yala season out of
ten (1/10) and one Maha season out of twenty (1/20), when a reallocation is
done.

EMB block gets only yield reductions in Yala season (one Yala season out of
thirteen -100% occurrences in poor season-). Comparing this situation with the
actual scenario, we observe that EMB increases yield reductions as well as
their occurrences. As mentioned in section 5.3.3, here displayed results
concerning yield reductions in EMB block are unreliable as it is revealed by the
conducted field survey. Nevertheless, we consider interesting since a
functioning point of view of the model to show such yield variations.

On the other hand, BIN block reduces the yield only during Maha season (with
an occurrence of one Maha season out of eight -80% occurrences in good
season and 20% in poor season-). Comparing this situation with the actual
scenario, we observe that yield reductions have been kept similar to actual
scenario, but their occurrence have increased.

The best situation is encountered in the reallocation scenario. Under this


situation, there are no yield reductions (only a very little yield reduction
remains for EMB block in Yala season with a very low occurrence). However,
yield differences between top and tail-enders due to their location along the
canal are not eliminated or even diminished.

Tail-end farmers cultivating paddy with low performances in BIN block face the
worst situation for the expansion scenario. This category is always the most
vulnerable one, in terms of net income, as consequence of low yields.

Table 20 Yield reduction occurrences (Actual, Expansion -alternative 2- and Expansion with
Reallocation)
ACTUAL EXPANSION (Alt 2) REALLOCATION

BLOCK deficit year occurrence


fails Maha fails Yala fails Maha fails Yala fails Maha fails Yala
EMB 0 1/20 0 1/13 0 1/39
CHA 0 0 0 0 0 0
MUR 0 0 0 0 0 0
BIN 1/10 0 1/8 0 0 0
ANG 0 0 0 0 0 0

123
Figure 56 Yield reductions for Yala and Maha season by block and farm type (Baseline, Expansion
alternative 2- and Expansion with Reallocation scenarios)

Yield reduction by farm type and block - Yala good (GS) and poor season (BS)
40
EMB Yala BS EMB Yala GS
35 EMB Yala BS
CHA Yala GS
30 CHA Yala BS
Yield reduction (kg/ha)

MUR Yala GS
25
MUR Yala BS
BIN Yala GS
20
BIN Yala BS
ANG Yala GS
15
ANG Yala BS
EMB Yala BS
10

5
EMB Yala BS
EMB Yala GS
0
(low yield)

(low yield)

(low yield)
Tail Rice-

Tail Rice-

Tail Rice-
Tail Rice

Tail Rice

Tail Rice
Top Rice-

Top Rice-

Top Rice-
Tail Rice

Tail Rice

Tail Rice
Banana

Banana

Banana
Banana

Banana

EXPANSION (alt 2) Banana EXPANSION with


REALLOCATION

Yield reduction by farm type and block - Maha good (GS) and poor season (BS)
40

EMB Maha GS
35
EMB Yala BS
CHA Maha GS
30
CHA Maha BS
Yield reduction (kg/ha)

MUR Maha GS
25
MUR Maha BS

20 BIN Maha GS
BIN Maha BS
15 ANG Maha GS
BIN Maha GS BIN Maha GS ANG Maha BS
10

BIN Maha GS
5

0
(low yield)

(low yield)

(low yield)
Tail Rice-

Tail Rice-

Tail Rice-
Top Rice-

Top Rice-

Top Rice-
Tail Rice

Tail Rice

Tail Rice
Tail Rice

Tail Rice

Tail Rice
Banana

Banana

Banana
Banana

Banana

Banana

ACTUAL EXPANSION (alt 2) EXPANSION with


REALLOCATION

124
5.4.3.3 Water Balance with current management and all diversions on going (Expansion scenario -
alt. 2 - )

Although the main purpose of our model simulation is to identify distribution


efficiencies and inequities under specific water management rather than a balance
between available and water demands, we considered interesting to look at the water
balance by comparing our results with former reports.

As mentioned in section 5.2.3.2, block water demands are made up by plot needs
(consumptive demand) and volumes delivered by MASL (non-consumptive demand)
which is split in target volumes covering plot needs and comfort volumes as a
surplus. Delivered volumes by MASL can be considered as a consequence of current
established irrigation management.

Taking into account the priorities described in section 5.2.3.2, we used the main
canal issues (RBMC and LBMC) and the flow at Liyangastota anicut as points of
comparison, in accordance with JICA (1998) and SAPI (2000) Reports. Table 21
sums up the results.

Table 21. Water balance results for JICA (1998), SAPI (2000) and model simulated with all the
diversions on going.
Uda Walawe Liyangastota
Sub-
Report deficit year occurrence Anicut
scenario
(on RBC) deficit year occurrence
With
1,2 1/7.5 (86% adequacy)) Not appear
JICA (1998) Timbolketiya
Without
1/5 (80% adequacy) Not appear
Timbolketiya
With
1/10 (90% adequacy) -
Timbolketiya
SAPI (2000)1,3
Without
1/3 (66% adequacy) -
Timbolketiya
With
Expansion 1/20.5 (95% adequacy) Not appear
Timbolketiya
Scenario
(alternative 2)4 Without
1/4.5 (78% adequacy) Not appear
Timbolketiya
1,
A scenario is considered successful provided 80% of total diversion requirements are satisfied in
more than 80% of the modeled years, equivalent to a failure one year in five (20% failure).
2
Considering the development of Bahirawa Area (660 ha with paddy and vegetables) located in the
downstream of the Sevangala Sugar area and adjoining Mau Ara in the east. Weli Oya and Mau Ara
diversions are not taking into account. Left Extension area is equal to 5.340 ha.
3
With the base case assumptions for the extension area of 5.151ha and 200% cropping intensity the
water requirements are estimated as 165.8MCMyear.
4
A scenario is considered successful provided 80% of total diversion requirements are satisfied in
more than 80% of the modeled years

The differences observed in SAPI results, without Timbolketiya, are due to current
low system efficiencies of the order of 49%, which is consistent with current irrigation
practices. As this report remarks, it is an unacceptable rate of failure and the current
management standards and trends are not adequate to allow recommendation of the

125
full development of the left bank extension area without new initiatives to improve
system infrastructure and management standards.

Both JICA and SAPI reports remark that a Timbolketiya diversion would increase
water resources available to the RBC. In this case, the whole command area could
be irrigated with more 80% probability.

Finally, we got deficit occurrences slightly lower than other reports with Timbolketiya
diversion that can be because water allocation model is not doing a balance at Uda
Walawe dam, but rather effects of such diversion are measured along the RBC canal
before reaching downstream block demands.

126
5.5 Increasing equity: water negotiation?

The present chapter considers the question of possible water management tools for
Uda Walawe irrigation system in order to improve the equitability of the irrigation
system.

As argued by Madhusudan and Sakthivadivel (2002) the inequitable water


distribution in a surface irrigation system (large scale canal system) is one of the
main factors contributing to income inequity in irrigated agriculture. So the
disproportionate agricultural production between the reaches ultimately produces a
large degree of income inequity and a long-run impact on wealth difference between
reaches in an irrigation command.

The inequity Uda Walawe irrigation system is well show by the Figure 57. Tail-enders,
with less access to canal water, may be operating at the bottom part of the
production function (or zone of increasing marginal returns), while head-end farmers
(with relatively greater access to canal water) may be operating at the top end or
decreasing part of the production function (different production functions are due to
the lack of production facilities by tail-enders68).

Among the variability of water management tools to reduce the inequity of water
allocation, we went though those ones that seem more suitable to be applied to the
present study. These management tools are based on different economic
approaches. The first approach takes into account water opportunity cost for each
farm type for a possible water pricing. The second approach refers to quotas system
that MASL is trying to apply in Uda Walawe irrigation system.

Although opportunity cost method is not easy to apply due to farmers reluctance to
pay for water, it can give as accurate idea of water cost for the different farm types.
Therefore, farm types with more profitable crops, such as banana, will have higher
water opportunity cost compared to the types cultivating a single crop such as rice.
Following this approach, different water prices could be fixed for each type. However,
opportunity costs do not incorporate the value of positive externalities generated by
return-flows for downstream users. Furthermore, applying water pricing does not
mean that inequity in allocation will be necessarily reduced.

On the contrary, the quota system is more flexible to reproduce water allocation to
current reality. By allocating a quota to each block, management will be improved
and therefore, the efficiency inside the block could be increased, without any need to
price water. However, the quota system is quite far from working successfully if it
does not take into account that management is done by FOs. On the contrary, the

68
As is pointed out by the above mentioned authors, it is possible that better management of canal water and
more equitable distribution of water across the head, middle and tail-end plots could potentially improve total
social benefits and water productivity of an irrigation system with minimum or no negative effects on the level of
water use at the head end. The reduction of water use by the head-end farmer from Wo to W1, and through the
reallocation of this water to the tail end, allows a gain of per hectare marginal revenue of Rb-Ra to the tail-end
farmer. As the difference between Rb-Ra is greater than Re-Rf, the revenue lost to the head-end farmer, there is
a potential net social gain. Long term gains to society from such water allocation are much higher than the gains
described in the short run. The marginal gains to the tail end from such improved water reallocation decisions
could be increased up to Rc due to the upward shift in the production function (technical change).

127
problem of equity will remains. In addition, at this level empowerment and awareness
programs for FOs should be developed to reinforce operational water management.

Figure 57. Hypothetical production function and marginal return to the land for head and tail end
farmers in a typical canal system. Source: Madhusudan and Sakthivadivel (2002), (adapted from
Bromley et al. 1977)

Value of production ($) Value of production ($)

PF (H)
Re

Rf
PF (T)

Rc
PF (T)

Rb

Ra

Head-end Tail-end
farmers farmers

O W1 Wo W

Total water use (W T)

PF(T) = Production function of tail-ender farmer


PF(H) = Production function of head-ender farmer
RaRf = Marginal revenue from each unit of water use in dollar terms
OW = Total quantity of water available in the irrigation canal command (W T)
which is divided between head-end farmers and tail-end farmers
OW o = Water used by the head-end farmers initially in case 1
OW-OW o = Water availability to tail-end farmers initially case 1

5.5.1 Water pricing vs. quota system

In order to calculate opportunity costs and possible threshold for water quota
quantities, we have kept the following steps. Firstly, we set up a rice yield-irrigation
relationship as considering 3 irrigation days the maximum average of water supplied
to any farm type wherever its localization is (Figure 58). Volume water is taken in
irrigation days because the difficulties to derive a yield function (as mentioned in
section 5.3.2). Moreover, irrigation as given in days allows us to take into
consideration the return flows. Because each farm type is attributed with specific
irrigation days and an average yield, it is possible to calculate yield variations, and
consequently net incomes using OLYMPE, when irrigation days are shift. As a result,
we obtained the approximate production function and the net income for the different
farm types in RBC Uda Walllawe irrigation system69 (Figure 59).

69
Because farm sampling is based on only a few data, the interest of our work is more related to the method
applied than the results obtained.

128
To calculate the water opportunity cost, as the increasing of net income when one
unit of water (irrigation unit) is added to each farm type farm, we developed a linear
optimization by using Excel. We took into consideration land size and irrigation days
as constraints, as well as maximum net incomes for each farm type crop using the
yield-irrigation relationship of Figure 58. The results on the net income for each farm
type, when one irrigation unit is increased, are displayed in Figure 59 (squares).

Figure 58 Rice yield per irrigation days (Irrigation is given in days with the purpose to include
drained water as return-flows for tail-enders).

Relation Yield-Irrigation
9000

8000

7000
yield (Kg/ha)

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000 y = 1974.6Ln(x) + 4339.2


2 RICE
1000 R = 0.98 YIELD MAX 6435
0 IRRIGATION 3
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
BANANA
irrigation (days) YIELD MAX 19800
IRRIGATION 2.32
Mean Positive desviation YIELD 19811
Negative desviation Logarithmique (Mean)
RELATION 0.77

Figure 59 Net incomes augmentation per irrigation water unit deviation (where irrigation water unit
is half day). (Red points display actual net incomes per farm type).

Production function for top and tail end farmers along the canal
160 160

140 140

120 120
net income head-end

154.189 Rs
(thousands Rs/ha.)
net income tail-end

(thousands Rs/ha.)

100 100
149.044 Rs
65. 541 Rs
80 80

60 7.400 Rs 60

40 40

20
10.359 Rs 20

0 0
1 1.5 2 2.5 3

irrigation days used by head-end farmers

3 2.5 2 1.5 1

irrigation days used by tail-end farmers

water volume as irrigation days

Tail Rice-Banana Tail Rice Tail Rice (low yield) Top Banana Top Rice-Banana

129
Figure 59 is also helpful to show that the relationship net incomes-irrigation units by
farm type can be used to fix water quota.

The present situation concerning the inequity in water distribution along the canals
well exemplified in Figure 59. Then, considering a total water availability of 3 irrigation
days, we face a situation where top-end farmers take 2.5 days and tail-enders 1.5
days, which results in an unequal income distribution. Net incomes differences can
be reduced by the allocation of 2 irrigation days per equal for each one of farm types.
When a farm type is increasing or decreasing one water unit, then the total net
income is increased or decreased with the amount displayed in the square of Figure
59 for this farm type.

To establish a quota system, a consensus among different types of farmers is


required. With this purpose, it is possible to develop a water negotiation game
where the water opportunity cost can be used to fix benefits or losses and results on
net incomes could be simulated with OLYMPE.

130
6 Conclusion and recommendations

To conclude, we will briefly examine the achievements of the present study in relation
with the formulated hypothesis. Moreover, we would like to confirm that multi-level
modeling is a useful tool for the analysis of efficiency and equity at basin-block and
farm level respectively, as exposed in the introduction.

Future research should be go through the improvement of the water allocation model
for a better understanding of water allocation inside the blocks a well as return-flows,
especially concerning water fraction taken by homesteads. Besides, HYD can also
work as an optimization model allowing us to solve critical situations in poor seasons.
That is the case of Uda Walawe dam management to maintain plot needs of
downstream demands under a reallocation rules scenario.

A second phase must be to find a yield productivity function relating water allocated
at farm level (plot) and crop productivity. It allows us to improve the assessment of
water shortage on yields.

Finally, an extensive field survey should be conducted to evaluate the socioeconomic


effects on farm types when water management tools as water pricing or quotas are
implemented. In this point, OLYMPE can be considered as a helpful tool to develop a
water negotiation game validated by the social actors and stakeholders of Uda
Walawe irrigation system.

131
132
Different sets of conclusions can be established depending on whether they are
referred to hypothesis formulated or simulation results and comparisons with former
reports.

Concerning the formulated hypotheses, conclusions are as follow:

1. Uda Walawe irrigation system is a demand driven system (RWS >>1) were
management is minimized by giving full supply.

2. In such a system, water shortages happen due to the lack of management


during the inter-season period that can also affect seasonal periods and
consequently generate low yields when water deliveries at the end of the
season are shortened.

3. Management efficiencies can be expressed in terms of comfort margins,


where high comfort margins correspond to low management efficiencies.

4. Deficits during the season period are affecting basically comfort margins.

5. The agriculture typology is the result of different farm locations along the
canals. Tail-end farmers face disadvantages compared with top-end farmers
because they get less water and suffer from yield reduction.

6. No clear relationship could be established between efficiency and equity in


water allocation such as: the more efficiently the system is managed, the more
equitable the resource is shared. However, we can conclude that water
deficits giving low yields are more related to an inequitable water distribution
inside the block and along the canals than to water allocation at block level.

7. HYD and OLYMPE are suitable tools for simulating a water allocation model at
basin and block levels and their impact on farm typologies. However, the
management rules complexity and the physical heterogeneity made it almost
impossible to go further with detailed lower working scales

As for the conclusions of simulations, the following results can be stated:

1. We can make a distinction between blocks with low efficiencies and high
comforts such as EMB, in opposition to ANG block. Blocks such as CHA, MUR
and BIN get intermediate values.

2. Under current allocation (baseline scenario), blocks situated on RBC get


deficits on comfort water fraction during the season period. Besides, EMB and
BIN blocks undergo deficit on plot needs at the end of Yala and Maha seasons
respectively. SEV block, on the LBC, undergoes deficit at the end of both Yala
and Maha seasons. Comforts on LBC blocks could not be calculated

3. Under expansion scenario, a 44% increase in the management irrigation


demand in LBC and a 28% decrease in the management irrigation demand
(on comfort fraction) in RBC (expansion scenario - alternative 2), seem to be
the best alternative in order to minimize block deficits on plot needs.

133
4. Considering water deficit block distributions, we can conclude that
intermediate inflows coming from of Chandrikawewa and Kiriibbanwewwa
tanks play an important role in making downstream blocks get lower deficits
than head-blocks (such as EMB and SEV blocks).

5. The water balance study of the irrigation system considering Timbolketiya


diversion and LEA shows that adequacy is 95%, which is quite over of a
failure one year out of five, considered as successfully satisfying the project.
This result agrees with JICA (1998) and SAPI (2000) reports

6. An alternative management is possible when water demands are adjusted to


plot needs (consumptive demand) all along the season and comforts are set
up on real demands (non-consumptive demands). In this case, deficit
occurrences decrease and consequently, the impact on yield reductions at top
and tail-enders is reduced. Nevertheless, increasing the level of management
rules leads to numerous questions about how implementation can be carried
out.

To sum up the above mentioned conclusions, we can assert that:

Even though water allocation efficiency at block level can be improved, by


decreasing failure occurrences and deficit magnitudes, water distribution remains
inequitable in the block because it does not reduce yield differences between farm
types along the canal.

Thereafter, we must distinguish between equity of water allocation at block and farms
level. This would allow us to confirm that equity between blocks depends on water
allocation efficiency while equity between farms inside a block depends on the
collective management by the farmers themselves.

Concerning recommendations, the following points can be mentioned:

An application of cropping simulation model, as it was planned, should be


applied in order to link water allocation and crop production by simulating the
effect of water shortage on crop productivity and to set a crop yield function.

Management knowledge inside block level should be improved to be modeled


and simulated. This is closely related to farmer allocation rules which is
caching from block to block and from DC to FC still inside the same block.

A better representation of return-flows is necessary to improve our


understanding of homesteads and deep losses. One option could be to
introduce an aquifer into the water allocation model and feature infiltration as a
component of natural and artificial arcs.

134
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137
138
Annexes

All annexes and all data mentioned in this thesis, as well as the inputs and the
outputs of HYD and OLYMPE models, can be found on the attached CD-ROM.

139
140
Walawe River Basin short profile

141
142
Annex 1 (Section 3.2) Reservoirs main features in Uda Walawe
Basin

Uda Walawe Dam

Capacity - Level relation in Uda walawe Reservoir


350

300
2
y = 0.9491x - 10.234x + 49.476
250
R2 = 1
Capacity (MCM)

200

150

100

50

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Level (m)

Surface - Level relation in Uda Walawe Reservoir


40
35 2
y = 0.0724x - 0.2472x + 3.2312
30 R2 = 1
Surface (km2)

25
20
15
10
5
0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Level (m)

Reservoir capacity Monthly net evaporation losses (coef 0.8)


mm/day m
Level (m) Volume (MCM) Jan 3.5 0.09
DSL 75 28 Feb 3.8 0.08
SPILL 82 112 Mar 4.2 0.10
FSL 88 269 Apr 3.8 0.09
HFL 90 337 May 4.0 0.10
Jun 4.7 0.12
Summary of power characteristics Jul 5.1 0.12
Aug 5.5 0.14
Turbines (Statkraft Report) 79 70 Sep 5.0 0.12
Min Power Generation (SAPI) 81 93 Oct 3.9 0.10
Nov 3.2 0.08
Dec 3.1 0.08

Monthly
Domestic Rainfall Variacion
Average Storage RBC LBC Spill Seepage Evap Inflow
Use UDA Storage
1985-2002
Jan 201.48 45.56 23.26 13.25 6.44 2.15 3.94 83.23 96.32 -15.75
Feb 183.47 37.16 23.41 7.67 5.31 1.95 3.56 69.35 83.62 -13.80
Mar 181.99 24.25 12.58 16.03 5.86 2.39 3.94 76.62 121.40 8.58
Apr 198.45 28.43 12.42 32.89 6.18 2.26 3.81 122.12 217.42 27.49
May 212.76 56.89 26.55 21.95 6.81 2.58 3.94 113.72 104.23 -6.04
Jun 194.85 53.18 24.94 2.58 6.02 2.71 3.81 66.99 43.05 -29.77
Jul 157.15 54.47 26.05 0.00 5.00 2.60 3.94 54.55 28.14 -39.69
Aug 119.11 45.44 22.09 0.00 3.81 2.27 3.94 41.71 41.58 -36.17
Sep 100.25 14.82 11.00 0.02 3.10 1.77 3.81 38.53 75.02 2.28
Oct 121.49 27.34 13.54 3.69 3.87 1.67 3.94 95.79 222.88 40.56
Nov 173.39 40.37 19.52 29.88 5.34 1.71 3.81 157.83 261.11 52.38
Dec 200.20 43.61 21.90 12.70 6.40 1.89 3.94 101.61 130.86 4.08
Total 170.38 39.29 19.77 11.72 5.34 2.16 3.86 85.17 118.80 -0.49

143
Samanalawewa Dam

Reservoir capacity Samanalawewa

Maximum Storage 278 MCM at 460.0 masl 300


Dead Storage 60 MCM at 424.0 masl

Capacity (MCM)
250 18.46
y = 2E-47x
200 2
R =1
Monthly net evaporation losses 150
mm m
100
Jan 82.3 0.08
Feb 82.3 0.08 50
Mar 100.6 0.10 0
Apr 82.3 0.08 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470
May 100.6 0.10
Jun 100.6 0.10 Water Level (m)
Jul 100.6 0.10
Aug 100.6 0.10
Sep 100.6 0.10
Oct 82.3 0.08 Samanalawewa
Nov 70.1 0.07
Dec 70.1 0.07 1200
14.162
Capacity (MCM)

1000 y = 2E-35x
800 2
Summary of power characteristics R =1
600
Turbines 2 Francis
400
Maximum flow 40.2 m3/s
Max. loss 8.9 m 200
Max. power 120.1 MW 0
390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470
Water Level (m)
Elev. Surface Area- Volume curve

Elev. Area. Capacity


masl ha MCM
Monthly Average (1997-
Inflow Out Power Out Irr Out Leak Out Tot
2002)

380 260 48 Jan 38 39 3 5 47


424 310 60 Feb 36 38 2 5 45
425 330 64 Mar 28 28 1 5 33
430 380 82 Apr 53 28 0 5 33
435 450 105 May 45 32 4 5 41
440 530 130 Jun 31 25 3 5 34
445 610 160 Jul 19 27 3 5 36
450 710 191 Aug 20 24 3 5 32
455 830 228 Sep 25 26 0 5 31
460 960 270 Oct 42 23 0 5 28
464 1130 314 Nov 61 22 10 5 37
465 1150 328 Dec 54 34 7 5 46
Total 38 29 3 5 37

Corrections for inflow-outflow transformation

1993-2002 1997-2002 1992-1996


Month correction Inflow Outflow Month correction Inflow Outflow Month correction Inflow Outflow
1 1.2 36 42 1 1.3 38 47 1 1.0 34 34
2 1.2 32 37 2 1.2 36 45 2 1.0 26 25
3 1.1 27 30 3 1.2 28 33 3 0.9 26 24
4 0.7 59 44 4 0.6 53 33 4 0.9 68 60
5 1.0 50 49 5 0.9 45 41 5 1.1 57 61
6 1.0 35 36 6 1.1 31 34 6 1.0 42 40
7 1.4 21 30 7 1.9 19 36 7 0.8 25 21
8 1.4 19 26 8 1.6 20 32 8 1.0 18 17
9 1.2 23 27 9 1.3 25 31 9 1.0 21 21
10 0.8 48 38 10 0.7 42 28 10 0.9 58 53
11 0.7 63 46 11 0.6 61 37 11 0.9 66 61
12 0.9 54 49 12 0.8 54 46 12 1.0 54 54
469 455 451 443 494 471

144
Chandrikawewa Tank

Reservoir capacity
m over msl m
RB sill level 56.6 3.5 Chandrikawew Surface Area curve (ha)
Min water level 58.5 6.8
Spill 61.4 17.6
Max Storage 62.9 28.7 450

Monthly net evaporation losses (coef 0.8) 400 y = 71.54x - 4015.7


mm/day m 2
350 R = 0.9982
Jan 4.14 0.10

surface ara, Ha
Feb 4.60 0.10 300
Mar 5.21 0.13
Apr 5.01 0.12 250
May 4.84 0.12
Jun 5.20 0.13 200
Jul 6.21 0.15 150
Aug 6.55 0.16
Sep 5.92 0.14 100
Oct 4.92 0.12
Nov 3.64 0.09 50
Dec 3.85 0.10 0
58.0 58.5 59.0 59.5 60.0 60.5 61.0 61.5 62.0
Elev. Surface Area- Volume curve water height, m over msl

Elev. Elev. Capacity Area.


m over msl cm MCM ha
52.7 0 0.0 0.0
53.7 100 0.1 7.1 Chandrika Capacity curve (MCM)
54.7 200 0.4 25.6
55.7 300 1.2 53.9
20
56.7 400 2.5 91.4
57.7 500 4.4 137.8 18
58.7 600 7.0 192.7 y = 4.159x - 237.77
16 2
Tank capacity MCM

59.7 700 10.3 255.8 R = 0.9993


60.7 800 14.3 327.0 14
61.7 900 19.3 406.1 12
62.7 1000 25.2 492.9
10
63.7 1100 32.0 587.4
8
6
Monthly seepage losses
MCM 4
Jan 0.00 2
Feb 0.00
0
Mar 0.00
Apr 0.00 58.5 59.0 59.5 60.0 60.5 61.0 61.5 62.0
May 0.00 Water height, m over msl
Jun 0.00
Jul 0.00
Aug 0.00
Sep 0.00
Oct 0.00
Nov 0.00
Dec 0.00

145
Annex 2 (Section 3.2) Canals Schema

D6
C1
D7 UDA WALAWE
D8 TANK C2

SEVANGALABLOCK
D9 TRACT 02 C3
D10
D11
D12 C4

EMBILIPITIYA BLOCK
D13
D14 C5
C6
D15
D16
D17 TRACT 03 C7
D18
C8
D19

HABARALUWEWA
D20
D21
D22

TANK
MD1
D23
D24 MD2
D25 TRACT 04
MD3
CHANDRIKAWEWA

D26 MD4
MORAKETIYA BC MD5
BLOCK

MD6
D27 KIRIIBBANWEWABLOCK
CHANDRIKA

MD7

AQUEDUCT
TANK

CHANDRIKAWEWA BC
UDA WALAWE RIVER

MD8
MAMADALA BC
MURAWASHENA

MD9
FC1
MAHAGAMA BLOCK

FC2 MD10
BLOCK

KIRIIBBANWEWA
FC3
FC4

TANK
FC5 KRB
DC1 KLB
DC2
MD11
MD12
DC3
BINKAMABLOCK

FC6 MD13
FC7 MD14
FC8
DC4
FC9
MD15
SURIYAWEWABLOCK

DC5 MD16
MD17
DC6
FC10
GURUGODELLA BC MD18
GALWEWA
BEDDEWEWA BC

DC1
DC2
DC3
DC4
DC5
DC6
FC1

FC2 MEASURING GAUGE


FC3
ANGUNUKOLAPELESSA

MANAMPERIGAMA BC REGULATOR

14DC1
BLOCK

17DC1

GAJAMANGAMA BC
BATA ATA BC

146
Annex 3 (Section 3) - Actual Operation and Maintenance (O&M) in
Uda Walawe irrigation schemes

Uda Walawe project

The Resident Project Manager (RPM) manages the Uda Walawe project and he is
assisted by Deputy RPMs, one for agriculture, engineering, community services,
lands, marketing, finance and administration (Figure 60).

The Deputy RPM for engineering is responsible to the RPM for all engineering
activities in the project. He is assisted by the Project Irrigation Engineer (PIE) who is
responsible for water management and day-to-day operation of the system. The PIE
is assisted by an Irrigation Engineer (IE) for water management and flow monitoring,
and also by Engineering Assistants (EA). Apart from maintenance, this water
management sector is responsible for main system management in the Right Bank
and Left Bank main canals. It has no involvement in water management within the
different blocks.

The project area was formerly divided into 7 blocks, 5 on the Right Bank (RB) and 2
on the Left Bank (LB), each containing approximately 2,000 farm households, each
block being headed by a Block Manager. At present this block structure has been
changed, as a consequence of economic readjustments, into 3 block for RB and 3 for
LB70 (Figure 12).

At field level, the block is subdivided into units of about 250 farm households and
supervised by a unit manager. The block engineer, who receives technical
instructions from the deputy RPM engineering, is responsible for all the engineering
activities in the block.

Two engineering assistants involved in maintenance and operation of the system


assist the block engineer. The unit managers are mainly responsible for agricultural
extension and feedbacks of field level information to higher level staff.

Field canal or turn-out is based on farmer organizations71 for participatory


management. FOs were established in the Mahaweli area in 1982 and include 2
farmer representatives, one for irrigation and the other for agriculture, for each
Distributary canal.

70
Former blocks were Embilipitiya, Chandrikawewa, Muraweshena, Binkama and Angunokolapelessa. This block
has been grouped in Chandrikawewa (Embilipitiya and Chandrikawewa), Muraweshena (Muraweshena with a
part of Chandrikawewa- and Binkama) and Angunokolapelessa. In LB the actual blocks are Sevenagala (Surgar
Cane Area), Kiriibbanwewa and Sooriyawewa.
71
Formal farmer organisations in the Walawe project area did not exist until the current efforts initiated in 1985 by
the MASL.

147
Figure 60. Organization structure of MEA. Source: JICA (1998)

Managing Director

General Manager

Chief Manager Manager Project Manager


Agro nomist Lands Farmer Coordinator Administ
Institutions

Chief Manager Manager Manager


Irrigation Mark eting Finances Comminity
Engineer and Credit Develop

15-20.000 Far mers Resident Projec t Managers (RPM)

Deputy Res ident Project Managers (DR PM)

DR PM DRPM DRPM Project Pr oject DRPM Pr oject


Agr ic ultur e Lands W ater Mar keting Administ C ommunity Accountant
Managemen and Cr edit O ffic er Dev elop

2-3.000 Far mer s Block Manager

Agricultural Ir rigation Land Community Marketing Administ


Officer Engineer O fficer Develop Offic er Officer
Officer

400 Farmers Unit Managers Agricultural Assistants

Farmers

Liyangastota anicut

The Right Bank and the Left Bank schemes are operated and managed by the
Irrigation Engineer at Ambalantota under the supervision of the Deputy Director
Southern Range. There is one project manager appointed by the IMD for the above
functions for Ridiyagama reservoir.

Kaltota scheme

This scheme is operated and maintained by the Irrigation Engineer of Ratnapura


District, under the supervision of Deputy Director, Colombo Range. A system level
farmer organization comprising of 11 Right Bank and Left Bank farmer organizations
formed under the NIRP rehabilitation program have taken over the responsibility of
the management of all the D canal and Field canal systems in the project. There is a
Technical Assistant, acting as project manager, with a supervisor and a few laborers
to carry out O&M activities and oversee farmer organization functions.

148
Annex 4 (Section 4.1) Reports comparaison
Photographic PRC
Survey Engineering SOGREAH Japan Nippon Koei
Corporation, Consultants, Consultants. International CO, Ltd. SAPI Team.
Sub-basin Features Actual. 2003
Limited. INC. Grenoble, Cooperation Tokyo Japan. 2000
Toronto, Colorado, France. 1985 Agency. 1993 1995
Canada. 1960 USA. 1982
Catchment area
338 338 338 338 340
(km2)

Rainfall (mm) 2860 - - 2630

1194 uncontrolled
1064 1678 1560 1427 (404 MCM) 1588
Run-off (mm)
(359.67 MCM) (565 MCM) (527 MCM) (482 MCM) 1445 controlled (540 MCM)
(488 MCM)

Run-off coefficient 0.59 - - 0.63


Samanalawewa
1921-1973 Detail
Original dataset Technical Report
Estimated by CEB Estimated by CEB Hydrodata 1995
(source) of Samanalawewa
Project

Generated dataset 1907-1956 ? 1960-1989 1960-1989

correlating rainfall
Water balance
(Thiessen
correlating rainfall calculation
method) and
Formula and run-off by ? ? considering
runoff by
Thiessen method turbine flow and
regression
Kaltota demand
equation

Catchment area
Uda Walawe 1152 1152 1152 1152 1156
(km2)

Rainfall 2290 2343 2264 2063

918 862
841 782 782 811
Run-off (1057 MCM) (997 MCM)
969 (MCM) (900 MCM) (901 MCM) (934 MCM)
1942-1967 1960-1968

149
1009
(1167 MCM)
1002 1969-1984
(1154 MCM) 878
1968-1983 (1016 MCM)
1985-2002

Run-off coefficient 0.40 0.33 0.46

1942-1957 and 1942-1957 and


1960-1967 1968-1983 1960-1967
Embilipitita- hydraulic balance Embilipitita-
Original dataset
Moraketita by record Moraketita Hydrodata 1995
(source)
1957-1961 historic reservoir 1957-1961 historic
run-off data at operation run-off data at
Uda Walawe Uda Walawe

Generated dataset 1942-1980 1942-1967 1960-1990 1960-1989

1942-1957 and
1960-1967
correlation with
Embilipitita-
Moraketita
(correlation factor regression Water balance correlating rainfall
Correlation with
1.4) equation using calculation (Thiessen
Embilipitita-
1957-1960 historic extended run-off considering method) and
Formula Moraketita
run-off data at value of Samanalawewa runoff by
(correlation factor
Uda Walawe Embilipitiya at reservoir and Weli regression
1.4)
1967-1972 Uda Walawe Oya demand equation
rainfall-run-off
relations
1972-1980
reservoir balance
method
Timbolketiya Catchment area
270 270 270 270 277
(in Timbolketiya) (km2)

Rainfall 2130 2464 - 2100

630 458 458 310 563


Run-off
(170 MCM) (47 m3/s) (123 MCM) (84 MCM) (156 MCM)

Run-off coefficient 0.30 0.19 - 0.25

150
Annual Rainfall
1960-1967 historic
Original dataset and Surface
run-off data at Hydrodata 1995
(source) Runoff 1974. Irr.
Timbolketiya
Dept

Generated dataset 1960-1990 Annual average

correlating rainfall
regression (Thiessen
equation using method) and
Formula
run-off value of runoff by
Timbolketiya regression
equation
Catchment area
1580 1580 1580
(km2)

Rainfall 2190

888
(1403 MCM)
1943-1968
851
1159.82 905 730
Run-off (1344 MCM)
(1832.51 MCM) (1430 MCM) (437.8 m3/s)
1968-1984
756
(1194 MCM)
Empilipitiya 1985-2000

Run-off coefficient 0.41

1942-1967 1949-1968 historic


Original dataset
Monthly records at run-off data at
(source)
station Embilipitiya

Generated dataset 1907-1956 - 1960-1990 1960-2000

regression Generated by
correlating rainfall
equation using addition of Uda
Formula and runoff by -
run-off value of Walawe and
Thiessen method
Embilipitiya Embilipitiya
Hulanda Catchment area
166 166 166 180
(in Halmillaketiya) (km2)

Rainfall 1870 1604 1810

151
270 121 262
Run-off
(45 MCM) (33 MCM) (47 MCM)

Run-off coefficient 0.14 0.12 0.14

correlating rainfall
Annual Rainfall (Thiessen
Original dataset and Surface method) and
(source) Runoff 1974. Irr. runoff by
Dept regression
equation
Generated dataset
Annual average
source)

Formula

Catchment area
360 360 360 360 374
(km2)

Rainfall 1500 1091 - 1402

150 27 102 165 130


Run-off ?
(54 MCM) (3.6 m3/s) (37 MCM) (60 MCM) (48 MCM)

0.09
Run-off coefficient 0.10 0.09
Manuara
(in Mahagama)
1951-1965 historic 1951-1965 historic
Original dataset
run-off data at run-off data at
(source)
Mau Ara Mau Ara

Generated dataset 1960-1990 Annual average

correlating rainfall
Inflows correlation
regression Run-off coefficient (Thiessen
between Uda
Run-off coefficient equation using with method) and
Formula Walawe and
0.25 extended run-off Hambegamuwa runoff by
Halmillaketiya
value of Manu Ara runoff regression
stantions
equation

152
Annex 5 (Section 4.1) Rainfall series reconstitution
Rainfall reconstitution is done at monthly level, considering 12 rainfall stations in the
basin and based on historical daily or monthly records from several sources.

Table 22. Rainfall stations used with historical series


Av Monthly Av Yearly
ST NAME X-Lat Y-Lon
Rainfall Rainfall
ALU Alupolla Group - Hapugastenna453583 742816 330.3 3964.0
AMB Ambalantota Govt Farm 502213 676470 73.5 882.1
BAL Balangoda Post Office 466840 735068 186.2 2234.5
BEL Bandara Eliya - Haputale 502210 750534 166.2 1994.9
CAM Bogawantawala - Campion 466849 749439 192.5 2310.3
NAG Nagrak Estate - Belihuloya 475689 748329 188.3 2259.6
UDA - UDT Uda Walawe Tank 480095 709636 113.1 1357.6
WHA West Haputale - Udaveriya 481215 749432 183.8 2205.7
HAM Hambegamuwa 494472 721793 106.1 1272.9
EMB Embilipitiya Irr Tank 483410 699686 101.7 1220.0
GOD Godakawela 461302 718490 148.5 1781.8
LAU Lauderdale Group 457979 709648 246.4 2956.9

When gaps were found, the estimation of missing data was done filling up the
missing values by considering the nearest two stations by the formula:

Equation 3

: missing rainfall data,

: number of reference stations (in present case n = 2)

: rainfall in the station ,

: rainfall average in the station ,

: rainfall average in the station .

Afterwards, rainfall for each sub-basin has been calculated by the Thiessen Method
by using the above mentioned stations (Figure 10).

153
YEAR MONTH ALU AMR AMB BAL BEL CAM NAG UDA - UDT UDS WEL WHA DEP HAM EMB EMBCOC GOD LAU Irri. Area CHA SAL Ridiyag.
1960 1 279.9 53.0 192.8 248.0 209.6 100.8 160.6 279.9 231.0 115.0 254.7 450.0 90.6 98.5 156.6 53.0
1960 2 346.7 163.2 351.8 358.0 187.5 200.9 134.8 339.9 139.0 111.0 194.7 344.0 134.6 102.6 286.2 163.2
1960 3 151.1 57.4 273.3 56.4 98.8 304.3 54.4 168.4 96.0 34.0 92.8 164.0 45.1 30.2 391.4 57.4
1960 4 353.6 114.7 284.7 287.0 304.8 391.2 230.9 493.8 200.0 305.0 180.5 319.0 219.5 280.3 373.1 114.7
1960 5 487.9 22.1 113.0 112.7 140.8 102.9 97.9 87.9 18.0 61.0 167.5 296.0 46.1 48.5 99.6 22.1
1960 6 363.2 9.5 45.0 14.8 91.2 31.5 51.1 4.1 0.0 15.0 109.8 194.0 14.4 14.1 16.1 9.5
1960 7 518.9 93.9 195.3 269.5 338.4 360.7 157.1 244.3 162.0 162.0 183.4 324.0 132.5 142.3 99.9 93.9
1960 8 249.9 24.9 22.4 29.2 111.4 61.2 16.3 45.7 12.0 3.0 37.4 66.0 13.1 3.1 18.5 24.9
1960 9 673.6 55.9 188.5 86.0 245.9 184.9 211.3 120.4 110.0 94.0 411.5 727.0 83.5 84.1 163.9 55.9
1960 10 308.9 38.4 150.9 258.9 316.0 331.0 222.0 381.3 325.0 285.0 184.5 326.0 175.8 242.9 273.2 38.4
1960 11 422.1 180.0 144.5 454.2 315.2 489.2 178.4 504.7 255.0 215.0 167.0 295.0 198.1 204.1 292.2 180.0
1960 12 188.7 30.8 151.9 88.0 57.7 159.3 64.2 111.5 94.0 91.0 41.9 74.0 63.8 84.9 161.2 30.8
1961 1 179.1 76.8 176.8 222.2 94.1 172.5 163.8 252.2 379.0 203.0 217.0 257.8 146.8 173.9 180.0 76.8
1961 2 274.6 99.1 101.3 232.3 114.3 178.3 114.0 163.3 141.0 185.0 155.8 76.5 144.5 171.1 139.2 99.1
1961 3 287.3 82.8 194.8 211.6 148.1 187.5 113.7 246.9 174.0 151.0 115.3 155.0 119.8 134.1 259.9 82.8
1961 4 432.3 58.5 281.7 339.5 318.2 311.1 58.1 300.2 238.0 47.0 124.7 150.0 52.5 43.2 328.4 58.5
1961 5 692.7 103.5 262.6 230.8 353.5 239.3 161.2 279.7 67.0 96.0 143.2 497.3 102.5 76.3 231.6 103.5
1961 6 370.1 80.4 177.8 34.1 102.3 35.6 94.8 33.3 25.0 69.0 72.0 263.2 75.2 64.7 42.7 80.4
1961 7 380.2 119.6 40.6 40.1 166.8 66.0 87.8 52.3 42.0 86.0 124.7 191.7 100.5 75.6 19.4 119.6
1961 8 660.9 124.1 138.9 66.0 237.0 70.6 110.1 56.4 42.0 59.0 171.7 355.3 89.5 60.6 53.1 124.1
1961 9 455.4 168.1 17.8 145.3 90.7 59.2 82.2 47.2 49.0 56.0 101.9 237.1 105.5 50.1 25.8 168.1
1961 10 473.7 290.8 330.2 361.4 325.0 426.2 200.7 406.1 271.0 201.0 224.9 428.1 239.6 171.3 437.8 290.8
1961 11 490.0 190.5 594.4 273.2 182.6 314.7 251.1 329.2 237.0 226.0 408.5 595.1 212.0 214.5 453.4 190.5
1961 12 374.4 57.7 201.9 254.2 267.3 181.6 156.4 159.8 83.0 129.0 164.5 398.3 99.7 120.3 199.8 57.7
1962 1 325.1 72.7 149.6 147.5 92.0 80.3 180.7 92.5 87.0 216.0 168.8 302.9 152.6 185.1 122.4 72.7
1962 2 181.6 42.7 152.9 94.4 64.5 50.8 54.1 70.6 31.0 35.0 121.6 160.6 39.3 32.4 107.2 42.7
1962 3 351.5 41.5 174.8 229.7 139.9 286.3 117.0 269.2 79.0 95.0 160.2 301.5 73.1 84.4 309.8 41.5
1962 4 344.7 70.0 331.5 389.5 256.0 440.9 246.4 459.2 225.0 168.0 220.2 710.3 129.8 154.4 426.6 70.0
1962 5 780.5 95.8 320.8 160.2 337.1 278.9 232.0 216.2 106.0 140.0 333.2 711.5 125.6 111.3 275.8 95.8
1962 6 305.8 19.4 69.8 43.6 100.2 87.4 70.2 52.6 7.0 21.0 33.4 265.6 22.8 19.7 33.9 19.4
1962 7 329.7 37.4 204.0 26.3 234.9 148.6 149.2 45.5 9.0 29.0 133.3 601.3 38.6 25.5 68.4 37.4
1962 8 267.5 47.3 100.3 42.9 164.2 90.4 86.4 97.8 13.0 20.0 72.8 340.4 35.1 20.5 46.2 47.3
1962 9 487.9 69.6 186.4 100.5 168.9 108.5 196.2 82.6 14.0 113.0 123.8 614.5 98.5 101.1 143.6 69.6
1962 10 733.3 34.7 100.3 390.1 265.3 317.5 154.4 336.0 85.0 104.0 166.3 448.0 76.7 88.6 233.9 34.7
1962 11 624.8 104.7 240.0 344.5 221.3 308.4 331.0 333.5 290.0 376.0 239.7 601.1 257.1 356.9 263.0 104.7
1962 12 471.2 86.7 184.1 310.5 221.5 216.7 223.1 287.8 194.0 160.0 193.1 624.6 131.6 149.3 206.8 86.7
1963 1 355.1 92.9 327.9 340.2 152.3 217.7 116.4 255.8 130.0 117.0 229.9 247.2 106.6 100.2 287.3 92.9
1963 2 295.1 58.9 124.7 166.1 143.5 204.7 71.5 174.8 80.0 67.0 147.1 163.4 63.7 62.0 164.4 58.9
1963 3 452.1 14.6 208.3 166.0 131.0 131.6 80.6 351.8 88.0 60.0 147.5 220.5 41.5 53.3 233.2 14.6
1963 4 604.8 96.9 459.7 419.9 362.3 567.7 175.3 633.2 235.0 92.0 349.9 570.1 98.3 84.6 568.1 96.9
1963 5 608.6 44.6 121.9 225.8 123.7 255.3 190.9 355.3 152.0 142.0 233.2 522.4 102.6 112.9 184.4 44.6
1963 6 638.0 39.9 246.4 22.7 205.7 132.1 138.7 90.9 20.0 46.0 134.9 514.2 48.0 43.2 78.5 39.9
1963 7 550.9 44.6 139.7 48.0 109.2 137.7 192.1 38.6 36.0 48.0 111.5 748.8 53.7 42.2 52.5 44.6
1963 8 472.7 88.1 61.0 94.4 95.7 55.1 135.9 22.1 8.0 22.0 111.5 557.9 56.1 22.6 28.1 88.1
1963 9 656.1 280.6 94.0 305.8 186.6 158.8 160.9 231.4 28.0 68.0 167.6 562.0 164.1 60.8 98.3 280.6
1963 10 675.6 274.4 218.4 377.1 429.1 609.1 343.2 492.3 408.0 395.0 222.5 611.0 340.5 336.6 465.1 274.4
1963 11 911.9 387.7 538.5 447.8 512.1 713.2 268.3 540.3 393.0 318.0 352.8 456.2 345.5 301.8 599.6 387.7
1963 12 376.2 117.0 332.7 336.3 203.9 324.1 172.3 282.2 94.0 96.0 230.8 547.2 108.9 89.6 341.2 117.0
1964 1 246.4 61.0 99.1 196.4 92.6 156.7 86.2 118.9 131.0 50.0 29.2 269.2 56.6 42.9 128.2 61.0
1964 2 216.7 170.3 124.5 235.0 139.6 120.7 87.9 148.8 112.0 96.0 116.2 168.6 127.5 88.8 124.7 170.3
1964 3 446.0 61.5 223.5 196.6 123.7 222.8 118.4 344.7 140.0 142.0 284.7 370.6 106.2 126.1 303.1 61.5
1964 4 532.6 3.8 195.6 296.3 177.7 216.9 202.7 469.1 178.0 152.0 204.9 337.0 90.8 139.7 228.5 3.8
1964 5 960.4 45.4 129.5 132.3 91.5 96.0 120.4 65.5 63.0 86.0 131.3 575.8 70.3 68.4 102.5 45.4
1964 6 451.6 74.9 119.4 41.1 136.9 152.4 31.5 26.4 24.0 52.0 100.2 578.9 60.8 48.8 58.7 74.9
1964 7 778.3 57.1 181.1 154.5 229.4 167.4 81.9 97.8 137.0 93.0 158.1 725.3 77.0 81.7 66.3 57.1
1964 8 331.2 75.7 48.3 71.2 117.5 129.0 0.0 94.7 7.0 44.0 74.0 462.0 55.4 45.2 39.2 75.7
1964 9 669.3 92.4 144.3 120.0 181.1 159.5 71.1 108.2 63.0 78.0 208.9 340.1 83.8 69.8 129.9 92.4
1964 10 440.7 13.2 135.4 311.9 243.0 213.1 63.2 102.4 132.0 934.0 115.7 152.6 494.5 796.0 200.1 13.2
1964 11 585.0 22.9 133.1 101.2 261.8 144.5 118.9 71.1 73.0 67.0 114.3 206.3 50.6 63.6 134.2 22.9
1964 12 390.3 48.4 206.8 70.2 123.0 143.0 57.1 67.6 32.0 78.0 184.4 178.5 64.2 72.8 184.0 48.4
1965 1 133.3 9.8 23.6 46.9 26.8 22.6 0.0 19.6 0.0 0.0 31.9 4.9 4.2 0.0 23.8 9.8
1965 2 189.7 103.5 100.6 96.6 145.1 34.0 54.9 105.2 159.0 144.0 150.5 4.4 122.1 133.2 70.8 103.5
1965 3 321.1 6.3 170.9 135.3 114.7 190.5 154.4 324.9 169.0 71.4 142.1 127.9 47.6 63.4 244.9 6.3
1965 4 677.2 86.2 411.2 365.6 332.3 565.1 120.4 716.8 285.0 178.0 0.0 354.6 135.6 163.6 538.9 86.2
1965 5 1349.0 169.0 333.5 264.5 392.1 460.2 193.8 353.6 125.0 12.0 203.7 586.4 88.6 9.5 377.5 169.0
1965 6 719.3 25.4 64.5 2.1 104.4 116.1 11.9 0.0 7.0 22.0 59.0 159.2 23.0 20.7 39.6 25.4
1965 7 202.4 0.5 19.6 107.6 19.5 0.0 15.0 1.3 22.0 69.0 39.5 70.2 36.8 60.6 4.3 0.5
1965 8 985.0 142.1 125.7 173.3 237.1 152.4 117.9 86.1 82.0 69.0 133.9 246.1 102.9 70.9 65.6 142.1
1965 9 623.8 133.8 122.4 44.2 146.1 64.3 83.3 78.2 41.0 103.0 157.9 450.6 115.3 92.2 92.6 133.8
1965 10 667.8 201.0 236.0 225.9 294.2 415.8 273.5 326.1 235.0 280.0 255.9 334.2 245.7 238.6 372.6 201.0
1965 11 892.6 394.3 397.3 255.0 356.6 451.1 261.1 360.9 345.0 324.0 319.2 410.8 351.1 307.5 409.2 394.3
1965 12 478.5 169.2 308.9 458.3 352.3 322.3 182.4 296.4 162.0 184.0 212.9 408.6 177.6 171.7 327.1 169.2
1966 1 270.8 135.6 194.8 28.9 284.5 41.7 71.1 133.9 53.0 69.0 88.5 39.9 97.7 59.1 130.8 135.6
1966 2 180.1 4.3 90.4 8.2 63.2 76.2 61.0 41.4 20.0 77.0 28.5 4.5 44.9 71.2 85.1 4.3
1966 3 540.0 218.3 169.2 126.4 306.2 217.4 134.2 268.7 379.0 216.0 381.4 514.7 212.9 191.8 261.1 218.3
1966 4 1058.0 216.7 435.9 335.2 301.5 470.7 249.2 463.0 481.0 288.0 219.2 231.7 255.4 264.7 502.4 216.7
1966 5 283.0 28.6 14.0 55.5 41.5 19.0 5.6 22.4 25.0 3.0 29.1 56.2 14.1 2.4 15.7 28.6
1966 6 424.2 63.2 46.7 16.7 96.9 74.9 13.0 29.0 51.0 9.0 57.4 158.3 32.5 8.4 26.5 63.2
1966 7 361.2 17.1 36.3 47.5 104.0 55.7 0.0 0.0 5.0 13.0 95.7 92.6 14.1 11.4 16.8 17.1

154
1966 8 495.0 11.3 38.6 74.5 52.7 39.2 0.0 83.8 13.0 20.0 60.4 3.7 15.3 20.5 18.6 11.3
1966 9 1064.0 108.4 309.1 186.3 414.1 44.7 103.9 206.8 163.0 217.0 297.9 668.7 164.6 194.2 204.5 108.4
1966 10 771.7 158.7 381.8 289.7 326.5 320.0 385.3 312.4 292.0 292.0 351.3 521.3 239.3 248.9 413.6 158.7
1966 11 694.4 139.7 277.4 250.5 206.8 417.1 183.4 511.8 94.0 91.0 145.7 184.8 116.6 86.4 330.8 139.7
1966 12 567.7 76.0 232.9 85.0 170.8 239.0 105.9 257.3 145.0 143.0 160.6 283.7 112.3 133.4 244.7 76.0
1967 1 199.6 40.9 167.6 196.5 66.7 87.9 52.1 152.1 95.6 49.8 73.7 215.1 46.1 42.7 136.2 40.9
1967 2 284.0 60.3 142.5 71.9 61.0 100.8 42.9 116.3 47.7 44.0 111.0 112.8 51.0 40.7 125.1 60.3
1967 3 355.9 41.4 231.9 76.4 189.7 213.7 28.4 178.3 41.5 49.0 131.6 232.5 44.7 43.5 303.2 41.4
1967 4 231.4 28.8 326.9 146.6 166.4 247.6 209.0 206.0 162.0 222.0 217.9 297.5 138.3 204.0 320.2 28.8
1967 5 192.8 95.4 154.7 119.3 116.1 62.9 84.6 40.1 86.3 112.0 112.6 203.3 103.5 89.1 94.8 95.4
1967 6 513.1 82.1 173.7 54.1 124.8 102.0 26.7 46.0 32.9 62.0 195.2 350.6 68.9 58.2 57.4 82.1
1967 7 226.8 171.0 36.3 21.6 107.5 41.6 43.7 11.9 30.8 87.0 136.1 159.2 121.0 76.4 14.6 171.0
1967 8 305.6 36.6 60.5 11.4 79.4 53.7 30.0 102.9 19.9 43.0 121.5 248.1 39.6 44.2 27.7 36.6
1967 9 199.9 49.8 20.3 42.0 85.8 53.1 104.9 48.3 70.4 51.0 61.3 226.8 53.2 45.6 25.9 49.8
1967 10 758.2 237.0 462.0 298.9 426.1 569.2 311.1 398.5 269.0 370.0 512.1 813.9 309.9 315.3 598.1 237.0
1967 11 621.3 176.7 607.1 211.3 408.5 739.8 264.9 379.0 214.2 232.4 377.2 391.1 210.1 220.6 647.6 176.7
1967 12 279.7 19.0 162.1 117.4 157.3 329.8 48.8 173.0 66.5 26.0 88.8 156.9 24.1 24.3 248.8 19.0
1968 1 389.4 62.6 2.5 52.9 84.1 124.9 286.8 168.7 171.2 321.0 227.8 160.2 208.2 275.0 58.2 62.6
1968 2 82.3 0.0 0.0 9.8 34.7 86.6 71.8 24.1 41.7 116.0 8.6 49.5 63.9 107.3 40.8 0.0
1968 3 266.4 34.5 134.4 151.8 196.4 148.6 99.8 186.4 105.6 69.0 247.0 69.1 55.7 61.3 191.8 34.5
1968 4 357.4 30.5 164.6 185.3 94.8 355.5 100.3 366.3 117.4 105.0 167.6 79.3 72.7 96.5 285.1 30.5
1968 5 336.3 62.3 96.5 115.7 153.9 163.1 59.7 109.2 71.7 74.0 141.7 126.8 68.3 58.8 125.2 62.3
1968 6 756.2 113.1 247.4 30.1 220.4 164.8 55.4 78.0 39.9 66.0 237.6 556.9 85.7 61.9 86.4 113.1
1968 7 377.4 104.5 107.9 4.4 246.0 126.5 38.6 54.9 22.1 8.0 213.0 569.5 51.0 7.0 43.7 104.5
1968 8 259.6 19.9 52.8 14.7 105.5 79.0 0.0 22.9 5.1 36.0 57.0 134.4 27.3 37.0 30.5 19.9
1968 9 413.0 39.9 124.0 110.7 171.3 77.7 30.7 41.2 54.5 6.0 167.4 295.8 21.8 5.4 96.9 39.9
1968 10 461.0 148.3 542.5 452.0 306.8 428.8 250.9 502.4 289.7 207.5 256.8 139.0 184.2 176.9 573.7 148.3
1968 11 632.7 202.3 278.4 362.5 159.0 242.1 68.3 188.0 161.4 163.8 101.0 131.3 175.6 155.5 254.1 202.3
1968 12 459.2 62.5 234.7 201.3 146.2 216.9 228.6 195.1 191.4 141.0 141.0 148.5 111.6 131.5 235.1 62.5
1969 1 157.5 19.7 32.5 136.3 52.9 64.5 13.2 126.5 9.0 3.0 16.2 43.2 10.7 2.6 48.0 19.7
1969 2 62.2 5.3 114.0 64.3 53.4 125.5 72.9 262.9 50.0 6.0 72.3 100.9 9.0 5.5 121.2 5.3
1969 3 114.0 33.7 164.6 79.2 201.4 221.0 92.7 172.2 162.0 198.0 137.5 292.4 122.1 175.8 260.2 33.7
1969 4 351.0 76.1 350.0 418.8 263.9 539.0 252.2 373.4 430.0 225.0 196.1 308.3 162.3 206.8 489.8 76.1
1969 5 860.0 147.2 379.2 223.7 370.1 283.7 235.2 188.2 207.0 170.0 405.1 1263.8 163.5 135.2 301.5 147.2
1969 6 335.0 52.6 211.6 5.7 171.3 60.5 49.3 30.2 28.0 93.0 107.4 371.9 73.4 87.3 55.1 52.6
1969 7 66.3 0.0 203.5 17.2 94.3 65.3 0.0 12.9 0.0 1.0 61.3 86.2 0.5 0.9 55.2 0.0
1969 8 270.0 211.9 207.3 244.0 199.8 154.2 132.8 169.9 220.0 223.0 165.4 294.3 213.7 229.1 89.0 211.9
1969 9 283.0 37.2 113.8 74.4 238.9 99.3 56.5 71.9 39.0 102.0 85.8 274.0 71.9 91.3 95.9 37.2
1969 10 635.3 290.9 462.3 439.2 420.0 479.3 359.4 567.2 309.0 367.0 290.5 561.4 333.9 312.8 550.0 290.9
1969 11 279.7 116.3 196.6 296.3 155.4 209.3 119.1 196.3 205.0 203.0 233.6 334.4 161.5 192.7 196.4 116.3
1969 12 342.1 458.5 442.5 663.7 315.6 473.7 548.1 464.8 317.0 599.0 629.3 915.0 536.0 558.8 474.3 458.5
1970 1 259.3 107.9 135.6 143.0 221.7 191.3 48.8 135.6 93.0 167.0 117.7 208.1 135.7 143.1 164.9 107.9
1970 2 188.7 147.8 114.0 341.6 208.3 290.8 199.9 275.3 218.0 85.0 78.4 138.5 117.7 78.6 199.2 147.8
1970 3 362.5 82.8 315.2 344.0 144.7 311.9 51.3 401.8 154.0 70.0 310.3 419.4 74.6 62.2 426.0 82.8
1970 4 413.3 74.8 330.5 576.4 322.2 467.9 258.4 539.8 476.0 176.0 204.1 281.5 136.6 161.7 440.5 74.8
1970 5 247.9 80.1 229.9 145.4 62.1 571.5 98.9 149.4 16.0 75.0 156.5 276.6 78.4 59.6 395.7 80.1
1970 6 327.4 14.6 52.1 23.8 131.3 62.5 7.1 47.2 0.0 11.0 133.1 244.9 12.4 10.3 24.7 14.6
1970 7 304.5 55.9 70.9 47.1 116.6 84.3 29.2 26.7 26.0 33.0 121.9 222.3 42.7 29.0 28.9 55.9
1970 8 202.4 44.8 89.2 57.3 178.8 65.0 22.9 38.1 0.0 23.0 85.4 219.3 32.4 23.6 38.0 44.8
1970 9 327.4 68.3 51.6 72.3 73.7 40.9 43.4 76.2 108.0 16.0 61.1 200.5 39.9 14.3 42.4 68.3
1970 10 604.8 121.2 148.1 163.4 285.0 204.7 167.4 204.2 146.0 42.0 217.3 373.4 82.3 35.8 203.6 121.2
1970 11 428.0 224.2 388.9 405.4 382.2 350.3 348.0 437.6 637.0 294.0 366.3 483.9 266.7 279.1 360.4 224.2
1970 12 162.6 76.9 178.8 327.8 123.7 285.0 210.8 286.5 263.0 199.0 251.8 194.7 147.1 185.7 236.6 76.9
1971 1 253.9 83.8 361.9 157.5 125.0 140.7 169.4 157.3 231.4 205.5 103.0 129.3 180.8 263.1 111.7 110.8 271.8 83.8
1971 2 282.9 48.6 189.7 175.8 151.0 125.0 152.9 218.8 276.9 145.7 262.0 98.8 222.7 191.6 79.9 91.4 162.2 48.6
1971 3 259.0 65.0 231.7 161.1 117.9 128.8 185.2 210.6 200.4 223.0 135.0 123.7 450.8 146.5 101.5 109.9 248.0 65.0
1971 4 536.4 109.6 368.6 493.3 313.2 241.6 264.1 221.2 409.7 288.5 192.0 187.6 302.0 397.5 157.9 172.4 340.9 109.6
1971 5 470.0 9.3 154.7 111.1 129.0 69.8 25.9 224.1 18.5 257.0 0.0 17.4 96.4 288.3 14.4 13.9 98.5 9.3
1971 6 324.1 50.6 180.6 26.4 206.4 129.3 23.2 291.0 39.9 279.2 0.0 43.6 155.2 354.3 45.6 40.9 65.2 50.6
1971 7 306.0 45.7 78.0 49.1 113.6 109.7 57.9 235.3 78.0 301.2 0.0 46.0 115.7 279.3 46.5 40.4 34.5 45.7
1971 8 457.0 53.2 294.9 216.4 183.7 184.4 43.2 270.1 117.9 268.4 73.0 38.0 120.8 312.0 44.8 39.0 119.6 53.2
1971 9 799.4 73.0 442.0 205.2 491.0 287.5 169.7 418.2 284.0 559.1 81.0 122.3 329.0 849.9 103.5 109.4 348.0 73.0
1971 10 469.0 110.5 291.3 252.0 217.2 173.7 268.0 312.6 215.9 307.7 192.0 189.9 271.5 193.3 159.7 161.9 277.7 110.5
1971 11 387.3 69.4 382.8 182.4 314.8 296.2 359.9 283.6 136.7 304.9 281.0 202.7 378.0 812.2 153.3 192.4 333.3 69.4
1971 12 284.8 100.9 157.2 556.8 285.0 247.1 186.7 159.1 315.7 225.7 180.0 148.2 251.4 452.9 129.8 138.2 206.3 100.9
1972 1 121.1 0.0 46.5 51.5 45.3 99.8 4.6 67.4 58.9 83.4 0.0 5.0 22.2 133.7 2.8 4.3 72.1 0.0
1972 2 78.0 0.0 20.6 120.7 18.7 36.1 0.0 50.3 0.0 70.9 0.0 0.0 15.2 69.8 0.0 0.0 28.2 0.0
1972 3 217.8 10.1 443.0 229.6 37.2 202.9 139.2 176.7 257.6 237.0 203.0 139.0 162.7 120.7 83.6 123.4 445.9 10.1
1972 4 449.7 47.0 65.4 238.3 332.1 243.1 277.4 100.3 140.6 383.5 285.0 370.0 87.0 101.9 239.8 78.4 80.0 285.4 65.4
1972 5 986.3 126.6 167.2 343.7 279.0 377.7 345.4 188.2 432.6 198.6 601.1 147.0 192.7 327.6 836.9 181.5 153.3 320.3 167.2
1972 6 239.2 0.0 29.2 85.3 72.3 46.5 5.1 173.2 37.1 219.3 0.0 2.2 53.0 176.8 1.4 2.1 16.5 0.0
1972 7 397.1 12.5 13.4 62.7 49.4 287.9 124.2 27.4 224.4 142.0 199.2 0.0 332.0 151.0 277.6 179.8 291.7 33.4 13.4
1972 8 239.7 70.9 55.3 73.4 12.4 104.4 78.7 31.5 174.1 20.3 233.2 0.0 199.0 81.1 259.6 128.8 204.5 36.3 55.3
1972 9 741.9 140.1 146.7 233.9 166.9 254.2 236.0 97.8 348.6 156.2 498.9 38.0 66.0 239.1 613.1 102.3 59.1 205.0 146.7
1972 10 723.9 253.5 245.7 362.5 794.4 558.1 620.8 324.9 325.3 597.2 435.6 278.0 304.3 221.2 529.5 280.1 259.3 562.7 245.7
1972 11 452.8 110.4 94.4 508.0 637.5 396.2 456.9 261.2 398.5 589.3 557.1 158.0 176.3 267.2 633.3 145.3 167.4 470.4 94.4
1972 12 186.7 93.5 188.5 166.9 353.5 130.2 107.2 110.2 63.6 176.8 75.8 65.0 172.9 42.2 99.3 176.5 161.3 144.6 188.5
1973 1 63.3 74.7 81.9 54.6 23.5 45.8 35.3 31.5 14.9 14.0 25.0 15.0 38.0 33.7 62.6 56.6 32.6 47.4 81.9
1973 2 197.2 6.1 7.1 29.2 39.6 31.2 72.9 13.7 103.1 65.8 100.0 6.0 60.0 6.5 191.2 34.9 55.5 50.3 7.1
1973 3 257.0 104.1 110.7 288.3 128.2 193.2 114.6 421.6 286.2 154.9 504.5 168.0 156.0 438.5 575.4 149.8 138.5 278.9 110.7
1973 4 385.7 42.7 59.7 165.6 319.5 187.9 392.9 91.4 266.9 313.7 237.5 97.0 142.0 261.0 262.2 104.1 130.5 305.7 59.7
1973 5 231.6 122.9 166.8 64.3 89.3 129.9 60.7 35.8 128.2 74.4 210.2 44.0 82.0 51.5 107.2 116.2 65.2 57.8 166.8

155
1973 6 376.5 184.4 161.1 142.5 58.3 83.0 54.9 93.0 227.0 32.0 412.4 45.0 85.0 122.5 338.3 118.1 79.8 40.4 161.1
1973 7 190.2 27.9 26.8 30.5 178.7 132.7 39.4 41.9 149.8 16.0 207.1 39.0 32.0 36.9 140.4 30.3 28.1 12.9 26.8
1973 8 392.7 9.9 3.0 120.9 82.2 237.7 44.2 36.6 252.8 26.2 201.3 27.0 36.0 181.4 302.3 21.8 37.0 42.8 3.0
1973 9 115.2 22.1 23.0 30.5 136.6 97.6 43.9 50.3 107.7 62.0 91.2 20.0 23.0 14.7 114.3 24.4 20.6 30.0 23.0
1973 10 378.3 195.8 196.6 366.3 560.8 298.9 419.6 438.9 393.7 297.7 513.9 310.0 305.0 233.2 543.1 265.1 259.9 457.2 196.6
1973 11 375.6 166.1 186.5 291.3 311.2 214.9 341.9 204.0 239.5 231.1 270.7 274.0 144.0 241.7 231.8 165.3 136.7 305.0 186.5
1973 12 460.7 232.9 249.1 368.0 398.1 342.7 351.6 368.9 273.6 295.7 111.5 148.5 280.0 202.3 380.7 271.2 261.2 374.1 249.1
1974 1 8.2 10.2 0.0 0.0 17.6 1.0 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.3 4.0 0.0 1.7 11.4 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0
1974 2 159.5 12.4 15.2 236.2 175.8 167.0 166.4 161.3 90.7 103.4 158.3 87.0 82.0 15.7 90.3 57.2 75.8 207.0 15.2
1974 3 119.0 29.5 25.5 241.8 54.3 73.6 154.4 80.3 166.4 81.8 101.3 135.0 84.0 63.8 41.5 58.7 74.6 271.7 25.5
1974 4 465.6 93.7 64.0 398.5 320.3 245.3 246.4 237.1 281.8 323.1 439.0 210.0 90.0 328.7 262.7 86.2 82.7 360.6 64.0
1974 5 392.6 24.4 22.2 104.6 313.2 229.5 144.8 122.0 180.5 219.6 320.2 34.0 93.0 90.1 331.0 64.0 74.0 118.6 22.2
1974 6 479.4 85.3 85.6 165.1 30.1 204.3 45.7 43.7 377.5 20.8 226.8 2.0 39.0 119.1 432.7 59.3 36.6 42.6 85.6
1974 7 527.5 9.9 6.5 176.0 52.8 433.1 61.0 51.7 471.8 61.5 328.0 13.0 52.0 219.0 430.2 32.4 45.7 48.4 6.5
1974 8 328.0 47.2 46.5 151.9 48.2 190.4 67.3 23.6 264.4 37.6 113.8 14.0 40.0 185.5 250.3 42.0 41.1 56.1 46.5
1974 9 576.6 100.1 94.5 212.1 169.6 280.8 148.6 89.9 342.3 198.7 326.7 25.0 110.0 260.4 474.1 102.3 98.4 169.6 94.5
1974 10 148.6 39.9 33.9 54.1 115.7 110.7 85.1 99.8 142.5 164.6 91.9 25.0 74.0 61.7 214.2 58.0 63.1 79.9 33.9
1974 11 171.3 123.4 82.0 254.3 284.2 113.1 163.8 161.0 163.9 345.7 82.1 334.0 105.0 138.5 275.7 97.9 99.7 206.9 82.0
1974 12 431.4 71.6 100.6 412.8 240.9 226.0 199.4 109.5 261.1 225.2 170.7 40.0 106.0 120.8 166.1 103.9 98.9 326.1 100.6
1975 1 63.1 77.7 64.2 72.4 160.3 56.4 151.1 51.3 91.3 223.9 32.6 18.0 55.0 9.1 93.5 58.8 47.1 110.3 64.2
1975 2 155.8 46.7 38.6 187.7 45.4 125.5 36.8 158.4 103.1 70.4 57.1 15.0 152.0 57.0 159.4 103.5 140.6 119.5 38.6
1975 3 330.3 185.4 153.1 368.0 227.3 159.5 121.9 141.6 153.2 237.5 60.6 169.0 252.0 144.3 214.9 204.0 223.8 340.2 153.1
1975 4 399.5 89.9 74.3 504.4 475.5 403.5 576.3 220.5 144.2 386.7 123.8 320.0 182.0 107.4 411.6 137.6 167.3 598.3 74.3
1975 5 594.6 261.6 216.1 200.7 166.1 214.7 106.9 194.8 374.5 191.9 457.6 132.0 331.0 412.1 431.5 274.8 263.2 136.5 216.1
1975 6 482.8 188.5 155.7 490.0 65.6 468.5 217.2 91.9 475.2 87.3 319.4 65.0 108.0 240.5 604.3 127.7 101.3 145.6 155.7
1975 7 78.9 46.7 38.6 41.2 150.1 99.1 41.9 36.8 92.4 50.3 111.2 117.0 66.0 123.0 141.0 52.7 58.0 15.7 38.6
1975 8 480.5 32.3 26.7 180.3 116.1 260.0 31.0 10.4 300.2 51.3 195.7 5.0 31.0 309.8 304.2 28.1 31.8 56.9 26.7
1975 9 339.8 31.5 26.0 141.0 249.7 217.6 239.8 40.6 207.7 180.0 132.2 95.0 57.0 221.0 294.8 42.9 51.0 147.8 26.0
1975 10 523.9 77.2 63.8 123.7 93.1 197.5 246.1 23.1 382.1 189.9 456.8 13.0 47.0 349.3 474.1 53.0 40.1 210.4 63.8
1975 11 528.4 129.3 106.8 499.9 317.3 395.3 502.2 338.6 638.1 377.8 660.6 348.0 290.0 482.6 422.7 213.7 275.3 486.1 106.8
1975 12 289.8 213.9 176.7 198.4 259.2 168.4 340.4 297.4 174.1 243.6 307.8 138.0 209.0 144.2 421.3 199.5 195.0 274.1 176.7
1976 1 107.7 72.1 7.7 38.1 288.1 76.2 214.6 17.8 64.8 283.3 162.5 22.0 25.0 18.2 122.0 17.2 21.4 119.5 7.7
1976 2 67.4 0.0 0.0 55.9 18.9 17.6 22.9 9.7 27.0 37.5 42.0 0.0 3.0 3.5 45.6 2.0 2.8 41.2 0.0
1976 3 204.3 33.5 3.4 167.9 117.5 135.0 132.1 179.3 253.5 241.4 232.8 95.0 37.0 311.8 252.3 29.7 32.9 204.8 3.4
1976 4 378.1 66.0 4.8 274.3 466.9 311.6 798.1 165.9 236.9 444.5 261.8 135.0 242.0 300.5 268.7 136.2 222.4 585.5 4.8
1976 5 221.1 43.4 34.9 173.7 77.0 93.0 22.9 89.9 161.2 63.4 182.6 0.0 86.0 103.5 226.7 64.2 68.4 81.0 34.9
1976 6 114.5 34.8 0.0 7.6 57.4 35.0 114.3 0.0 96.2 92.2 105.8 0.0 5.0 25.4 67.4 2.6 4.7 28.2 0.0
1976 7 236.4 0.0 13.9 26.2 0.0 105.8 38.1 0.5 181.0 20.3 121.2 0.0 17.0 61.9 113.3 14.8 14.9 11.8 13.9
1976 8 214.3 46.0 39.5 70.4 114.3 91.5 28.2 16.5 162.3 37.8 154.0 0.0 30.0 63.8 182.3 33.4 30.8 25.4 39.5
1976 9 45.6 0.0 0.0 22.9 64.3 25.5 111.3 52.6 68.1 57.4 35.3 8.0 23.0 0.0 56.1 14.6 20.6 42.0 0.0
1976 10 437.2 192.5 33.9 483.9 183.0 320.6 594.6 122.9 285.5 343.5 357.5 231.0 211.0 146.0 302.3 130.4 179.8 625.6 33.9
1976 11 464.4 333.5 82.0 218.9 418.1 447.1 599.7 276.1 335.8 616.0 290.6 373.0 342.0 299.1 385.0 226.9 324.6 380.3 82.0
1976 12 426.4 90.2 100.6 107.9 278.4 223.8 302.0 164.8 416.1 343.4 234.5 221.0 95.0 428.9 427.1 100.9 88.6 205.2 100.6
1977 1 0.0 53.1 5.3 167.6 19.0 21.9 32.3 0.0 19.4 8.0 28.5 0.0 1.0 7.6 6.9 2.8 0.9 110.9 5.3
1977 2 185.1 76.5 66.8 329.9 61.5 65.6 132.6 126.8 97.9 143.2 197.2 147.0 44.0 129.8 141.9 57.9 40.7 242.1 66.8
1977 3 189.8 18.0 10.2 345.4 95.7 134.5 280.9 105.4 227.1 231.6 170.4 71.0 170.0 434.1 191.8 98.1 151.0 427.3 10.2
1977 4 494.0 84.1 64.5 546.9 229.0 278.2 653.0 255.0 257.3 529.6 217.8 256.0 94.0 222.7 343.5 89.4 86.4 663.8 64.5
1977 5 421.9 100.3 101.2 310.9 209.2 297.2 311.7 93.0 314.7 261.3 425.7 108.0 131.0 198.2 439.5 116.3 104.2 289.4 101.2
1977 6 194.6 15.2 16.6 88.9 96.0 127.9 85.8 9.7 294.7 29.9 252.3 9.0 12.0 190.2 224.2 13.9 11.3 37.3 16.6
1977 7 93.3 46.0 38.9 85.1 109.7 225.5 125.5 2.5 105.4 126.5 75.2 28.0 10.0 44.9 84.9 22.1 8.8 38.5 38.9
1977 8 152.6 32.8 27.1 81.0 95.1 98.7 100.3 49.0 130.3 64.1 104.0 133.0 64.0 38.3 109.5 47.4 65.8 42.7 27.1
1977 9 192.4 57.7 76.2 36.6 174.0 89.7 111.0 17.3 83.8 182.6 88.6 37.0 38.0 40.1 212.5 53.4 34.0 50.5 76.2
1977 10 560.0 110.7 324.7 375.7 414.1 564.5 687.1 301.2 298.1 622.2 301.9 433.0 267.0 350.2 330.8 293.5 227.5 606.6 324.7
1977 11 425.5 235.2 18.0 377.2 505.7 224.6 590.3 445.8 314.5 474.1 239.3 386.0 291.0 327.1 575.0 181.4 276.2 460.0 18.0
1977 12 293.1 215.9 0.0 263.7 146.6 107.2 236.0 194.1 156.7 200.4 174.3 51.0 127.0 225.9 265.0 75.7 118.5 260.4 0.0
1978 1 184.7 23.4 37.1 29.7 64.9 113.4 229.4 62.0 150.0 158.6 155.0 43.0 34.0 126.8 82.9 36.7 29.1 121.4 37.1
1978 2 384.6 39.1 77.4 152.1 109.8 125.5 282.2 104.0 165.2 211.6 95.0 56.0 46.0 128.3 245.1 62.4 42.5 215.9 77.4
1978 3 261.7 2.5 5.1 73.9 239.1 227.6 388.6 240.0 249.1 332.7 166.4 163.0 116.0 166.9 240.6 74.5 103.0 304.6 5.1
1978 4 236.3 47.2 130.8 90.9 137.3 208.0 150.1 223.8 194.2 340.9 185.1 244.0 79.0 193.6 246.4 108.5 72.6 132.6 130.8
1978 5 735.0 223.8 17.5 350.5 213.9 619.2 580.9 324.4 461.4 365.9 467.5 177.0 212.0 361.6 707.8 134.0 168.6 448.6 17.5
1978 6 132.3 3.6 3.0 57.4 0.0 125.3 22.6 10.2 172.7 6.4 117.6 0.0 9.0 95.5 181.8 6.5 8.4 16.4 3.0
1978 7 131.7 25.9 88.5 50.3 38.7 172.8 49.8 5.1 208.3 48.0 159.9 27.0 13.0 95.5 224.8 45.1 11.4 18.9 88.5
1978 8 189.5 48.0 11.3 162.1 0.0 255.5 85.8 0.0 235.7 28.3 182.8 0.0 25.0 96.4 411.9 17.9 25.7 62.7 11.3
1978 9 315.3 52.3 115.6 169.9 67.3 163.7 110.2 94.2 237.2 89.6 154.8 16.0 78.0 159.7 368.3 95.0 69.8 133.7 115.6
1978 10 413.9 181.9 169.6 247.9 368.0 303.5 499.7 209.8 226.9 331.4 150.9 270.0 107.0 223.6 291.7 139.1 91.2 425.1 169.6
1978 11 522.4 288.4 339.0 386.1 195.6 448.8 466.4 373.4 551.8 312.5 527.5 329.0 136.0 330.5 723.3 235.2 129.1 410.1 339.0
1978 12 223.5 146.3 66.1 77.2 210.9 48.4 123.7 102.4 68.4 146.7 159.5 125.0 94.0 67.4 194.5 82.4 87.7 102.5 66.1
1979 1 21.7 6.9 17.6 167.1 26.9 54.1 37.6 0.0 60.8 33.2 31.1 0.0 2.0 25.5 35.9 8.6 1.7 113.1 17.6
1979 2 140.3 13.2 5.1 59.9 67.8 89.2 220.7 179.0 138.5 192.0 164.9 38.0 107.0 63.5 103.5 66.8 98.9 136.7 5.1
1979 3 200.3 146.3 3.6 16.3 22.6 67.2 36.1 0.0 26.8 243.8 81.3 6.0 2.0 12.2 55.2 2.6 1.8 35.0 3.6
1979 4 214.2 86.6 96.7 269.5 253.2 327.7 225.8 152.7 189.3 380.6 369.2 256.0 202.0 135.3 334.1 154.3 185.6 275.6 96.7
1979 5 308.8 62.2 45.6 472.9 79.9 288.7 120.9 146.3 172.5 182.1 352.8 71.0 130.0 144.6 389.1 94.5 103.4 251.9 45.6
1979 6 138.3 63.5 51.2 95.5 50.4 145.8 38.3 23.9 290.9 48.3 307.1 0.0 32.0 234.9 283.9 39.9 30.0 27.4 51.2
1979 7 253.0 61.7 42.4 153.9 24.6 214.1 42.9 14.4 238.9 66.0 247.0 5.0 20.0 170.6 273.4 29.4 17.6 40.7 42.4
1979 8 94.8 19.0 2.1 27.7 32.3 54.6 25.1 7.1 64.0 35.6 81.1 31.0 3.0 55.5 116.1 2.8 3.1 12.8 2.1
1979 9 709.4 137.7 41.4 224.8 259.2 347.2 303.0 164.6 378.9 316.2 508.2 111.0 94.0 288.1 489.6 74.9 84.1 216.0 41.4
1979 10 500.9 213.4 203.0 617.5 361.4 366.8 705.1 187.0 362.5 492.3 316.6 251.0 89.0 205.7 386.2 142.9 75.8 769.5 203.0
1979 11 525.4 258.1 203.6 490.2 446.2 381.3 908.0 331.8 297.4 419.9 437.3 482.0 318.0 198.3 468.2 269.5 301.8 659.9 203.6
1979 12 341.6 136.9 0.0 231.9 154.2 256.6 341.1 209.3 221.9 324.4 310.7 24.0 291.0 148.2 350.4 161.8 271.5 293.2 0.0
1980 1 33.6 24.4 20.2 9.9 21.9 4.5 27.9 0.0 21.3 2.8 10.4 4.0 1.0 14.8 36.1 9.2 0.9 18.4 20.2
1980 2 61.8 0.0 0.0 33.5 11.7 3.3 56.9 11.7 65.8 65.5 15.9 3.0 2.0 20.0 8.9 1.6 1.8 45.1 0.0
1980 3 253.8 20.6 17.0 85.6 237.9 173.1 347.7 56.9 67.0 224.8 130.5 228.0 43.0 44.6 105.2 32.5 38.2 286.4 17.0

156
1980 4 612.3 179.6 148.3 333.2 359.2 316.0 557.8 193.0 336.5 288.3 304.3 262.0 211.0 154.4 252.0 183.2 193.9 490.3 148.3
1980 5 316.7 120.9 99.9 151.6 227.2 195.0 66.0 76.0 138.3 222.3 311.2 61.0 57.0 70.6 131.7 76.4 45.3 95.3 99.9
1980 6 219.8 43.2 35.7 70.1 22.3 94.0 72.1 10.9 184.4 12.2 237.0 1.0 16.0 117.4 268.4 24.2 15.0 30.4 35.7
1980 7 332.3 17.8 6.5 80.0 0.0 104.7 1.0 0.0 213.3 10.7 256.5 0.0 26.0 112.8 219.0 16.3 22.8 17.8 6.5
1980 8 245.3 41.1 67.2 71.9 6.9 117.1 11.4 0.0 204.0 28.2 240.4 1.0 1.0 103.3 191.2 29.4 1.0 22.5 67.2
1980 9 208.7 20.3 26.3 113.5 202.8 148.2 0.0 17.0 158.2 197.6 200.7 18.0 54.0 65.4 89.9 40.2 48.3 71.0 26.3
1980 10 382.2 152.9 130.6 140.6 248.8 309.4 38.3 161.5 250.3 197.5 377.0 109.0 118.0 125.6 230.1 125.6 100.6 109.6 130.6
1980 11 395.9 307.3 290.2 523.0 356.9 448.5 308.0 214.6 322.1 301.2 647.4 584.0 556.0 122.4 140.0 424.6 527.7 412.7 290.2
1980 12 190.6 67.3 30.7 183.5 130.0 217.5 298.0 164.1 119.9 335.1 176.4 229.0 91.8 83.0 200.8 69.1 85.7 245.5 30.7
1981 1 159.2 7.9 41.6 103.0 62.7 118.9 131.3 23.9 166.3 137.9 112.3 34.4 38.0 68.4 93.2 38.8 32.5 118.9 41.6
1981 2 77.9 22.4 21.6 74.6 62.6 18.4 92.8 46.7 132.8 93.9 150.6 46.5 34.7 76.1 159.8 29.6 32.0 84.4 21.6
1981 3 243.8 67.1 58.2 102.1 121.9 151.1 171.0 75.4 152.2 210.0 171.6 82.3 97.0 63.2 87.6 79.2 86.1 183.4 58.2
1981 4 495.7 77.7 65.4 159.9 364.7 138.0 363.2 247.4 225.2 147.7 332.6 257.7 69.0 158.4 387.5 76.4 63.4 286.5 65.4
1981 5 255.1 61.5 49.8 173.6 294.9 118.3 129.8 98.0 158.4 149.0 216.0 154.0 75.7 85.8 170.7 65.7 60.2 138.0 49.8
1981 6 377.7 12.7 15.3 165.1 18.2 252.8 144.5 34.0 282.4 51.9 218.2 24.4 24.9 169.8 371.2 21.3 23.4 65.7 15.3
1981 7 294.2 13.2 9.8 7.6 188.1 206.1 89.8 11.4 159.2 118.4 130.0 70.9 11.5 65.6 89.7 10.7 10.1 15.8 9.8
1981 8 173.3 59.4 60.2 45.6 102.9 109.8 43.9 45.0 103.7 52.8 141.0 59.5 59.5 58.2 119.7 59.1 61.1 21.6 60.2
1981 9 500.9 62.0 63.8 0.0 182.8 278.0 162.6 109.5 251.3 129.5 258.2 121.4 90.0 143.2 347.3 79.7 80.5 40.4 63.8
1981 10 340.2 118.4 108.7 125.7 167.4 139.8 90.9 94.5 125.0 215.2 123.6 108.1 113.2 79.7 182.5 110.3 96.5 128.4 108.7
1981 11 621.6 60.4 57.7 297.0 285.7 311.9 272.3 311.9 376.9 428.3 419.7 264.9 174.1 429.8 371.3 130.9 165.2 277.3 57.7
1981 12 302.9 245.4 85.8 140.5 142.6 80.3 129.1 96.5 40.0 85.4 34.8 100.6 98.9 31.0 155.3 93.1 92.2 140.4 85.8
1982 1 79.8 6.1 5.6 70.2 0.0 59.0 44.7 1.5 94.0 34.1 15.4 0.8 5.0 29.0 0.0 5.1 4.3 60.6 5.6
1982 2 80.8 0.8 0.0 22.5 0.0 0.0 37.3 68.1 90.6 18.0 48.1 36.3 46.0 62.5 80.1 27.3 42.5 29.8 0.0
1982 3 395.5 195.6 173.1 143.7 152.8 134.7 178.3 150.1 221.4 229.1 170.4 132.8 127.0 239.8 236.2 148.0 112.8 217.7 173.1
1982 4 393.0 88.1 45.1 212.1 218.8 258.7 362.0 406.4 332.8 182.9 598.5 292.2 117.0 341.3 547.4 100.6 107.5 315.8 45.1
1982 5 703.4 111.2 220.4 118.0 211.4 352.9 349.2 202.9 410.2 478.3 674.9 181.1 202.0 275.9 643.2 210.0 160.6 232.9 220.4
1982 6 999.4 177.5 85.4 448.8 45.8 336.6 221.5 94.2 588.7 136.8 830.0 3.0 113.0 315.6 851.8 100.2 106.0 138.6 85.4
1982 7 341.1 135.1 105.5 89.0 17.0 120.5 43.5 22.1 309.1 31.3 293.7 0.0 47.0 134.6 315.4 70.9 41.3 26.5 105.5
1982 8 270.0 36.6 32.2 93.0 37.4 94.5 144.1 0.0 158.0 104.2 188.2 4.0 49.0 20.5 192.0 39.3 50.3 54.8 32.2
1982 9 170.4 29.2 2.6 0.0 62.5 51.9 27.8 2.3 99.8 65.8 174.5 0.0 13.0 59.0 62.9 8.0 11.6 6.9 2.6
1982 10 548.1 272.3 227.8 529.0 295.3 320.5 391.2 291.1 247.1 320.0 583.3 378.0 278.0 187.9 383.6 257.1 236.9 545.0 227.8
1982 11 693.1 442.7 434.9 701.0 455.4 446.0 580.6 214.0 512.0 519.2 604.0 439.0 439.0 433.2 624.0 426.0 416.7 627.1 434.9
1982 12 173.4 109.0 56.3 120.3 206.5 112.0 195.2 44.7 90.3 152.5 67.9 82.0 106.0 79.5 87.4 81.6 98.9 160.8 56.3
1983 1 85.6 8.1 8.4 20.0 13.2 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 9.7 10.4 55.6 0.0 0.0 16.3 117.6 3.6 0.0 12.4 8.4
1983 2 58.2 5.1 0.0 57.5 51.6 14.2 33.0 8.1 0.0 40.9 39.1 50.0 0.0 0.0 57.1 119.1 0.4 0.0 46.9 0.0
1983 3 86.7 43.4 30.0 18.0 50.4 1.8 11.2 54.1 38.1 172.9 80.7 133.2 89.0 23.0 37.6 88.9 27.6 20.4 20.0 30.0
1983 4 150.5 47.5 44.7 200.9 55.1 31.8 10.1 8.9 73.9 75.0 139.3 59.9 81.0 44.0 83.1 41.8 42.5 40.4 120.5 44.7
1983 5 347.6 80.0 74.3 314.3 147.8 154.5 25.8 79.0 124.9 220.4 216.8 271.6 159.0 52.0 91.7 293.4 62.9 41.4 138.3 74.3
1983 6 442.6 31.5 23.1 33.1 86.4 49.7 0.3 0.0 0.5 186.7 17.4 350.1 0.0 6.0 55.9 144.8 13.1 5.6 6.5 23.1
1983 7 429.6 24.1 20.8 30.5 34.5 93.6 4.7 0.0 36.1 147.1 70.7 146.5 0.0 6.0 90.7 122.2 12.1 5.3 7.5 20.8
1983 8 385.4 151.4 104.4 55.0 51.6 85.8 5.0 18.5 95.4 254.7 17.3 252.3 0.0 29.0 85.6 188.6 60.9 29.8 16.5 104.4
1983 9 413.9 131.8 97.1 83.4 119.4 101.9 2.5 61.0 59.2 273.0 65.3 340.5 72.0 13.0 176.1 302.0 51.6 11.6 52.8 97.1
1983 10 298.3 57.7 45.5 258.0 394.1 280.8 28.4 118.9 228.8 83.2 270.1 229.9 242.0 87.0 142.9 124.3 70.8 74.1 178.7 45.5
1983 11 265.1 67.8 50.6 281.6 447.4 288.3 43.2 56.6 203.2 139.0 310.2 168.0 308.0 133.0 220.8 140.7 93.7 126.2 168.1 50.6
1983 12 800.3 76.2 70.5 282.5 352.5 378.8 38.3 145.8 342.1 331.1 122.5 362.4 148.0 265.0 355.5 366.7 175.4 247.2 176.0 70.5
1984 1 390.0 99.6 81.9 292.8 253.7 202.4 26.3 6.2 88.8 250.5 219.3 298.3 78.0 64.0 269.2 412.9 68.8 54.8 180.1 81.9
1984 2 300.8 212.8 101.3 184.3 309.5 245.7 27.8 12.0 195.6 200.1 127.8 210.0 195.0 155.0 131.5 141.0 124.8 143.3 113.4 101.3
1984 3 327.9 147.1 43.9 701.5 413.4 466.5 416.1 13.3 386.6 390.6 458.5 376.2 329.0 184.0 207.0 254.7 115.2 10.6 767.7 43.9
1984 4 676.1 162.8 73.4 403.7 239.4 363.3 556.3 2.3 146.1 453.2 439.7 631.6 162.0 114.0 301.3 504.9 91.0 1.0 529.9 73.4
1984 5 390.3 61.2 0.0 82.0 66.7 85.8 83.2 0.7 82.3 160.8 127.6 326.4 50.0 52.0 187.2 257.5 27.1 41.4 76.8 0.0
1984 6 348.3 68.8 63.1 142.3 4.3 247.9 135.3 0.9 29.6 315.6 43.3 362.8 1.0 24.0 145.5 347.5 39.7 0.1 59.2 63.1
1984 7 339.5 80.5 145.1 124.0 60.4 309.2 159.3 1.7 47.8 293.3 110.3 304.1 260.0 96.9 150.9 245.5 112.9 85.1 52.4 145.1
1984 8 86.3 0.0 0.0 43.0 74.4 106.5 48.8 0.0 0.0 35.9 59.0 31.3 0.0 0.0 16.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 21.8 0.0
1984 9 76.1 40.6 38.7 177.0 95.6 292.0 148.6 4.2 127.5 194.7 157.8 360.5 86.0 27.5 153.5 246.1 31.1 11.6 147.7 38.7
1984 10 266.7 175.8 123.3 196.3 156.7 143.3 103.2 2.0 142.3 194.5 167.7 326.4 59.0 82.6 105.2 337.8 96.1 70.4 179.7 123.3
1984 11 281.5 145.8 156.0 488.4 200.8 364.1 267.8 103.0 342.0 396.2 289.3 397.8 177.0 291.0 403.8 529.8 223.6 276.2 376.6 156.0
1984 12 150.8 44.7 43.3 206.9 135.8 88.3 141.4 48.0 130.6 241.7 142.7 374.2 129.0 130.0 117.1 134.4 88.6 121.3 183.3 43.3
1985 1 264.2 0.0 21.6 85.9 87.9 92.4 175.3 78.7 70.4 248.9 105.3 245.0 64.0 85.0 83.6 214.9 57.4 72.8 129.1 21.6
1985 2 101.8 53.3 33.1 123.1 145.2 121.7 178.2 54.9 126.6 121.5 105.9 137.5 70.0 55.0 170.5 226.4 45.6 40.6 151.0 33.1
1985 3 469.6 110.7 53.6 291.7 232.3 205.3 294.4 156.0 161.4 188.0 269.8 184.5 390.0 254.0 277.9 311.5 162.9 160.0 398.0 53.6
1985 4 182.8 53.1 64.2 244.7 163.6 107.1 250.0 135.1 94.5 124.9 243.6 211.0 54.0 44.0 107.9 199.4 57.2 60.6 274.4 64.2
1985 5 544.7 86.1 98.6 424.8 128.8 476.0 202.5 162.5 95.8 460.8 160.5 601.4 119.0 154.0 290.8 557.1 130.6 82.8 276.3 98.6
1985 6 674.5 174.7 158.9 516.0 7.3 654.7 385.3 120.9 120.1 654.5 107.6 805.3 65.0 146.0 343.1 771.2 150.3 137.0 189.9 158.9
1985 7 302.1 1.8 0.0 31.1 56.4 83.0 22.0 0.0 29.5 211.2 35.8 225.2 4.0 5.0 65.4 107.8 2.6 20.0 10.3 0.0
1985 8 173.8 41.1 41.3 21.4 74.2 118.4 50.0 0.0 8.6 107.3 50.3 233.4 24.0 18.0 57.3 72.0 27.1 16.2 15.9 41.3
1985 9 264.3 128.3 93.9 107.1 49.0 213.5 135.5 78.5 74.6 191.2 113.0 284.7 134.0 135.0 120.9 107.9 114.5 58.7 100.7 93.9
1985 10 626.5 139.4 165.0 513.3 180.2 392.5 256.5 278.4 248.8 412.9 320.9 692.5 213.0 265.0 367.7 619.7 222.7 201.5 462.8 165.0
1985 11 178.1 115.1 109.9 362.0 163.5 279.6 230.0 175.5 309.5 230.3 251.8 345.1 137.0 224.0 337.3 344.3 172.5 160.6 293.1 109.9
1985 12 402.2 141.7 114.4 365.4 163.7 317.4 281.5 61.2 239.3 240.5 295.9 294.4 489.0 179.0 211.7 319.4 145.3 144.8 339.0 114.4
1986 1 130.7 161.5 142.2 135.2 280.7 254.0 202.7 162.7 169.9 184.1 225.7 192.9 129.0 143.0 119.5 129.7 143.6 157.1 169.8 142.2
1986 2 172.6 25.9 23.2 55.0 236.6 133.4 137.8 84.1 185.0 150.4 36.4 160.7 108.0 97.0 107.9 188.8 64.6 107.9 94.9 23.2
1986 3 102.7 212.8 174.5 172.0 194.7 88.1 104.0 34.0 203.5 214.0 155.7 190.7 241.0 129.0 169.3 198.6 143.8 177.3 189.5 174.5
1986 4 417.9 67.3 56.1 662.8 345.4 312.0 329.5 91.2 167.7 307.8 549.3 487.2 117.0 138.0 299.8 463.5 100.4 150.0 556.6 56.1
1986 5 193.5 12.2 12.0 18.1 146.4 94.2 86.5 30.0 83.1 63.3 347.5 152.6 37.0 49.0 15.3 115.4 32.1 15.1 53.3 12.0
1986 6 331.4 4.8 0.0 90.9 41.8 159.2 146.6 11.2 1.2 156.7 26.4 165.9 15.0 19.0 102.7 120.0 10.4 6.8 51.9 0.0
1986 7 166.3 3.0 1.7 58.5 109.3 68.0 29.0 3.8 4.1 121.7 29.1 164.9 0.0 7.0 47.6 100.9 4.6 8.0 17.5 1.7
1986 8 363.1 85.1 77.5 141.1 20.3 190.5 146.5 26.2 46.2 271.1 102.9 272.5 22.0 55.0 164.6 335.8 63.2 53.2 68.8 77.5
1986 9 655.2 93.7 118.6 217.6 125.7 215.6 74.9 65.0 64.9 425.6 73.0 685.7 3.0 99.0 219.2 505.6 105.7 71.2 154.8 118.6
1986 10 525.2 133.1 117.5 168.1 312.4 249.5 1025.3 190.8 225.6 207.5 478.0 324.7 88.0 165.0 221.7 254.5 145.9 156.8 656.6 117.5
1986 11 238.6 99.1 69.7 123.5 65.9 102.5 163.0 79.2 53.0 258.0 134.5 317.5 48.0 57.0 176.1 213.4 63.6 37.3 137.3 69.7
1986 12 252.0 63.0 66.4 178.1 127.1 143.2 179.0 47.8 22.8 124.9 159.4 186.6 3.0 44.0 51.1 149.0 53.8 58.4 185.3 66.4
1987 1 152.1 46.7 42.0 105.1 114.9 94.3 107.0 45.7 18.2 137.5 170.4 202.0 16.2 67.0 177.7 129.5 55.2 87.7 109.0 42.0

157
1987 2 56.3 16.3 6.4 55.5 12.7 10.4 37.0 14.2 9.5 29.2 54.0 35.6 0.0 1.0 22.8 0.0 4.0 3.8 47.7 6.4
1987 3 172.1 24.4 20.6 175.6 139.8 226.7 228.0 152.6 164.4 130.9 262.5 203.7 46.1 187.0 58.7 175.0 113.7 123.3 272.5 20.6
1987 4 242.1 115.1 98.8 135.1 176.6 146.0 440.7 165.1 238.9 225.2 333.1 315.5 100.3 238.0 183.5 252.6 174.5 150.7 313.9 98.8
1987 5 243.1 56.4 57.2 312.8 184.5 227.6 194.0 79.5 58.0 169.6 273.8 214.8 111.6 29.0 86.6 175.0 43.7 19.6 227.4 57.2
1987 6 181.6 8.4 0.0 106.1 0.0 143.9 85.0 50.0 2.7 232.4 8.0 202.1 0.0 11.0 63.2 221.7 8.2 5.9 40.4 0.0
1987 7 12.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.0 0.0 4.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1987 8 501.1 138.7 133.9 129.8 68.5 227.9 84.0 127.5 60.0 403.9 54.7 487.7 38.8 112.0 166.0 413.8 122.2 136.0 53.2 133.9
1987 9 299.6 165.9 147.8 185.0 149.8 188.5 55.7 43.2 44.5 195.9 264.0 329.4 83.9 101.0 115.0 198.6 118.2 128.0 129.6 147.8
1987 10 671.2 224.3 220.4 272.2 762.6 358.3 469.0 329.7 249.6 301.8 735.0 432.8 267.9 265.0 257.0 481.5 249.1 296.7 424.1 220.4
1987 11 570.0 160.0 138.4 410.0 252.2 270.0 266.5 209.3 177.5 402.4 274.0 475.7 87.2 116.0 247.2 192.7 130.3 157.6 334.6 138.4
1987 12 267.5 50.5 59.8 220.9 137.1 177.9 59.0 227.8 99.6 120.5 295.2 167.8 109.7 55.0 111.4 172.1 65.7 65.0 151.6 59.8
1988 1 135.0 12.7 11.7 67.0 5.0 39.0 5.4 67.1 188.7 30.5 282.2 9.4 58.0 115.1 78.7 38.5 8.1 40.9 11.7
1988 2 290.0 27.9 11.8 204.3 81.2 195.9 98.2 162.3 135.8 320.0 236.4 86.6 78.0 155.5 101.0 53.7 78.9 157.5 11.8
1988 3 505.5 62.7 44.9 436.4 147.3 204.0 623.0 258.8 345.3 270.0 312.0 120.6 150.0 252.2 310.5 110.2 176.9 713.9 44.9
1988 4 455.0 145.5 115.8 458.5 292.2 409.4 916.5 366.0 283.3 558.0 402.8 169.5 178.0 300.2 281.7 160.7 159.2 754.6 115.8
1988 5 636.5 82.5 68.1 127.4 97.2 144.4 185.0 25.9 376.9 124.5 557.6 40.6 83.0 128.9 173.0 73.8 128.4 149.1 68.1
1988 6 637.3 69.8 110.9 144.6 40.5 190.0 67.0 76.5 285.2 31.0 402.5 17.8 64.0 132.4 313.0 84.8 49.8 43.6 110.9
1988 7 392.0 3.8 10.8 210.1 109.2 230.4 98.0 22.4 163.8 69.0 251.1 13.9 50.0 76.5 188.1 31.8 43.2 61.8 10.8
1988 8 608.9 23.4 53.4 66.5 109.3 177.1 147.3 49.7 225.5 110.5 395.9 24.6 38.0 92.9 280.0 45.2 40.7 48.0 53.4
1988 9 961.0 57.7 222.5 88.8 225.0 265.4 121.2 351.4 164.5 469.2 44.5 80.0 197.6 374.4 72.5 86.4 205.2 57.7
1988 10 219.5 54.9 208.3 22.8 196.5 41.2 128.5 36.7 29.5 137.9 79.8 187.0 24.4 76.3 127.3 239.5 154.1 54.9
1988 11 502.0 17.0 252.7 165.2 333.5 324.7 313.4 344.5 450.0 499.2 266.2 315.0 401.5 383.5 186.8 236.0 277.0 17.0
1988 12 244.6 0.0 255.8 116.8 81.4 80.3 197.9 219.4 149.0 230.3 67.0 123.0 216.3 207.5 73.9 89.8 181.3 0.0
1989 1 140.0 113.0 26.8 25.4 198.3 38.0 8.1 34.8 33.0 41.1 102.5 35.0 18.8 52.0 31.0 35.5 40.3 44.7 18.3 26.8
1989 2 6.0 40.6 67.1 0.0 35.6 2.0 28.0 17.5 17.9 17.0 51.0 30.1 0.0 8.0 0.0 21.2 33.9 9.8 13.2 67.1
1989 3 136.0 125.7 113.8 157.2 76.2 68.1 130.0 55.9 53.1 200.2 81.0 264.8 61.2 53.0 105.7 212.3 79.3 127.4 195.9 113.8
1989 4 256.5 28.2 29.4 310.7 129.5 205.0 379.3 204.4 225.7 131.8 250.5 172.8 64.6 127.0 179.5 139.1 88.9 86.6 381.6 29.4
1989 5 944.0 21.6 20.0 185.0 55.9 421.9 116.4 50.0 76.1 280.7 272.0 420.1 66.1 101.0 174.5 318.1 63.6 61.2 135.4 20.0
1989 6 789.0 54.9 41.5 162.3 25.5 294.1 51.7 45.0 27.7 397.7 55.0 639.5 12.7 60.0 126.0 469.2 51.3 26.5 43.5 41.5
1989 7 766.5 115.8 108.9 283.0 76.4 440.0 474.5 108.9 142.6 476.6 182.0 585.7 77.9 229.0 271.6 486.6 171.4 156.1 137.2 108.9
1989 8 358.5 78.7 86.2 68.0 20.3 91.5 308.4 39.6 43.9 199.3 103.5 228.0 0.0 27.0 91.9 196.4 53.1 27.1 80.3 86.2
1989 9 416.5 30.7 27.2 49.7 45.7 172.0 163.5 117.6 61.4 197.8 176.0 316.9 34.3 75.0 98.7 232.9 56.6 46.4 71.7 27.2
1989 10 690.9 82.0 62.0 320.0 63.5 223.0 261.0 240.8 201.0 306.5 264.0 548.8 22.1 106.0 260.3 385.0 93.8 96.3 342.8 62.0
1989 11 374.3 45.7 74.5 396.4 353.5 172.0 309.7 208.7 200.5 293.4 196.0 253.6 33.0 120.0 185.4 254.7 104.9 162.4 346.4 74.5
1989 12 364.2 9.1 5.5 72.1 82.0 61.0 50.0 44.4 35.3 80.0 119.5 43.1 9.4 48.0 26.2 58.5 29.5 65.4 64.2 5.5
1990 1 239.2 60.2 53.4 86.4 275.5 146.5 106.3 104.4 96.3 81.7 298.2 91.8 54.5 102.9 138.8 106.3 81.7 62.4 98.0 53.4
1990 2 236.3 0.0 3.9 221.9 218.2 108.0 165.0 136.9 68.2 26.3 187.0 120.0 25.4 17.0 37.4 165.0 17.4 27.2 198.6 3.9
1990 3 399.2 80.8 81.1 363.8 356.2 182.8 191.0 210.0 211.1 177.7 263.5 417.3 222.0 129.0 202.3 191.0 112.5 75.4 382.0 81.1
1990 4 278.4 68.3 72.0 364.8 142.2 148.6 135.0 132.3 103.8 130.0 119.0 106.1 73.0 132.1 135.0 75.5 85.8 281.5 72.0
1990 5 607.3 123.4 77.8 290.1 93.4 379.9 185.0 130.0 112.0 390.5 159.5 381.9 70.6 152.0 195.1 185.0 119.0 146.8 213.6 77.8
1990 6 430.1 62.2 166.2 7.6 217.1 27.0 23.9 20.2 270.4 27.3 443.5 0.0 27.0 160.3 27.0 42.0 10.0 38.5 62.2
1990 7 361.1 8.1 81.4 81.3 121.9 65.0 30.0 24.0 258.9 14.5 199.6 0.0 24.0 61.3 65.0 17.5 12.3 28.2 8.1
1990 8 117.1 0.0 58.0 57.8 158.6 33.0 3.3 6.4 95.1 31.0 55.8 0.0 20.6 16.8 33.0 10.9 0.0 22.9 0.0
1990 9 149.5 14.5 19.5 165.7 37.0 415.0 19.3 9.2 59.6 147.5 32.8 85.3 22.3 24.0 415.0 18.8 0.0 115.3 14.5
1990 10 483.8 145.4 268.4 351.8 253.6 319.0 290.8 272.2 340.7 324.8 405.7 262.9 333.0 387.9 319.0 250.2 0.0 341.2 145.4
1990 11 413.5 208.5 390.6 122.4 305.6 289.0 328.0 244.1 472.8 262.3 629.6 117.8 303.4 306.5 289.0 263.8 208.5 334.2 208.5
1990 12 119.8 137.9 132.6 171.8 116.3 137.0 101.1 133.6 149.5 225.0 154.8 186.0 361.1 137.0 161.1 166.2 139.8 137.9
1991 1 353.4 208.3 73.5 433.3 257.9 148.3 217.0 143.5 110.4 258.9 407.0 102.2 221.0 107.0 209.0 217.0 94.4 122.1 347.5 73.5
1991 2 50.0 5.0 8.0 10.5 55.9 1.7 37.0 29.5 19.7 83.0 39.0 162.0 50.8 18.0 10.1 37.0 14.3 16.6 23.2 8.0
1991 3 257.2 27.8 24.3 204.1 70.7 83.6 316.0 67.3 97.8 196.3 296.7 185.2 109.2 63.0 192.8 316.0 46.6 55.9 349.9 24.3
1991 4 281.1 11.2 116.0 341.5 222.3 173.2 144.3 140.2 165.5 127.1 191.6 270.9 180.2 213.0 209.5 144.3 167.7 195.8 273.1 116.0
1991 5 283.3 80.5 51.4 311.7 268.0 178.6 188.0 69.9 72.3 233.0 272.1 322.5 144.9 74.0 241.5 188.0 64.1 58.8 223.7 51.4
1991 6 701.3 136.3 136.9 341.3 22.0 378.3 253.0 98.6 70.9 244.2 138.3 286.3 57.7 89.0 224.8 253.0 110.1 83.5 125.2 136.9
1991 7 289.7 68.7 65.7 98.2 43.0 163.6 93.5 27.1 23.4 145.4 53.0 174.6 7.3 59.0 91.4 93.5 60.3 51.8 36.4 65.7
1991 8 117.1 52.9 31.8 47.3 18.0 127.9 26.0 47.6 72.9 174.1 35.0 285.5 12.7 41.0 210.2 26.0 37.4 42.1 18.5 31.8
1991 9 148.9 17.0 18.0 41.9 50.6 152.5 129.0 72.8 72.8 52.1 113.6 63.0 0.0 55.0 38.2 129.0 40.0 49.2 58.3 18.0
1991 10 591.7 172.7 127.5 143.1 312.0 238.2 184.5 241.2 264.9 282.9 195.5 436.2 182.4 138.0 286.6 184.5 138.6 117.6 189.6 127.5
1991 11 359.0 155.2 141.2 360.9 451.0 199.1 135.0 155.7 188.9 267.5 262.6 208.9 190.0 264.0 289.2 135.0 205.8 250.6 250.6 141.2
1991 12 226.4 126.8 151.8 168.3 481.0 178.0 126.0 107.9 182.2 83.5 213.5 133.6 83.2 155.0 186.1 126.0 151.3 144.6 154.4 151.8
1992 1 136.2 29.2 0.0 50.5 21.0 13.0 45.9 21.8 36.9 71.0 27.5 9.4 20.0 0.4 28.7 13.0 25.3 17.1 59.0 29.2
1992 2 3.9 0.0 8.5 0.0 0.0 3.8 12.2 10.7 9.9 5.8 0.0 0.0 31.0 26.2 0.0 3.8 16.7 28.7 36.0 0.0
1992 3 6.4 0.0 2.2 0.0 23.2 48.2 5.1 0.0 4.1 63.5 16.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 48.2 0.3 0.0 37.0 0.0
1992 4 300.7 46.5 46.6 289.6 293.7 258.0 468.2 130.3 209.9 270.4 320.3 371.0 170.8 55.0 238.2 468.2 55.2 50.5 364.7 46.6
1992 5 389.0 85.8 82.3 150.9 150.8 271.8 248.0 115.3 177.7 209.6 162.8 415.0 199.4 150.0 136.3 248.0 119.2 119.3 161.8 82.3
1992 6 359.2 22.9 15.0 104.7 3.1 173.5 23.0 4.9 8.7 206.4 11.8 385.5 0.0 20.0 11.2 61.3 23.0 17.1 18.8 1.0 15.0
1992 7 532.6 53.0 51.3 144.0 38.4 408.0 255.0 27.9 35.3 326.0 134.6 493.9 15.9 56.0 20.7 117.7 255.0 52.6 49.2 43.5 51.3
1992 8 349.5 45.8 45.5 79.3 80.7 186.8 122.9 26.4 25.4 189.3 30.1 290.0 17.9 25.0 16.7 53.1 122.9 33.9 25.7 32.5 45.5
1992 9 433.0 55.5 57.0 129.0 239.9 128.5 36.1 56.5 49.3 259.9 135.2 394.5 5.2 142.0 21.5 115.1 36.1 101.2 127.1 71.0 57.0
1992 10 415.7 53.0 55.8 180.1 119.9 365.4 93.0 170.7 226.5 295.4 288.3 430.0 138.7 140.0 31.8 159.4 93.0 105.3 119.3 167.5 55.8
1992 11 551.8 279.4 277.8 404.4 713.0 476.8 436.0 245.7 316.0 386.5 582.8 548.0 418.6 285.0 254.7 326.3 436.0 279.9 4.4 445.5 277.8
1992 12 161.6 43.9 29.7 130.6 216.2 139.5 142.0 63.3 53.3 68.4 235.2 66.0 81.2 105.0 106.8 163.0 142.0 70.5 0.0 59.5 29.7
1993 1 107.0 27.5 29.2 51.0 30.6 17.4 84.0 19.3 52.3 0.0 54.3 57.5 13.2 21.0 21.9 12.2 84.0 24.4 17.5 20.5 29.2
1993 2 187.1 0.0 72.5 43.0 91.4 29.0 79.7 84.2 55.7 180.7 123.5 33.5 54.0 28.8 25.8 29.0 32.1 6.9 81.0 0.0
1993 3 162.7 47.3 47.6 196.0 213.8 81.3 153.0 157.0 157.7 249.4 162.5 159.5 78.4 126.0 66.2 143.0 153.0 93.8 0.0 123.5 47.6
1993 4 408.1 31.4 31.2 250.3 184.1 86.4 257.2 203.1 166.6 252.2 130.5 319.0 199.3 50.0 86.9 266.7 281.7 49.6 50.0 163.5 31.2
1993 5 816.3 199.6 147.7 332.9 121.6 393.0 159.1 189.0 253.8 529.0 254.8 908.7 60.3 233.0 180.3 321.9 760.9 194.1 216.5 248.5 147.7
1993 6 579.0 130.3 75.0 336.5 54.3 390.0 155.1 99.3 101.5 495.1 84.8 723.5 0.0 91.5 91.5 217.5 463.0 84.8 108.4 146.5 75.0
1993 7 378.2 53.2 49.6 155.8 47.5 228.8 146.2 51.9 32.1 202.7 85.1 388.8 8.4 37.2 37.2 105.5 204.8 43.3 47.8 44.5 49.6
1993 8 195.1 4.0 3.4 9.9 23.6 53.4 0.0 2.5 2.3 108.1 48.8 109.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 21.5 58.0 1.6 1.2 0.0 3.4
1993 9 175.7 31.7 32.1 9.4 161.1 52.8 79.0 28.9 20.7 43.2 161.0 146.2 13.2 2.8 2.8 7.6 55.2 16.7 10.9 11.5 32.1
1993 10 853.5 186.1 169.0 385.1 422.6 451.2 421.0 325.1 290.8 591.9 405.2 881.0 274.4 292.5 292.5 243.5 540.6 241.0 190.2 441.5 169.0
1993 11 461.4 245.9 249.3 436.3 405.1 342.9 647.1 236.4 241.0 309.5 321.2 541.9 223.4 235.6 235.6 319.2 564.7 241.5 279.4 471.0 249.3

158
1993 12 413.9 178.5 174.2 265.1 226.2 231.8 373.9 237.5 304.6 331.7 214.2 296.9 352.2 263.9 263.9 202.9 449.6 224.0 309.5 393.5 174.2
1994 1 107.3 32.2 31.5 70.6 189.1 71.3 315.3 77.9 84.5 131.5 208.1 103.0 190.8 105.4 105.4 77.7 167.5 72.2 133.2 209.5 31.5
1994 2 143.8 18.6 16.4 250.8 235.0 155.5 332.6 126.7 75.7 60.6 225.0 50.4 101.2 21.2 21.2 121.6 91.9 24.4 13.1 184.0 16.4
1994 3 306.9 92.8 113.4 102.1 72.1 78.0 145.0 202.1 40.3 79.0 88.3 71.5 65.1 42.2 42.2 84.7 63.4 80.8 49.5 126.5 113.4
1994 4 157.3 127.8 93.9 213.2 310.4 105.7 192.4 256.8 231.2 43.5 273.3 189.0 46.9 42.2 42.2 180.2 176.6 75.2 46.1 192.0 93.9
1994 5 431.1 27.7 38.3 177.4 76.0 200.1 154.2 67.2 132.0 210.8 104.6 488.0 97.0 123.2 123.2 176.3 272.0 83.9 96.7 102.0 38.3
1994 6 215.8 6.5 4.7 13.5 0.0 103.0 56.3 6.7 46.9 126.3 8.5 137.0 0.0 16.4 16.4 30.0 65.4 10.9 12.5 4.0 4.7
1994 7 275.4 48.4 51.3 107.1 0.8 255.0 148.3 28.2 35.0 285.5 38.5 224.8 0.0 57.5 57.5 114.9 169.1 53.4 44.1 22.5 51.3
1994 8 122.0 61.1 62.5 53.0 44.7 154.0 77.0 77.3 29.7 134.6 52.6 230.5 0.0 44.0 44.0 39.6 151.0 53.6 30.2 32.5 62.5
1994 9 392.8 201.8 210.9 97.1 310.7 216.7 180.5 88.4 36.6 168.9 293.2 258.9 173.0 89.7 89.7 81.3 114.5 141.8 144.4 82.0 210.9
1994 10 730.6 285.0 279.1 273.5 637.4 399.0 578.4 339.9 222.4 382.5 474.4 459.6 259.5 220.9 220.9 266.2 310.8 251.9 151.7 388.5 279.1
1994 11 440.9 163.0 139.7 316.6 414.8 312.0 390.5 262.1 345.1 239.7 349.8 263.5 114.8 166.5 166.5 156.8 371.3 159.8 158.0 237.5 139.7
1994 12 237.2 12.4 15.4 316.6 79.1 85.2 127.7 70.9 34.4 94.4 166.6 263.5 114.8 56.0 56.0 165.4 251.3 39.3 83.2 140.0 15.4
1995 1 272.4 74.1 80.4 270.9 136.2 134.0 208.5 206.0 84.5 96.7 232.1 265.8 121.5 188.0 188.0 138.4 228.8 142.6 190.9 247.0 80.4
1995 2 151.8 85.3 79.9 37.3 87.2 53.4 112.0 48.6 75.7 73.9 97.7 62.3 0.0 45.1 45.1 32.7 59.4 60.2 56.0 74.0 79.9
1995 3 351.4 4.3 7.5 49.6 113.7 121.1 112.5 40.0 40.3 114.8 153.9 134.2 100.4 31.7 31.7 131.6 114.7 21.7 88.1 85.0 7.5
1995 4 566.8 145.2 141.8 733.2 549.7 468.5 867.5 307.2 231.2 632.4 591.5 670.2 331.1 259.9 259.9 326.6 415.3 211.5 271.1 931.8 141.8
1995 5 578.6 116.2 122.0 239.2 215.4 399.7 243.5 162.0 132.0 383.5 339.4 494.6 148.7 193.0 193.0 256.9 520.6 160.9 153.8 256.0 122.0
1995 6 653.6 88.0 77.6 10.4 264.3 50.2 50.3 46.9 376.1 14.2 618.9 11.1 52.3 52.3 99.3 399.0 67.6 55.4 40.5 88.0
1995 7 226.6 33.6 31.6 36.8 206.0 40.0 38.0 35.0 145.1 6.7 184.8 0.0 12.5 12.5 41.0 112.6 22.8 13.6 12.0 33.6
1995 8 345.9 52.2 73.0 34.4 167.0 73.4 29.7 29.7 222.8 46.3 265.7 27.7 24.7 24.7 69.4 172.2 36.8 36.0 15.0 52.2
1995 9 425.5 18.6 51.0 53.4 189.0 77.8 33.8 36.6 190.3 40.6 282.1 1.3 41.9 41.9 35.5 241.1 31.5 34.7 22.5 18.6
1995 10 567.6 130.8 160.8 188.1 378.5 191.2 200.7 222.4 396.1 182.3 654.8 42.1 135.5 135.5 239.2 390.0 136.7 154.5 256.5 130.8
1995 11 261.9 56.6 108.9 216.4 281.0 309.2 256.0 345.1 279.3 329.0 412.0 221.8 216.7 216.7 102.3 303.2 149.8 265.4 163.5 56.6
1995 12 88.7 101.1 56.8 112.6 52.1 133.6 44.7 34.4 73.6 211.0 64.3 0.0 37.5 37.5 119.0 97.9 65.2 39.6 67.5 101.1
1996 1 148.9 63.4 91.1 161.8 131.1 0.0 46.6 77.0 56.7 182.1 62.3 18.3 108.1 108.1 18.9 127.6 85.8 133.6 46.5 63.4
1996 2 170.5 68.9 56.6 144.2 141.6 142.0 99.6 100.1 141.6 138.6 306.0 11.0 82.4 82.4 89.0 110.1 77.5 76.2 97.5 68.9
1996 3 116.6 0.0 130.5 121.5 105.0 99.1 4.5 10.5 109.9 90.6 127.2 68.4 24.0 31.2 138.0 77.4 12.7 21.3 180.0 0.0
1996 4 398.6 126.9 178.6 217.6 319.0 258.4 409.3 401.5 353.9 539.1 639.4 293.4 255.9 248.7 204.6 520.2 208.1 235.2 365.0 126.9
1996 5 95.1 41.1 4.9 54.6 40.0 0.1 7.9 73.2 23.1 7.7 66.0 23.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 54.5 18.1 0.0 10.5 41.1
1996 6 399.6 104.9 80.4 85.8 346.8 245.0 40.4 26.9 265.1 135.1 272.2 51.1 31.0 31.0 54.2 144.4 63.2 29.1 57.5 104.9
1996 7 430.4 18.4 111.4 16.2 323.5 193.2 35.1 47.6 377.2 74.0 320.3 24.3 16.1 16.1 86.6 200.5 18.0 14.1 41.0 18.4
1996 8 248.8 27.6 27.4 148.5 224.6 178.5 52.5 67.4 191.3 123.2 305.5 79.2 43.6 43.6 35.4 169.3 37.2 44.8 35.5 27.6
1996 9 712.5 148.9 39.8 128.8 269.2 127.0 103.3 96.3 492.9 87.8 650.8 99.5 103.7 103.7 107.0 375.0 123.1 92.8 61.0 148.9
1996 10 455.3 42.6 117.7 296.1 262.5 220.5 200.7 216.5 330.6 332.4 365.6 209.2 63.0 63.0 90.0 281.9 61.1 53.7 312.0 42.6
1996 11 308.2 215.0 284.2 300.2 312.0 300.7 375.7 331.2 157.0 395.3 274.5 303.9 253.3 253.3 159.5 226.8 243.0 240.4 182.0 215.0
1996 12 24.5 74.0 106.2 219.1 117.8 141.5 210.6 341.5 272.7 175.6 324.8 187.9 68.8 68.8 61.6 158.4 78.1 64.2 221.5 74.0
1997 1 110.4 0.0 21.8 61.7 7.0 20.0 44.8 212.6 5.3 17.9 29.0 45.2 0.0 0.0 6.3 19.4 2.2 2.9 15.5 0.0
1997 2 31.5 24.4 48.4 61.7 10.5 54.1 54.1 16.7 134.5 114.0 102.6 50.1 15.7 15.7 61.1 98.1 21.4 18.3 43.0 24.4
1997 3 107.5 2.5 41.5 48.5 50.5 142.6 86.0 50.9 109.2 97.2 56.6 62.6 54.3 54.3 33.2 14.5 33.6 48.9 81.0 2.5
1997 4 364.1 66.8 483.7 449.9 570.5 398.9 296.7 230.1 274.6 594.2 589.2 313.4 172.5 172.5 174.9 399.9 133.3 155.4 561.0 66.8
1997 5 440.2 142.0 313.6 405.0 378.0 154.0 222.8 207.0 256.6 412.0 505.2 258.5 191.3 191.3 188.8 474.5 171.7 119.7 391.0 142.0
1997 6 186.5 77.2 31.2 146.1 136.0 69.5 24.2 17.4 300.9 78.0 230.1 63.3 20.5 20.5 116.2 138.3 45.1 64.1 37.0 77.2
1997 7 397.2 48.2 31.2 97.3 156.4 55.0 26.2 26.8 304.9 51.4 410.2 47.5 11.1 11.1 161.9 315.6 27.8 35.6 32.0 48.2
1997 8 205.5 20.9 28.0 46.8 100.8 55.9 17.1 15.0 154.5 9.9 184.0 25.3 0.0 0.0 87.2 180.6 9.8 8.0 17.0 20.9
1997 9 579.0 266.9 28.0 548.2 500.6 620.9 231.4 270.0 339.4 478.9 642.2 312.5 249.9 249.9 215.1 490.0 256.3 221.5 320.5 266.9
1997 10 754.4 183.3 616.3 733.0 428.1 671.8 443.8 355.9 380.3 756.8 442.0 489.5 256.7 256.7 252.0 592.5 234.5 410.4 858.0 183.3
1997 11 570.2 488.2 441.0 771.8 425.3 531.4 511.1 539.3 702.6 592.3 516.0 538.8 528.4 528.4 374.2 731.6 510.2 501.4 557.0 488.2
1997 12 343.2 82.7 100.1 266.1 188.0 495.4 134.1 129.3 195.4 363.2 254.1 163.3 194.3 194.3 122.5 276.8 143.3 85.2 154.5 82.7
1998 1 124.7 53.8 63.5 117.5 54.0 85.6 67.1 46.2 49.8 114.7 23.6 76.3 127.6 127.6 36.1 89.9 92.8 75.6 104.5 53.8
1998 2 191.5 3.1 100.3 39.7 38.8 134.3 36.1 47.3 111.3 159.4 77.5 32.9 55.6 55.6 66.0 142.7 32.1 47.2 172.0 3.1
1998 3 120.3 44.4 172.8 85.7 48.0 92.0 25.4 15.3 113.1 96.4 109.8 43.1 18.5 18.5 30.6 0.0 30.0 54.0 250.5 44.4
1998 4 409.7 1.6 196.2 70.9 43.3 164.0 176.3 161.2 147.6 101.0 294.9 118.5 117.5 117.5 75.7 142.0 70.6 108.0 130.5 1.6
1998 5 334.0 63.8 368.9 406.5 171.1 253.0 200.8 109.6 354.6 218.2 347.8 247.3 111.0 111.0 264.5 670.0 95.2 88.3 181.0 63.8
1998 6 436.3 37.1 150.9 14.3 195.4 90.5 48.3 32.0 341.7 23.0 279.4 30.7 35.5 35.5 133.4 162.7 36.8 33.3 26.0 37.1
1998 7 232.0 36.4 86.4 144.4 257.2 95.0 86.9 83.9 328.8 104.5 369.3 96.1 60.5 60.5 95.3 25.2 51.5 53.2 106.5 36.4
1998 8 507.5 28.3 133.1 126.6 199.1 136.0 115.4 81.3 325.7 106.1 362.6 105.2 37.5 37.5 104.0 63.0 37.4 38.5 106.5 28.3
1998 9 503.7 70.2 101.8 32.5 179.5 110.0 22.5 17.5 317.9 61.3 319.8 23.2 15.0 15.0 117.9 126.8 39.1 13.4 46.0 70.2
1998 10 371.0 49.4 144.8 148.5 200.7 78.0 39.4 49.9 219.7 76.2 382.8 72.2 24.5 24.5 96.7 148.2 36.0 20.9 50.5 49.4
1998 11 538.6 233.2 171.5 220.2 136.0 146.5 218.9 102.3 306.1 115.5 330.1 192.7 158.0 158.0 151.8 274.1 193.4 150.0 204.0 233.2
1998 12 425.0 274.0 428.6 286.9 188.5 371.1 298.3 322.4 375.8 411.2 474.1 258.0 208.0 208.0 170.6 274.1 240.9 194.0 483.5 274.0
1999 1 318.7 82.1 138.1 226.1 150.0 166.3 136.6 102.9 58.9 205.4 97.5 150.8 99.5 99.5 33.7 70.7 93.9 85.2 109.5 82.1
1999 2 409.5 49.6 310.3 200.9 175.3 213.3 71.6 86.1 296.6 281.9 290.2 107.5 195.5 195.5 148.6 271.7 126.6 180.8 275.5 49.6
1999 3 300.4 31.5 131.0 266.2 95.7 110.2 170.0 189.6 265.5 90.9 269.4 182.5 124.1 124.1 134.0 247.2 86.6 110.2 288.0 31.5
1999 4 434.1 59.1 213.1 221.9 171.0 124.0 195.0 181.8 306.7 131.0 467.8 180.5 64.1 64.1 171.3 351.2 68.5 58.9 222.5 59.1
1999 5 652.4 91.4 199.0 114.9 257.5 116.6 79.0 69.8 324.1 44.8 610.5 81.8 55.2 55.2 193.3 419.8 72.0 43.9 65.5 91.4
1999 6 384.4 68.5 235.3 44.5 258.0 162.7 43.6 47.6 230.0 91.0 279.2 38.6 47.6 47.6 120.9 233.4 56.4 44.7 86.0 68.5
1999 7 206.2 5.4 17.4 76.1 82.4 25.2 2.0 0.9 104.2 11.5 124.0 27.3 0.0 0.0 54.5 104.7 2.4 0.0 0.0 5.4
1999 8 489.3 8.0 94.4 13.8 108.1 63.0 40.5 23.5 338.5 13.0 434.4 26.4 33.5 33.5 180.5 353.3 22.9 34.4 41.5 8.0
1999 9 298.5 67.3 83.3 179.4 111.0 126.8 96.7 92.2 123.6 110.6 207.8 113.4 0.0 0.0 71.1 149.6 33.8 0.0 60.5 67.3
1999 10 650.5 119.0 156.0 230.3 245.5 148.2 137.0 116.4 287.4 241.9 467.8 152.5 121.5 121.5 163.7 341.4 121.2 103.5 103.0 119.0
1999 11 307.5 100.1 365.4 289.9 289.0 274.1 286.9 262.6 297.8 328.5 354.7 253.0 370.5 370.5 155.9 299.3 250.0 351.7 416.5 100.1
1999 12 256.8 96.4 171.3 132.1 45.2 45.6 137.5 141.0 296.0 44.9 352.5 118.9 123.8 154.9 297.5 112.7 115.5 238.0 96.4
2000 1 268.5 114.7 167.8 266.2 85.0 113.4 109.4 105.7 66.8 284.7 71.9 150.1 58.1 100.0 34.2 63.9 85.0 49.8 147.9 114.7
2000 2 340.6 229.6 332.2 391.7 194.9 300.5 259.6 260.5 312.5 393.9 376.2 273.5 74.4 193.2 164.0 315.8 150.4 68.8 322.5 229.6
2000 3 314.1 78.3 38.8 295.8 189.9 262.4 479.6 329.3 353.2 183.9 273.7 357.8 227.6 204.5 169.4 293.4 176.0 202.1 197.8 78.3
2000 4 232.4 18.9 71.3 202.8 175.5 283.1 36.6 20.2 84.3 301.6 181.4 89.5 39.7 25.2 52.7 118.7 30.6 36.5 192.8 18.9
2000 5 306.6 11.5 38.8 101.4 52.0 71.5 67.6 87.3 297.6 37.0 254.0 71.0 4.6 0.0 145.2 257.0 10.7 3.7 53.5 11.5
2000 6 402.0 67.5 184.2 80.8 224.0 130.5 42.1 38.8 322.3 38.6 364.4 50.3 57.7 61.7 166.7 315.8 61.1 54.1 66.1 67.5
2000 7 168.9 3.9 61.1 7.8 141.0 51.4 6.8 0.0 142.0 46.9 96.2 6.3 6.1 0.0 66.6 112.2 5.2 5.4 21.6 3.9
2000 8 549.9 152.7 301.7 144.0 308.5 196.0 89.8 76.6 338.8 169.9 247.1 97.6 134.6 127.0 160.9 275.0 140.1 138.3 123.8 152.7
2000 9 369.4 102.1 34.3 135.3 144.0 115.6 26.1 26.3 268.8 136.9 338.2 60.6 17.5 42.6 142.6 277.7 54.3 15.7 50.2 102.1

159
2000 10 373.3 23.2 102.6 71.0 106.5 66.9 107.0 139.4 267.4 65.1 291.8 81.6 43.4 47.1 137.2 257.6 37.9 37.0 100.9 23.2
2000 11 251.1 169.0 190.8 322.8 152.5 156.0 185.5 209.6 238.8 214.8 260.1 210.3 229.8 187.2 122.4 229.8 201.4 218.1 169.8 169.0
2000 12 151.0 68.8 236.3 155.8 111.5 116.0 98.6 163.3 235.2 180.8 238.2 106.3 123.5 67.5 118.7 218.8 98.7 115.2 187.5 68.8
2001 1 271.2 148.4 182.7 191.6 261.0 183.5 184.6 206.4 204.5 236.3 290.6 164.5 143.7 142.4 112.0 225.2 147.8 123.1 188.4 148.4
2001 2 121.0 43.0 147.5 71.2 90.5 72.0 189.7 212.1 183.9 118.6 194.3 125.7 133.2 132.0 93.7 174.5 97.2 123.2 114.2 43.0
2001 3 73.1 1.8 76.3 13.6 65.5 24.5 46.2 51.7 136.2 12.7 136.0 29.4 85.0 84.2 68.5 125.9 47.3 75.4 70.0 1.8
2001 4 612.7 122.3 386.0 539.2 280.5 416.5 215.5 240.9 234.6 735.7 319.2 300.9 176.9 175.3 127.0 252.5 155.3 162.6 444.7 122.3
2001 5 318.5 0.3 38.2 57.2 75.5 12.5 13.6 15.2 121.8 120.4 133.0 27.0 1.8 1.8 62.5 117.4 1.8 1.4 21.8 0.3
2001 6 212.7 8.8 77.8 32.8 113.5 10.0 8.9 9.9 175.3 38.6 190.8 16.0 11.8 11.7 89.9 168.7 10.4 11.1 17.4 8.8
2001 7 375.9 13.5 60.5 89.0 242.5 51.0 9.4 10.5 229.7 60.7 190.4 35.7 29.3 29.0 111.5 196.0 21.5 25.7 21.4 13.5
2001 8 131.3 12.0 31.6 6.5 48.5 24.5 0.3 0.3 111.7 3.0 86.4 2.4 0.0 0.0 53.6 92.7 5.2 0.0 13.8 12.0
2001 9 535.7 47.4 116.8 83.8 261.0 168.4 93.1 104.1 330.7 160.2 340.5 78.6 40.0 39.6 167.5 310.0 45.8 35.8 114.9 47.4
2001 10 353.4 24.3 143.7 366.7 177.5 181.5 112.7 126.0 218.3 410.9 313.4 186.6 83.4 82.7 119.9 241.8 59.5 71.1 188.4 24.3
2001 11 220.1 149.3 363.4 167.8 269.0 258.8 214.7 240.1 354.0 354.4 307.4 172.4 79.0 78.3 173.3 308.0 116.0 75.0 306.5 149.3
2001 12 282.8 83.8 236.1 186.4 274.0 198.8 44.4 49.6 470.0 770.4 338.4 87.9 50.7 50.2 222.7 379.7 64.6 47.3 227.2 83.8
2002 1 200.8 9.2 47.6 92.7 45.5 44.9 9.8 11.0 80.9 120.4 34.0 37.2 7.1 7.0 35.8 55.2 8.1 6.1 47.8 9.2
2002 2 228.1 23.9 90.0 85.7 147.0 114.9 33.0 36.9 62.3 80.1 79.1 47.2 81.2 80.5 33.1 64.7 54.2 75.1 103.2 23.9
2002 3 333.8 7.6 122.0 328.6 183.8 304.0 57.7 64.5 179.0 481.8 156.2 144.1 74.2 73.5 87.7 156.0 44.7 65.9 283.8 7.6
2002 4 974.4 198.2 517.3 493.5 349.5 572.0 263.9 295.1 421.9 512.8 525.4 311.0 173.0 171.5 223.2 433.6 188.4 159.0 603.4 198.2
2002 5 497.3 124.7 126.1 220.2 121.0 177.5 141.9 158.6 320.8 167.2 382.0 151.6 45.5 45.1 167.9 322.4 84.4 36.2 144.6 124.7
2002 6 460.5 25.0 34.1 41.6 119.5 30.0 9.1 10.2 166.4 21.2 198.2 19.2 9.9 9.8 87.1 167.3 16.3 9.3 13.6 25.0
2002 7 592.3 41.7 76.6 0.0 132.5 35.0 25.9 29.0 8.9 0.0 246.7 13.8 38.8 38.5 29.5 107.8 39.4 34.1 22.4 41.7
2002 8 367.5 96.1 48.8 72.3 153.8 90.4 29.1 32.5 144.7 92.7 154.6 40.4 0.0 0.0 73.9 138.0 42.8 0.0 31.7 96.1
2002 9 85.7 10.3 23.4 121.7 75.5 48.0 48.3 54.0 77.8 51.0 92.6 67.7 20.5 20.3 40.7 78.1 17.5 18.3 26.6 10.3
2002 10 549.3 127.5 267.3 577.4 354.0 357.7 236.4 264.3 323.9 601.3 385.8 325.2 88.6 87.8 169.6 325.6 112.7 75.5 361.2 127.5
2002 11 384.0 218.7 373.1 343.0 346.5 319.2 313.6 350.6 273.6 575.4 325.9 285.5 220.9 218.9 143.2 275.0 224.6 209.6 338.3 218.7
2002 12 557.4 158.3 207.5 227.6 110.2 130.2 61.3 68.5 0.0 229.6 135.3 111.2 119.3 118.2 14.3 56.7 133.1 111.3 178.3 158.3

1970 - 2000 RAINFALL TO THIESSEN POLYGONS

Av Monthly Av Yearly
ST NAME X-Lat Y-Lon Lat Lon
Rainfall Rainfall
ALU Alupolla Group - Hapugastenna
453583 742816 330.3 3964.0 6.7200 80.5800 BAL station used in Thiessen polygons
AMB Ambalantota Govt Farm502213 676470 73.5 882.1 6.1200 81.0200 UDS stations used for calculating record datas
BAL Balangoda Post Office 466840 735068 186.2 2234.5 6.6500 80.7000
BEL Bandara Eliya - Haputale
502210 750534 166.2 1994.9 6.7900 81.0200
CAM Bogawantawala - Campion466849 749439 192.5 2310.3 6.7800 80.7000 RuWaDaBa
NAG Nagrak Estate - Belihuloya
475689 748329 188.3 2259.6 6.7700 80.7800 Met Dept
UDA - UDT Uda Walawe Tank 480095 709636 113.1 1357.6 6.4200 80.8200 Hydrodata 1995
WHA West Haputale - Udaveriya
481215 749432 183.8 2205.7 6.7800 80.8300 Calculated
HAM Hambegamuwa 494472 721793 106.1 1272.9 6.5300 80.9500
EMB Embilipitiya Irr Tank 483410 699686 101.7 1220.0 6.3300 80.8500 MM monthly datas
GOD Godakawela 461302 718490 148.5 1781.8 6.5000 80.6500 DD daily datas
LAU Lauderdale Group 457979 709648 246.4 2956.9 6.4200 80.6200

160
Annex 6 (Section 4.1) - Run-off calculation
The basin has been divided in 6 sub-basins where historical inflows records are
available (Figure 10).

Table 23. Gauging stations with historical series of inflows

1960 - 2000 INFLOWS TO MODEL

ST NAME Y-Lat X-Lon


SML Samanalawewa 737986 477009
UW Uda walawe 711334 482267
THI Timbolketiya 708031 478015
THI-UW Timbolketiya with Uda Walawe 706379 482685
PAN Panamure 698767 475908
HAL Halmillaketiya 697609 484602
MAH Mahagama 697533 490392
HAM Hambegamuwa 707253 494360
WER Weragala 735306 489440

SML station used in model


UW stations used for calculating

Finally, a rainfall-runoff relation has been established by linear regression, taking into
consideration rainfall values for both the current and preceding month.

Equation 4

V ( s ) = F (Rs , m + Rs , m 1 )
n
Rs , m = si Rm , i
i =1

si : Thiessens polygon areas for sub-basin i

Rm : Rainfall on the sub-basin during the month m

V (s) : Inflow generated by rainfall in the sub-basin s:

Uda Walawe

Uda Walawe reservoir daily inflow has been calculated by the water balance method
for the 1980-2002 period. Total inflow, considering the rainfall on the tank is 1,016
MCM (or 1,023 MCM if direct rainfall on the tank is omitted).

The formula used in the calculation is showed below:

Equation 5

Inflow + DirectRain = Storage + Spill + RBC + LBC + DomUse + Seep + Ev


Storage Capacity = 1.1305Level 2 + 15.457 Level + 88.574; R = 0.9997

161
DirectRain = Surface RainUDA

DomUse DomesticUse(ct ) = 0.13 m 3 / day


Seep Seepage = Storage 0.001
Ev Evaporation = PanEv K p ; K p = Tank coefficient = 0.8

An extension of the series to 1960 has been carried out by linear regression. In
addition, we have a good historical record for Embilipitiya flow station from 1943-1 to
1968-12 which overlaps with Uda Walawe records during the 1957-5/1961-6 period.
So, in order to check the results obtained a correlation between Uda Walawe and
Embilipitiya (Moraketiya gauging station) has been established (Figure 6172).

Figure 61. Inflow correlation between Embilipitiya and Uda Walawe

EMB-UW correlation

350

300
y = 1.2839x
2
R = 0.9684

250

200
EMB (MCM)

150

100

50

0
0 50 100 150 200 250
UW (MCM)

As a result, the period between 1961-7 and 1968-12 can be covered73 by two
calculation methods. For reasons of consistency, the period between 1961-7 and
1968-12 has been calculated by the relation UDA = 1/1.28 EMB and that between
1969-1 and 1984-12 by linear regression, giving 997 MCM and 1167 MCM inflows
respectively. The total average inflow for the whole period can be estimated at 1,083
MCM (Figure 62).

72
Its important to remind at this point that the records of Uda Walawe reservoir used by SOGREAH between
1968 and 1983 are lost.
73
SOGREAH is extending the Uda Walawe inflow series until 1943 using the PRC wrong relation EMB = 1.4 UW.
This mistake is due on one hand to faulty hand-made approximation on the graphic and on the other hand to the
consideration that Moraketiya gauging station is the sum of Thilbolketiya River plus Uda Walawe, forgetting that a
small correction must be done by adding a small river flowing between both of them, on the right side. The
contribution of this small river is almost 9% out of the total, corresponding to 11% and 80% of Thimbolketiya and
Uda Walawe respectively. It gives a relation EMB = 1.28 UW.

162
These calculations consider the total catchment area of 1.156 km2. It means that
estimated inflow of the areas between Samanalawewa, Weli Oya and Uda Walawe is
given by the formula74:

Equation 6

Qmiddle UW = QUW (QSML + QWO )


QmiddleUW : Run-off of drainage area between Uda Walawe, Samanalawewa and Weli Oya

QUW : Run off of total Uda walawe catchment drainage area

QSML : Run-off of Samanalawewa cacthment drainage area

QWO : Run-off of Weli Oya catchment drainage area

Figure 62. Calculated run-off at Embilipitiya and Uda Walawe.

Embilipitiya - Uda Walawe run-off

3000

2500

2000
volume (MCM)

1500

1000

500

0
1943 1946 1949 1952 1955 1958 1961 1964 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000
year
EMB INFLOW UW INFLOW by EMB UW INFLOW by SOGREAH UW INFLOW CALCULATED

Samanalawewa

A good correlation between the inflow to Samalanalawewa and to Uda Walawe


reservoirs has been found for the period 1958-6 and 1961-6 (Figure 63). Nevertheless
a rainfall-runoff correlation for different periods with historical inflow records (from
1958-6 to 1967-11, from 1972-11 to 1980-2, and from 1983-6 to 1986-6) has been
done and extrapolated to periods with missing data to reconstitute the 1960-2000
series.

74
Several reports such as JICA and SAPI, consider total Uda Walawe inflow including Samanalawewa drainage
basin as without Samanalawewa dam scenario, while the option with Samanalawewa dam is calculating the
drainage areas between Samanalawewa dam and Uda Walawe dam. It was of special interest before the
accomplishment of Samanalawewa dam in order to consider possible water flow reduction for irrigation in Uda
Walawe dam. Since the view of this study this analysis, it is not important anymore but only to check the
consistency of the calculations.

163
Figure 63. Inflow correlation between Uda Walawe and Samanalawewa

UW - SML observed based on monthly datas

120

y = 0.5515x
R2 = 0.846
100

80
SML (MCM)

60

40

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
UW (MCM)

As for Samanalaweva, the balance of the dam has been calculated for the period
1993-2002. Figure 64 shows the regularized outflow after 1997 by comparing all the
period with after 1997. The monthly inflow-outflow ratio during 1997-2002 allows us
to convert natural flows into managed flows75 (and vice versa) and to extend the
series to 1960-2000. Total calculated inflow by linear regression is 540 MCM without
dam and 535 with dam, the difference accounting for evaporation losses.

Figure 64. Samanalawewa inflow-outflow before and after full capacity operation (units in average
MCM)

Relation Inflow-Outflow Samanalawewa Dam for the period 1993-1997

80

70

60

50
volume (MCM)

40

30

20

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
month

Inflow Outflow

For the total period of 1960-2000 a relation SML = 0.50 UW has been encountered.
This confirms the validity of our calculations.

75
This cannot be achieved by considering dam management rule. The operation of the reservoir for electricity
generation is decided by CEB in Colombo based on the status of all other sources of power. Therefore the
average management can only be observed.

164
Relation Inflow-Outflow Samanalawewa Dam for the period 1997-2002

80

70

60

50
volumen (MCM)

40

30

20

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
month

Inflow Outflow

Welioya

Historical inflow records exist for Weli Oya between 1963-9 and 1971-5. The total
inflow for a total catchment area of 265 km2 has been extended to the 1960-2000
period through monthly correlations. The average flow is 196 MCM/year.

Thimbolketiya

Two short inflow series are available for the Thimbolketiya River, from 1958-8 to
1967-1 and from 1996-10 to 1998-9. For the period 1990-1 to 1999-12 an H/Q
formula is used by the Irrigation Department at Thimbolketiya gauging station. The
relation between historical inflow and values obtained by the formula during 1996-10
to 1998-9 is showed below76 (Figure 65).

Figure 65. Historical and calculated inflows correlation at Thimbolketiya

Thimbolketoya historical - calculated inflow relation

40

y = 0.9405x + 0.6162
35 2
R = 0.985

30
Calculated by Irr Dept formula (MCM)

25

20

15

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Historical Inflow (MCM)

76 3.7554 2
A modification of the formula used by Irrigation Department (Q = 8.7882*H ; R = 0.9451) is done by SAPI
(Q = 9.2008*H 2.1401; R2 = 0.9982). The high values of 1997 for Nov and Dec, has been omitted.

165
Total inflow calculated by rainfall-runoff correlation from 1960 to 2000 is 156
MCM/year. However, this inflow is calculated at a point which is located upstream of
the junction of Walawe river with Thimbolketiya River (Figure 10).

Considering a correction of the catchment area (277 km2 to 315 km2), the runoff
coefficient and readjusted rainfall by Thiessen polygons, the total inflow at Uda
Walawe junction for total Thimbolketiya catchment area for the same period is 168
MCM/year.

Hulanda Oya

We have three records along the river, one located in Panamure77 during 1989-10 to
1998-9 and other two in Halmillaketiya (Chandrikawewa) with series between 1954-6
to 1962-9 (site of the tank) and 1984-9 to 1986-1 (entrance to the tank)78. Respective
catchments areas are 88 km2 and 180 km2.

The inflow calculated by rainfall-runoff correlation for Panumure catchment area is 30


MCM/year.

Like for Thimbolketiya, considering the runoff coefficient, an area correction and
recalculating rainfall with new Thiessen polygons, yields a total inflow of 47
MCM/year for Hulanda Oya catchment area during the period 1960-2000.

Mau Ara

With a catchment area of 374 km2, Mau Ara has a historical record inflow between
1951-11 to 1959-9 and 1962-10 to 1965-9, at a point located near the junction with
Walawe River (downstream of Mahagama tank). Historical inflows are giving 60
MCM/year, against 47 MCM/year calculated by rainfall-runoff correlation for the 1960-
2000 period. An explanation of that is given by the fact that annual average rainfall
changes from 1307 mm (period 1951 to 1965) to 1559 mm (period 1965 to 2000),
which is equivalent to 8.5 MCM/year.

From the point of view of the hydrological balance, it is also interesting to get the
inflow upstream of Mahagama tank (which is refilled by return flows of upper blocks
and by Mau Ara River). This catchment area considered is around 249 km2. The
inflow is calculated at the point where Mau Ara intersects with LBC79.
As explained earlier for Thimbolketiya and Hulanda Oya, the inflow of this catchment
was calculated by the runoff coefficient and recalculating the rainfall by Thiessen.
The inflow for the new catchment area during the same period has been calculated
with a value of 32 MCM/year. The inflow feeding the Habaralu and Kiriibbanwewa
tanks has been estimated proportionally to the area at 8 MCM/year80.

77
But from the point of view of hydrological balance, Panamure inflow is of no interest.
78
However, other tributaries to the tank have been considered as insignificant in order to calculate the inflow
series in Halmillaketiya point.
79
But the canal crosses the river by means of an aqueduct.
80
This point is of especial interest when a proposed diversion on 228 MCM/year on Mau Ata is on going.
Calculations by JICA (1995) ara giving a total inflow for Mau Ara of 37.9 MCM/year with a positive balance on
Mahagama of around 12 MCM/year.

166
UW without SML corrections

SML corrected
WER UW (by EMB) UW (by EMB)
YEAR MONTH THI THI-UW PAN HAL MAH HAM WER (negatives UW Central to UW Central
SML SML with Dam UW calculated UW by EMB corrected with SML to be with SML
values or be corrected corrected
corrected corrected
values >90%)

1960 1 52.6 66.5 113.5 113.5 15.8 16.8 3.3 4.7 6.5 4.9 33.7 33.7 61.0 52.6 61.0 27.3 27.264
1960 2 63.2 78.8 114.6 114.6 14.4 15.5 1.9 2.9 5.2 3.7 31.1 31.1 51.4 63.2 51.4 20.3 20.293
1960 3 64.6 77.9 117.0 117.0 8.0 8.4 2.3 3.2 4.2 3.4 24.3 24.3 52.4 64.6 52.4 28.1 28.050
1960 4 93.4 58.4 186.1 186.1 11.9 13.4 2.9 5.8 7.1 4.2 29.5 29.5 0.0 102.6 83.5 54.0 54.002
1960 5 45.1 41.6 70.1 70.1 9.7 10.3 3.1 4.3 4.5 1.9 20.2 20.2 25.0 45.1 25.0 4.8 4.819
1960 6 24.4 26.4 33.1 33.1 5.1 5.3 1.8 2.2 0.1 0.0 7.7 7.7 8.7 24.4 8.7 1.1 1.069
1960 7 39.4 74.2 64.6 64.6 11.0 12.0 1.2 2.0 0.0 0.0 6.2 6.2 25.2 39.4 25.2 19.0 18.987
1960 8 17.4 27.5 20.9 20.9 5.1 5.3 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 3.9 3.5 3.5 17.4 3.5 -0.4 0.003
1960 9 34.4 43.6 36.4 36.4 8.7 9.2 1.7 2.1 0.0 0.0 3.9 2.0 2.0 34.4 2.0 -1.9 0.000
1960 10 34.1 22.9 56.8 56.8 9.6 10.7 5.4 10.6 10.6 7.3 19.0 19.0 0.0 31.3 25.5 6.5 6.513
1960 11 48.9 29.3 105.8 105.8 11.9 13.2 4.6 1.0 7.8 5.4 47.4 47.4 56.9 48.9 56.9 9.5 9.495
1960 12 41.7 35.2 77.4 77.4 7.0 8.0 2.5 0.9 4.1 2.8 17.7 17.7 35.7 41.7 35.7 17.9 17.942
1961 1 40.1 50.7 81.7 81.7 9.7 10.6 2.7 0.6 11.3 8.6 28.8 28.8 41.6 40.1 41.6 12.8 12.787
1961 2 30.3 37.8 60.8 60.8 6.3 7.2 1.8 0.6 8.8 5.4 24.1 24.1 30.5 30.3 30.5 6.4 6.357
1961 3 40.7 49.1 87.1 87.1 6.6 7.4 1.8 0.6 7.9 5.4 20.8 20.8 46.4 40.7 46.4 25.6 25.566
1961 4 48.1 30.1 106.8 106.8 5.4 5.7 1.2 0.5 2.7 2.3 25.7 25.7 58.7 48.1 58.7 33.0 33.005
1961 5 77.5 71.6 139.5 139.5 9.3 10.0 3.6 0.9 6.2 3.7 30.2 30.2 62.0 77.5 62.0 31.8 31.816
1961 6 38.6 41.7 56.5 56.5 8.2 8.8 2.5 0.6 0.2 0.1 9.1 9.1 17.9 38.6 17.9 8.8 8.782
1961 7 32.9 62.1 51.5 42.5 7.5 8.1 1.4 0.6 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 9.6 32.9 9.6 4.6 4.637
1961 8 50.9 80.6 43.4 58.3 8.4 8.9 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.0 3.2 3.2 7.4 50.9 7.4 4.2 4.178
1961 9 25.3 32.1 35.4 31.8 7.0 7.5 2.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 4.1 4.1 6.4 25.3 6.4 2.3 2.319
1961 10 41.6 27.9 117.6 72.9 12.1 13.1 3.0 5.5 8.0 5.7 18.0 18.0 0.0 40.2 32.7 14.7 14.700
1961 11 86.9 52.0 251.7 182.1 23.2 24.9 7.2 4.2 6.4 4.3 36.8 36.8 95.2 86.9 95.2 58.3 58.338
1961 12 76.4 64.5 144.8 132.2 17.7 19.1 5.9 3.8 4.5 2.6 24.3 24.3 0.0 72.9 59.3 35.0 35.037
1962 1 50.6 64.0 87.1 86.7 12.9 14.3 3.7 1.4 2.7 1.3 15.4 15.4 36.2 50.6 36.2 20.8 20.797
1962 2 27.9 34.8 70.3 54.4 10.2 10.8 2.1 2.5 0.0 0.0 11.3 11.3 26.6 27.9 26.6 15.3 15.276
1962 3 35.5 42.8 72.8 85.2 10.3 11.1 2.0 9.7 2.2 1.4 16.3 16.3 49.7 35.5 49.7 33.4 33.371
1962 4 66.6 41.6 136.8 150.1 18.4 19.7 6.1 8.4 4.8 3.4 32.4 32.4 83.5 66.6 83.5 51.1 51.149
1962 5 94.4 87.1 183.0 182.7 23.2 24.7 7.8 5.5 7.7 4.7 28.7 28.7 88.4 94.4 88.4 59.6 59.638
1962 6 40.0 43.2 68.0 60.4 8.5 9.0 2.0 1.7 0.2 0.1 9.4 9.4 20.4 40.0 20.4 11.0 10.990
1962 7 28.8 54.2 44.1 41.5 7.5 7.9 1.5 2.1 0.0 0.0 5.1 5.1 12.7 28.8 12.7 7.6 7.643
1962 8 19.0 30.1 41.2 27.2 5.4 5.7 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 4.5 4.5 8.2 19.0 8.2 3.7 3.694
1962 9 32.4 41.0 39.6 41.6 11.1 11.9 3.1 3.6 0.0 0.0 3.8 3.8 9.2 32.4 9.2 5.5 5.463
1962 10 36.3 24.3 79.4 62.9 11.8 12.6 4.8 6.8 0.08 0.1 17.2 17.2 26.6 36.3 26.6 9.4 9.448
1962 11 56.4 33.8 166.8 127.0 20.5 22.7 7.8 14.0 1.92 1.2 30.8 30.8 70.5 56.4 70.5 39.7 39.726
1962 12 57.8 48.8 131.4 120.2 31.3 33.6 7.9 11.4 4.1 2.9 31.3 31.3 62.4 57.8 62.4 31.1 31.106
1963 1 65.2 82.4 122.5 223.5 84.7 90.9 3.3 5.6 1.66 1.1 37.2 37.2 158.3 65.2 158.3 121.1 121.117
1963 2 51.5 64.2 109.6 96.0 19.0 20.3 1.6 2.5 0.48 0.3 24.3 24.3 44.6 51.5 44.6 20.2 20.209
1963 3 53.6 64.5 94.3 107.7 8.7 9.3 1.7 2.5 0.08 0.1 22.7 22.7 54.1 53.6 54.1 31.4 31.437
1963 4 96.8 60.5 161.6 262.4 17.7 18.7 4.0 5.3 1.17 0.9 39.6 39.6 0.0 144.7 117.7 78.1 78.105
1963 5 73.4 67.8 194.1 198.8 17.2 18.5 5.6 8.2 1.53 1.0 40.4 40.4 125.4 73.4 125.4 85.0 84.959
1963 6 61.6 66.5 85.1 92.8 11.1 11.8 4.2 5.1 0.08 0.0 8.7 8.7 31.2 61.6 31.2 22.6 22.573
1963 7 38.0 71.6 76.0 58.3 11.6 12.3 2.4 2.8 0 0.0 4.6 4.6 20.3 38.0 20.3 15.7 15.721
1963 8 26.7 42.2 41.3 43.0 6.6 7.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 3.1 3.1 16.4 26.7 16.4 13.3 13.292
1963 9 28.1 35.6 42.5 42.1 11.9 12.6 4.3 5.4 0 0.0 7.3 7.3 14.0 28.1 14.0 6.6 6.629
1963 10 78.7 52.7 152.1 128.3 30.6 33.9 6.1 11.1 22.44 15.1 27.5 27.5 0.0 70.7 57.5 30.0 29.990
1963 11 97.9 58.6 387.3 224.3 38.1 41.7 9.1 16.8 10.58 7.4 41.8 41.8 126.4 97.9 126.4 84.7 84.653
1963 12 77.1 65.1 221.2 205.1 23.6 25.1 6.5 8.7 4.02 2.7 36.1 36.1 128.0 77.1 128.0 91.9 91.881
1964 1 61.9 78.3 109.4 105.7 15.2 16.4 2.9 3.9 2.36 1.9 24.3 24.3 0.0 58.3 47.4 23.1 23.105
1964 2 40.4 50.4 81.0 56.3 7.6 8.3 1.4 2.5 0.68 0.5 12.7 12.7 15.9 40.4 15.9 3.2 3.222
1964 3 66.3 79.9 95.6 111.6 30.0 31.6 2.6 4.0 1.66 1.1 19.6 19.6 45.2 66.3 45.2 25.6 25.597
1964 4 63.5 39.7 120.7 138.9 26.1 28.9 4.5 7.5 3.45 2.4 23.5 23.5 75.4 63.5 75.4 51.9 51.907
1964 5 54.6 50.5 94.7 90.1 14.7 15.3 5.0 6.5 3.8 2.3 20.9 20.9 35.4 54.6 35.4 14.5 14.542
1964 6 37.2 40.2 62.1 45.4 9.7 9.7 4.5 5.3 0.16 0.1 8.1 8.1 8.2 37.2 8.2 0.1 0.077
1964 7 37.7 71.0 56.6 43.2 13.9 14.1 2.5 3.1 0 0.0 5.5 5.5 5.5 37.7 5.5 0.1 0.054
1964 8 28.1 44.5 38.2 26.8 11.4 11.1 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 4.7 4.7 -1.3 14.8 12.0 7.3 7.333
1964 9 40.7 51.6 40.2 45.2 14.8 15.4 3.2 4.4 0 0.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 40.7 4.5 0.0 0.010
1964 10 24.3 16.3 50.4 38.3 5.1 5.5 4.4 13.2 0.21 0.1 7.1 7.1 14.0 24.3 14.0 6.9 6.862
1964 11 29.6 17.7 0.0 44.0 9.5 10.5 4.7 7.1 1.48 1.0 8.7 8.7 14.4 29.6 14.4 5.7 5.739
1964 12 28.2 23.8 26.3 18.0 8.4 8.9 2.6 4.2 0 0.0 6.6 6.6 -10.2 9.9 8.1 1.4 1.449
1965 1 19.3 24.4 50.7 23.4 2.7 2.7 0.2 0.2 0 0.0 4.0 4.0 4.1 19.3 4.1 0.0 0.045
1965 2 15.5 19.3 50.9 21.0 2.6 2.9 0.5 1.6 0.27 0.2 3.5 3.5 5.5 15.5 5.5 2.0 1.966
1965 3 24.1 29.0 81.6 30.8 5.0 5.7 1.1 1.9 0.29 0.2 6.7 6.7 6.7 24.1 6.7 0.0 0.009
1965 4 53.4 33.4 155.8 76.9 11.9 12.9 2.5 4.2 0.36 0.3 34.5 34.5 0.0 42.4 34.5 0.0 0.012
1965 5 102.3 94.5 246.3 136.1 22.6 24.1 4.9 5.5 2.49 2.1 33.7 33.7 33.8 102.3 33.8 0.1 0.079
1965 6 40.7 43.9 76.0 51.9 8.3 8.3 1.3 1.7 0 0.0 9.6 9.6 11.3 40.7 11.3 1.7 1.653
1965 7 14.5 27.3 39.7 18.8 2.1 2.2 0.8 1.7 0 0.0 4.3 4.3 4.3 14.5 4.3 0.0 0.047
1965 8 22.9 36.3 45.7 46.1 8.1 8.8 0.7 1.0 0 0.0 4.4 4.4 0.0 25.4 20.7 16.3 16.323
1965 9 29.8 37.7 38.9 39.0 8.0 8.2 2.5 3.4 0 0.0 2.8 2.8 9.2 29.8 9.2 6.4 6.433
1965 10 50.3 33.7 106.1 103.0 10.9 12.2 4.0 7.9 7.5 4.8 11.9 11.9 52.7 50.3 52.7 40.8 40.799
1965 11 98.1 58.7 251.4 254.2 26.9 29.6 6.2 11.9 12.1 8.2 35.7 35.7 156.2 98.1 156.2 120.5 120.468

167
1965 12 64.7 54.7 175.9 165.0 21.3 23.0 5.9 9.7 11.3 7.2 35.4 35.4 100.3 64.7 100.3 64.8 64.842
1966 1 47.5 60.1 118.9 100.3 9.7 11.1 1.4 3.3 1.7 1.0 19.7 19.7 52.7 47.5 52.7 33.0 33.026
1966 2 31.2 39.0 57.3 54.6 3.7 4.8 0.9 2.8 0.0 0.0 7.5 7.5 23.3 31.2 23.3 15.9 15.858
1966 3 38.6 46.5 66.2 103.3 14.9 15.6 2.6 4.1 11.6 8.7 14.2 14.2 64.6 38.6 64.6 50.4 50.423
1966 4 74.3 46.4 165.2 172.8 22.8 26.2 6.0 12.9 41.4 30.6 38.0 38.0 0.0 95.3 77.5 39.5 39.454
1966 5 40.0 36.9 94.4 77.6 10.0 10.1 0.6 0.7 4.5 3.9 15.7 15.7 0.0 42.8 34.8 19.1 19.105
1966 6 19.9 21.5 44.8 36.3 5.7 5.7 1.6 1.9 0.1 0.1 6.5 6.5 16.4 19.9 16.4 9.8 9.829
1966 7 14.1 26.5 37.3 31.0 4.8 4.8 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 4.4 16.9 14.1 16.9 12.5 12.486
1966 8 9.1 14.5 45.8 23.3 3.1 3.2 0.7 2.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 3.2 14.2 9.1 14.2 11.0 10.956
1966 9 78.5 99.4 49.0 115.6 12.9 13.3 1.4 2.0 0.0 0.0 6.4 6.4 0.0 63.8 51.9 45.4 45.408
1966 10 54.3 36.3 148.2 198.5 24.0 26.9 6.4 11.2 8.1 5.4 17.2 17.2 144.2 54.3 144.2 127.0 127.032
1966 11 87.0 52.1 189.1 247.2 24.8 28.4 4.7 8.1 0.0 0.0 93.0 93.0 160.3 87.0 160.3 67.2 67.221
1966 12 70.2 59.2 118.4 209.7 14.5 15.5 3.6 6.1 12.5 8.4 42.2 42.2 139.5 70.2 139.5 97.3 97.308
1967 1 35.2 44.6 93.9 171.5 11.1 11.6 2.1 2.9 2.3 1.7 26.5 26.5 136.3 35.2 136.3 109.8 109.763
1967 2 34.6 43.1 72.6 52.9 7.1 7.5 1.3 2.1 0.0 0.0 17.0 17.0 18.4 34.6 18.4 1.4 1.395
1967 3 51.3 61.7 74.7 64.6 10.1 10.3 1.4 1.9 1.1 0.7 13.3 13.3 13.3 51.3 13.3 0.1 0.059
1967 4 39.9 25.0 108.6 63.3 8.4 9.4 2.9 5.5 0.0 0.0 12.7 12.7 23.3 39.9 23.3 10.6 10.591
1967 5 33.1 30.6 57.7 55.1 6.6 7.1 2.4 4.2 6.8 4.2 15.1 15.1 22.0 33.1 22.0 6.9 6.903
1967 6 37.6 40.6 63.6 25.1 5.6 5.6 3.1 4.1 0.2 0.1 6.4 6.4 -12.5 13.9 11.3 4.9 4.903
1967 7 14.6 27.5 56.4 14.4 5.5 5.8 1.5 2.6 0.0 0.0 4.4 4.4 -0.2 8.0 6.5 2.1 2.063
1967 8 20.3 32.1 45.5 12.8 5.8 5.9 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 3.1 3.1 -7.5 7.1 5.7 2.6 2.612
1967 9 9.9 12.5 33.0 7.8 3.3 3.7 1.8 2.5 0.0 0.0 3.0 3.0 -2.1 4.3 3.5 0.5 0.519
1967 10 74.4 49.8 153.7 28.4 59.9 64.0 5.2 8.5 10.1 6.2 12.6 12.6 0.0 15.7 12.7 0.2 0.176
1967 11 67.1 40.2 323.4 151.9 27.1 29.8 9.3 16.6 6.1 4.0 26.5 26.5 0.0 83.8 68.1 41.6 41.607
1967 12 83.7 70.7 158.9 74.1 12.3 13.0 3.1 4.1 0.3 0.2 16.6 16.6 0.0 40.9 33.3 16.7 16.678
1968 1 39.4 49.9 76.8 78.7 16.0 18.9 2.9 6.9 5.5 3.0 10.0 10.0 39.3 39.4 39.3 29.3 29.285
1968 2 16.0 20.0 54.1 15.0 10.0 12.4 2.0 5.1 2.2 1.0 6.7 6.7 -1.0 8.3 6.7 0.0 0.020
1968 3 23.7 28.5 45.2 19.8 6.2 6.8 0.9 1.9 3.3 2.4 8.9 8.9 -3.9 10.9 8.9 0.0 0.006
1968 4 52.0 32.5 103.9 58.8 7.4 8.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 27.8 27.8 6.8 30.9 27.9 0.1 0.077
1968 5 33.5 30.9 57.8 57.0 4.8 5.2 0.5 0.9 6.0 3.9 13.2 13.2 23.5 33.5 23.5 10.3 10.304
1968 6 71.3 77.0 76.6 23.3 18.9 19.1 4.8 5.8 0.2 0.1 6.7 6.7 -48.0 12.9 10.5 3.8 3.764
1968 7 38.3 72.2 77.6 42.8 8.4 8.4 2.4 2.5 0.0 0.0 4.3 4.3 4.5 38.3 4.5 0.2 0.208
1968 8 22.6 35.7 43.1 23.8 5.9 5.8 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 2.7 2.7 1.2 21.1 2.7 0.0 0.028
1968 9 22.0 27.9 36.0 20.9 7.8 7.9 1.1 1.2 0.0 0.0 2.9 2.9 -1.1 11.5 9.4 6.5 6.466
1968 10 69.6 46.6 156.2 78.1 10.8 12.6 1.9 4.2 9.1 6.5 35.0 35.0 0.0 43.1 35.0 0.0 0.028
1968 11 76.6 45.8 135.7 75.0 0.9 1.0 1.3 2.8 2.7 1.8 43.5 43.5 -1.6 31.5 43.5 0.0 0.017
1968 12 58.7 49.6 89.7 58.4 0.0 0.0 2.9 5.8 15.4 11.0 26.2 26.2 -0.3 32.2 26.2 0.0 0.014
1969 1 34.0 43.0 86.3 86.3 1.0 1.1 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 16.5 16.5 52.2 34.0 52.2 35.7 35.701
1969 2 20.3 25.4 60.1 60.1 2.9 3.2 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.0 10.7 10.7 39.7 20.3 39.7 29.0 29.020
1969 3 31.0 37.4 78.6 78.6 8.9 9.4 1.9 3.5 5.6 3.5 9.0 9.0 47.6 31.0 47.6 38.6 38.605
1969 4 70.6 44.1 144.9 144.9 14.9 16.9 4.4 8.2 31.2 23.6 33.5 33.5 74.4 70.6 74.4 40.9 40.913
1969 5 93.7 86.5 217.0 217.0 45.8 47.4 10.7 13.6 11.1 7.7 40.8 40.8 123.4 93.7 123.4 82.5 82.506
1969 6 55.4 59.8 80.3 80.3 24.3 24.8 2.8 3.9 0.3 0.1 11.2 11.2 24.9 55.4 24.9 13.7 13.696
1969 7 28.3 53.4 52.9 52.9 5.4 5.3 1.6 1.6 0.0 0.0 5.9 5.9 24.6 28.3 24.6 18.7 18.657
1969 8 33.6 53.2 43.4 43.5 6.6 7.1 0.8 1.5 0.0 0.0 12.0 12.0 9.9 31.4 12.1 0.1 0.068
1969 9 25.3 32.1 37.7 37.7 6.8 7.1 3.0 4.6 0.0 0.0 5.5 5.5 12.4 25.3 12.4 6.9 6.863
1969 10 72.8 48.8 167.1 167.1 33.1 36.9 4.5 8.1 12.0 7.7 22.0 22.0 0.0 92.1 74.9 52.9 52.899
1969 11 65.7 39.3 122.0 122.0 25.9 27.5 6.9 12.2 5.7 3.8 25.0 25.0 56.3 65.7 56.3 31.3 31.271
1969 12 71.1 60.0 143.8 143.8 22.9 25.2 11.0 20.1 39.0 21.3 46.8 46.8 0.0 79.3 64.5 17.7 17.707
1970 1 67.3 85.1 178.0 178.0 69.2 72.1 4.4 8.4 8.3 4.6 25.7 25.7 0.0 98.1 79.8 54.2 54.155
1970 2 43.5 54.2 105.2 105.2 8.5 10.2 1.5 2.7 5.7 4.5 22.6 22.6 61.7 43.5 61.7 39.1 39.137
1970 3 66.0 79.6 129.1 129.1 15.2 15.5 2.5 3.2 7.3 5.6 42.4 42.4 63.0 66.0 63.0 20.6 20.614
1970 4 84.4 52.7 158.9 158.9 19.3 22.1 4.2 7.7 34.1 27.0 51.9 51.9 0.0 87.6 71.2 19.3 19.332
1970 5 68.0 62.8 162.0 162.0 14.0 14.9 2.7 3.9 4.9 1.7 33.4 33.4 94.0 68.0 94.0 60.6 60.621
1970 6 29.5 31.9 57.6 57.6 9.0 9.0 2.1 2.3 0.1 0.0 9.1 9.1 28.1 29.5 28.1 19.0 18.959
1970 7 25.1 47.3 37.6 37.6 6.1 6.2 1.1 1.4 0.0 0.0 5.7 5.7 12.5 25.1 12.5 6.8 6.800
1970 8 22.6 35.8 44.6 44.6 5.9 6.0 0.5 0.6 0.0 0.0 2.6 2.6 22.0 22.6 22.0 19.4 19.397
1970 9 14.3 18.1 34.4 34.4 5.3 5.6 1.4 1.7 0.0 0.0 2.6 2.6 20.1 14.3 20.1 17.5 17.543
1970 10 36.5 24.5 60.5 60.5 17.8 19.3 1.9 2.4 0.0 0.0 2.5 2.5 24.0 36.5 24.0 21.5 21.537
1970 11 63.3 37.9 277.3 277.3 36.2 40.3 5.7 10.3 21.9 16.9 15.0 15.0 213.9 63.3 213.9 198.9 198.900
1970 12 56.9 48.1 186.8 186.8 36.8 41.7 4.8 9.9 17.1 12.1 27.7 27.7 129.9 56.9 129.9 102.1 102.138
1971 1 61.4 77.7 118.2 118.2 26.9 29.8 2.9 4.8 5.4 3.4 28.7 28.7 56.8 61.4 56.8 28.1 28.134
1971 2 51.3 63.9 125.5 125.5 13.1 14.6 1.6 2.7 7.2 5.7 14.4 14.4 74.3 51.3 74.3 59.9 59.909
1971 3 45.1 54.3 124.5 124.5 16.2 17.8 2.0 3.9 8.1 5.5 18.7 18.7 79.5 45.1 79.5 60.8 60.801
1971 4 70.5 44.1 138.9 138.9 22.6 25.0 3.5 5.8 2.4 1.6 47.8 47.8 68.4 70.5 68.4 20.5 20.522
1971 5 48.5 44.8 91.1 91.1 14.3 14.4 2.8 3.1 3.6 0.0 52.9 52.9 42.5 38.2 52.9 0.0 0.013
1971 6 43.5 46.9 59.2 59.2 11.7 11.7 3.1 3.8 0.1 0.0 7.1 7.1 15.7 43.5 15.7 8.6 8.613
1971 7 29.1 54.8 53.2 53.2 6.5 6.8 1.6 2.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 24.1 29.1 24.1 19.1 19.059
1971 8 42.7 67.6 42.9 51.1 6.5 6.7 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 8.4 8.4 8.4 42.7 8.4 0.0 0.022
1971 9 68.1 86.3 54.9 54.9 18.3 19.0 3.5 4.4 0.0 0.0 9.3 9.3 0.0 30.3 24.6 15.4 15.368
1971 10 56.8 38.1 106.4 106.4 5.7 6.5 5.2 10.7 3.7 2.4 15.1 15.1 49.6 56.8 49.6 34.6 34.550
1971 11 60.4 36.1 161.8 161.8 48.8 52.9 7.4 10.6 7.1 5.1 16.8 16.8 101.5 60.4 101.5 84.7 84.667
1971 12 56.6 47.8 129.5 129.5 55.3 59.5 7.0 10.6 13.0 9.1 38.9 38.9 72.8 56.6 72.8 34.0 33.966
1972 1 31.8 40.2 94.0 94.0 18.9 18.7 1.7 1.8 0.0 0.0 11.0 11.0 0.0 51.8 42.1 31.2 31.193
1972 2 10.7 13.3 28.4 28.4 2.9 2.9 1.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 2.3 2.3 17.7 10.7 17.7 15.5 15.457
1972 3 46.2 55.6 51.3 51.3 5.8 6.6 1.0 2.2 5.3 3.8 9.5 9.5 0.0 28.3 23.0 13.5 13.527
1972 4 70.8 44.3 124.8 124.8 8.6 9.3 1.7 2.6 19.4 16.0 32.7 32.7 53.9 70.8 53.9 21.2 21.226
1972 5 89.1 82.3 182.2 182.2 29.5 30.7 7.0 9.8 9.5 5.9 29.5 29.5 93.1 89.1 93.1 63.6 63.599
1972 6 29.4 31.8 65.3 65.3 12.3 12.2 1.1 1.2 0.3 0.0 9.8 9.8 35.9 29.4 35.9 26.2 26.152
1972 7 28.9 54.4 33.8 33.8 6.2 6.3 1.1 2.3 0.0 0.0 5.5 2.1 5.0 28.9 5.0 -0.6 2.864
1972 8 23.0 36.4 42.9 42.9 6.1 6.2 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 1.2 1.2 19.9 23.0 19.9 18.8 18.775

168
1972 9 41.7 52.9 43.8 43.8 13.4 13.8 3.2 3.9 0.0 0.0 5.3 2.0 2.1 41.7 2.1 -3.3 0.064
1972 10 84.5 56.6 185.2 185.2 22.5 25.1 5.7 10.0 9.9 6.5 43.3 43.3 0.0 102.1 83.1 39.7 39.716
1972 11 92.0 55.1 332.4 332.4 40.5 43.8 8.6 12.7 2.9 1.9 74.4 74.4 240.4 92.0 240.4 166.0 165.987
1972 12 48.7 41.2 158.2 158.2 33.1 39.1 4.1 9.6 5.3 2.5 27.5 27.5 109.5 48.7 109.5 82.0 82.013
1973 1 24.6 31.2 58.9 58.9 0.0 0.0 0.8 1.4 0.0 0.0 3.0 3.0 34.2 24.6 34.2 31.2 31.219
1973 2 20.8 26.0 31.7 31.7 3.4 3.4 0.6 0.9 0.0 0.0 2.0 2.0 10.9 20.8 10.9 8.9 8.938
1973 3 32.9 39.7 57.3 57.3 24.9 27.8 3.5 5.2 4.9 3.3 4.0 4.0 24.4 32.9 24.4 20.4 20.414
1973 4 66.9 41.8 108.5 108.5 27.5 29.0 6.0 10.3 0.0 0.0 28.5 28.5 41.7 66.9 41.7 13.1 13.138
1973 5 27.6 25.5 38.6 38.6 5.2 5.5 1.1 2.1 5.2 2.9 15.5 11.0 11.0 27.6 11.0 -4.4 0.030
1973 6 24.6 26.6 56.4 56.4 9.8 10.3 3.4 4.8 0.1 0.1 6.7 6.7 31.8 24.6 31.8 25.0 25.039
1973 7 15.0 28.3 50.4 50.4 5.6 6.0 1.5 2.2 0.0 0.0 5.1 5.1 35.4 15.0 35.4 30.3 30.277
1973 8 28.9 45.8 45.0 45.0 6.5 6.6 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.0 2.2 2.2 16.1 28.9 16.1 13.8 13.829
1973 9 11.9 15.1 32.5 32.5 3.8 4.2 1.8 2.4 0.0 0.0 3.8 3.8 20.6 11.9 20.6 16.8 16.806
1973 10 50.4 33.8 129.2 129.2 34.8 39.8 3.3 5.7 11.8 7.9 17.8 17.8 0.0 71.2 57.9 40.2 40.165
1973 11 51.5 30.8 143.5 143.5 24.5 27.4 5.7 10.2 7.6 5.7 25.6 25.6 92.1 51.5 92.1 66.5 66.510
1973 12 74.5 62.9 124.4 124.4 14.3 16.5 5.5 10.4 14.5 7.9 33.9 33.9 50.0 74.5 50.0 16.1 16.079
1974 1 33.3 42.1 108.2 108.2 13.6 13.3 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 7.5 7.5 0.0 59.7 48.5 41.1 41.087
1974 2 22.6 28.1 57.8 57.8 2.0 2.5 0.4 0.8 0.0 0.0 3.5 3.5 35.2 22.6 35.2 31.7 31.676
1974 3 42.5 51.2 90.9 90.9 2.5 2.9 1.0 2.4 4.8 3.5 9.4 9.4 48.4 42.5 48.4 39.0 39.043
1974 4 89.4 55.9 130.8 130.8 10.7 12.0 1.1 1.7 0.6 0.5 22.2 22.2 41.4 89.4 41.4 19.1 19.120
1974 5 53.6 49.5 114.9 114.9 15.2 16.4 2.9 4.3 5.2 2.4 31.7 31.7 61.3 53.6 61.3 29.6 29.623
1974 6 50.0 54.0 63.7 63.7 14.0 14.2 3.6 4.2 0.1 0.0 8.0 8.0 13.7 50.0 13.7 5.7 5.666
1974 7 86.9 163.7 54.5 54.5 7.6 7.7 1.9 2.3 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 0.0 30.1 24.5 19.5 19.465
1974 8 64.4 101.9 40.8 40.8 6.8 6.9 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 2.8 2.8 0.0 22.5 18.3 15.5 15.520
1974 9 46.0 58.2 43.3 43.3 11.9 12.3 2.3 3.2 0.0 0.0 6.4 6.4 -2.6 23.9 19.4 13.0 13.028
1974 10 40.8 27.3 22.4 22.4 0.0 0.0 2.9 4.5 0.0 0.0 3.2 3.2 -18.4 12.4 10.1 6.9 6.851
1974 11 41.9 25.1 76.6 76.6 6.0 6.7 1.9 3.0 5.9 4.7 16.8 16.8 34.7 41.9 34.7 18.0 17.967
1974 12 62.5 52.8 103.5 103.5 6.2 6.8 3.0 5.4 0.0 0.0 26.1 26.1 41.0 62.5 41.0 14.9 14.881
1975 1 39.8 50.4 95.7 95.7 0.3 0.4 1.1 2.0 0.0 0.0 26.2 26.2 55.9 39.8 55.9 29.7 29.681
1975 2 27.0 33.7 63.8 63.8 4.8 5.7 0.7 1.4 0.0 0.0 7.1 7.1 36.8 27.0 36.8 29.7 29.674
1975 3 54.0 65.1 80.6 80.6 9.1 10.1 2.5 5.3 6.5 3.8 15.7 15.7 26.6 54.0 26.6 10.9 10.893
1975 4 111.0 69.4 153.2 153.2 14.1 15.7 4.6 7.5 17.4 13.0 34.9 34.9 0.0 84.5 68.7 33.8 33.803
1975 5 71.8 66.3 174.6 174.6 25.7 27.5 5.7 10.7 10.3 5.0 30.0 30.0 102.8 71.8 102.8 72.9 72.854
1975 6 149.2 161.1 102.6 102.6 27.0 27.7 5.0 6.6 0.3 0.2 8.3 8.3 0.0 56.6 46.0 37.7 37.734
1975 7 34.7 65.4 101.4 101.4 6.4 6.7 2.3 3.9 0.0 0.0 4.4 4.4 66.7 34.7 66.7 62.4 62.360
1975 8 47.1 74.6 43.7 43.7 7.0 7.0 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 3.8 3.8 -3.4 24.1 19.6 15.8 15.810
1975 9 28.2 35.8 42.3 42.3 8.8 8.9 2.1 2.8 0.0 0.0 7.4 7.4 14.1 28.2 14.1 6.7 6.667
1975 10 40.0 26.8 48.7 48.7 20.4 20.5 2.8 3.3 0.0 0.0 3.3 3.3 8.7 40.0 8.7 5.4 5.418
1975 11 92.2 55.2 252.9 252.9 40.9 45.3 5.7 10.6 8.8 6.1 26.3 26.3 160.7 92.2 160.7 134.4 134.410
1975 12 70.7 59.7 177.3 177.3 40.8 46.3 6.3 10.7 10.0 5.9 28.5 28.5 106.6 70.7 106.6 78.1 78.084
1976 1 44.0 55.7 97.1 97.1 16.4 16.8 1.8 2.4 0.0 0.0 35.7 35.7 53.1 44.0 53.1 17.4 17.402
1976 2 19.0 23.7 46.0 46.0 2.6 2.7 1.1 1.3 0.0 0.0 7.0 7.0 27.0 19.0 27.0 20.0 19.954
1976 3 19.4 23.3 45.3 45.3 11.7 12.8 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.1 5.8 5.8 25.9 19.4 25.9 20.1 20.098
1976 4 69.4 43.4 138.0 138.0 18.6 20.2 3.1 6.2 0.0 0.0 33.0 33.0 68.6 69.4 68.6 35.6 35.576
1976 5 31.4 29.0 90.1 90.1 11.6 12.5 2.4 3.7 4.1 0.0 19.1 19.1 58.7 31.4 58.7 39.6 39.592
1976 6 13.9 15.1 44.9 44.9 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.0 6.7 6.7 30.9 13.9 30.9 24.3 24.259
1976 7 12.8 24.1 28.3 28.3 5.0 4.9 0.5 0.7 0.0 0.0 5.1 5.1 15.6 12.8 15.6 10.5 10.467
1976 8 14.0 22.2 46.7 46.7 5.4 5.4 0.7 0.9 0.0 0.0 2.8 2.8 32.7 14.0 32.7 29.8 29.820
1976 9 8.0 10.1 31.2 31.2 2.8 3.3 0.9 1.5 0.0 0.0 2.6 2.6 23.2 8.0 23.2 20.6 20.626
1976 10 58.0 38.8 114.5 114.5 12.7 13.6 1.4 2.6 7.1 4.8 9.1 9.1 0.0 63.2 51.4 42.2 42.215
1976 11 55.3 33.1 274.1 274.1 24.0 26.7 5.4 10.6 13.2 9.0 58.6 58.6 218.8 55.3 218.8 160.2 160.197
1976 12 59.4 50.1 171.9 171.9 28.3 30.0 5.6 7.8 13.4 10.4 33.3 33.3 112.5 59.4 112.5 79.2 79.199
1977 1 30.7 38.9 93.3 93.3 18.6 18.6 0.8 0.9 0.0 0.0 5.8 5.8 62.6 30.7 62.6 56.8 56.794
1977 2 23.7 29.6 76.2 76.2 3.3 3.7 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.5 6.1 6.1 52.5 23.7 52.5 46.3 46.349
1977 3 42.4 51.1 111.3 111.3 14.3 15.1 1.8 3.6 4.6 2.3 19.5 19.5 68.9 42.4 68.9 49.5 49.455
1977 4 85.5 53.4 158.9 158.9 19.8 22.2 3.2 4.8 5.7 4.5 33.7 33.7 0.0 87.6 71.3 37.6 37.573
1977 5 108.2 100.0 194.3 194.3 19.7 20.5 4.1 6.1 7.7 4.8 35.4 35.4 0.0 107.1 87.1 51.7 51.715
1977 6 45.9 49.6 66.1 66.1 11.9 11.9 1.8 2.0 0.2 0.1 8.9 8.9 20.1 45.9 20.1 11.3 11.274
1977 7 35.9 67.6 43.1 43.1 5.2 5.2 1.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 5.4 5.4 7.2 35.9 7.2 1.8 1.788
1977 8 21.7 34.3 43.5 43.5 5.0 5.5 0.7 1.3 0.0 0.0 4.4 4.4 21.9 21.7 21.9 17.5 17.509
1977 9 14.2 18.0 35.3 35.3 4.9 4.9 1.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 6.1 6.1 21.2 14.2 21.2 15.1 15.054
1977 10 117.0 78.4 176.7 176.7 26.2 29.5 2.6 5.0 16.3 12.0 30.3 30.3 0.0 97.4 79.2 48.9 48.935
1977 11 132.6 79.4 336.9 336.9 44.8 50.6 7.5 12.9 15.2 10.8 65.7 65.7 0.0 185.8 151.1 85.4 85.361
1977 12 98.3 83.0 171.4 171.4 43.0 47.8 5.2 8.9 0.0 0.0 23.3 23.3 0.0 94.5 76.9 53.6 53.561
1978 1 55.5 70.1 83.6 83.6 15.4 16.8 1.2 2.0 0.0 0.0 16.9 16.9 28.2 55.5 28.2 11.2 11.244
1978 2 53.6 66.9 81.6 81.6 7.7 8.3 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.0 12.9 12.9 28.0 53.6 28.0 15.1 15.099
1978 3 76.9 92.6 103.0 103.0 12.3 14.2 2.3 4.0 5.2 3.7 26.3 26.3 0.0 56.8 46.2 19.9 19.888
1978 4 53.1 33.2 102.8 102.8 15.1 17.2 2.8 4.4 4.4 3.5 23.8 23.8 49.6 53.1 49.6 25.8 25.802
1978 5 64.62 59.68 188.2 188.2 32.3 35.1 6.5 9.7 10.3 6.5 32.3 32.3 0.0 103.8 84.4 52.1 52.079
1978 6 44.7 48.3 69.7 69.7 13.8 13.8 1.2 1.4 0.3 0.0 11.1 11.1 25.0 44.7 25.0 13.9 13.905
1978 7 49.1 92.6 28.0 28.0 5.8 5.7 0.9 1.0 0.0 0.0 5.3 5.3 -21.1 15.4 12.6 7.3 7.281
1978 8 72.5 114.8 45.4 45.4 6.5 6.4 0.6 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.0 25.0 20.3 19.7 19.720
1978 9 37.5 47.5 37.6 37.6 9.3 9.8 2.9 4.0 0.0 0.0 3.4 0.0 0.1 37.5 0.1 -3.3 0.060
1978 10 59.3 39.7 108.7 108.7 13.0 14.5 2.8 4.5 6.9 5.4 16.6 16.6 49.4 59.3 49.4 32.8 32.806
1978 11 69.21 41.44 235.0 235.0 43.8 48.1 6.6 9.1 8.6 6.7 31.7 31.7 165.8 69.2 165.8 134.1 134.127
1978 12 68.4 57.8 124.2 124.2 45.7 50.5 4.6 7.7 6.4 4.5 22.6 22.6 0.0 68.5 55.7 33.1 33.115
1979 1 34.0 43.0 53.6 53.6 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.6 0.0 0.0 3.4 3.4 19.6 34.0 19.6 16.2 16.158
1979 2 26.4 32.9 56.2 56.2 3.4 4.2 0.4 0.9 0.0 0.0 8.2 8.2 29.8 26.4 29.8 21.5 21.550
1979 3 21.7 26.2 66.1 66.1 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.0 0.0 10.3 10.3 44.4 21.7 44.4 34.1 34.063
1979 4 66.3 41.5 115.8 115.8 5.8 6.4 1.4 2.5 8.7 6.1 18.7 18.7 49.5 66.3 49.5 30.8 30.764
1979 5 137.8 127.2 133.7 133.7 15.8 17.0 4.0 6.1 6.7 3.7 21.6 21.6 0.0 73.8 60.0 38.3 38.348

169
1979 6 49.4 53.3 64.5 64.5 14.3 14.4 2.4 2.9 0.2 0.0 8.8 8.8 15.2 49.4 15.2 6.4 6.373
1979 7 44.7 84.1 42.9 42.9 6.6 6.6 1.3 1.5 0.0 0.0 5.1 5.1 -1.8 23.7 19.2 14.1 14.140
1979 8 18.2 28.8 43.7 43.7 5.4 5.4 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 1.9 1.9 25.5 18.2 25.5 23.6 23.558
1979 9 34.0 43.0 48.7 48.7 13.1 13.9 1.4 2.0 0.0 0.0 8.7 8.7 0.0 26.9 21.8 13.1 13.127
1979 10 65.3 43.8 179.8 179.8 12.1 13.2 3.9 5.5 4.5 3.6 29.6 29.6 0.0 99.2 80.6 51.1 51.083
1979 11 91.5 54.8 369.4 369.4 28.4 32.1 6.1 11.2 17.1 12.5 59.3 59.3 277.9 91.5 277.9 218.6 218.605
1979 12 85.4 72.1 196.6 196.6 26.9 29.9 6.2 12.1 0.7 0.1 28.9 28.9 0.0 108.4 88.2 59.3 59.294
1980 1 35.1 44.4 77.3 77.3 7.4 7.3 1.1 1.1 0.0 0.0 4.5 4.5 0.0 42.7 34.7 30.2 30.197
1980 2 15.3 19.1 23.3 23.3 0.9 1.0 0.8 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.1 15.3 8.1 8.1 8.051
1980 3 28.0 33.8 46.2 46.2 1.5 1.7 0.5 0.7 5.2 4.3 9.5 9.5 18.2 28.0 18.2 8.7 8.699
1980 4 67.6 42.3 127.2 127.2 7.5 8.4 1.7 3.2 11.8 8.3 25.2 25.2 59.6 67.6 59.6 34.4 34.416
1980 5 44.2 40.8 104.3 104.3 6.3 7.0 1.4 2.3 5.7 3.9 28.7 28.7 60.1 44.2 60.1 31.4 31.398
1980 6 19.4 21.0 52.4 52.4 7.0 7.0 2.4 2.7 0.1 0.0 8.0 8.0 33.0 19.4 33.0 25.0 24.990
1980 7 23.2 43.7 33.2 33.2 5.9 5.9 1.2 1.4 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 10.0 23.2 10.0 5.0 4.981
1980 8 19.9 31.5 45.8 45.8 5.7 5.7 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.6 25.9 19.9 25.9 25.3 25.327
1980 9 14.4 18.2 36.0 36.0 3.8 3.9 0.9 1.7 0.0 0.0 6.0 6.0 21.6 14.4 21.6 15.6 15.589
1980 10 25.3 17.0 48.4 48.4 9.3 10.5 1.1 1.8 0.1 0.1 5.3 5.3 23.1 25.3 23.1 17.8 17.798
1980 11 60.6 36.3 231.7 231.7 4.2 5.0 3.7 10.3 23.2 15.6 25.3 25.3 171.1 60.6 171.1 145.9 145.857
1980 12 65.3 55.1 163.4 163.4 1.0 1.1 3.8 6.3 10.6 8.3 29.1 29.1 98.1 65.3 98.1 69.0 68.983
1981 1 40.3 51.0 90.2 90.2 3.3 3.5 1.1 1.7 1.3 0.9 15.8 15.8 49.8 40.3 49.8 34.0 34.013
1981 2 21.3 26.5 53.0 53.0 4.9 5.2 0.8 1.1 0.0 0.0 7.8 7.8 31.7 21.3 31.7 23.9 23.897
1981 3 23.6 28.4 57.5 57.5 3.6 4.1 1.2 2.6 2.5 1.6 8.6 8.6 33.9 23.6 33.9 25.3 25.310
1981 4 53.1 33.2 109.8 109.8 10.6 11.9 2.1 3.0 4.8 3.9 17.4 17.4 56.6 53.1 56.6 39.2 39.243
1981 5 36.9 34.1 90.3 90.3 10.3 11.4 2.0 3.3 8.4 6.4 25.3 25.3 53.4 36.9 53.4 28.1 28.131
1981 6 45.9 49.6 68.0 68.0 12.1 12.2 3.2 3.6 0.2 0.2 8.0 8.0 22.1 45.9 22.1 14.1 14.107
1981 7 27.1 51.1 57.2 57.2 5.5 5.6 1.4 1.8 0.0 0.0 5.3 5.3 30.1 27.1 30.1 24.7 24.738
1981 8 17.8 28.2 43.6 43.6 5.2 5.6 0.7 1.2 0.0 0.0 3.9 3.9 25.8 17.8 25.8 21.9 21.866
1981 9 20.7 26.2 38.4 38.4 8.9 9.4 1.4 2.0 0.0 0.0 5.2 5.2 17.7 20.7 17.7 12.5 12.477
1981 10 24.6 16.5 41.1 41.1 0.0 0.0 2.2 4.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 16.5 24.6 16.5 11.5 11.536
1981 11 48.1 28.8 176.1 176.1 26.0 28.9 3.2 5.3 5.0 3.6 26.1 26.1 128.0 48.1 128.0 101.9 101.943
1981 12 47.9 40.4 114.6 114.6 31.0 35.1 3.4 6.1 5.0 3.3 18.1 18.1 66.7 47.9 66.7 48.6 48.571
1982 1 24.6 31.1 49.4 49.4 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.8 0.0 0.0 2.3 2.3 24.8 24.6 24.8 22.5 22.461
1982 2 9.7 12.1 29.5 29.5 2.0 2.3 0.5 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 19.8 9.7 19.8 19.8 19.808
1982 3 28.4 34.2 48.0 48.0 10.5 11.5 1.6 2.8 4.1 2.8 6.9 6.9 19.6 28.4 19.6 12.6 12.632
1982 4 60.6 37.9 121.8 121.8 24.7 27.7 4.9 7.0 11.1 8.7 18.8 18.8 61.2 60.6 61.2 42.5 42.476
1982 5 64.4 59.5 168.3 168.3 34.0 36.1 7.0 10.5 10.4 6.7 39.6 39.6 103.9 64.4 103.9 64.3 64.303
1982 6 118.8 128.3 112.1 112.1 35.9 36.5 6.7 8.4 0.3 0.0 9.0 9.0 0.0 61.8 50.3 41.3 41.275
1982 7 38.8 73.1 105.9 105.9 7.5 7.5 3.2 4.0 0.0 0.0 4.0 4.0 67.2 38.8 67.2 63.2 63.198
1982 8 25.6 40.5 44.7 44.7 5.5 5.4 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 4.0 4.0 19.1 25.6 19.1 15.1 15.099
1982 9 8.4 10.7 30.7 30.7 3.2 3.2 1.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 2.8 2.8 22.3 8.4 22.3 19.4 19.438
1982 10 63.4 42.5 135.5 135.5 22.5 25.5 2.0 3.8 14.7 10.5 10.9 10.9 0.0 74.7 60.8 49.9 49.898
1982 11 117.0 70.1 402.4 402.4 41.8 44.3 8.7 16.0 18.9 12.6 59.4 59.4 285.4 117.0 285.4 226.0 226.014
1982 12 75.1 63.4 194.2 194.2 39.4 42.6 4.0 8.7 0.4 0.3 23.2 23.2 0.0 107.1 87.1 63.9 63.923
1983 1 17.0 21.5 48.0 48.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.0 0.0 1.3 1.3 31.1 17.0 31.1 29.7 29.719
1983 2 7.7 9.6 25.3 25.3 3.4 3.4 0.9 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.6 7.7 17.6 17.6 17.628
1983 3 0.0 0.0 35.8 35.8 2.1 2.4 0.8 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.0 0.0 35.8 0.0 35.8 35.8 35.790
1983 4 21.5 13.5 74.5 74.5 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 4.4 53.0 21.5 53.0 48.6 48.569
1983 5 33.9 31.3 60.8 60.8 5.3 5.6 1.3 1.8 8.1 6.5 18.7 4.2 26.9 33.9 26.9 8.1 22.691
1983 6 8.8 9.5 55.6 55.6 3.7 3.6 1.3 1.5 0.2 0.0 8.4 8.4 46.8 8.8 46.8 38.4 38.407
1983 7 7.8 14.6 31.8 31.8 5.2 5.2 0.7 0.8 0.0 0.0 5.3 5.3 24.1 7.8 24.1 18.8 18.797
1983 8 8.3 13.1 45.5 45.5 5.6 5.6 0.7 0.9 0.0 0.0 1.2 1.2 37.2 8.3 37.2 36.0 36.014
1983 9 10.1 12.8 35.6 35.6 8.3 8.6 1.4 1.6 0.0 0.0 3.2 3.2 25.5 10.1 25.5 22.2 22.237
1983 10 16.0 10.7 75.5 75.5 0.9 1.0 1.4 2.6 4.9 3.9 12.6 12.6 0.0 41.6 33.9 21.2 21.250
1983 11 50.0 29.9 117.7 117.7 1.4 1.5 0.3 0.7 7.4 5.7 32.4 32.4 67.7 50.0 67.7 35.3 35.306
1983 12 107.1 90.4 108.8 108.8 3.1 3.3 4.7 8.7 13.6 7.6 24.9 24.9 0.0 60.0 48.8 24.0 23.960
1984 1 87.0 110.1 114.7 114.7 40.1 39.9 3.6 4.6 2.6 1.8 30.1 30.1 0.0 63.3 51.4 21.3 21.310
1984 2 53.0 66.1 103.6 103.6 12.7 12.8 1.9 4.0 5.0 3.5 21.6 21.6 50.6 53.0 50.6 29.0 29.030
1984 3 124.1 149.5 124.0 124.0 8.9 8.9 2.2 4.0 13.2 9.9 37.0 37.0 0.0 68.4 55.6 18.6 18.627
1984 4 133.1 83.2 140.3 140.3 16.4 16.3 4.3 5.8 0.0 0.0 42.4 42.4 0.0 77.4 62.9 20.5 20.492
1984 5 48.0 44.3 91.5 91.5 14.2 14.1 2.7 3.5 5.2 3.4 21.7 21.7 43.5 48.0 43.5 21.8 21.828
1984 6 35.0 37.8 57.3 57.3 11.3 11.1 2.9 3.3 0.1 0.0 7.2 7.2 22.3 35.0 22.3 15.1 15.114
1984 7 36.0 67.8 54.4 54.4 6.3 6.3 1.5 2.3 0.0 0.0 5.2 5.2 18.4 36.0 18.4 13.1 13.147
1984 8 10.0 15.9 40.2 40.2 4.7 4.8 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.1 4.1 30.1 10.0 30.1 26.0 25.998
1984 9 13.3 16.9 38.1 38.1 6.6 6.6 0.1 1.4 0.0 0.0 4.5 4.5 24.8 13.3 24.8 20.3 20.296
1984 10 25.9 17.3 36.0 36.0 5.4 5.3 1.9 2.1 0.0 0.0 2.5 2.5 10.2 25.9 10.2 7.7 7.702
1984 11 62.8 37.6 134.2 134.2 26.9 27.8 5.3 8.5 2.4 1.4 14.4 14.4 71.4 62.8 71.4 57.1 57.057
1984 12 41.8 35.3 102.5 102.5 29.8 31.5 3.8 3.4 9.0 6.0 20.3 20.3 60.7 41.8 60.7 40.4 40.361
1985 1 42.4 53.7 79.9 79.9 6.0 6.5 2.0 3.6 1.4 0.8 12.5 12.5 37.4 42.4 37.4 25.0 24.955
1985 2 33.8 42.2 71.0 71.0 9.0 9.4 1.2 2.7 0.0 0.0 10.9 10.9 37.2 33.8 37.2 26.3 26.339
1985 3 44.0 53.0 105.8 105.8 14.6 15.8 2.8 4.2 12.9 9.4 19.6 19.6 61.9 44.0 61.9 42.2 42.235
1985 4 47.8 29.9 86.5 86.5 13.9 15.6 3.3 1.8 0.0 0.0 24.1 24.1 38.7 47.8 38.7 14.6 14.615
1985 5 49.3 45.5 134.2 134.2 21.5 22.7 4.5 1.7 7.9 4.9 19.0 19.0 84.9 49.3 84.9 65.8 65.844
1985 6 127.4 137.6 93.7 93.7 34.3 35.2 6.4 1.4 0.2 0.1 9.0 9.0 0.0 51.6 42.0 33.1 33.051
1985 7 38.0 71.6 143.6 143.6 6.3 6.2 2.9 2.9 0.0 0.0 3.9 3.9 0.0 79.2 64.4 60.5 60.550
1985 8 14.0 22.1 103.4 103.4 4.9 4.8 0.7 1.3 0.0 0.0 2.7 2.7 0.0 57.1 46.4 43.7 43.726
1985 9 11.5 14.5 39.3 39.3 5.2 5.8 0.5 1.9 0.0 0.0 3.4 3.4 27.9 11.5 27.9 24.5 24.472
1985 10 60.8 40.7 146.4 146.4 37.4 40.4 3.7 5.2 4.9 3.1 10.3 10.3 85.6 60.8 85.6 75.3 75.299
1985 11 68.8 41.2 153.0 153.0 33.8 36.4 6.9 4.1 2.0 1.1 29.7 29.7 84.2 68.8 84.2 54.5 54.493
1985 12 89.5 75.6 130.3 130.3 21.9 22.6 4.7 5.9 42.5 33.7 28.8 28.8 40.9 89.5 40.9 12.1 12.080
1986 1 60.2 76.1 150.5 150.5 17.6 20.5 2.2 6.7 9.7 6.3 34.9 34.9 90.3 60.2 90.3 55.3 55.330
1986 2 32.1 40.0 114.0 114.0 8.6 9.3 1.2 2.0 2.6 1.8 16.2 16.2 81.9 32.1 81.9 65.7 65.650

170
1986 3 32.4 39.0 85.0 85.0 7.9 8.1 2.0 3.5 8.5 6.4 11.4 11.4 52.7 32.4 52.7 41.2 41.236
1986 4 92.0 57.5 85.1 85.1 15.5 16.0 3.6 5.3 0.0 0.0 31.8 31.8 0.0 46.9 38.2 6.4 6.386
1986 5 45.7 42.2 120.5 120.5 7.4 7.8 1.6 2.6 4.8 2.9 35.6 35.6 74.8 45.7 74.8 39.2 39.224
1986 6 14.8 16.0 74.3 74.3 1.9 1.9 1.4 1.7 0.1 0.1 7.3 7.3 59.5 14.8 59.5 52.2 52.167
1986 7 7.6 14.2 38.3 38.3 5.0 5.0 0.7 0.8 0.0 0.0 5.1 5.1 30.7 7.6 30.7 25.6 25.586
1986 8 18.8 29.7 52.9 52.9 6.4 6.5 0.7 0.9 0.0 0.0 3.4 3.4 34.1 18.8 34.1 30.7 30.672
1986 9 19.1 24.2 32.6 32.6 11.5 11.8 2.9 3.9 0.0 0.0 4.0 4.0 0.0 18.0 14.6 10.6 10.598
1986 10 71.3 47.8 85.6 85.6 9.1 10.1 3.5 6.4 0.0 0.0 23.1 23.1 0.0 47.2 38.4 15.3 15.265
1986 11 53.5 32.0 62.8 62.8 8.1 8.6 1.9 2.7 0.0 0.0 17.1 9.2 9.2 53.5 9.2 -7.8 0.033
1986 12 30.8 26.0 61.2 61.2 1.2 1.2 2.2 3.2 0.0 0.0 19.9 19.9 30.4 30.8 30.4 10.5 10.527
1987 1 36.0 45.5 66.5 66.5 3.6 3.8 1.3 2.2 0.0 0.0 16.8 16.8 30.5 36.0 30.5 13.7 13.672
1987 2 16.5 20.6 27.3 27.3 5.4 6.3 1.3 3.1 0.0 0.0 6.6 6.6 10.7 16.5 10.7 4.1 4.109
1987 3 29.2 35.2 43.4 43.4 4.5 5.2 1.1 2.2 1.4 0.5 7.7 7.7 14.2 29.2 14.2 6.4 6.419
1987 4 53.6 33.5 85.1 85.1 10.2 11.3 3.2 6.3 0.0 0.0 21.4 21.4 31.5 53.6 31.5 10.1 10.104
1987 5 49.3 45.6 102.2 102.2 7.9 8.6 1.6 2.2 6.7 5.5 26.5 26.5 52.9 49.3 52.9 26.4 26.450
1987 6 28.6 30.8 56.8 56.8 5.7 5.9 2.1 2.4 0.2 0.0 8.9 8.9 28.2 28.6 28.2 19.3 19.341
1987 7 12.7 24.0 32.1 32.1 4.5 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.9 4.9 19.4 12.7 19.4 14.4 14.420
1987 8 29.8 47.2 36.6 36.6 6.8 7.3 0.9 1.3 0.0 0.0 2.3 2.0 6.7 29.8 6.7 4.5 4.743
1987 9 27.7 35.2 39.3 39.3 6.2 6.4 3.1 5.2 0.0 0.0 7.5 7.5 11.5 27.7 11.5 4.0 3.991
1987 10 62.2 41.7 206.8 206.8 28.2 31.6 3.4 6.0 8.1 5.4 46.4 46.4 144.6 62.2 144.6 98.3 98.261
1987 11 79.4 47.5 149.1 149.1 21.1 23.9 4.5 8.0 0.0 0.0 41.6 41.6 69.7 79.4 69.7 28.1 28.136
1987 12 55.3 46.7 92.7 92.7 10.2 12.1 2.8 4.4 6.9 5.2 26.3 26.3 37.4 55.3 37.4 11.1 11.084
1988 1 26.7 33.7 53.7 53.7 7.9 8.7 1.1 2.0 0.0 0.0 4.7 4.7 27.0 26.7 27.0 22.4 22.386
1988 2 33.1 41.2 58.0 58.0 6.9 8.0 0.8 1.6 0.0 0.0 11.5 11.5 24.9 33.1 24.9 13.4 13.404
1988 3 98.1 118.2 86.8 86.8 15.1 17.0 2.3 3.8 5.0 3.1 24.0 24.0 0.0 47.9 38.9 14.9 14.893
1988 4 123.7 77.3 74.8 74.8 22.1 25.6 4.3 7.9 0.0 0.0 41.8 26.6 0.0 41.3 33.6 -8.3 6.954
1988 5 75.5 69.7 97.7 97.7 11.9 12.2 1.9 3.2 5.3 2.8 26.6 26.6 0.0 53.9 43.8 17.2 17.234
1988 6 52.2 56.4 51.2 51.2 10.4 10.9 3.0 4.1 0.1 0.1 7.6 7.6 -1.0 28.3 23.0 15.4 15.363
1988 7 38.9 73.3 69.8 69.8 5.9 6.0 1.5 2.1 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 30.8 38.9 30.8 25.8 25.792
1988 8 35.2 55.8 50.3 50.3 6.1 6.3 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 6.3 6.3 15.1 35.2 15.1 8.8 8.817
1988 9 51.0 64.6 49.0 49.0 10.1 10.7 2.3 3.2 0.0 0.0 5.4 5.4 -2.0 27.0 22.0 16.6 16.562
1988 10 34.3 23.0 39.0 39.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 5.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.7 34.3 4.7 4.7 4.722
1988 11 45.2 27.1 182.4 182.4 22.7 25.3 3.7 7.1 6.9 4.4 20.0 20.0 137.2 45.2 137.2 117.2 117.165
1988 12 49.6 41.9 83.9 83.9 32.3 36.5 4.3 7.6 2.2 1.2 19.8 19.8 34.3 49.6 34.3 14.5 14.524
1989 1 24.1 30.5 75.9 75.9 6.3 7.2 0.9 1.9 0.0 0.0 16.9 16.9 51.9 24.1 51.9 35.0 34.969
1989 2 4.6 5.7 24.1 24.1 1.5 1.8 0.9 1.4 0.0 0.0 3.3 3.3 19.6 4.6 19.6 16.3 16.254
1989 3 12.6 15.1 35.6 35.6 4.8 5.0 0.9 1.3 0.7 0.5 0.0 0.0 23.0 12.6 23.0 23.0 23.043
1989 4 55.6 34.8 46.8 46.8 9.1 10.6 1.5 3.0 0.0 0.0 13.5 13.5 -8.8 25.8 21.0 7.4 7.435
1989 5 69.5 64.2 64.8 64.8 11.9 12.2 2.4 3.5 6.0 3.5 23.4 21.6 -4.7 35.7 29.0 5.7 7.442
1989 6 69.0 74.6 83.6 83.6 15.4 15.6 3.9 4.9 0.2 0.1 8.5 8.5 14.5 69.0 14.5 6.1 6.079
1989 7 63.7 120.1 83.7 83.7 8.3 8.6 2.1 3.5 0.0 0.0 5.3 5.3 20.0 63.7 20.0 14.7 14.665
1989 8 38.2 60.5 49.9 49.9 6.4 6.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.0 6.0 11.7 38.2 11.7 5.7 5.678
1989 9 25.0 31.6 36.6 36.6 7.0 7.6 1.5 2.2 0.0 0.0 4.8 4.8 11.6 25.0 11.6 6.8 6.824
1989 10 53.2 35.7 57.8 57.8 21.1 23.3 1.43 2.1 0.0 0.0 3.7 3.7 4.6 53.2 4.6 0.9 0.941
1989 11 67.2 40.2 178.0 178.0 17.9 20.1 4.21 7.1 0.0 0.0 23.5 23.5 110.7 67.2 110.7 87.3 87.269
1989 12 40.2 33.9 73.7 73.7 7.7 8.8 1.74 3.4 0.0 0.0 17.2 17.2 33.5 40.2 33.5 16.3 16.343
1990 1 33.6 42.4 55.2 55.2 5.9 6.7 0.50 1.0 0.0 0.0 31.4 21.3 21.6 33.6 21.6 -9.8 0.306
1990 2 40.0 49.8 78.7 78.7 4.0 4.7 0.73 1.0 0.0 0.0 18.6 18.6 38.7 40.0 38.7 20.0 20.050
1990 3 67.1 80.8 124.0 124.0 5.5 6.3 2.02 3.7 6.2 4.6 25.8 25.8 56.9 67.1 56.9 31.1 31.146
1990 4 68.5 42.8 150.4 150.4 8.9 10.1 1.46 2.6 0.0 0.0 19.9 19.9 81.9 68.5 81.9 62.0 62.035
1990 5 64.0 59.1 103.8 103.8 24.7 27.2 3.44 6.7 6.6 3.4 18.4 15.2 39.8 64.0 39.8 21.4 24.585
1990 6 48.8 52.7 83.5 83.5 6.3 6.7 0.95 1.9 0.2 0.0 8.8 8.8 34.7 48.8 34.7 25.9 25.944
1990 7 28.8 54.2 71.0 71.0 6.0 6.5 0.86 1.3 0.0 0.0 4.9 4.9 42.3 28.8 42.3 37.3 37.342
1990 8 18.2 28.8 32.9 32.9 2.7 2.8 0.40 0.7 0.0 0.0 2.0 2.0 14.7 18.2 14.7 12.8 12.792
1990 9 17.2 21.7 22.1 22.1 1.1 1.1 0.28 0.3 0.0 0.0 5.2 3.9 4.9 17.2 4.9 -0.3 1.011
1990 10 46.3 31.0 103.6 103.6 30.3 33.9 3.58 7.4 9.3 5.8 14.9 14.9 57.2 46.3 57.2 42.3 42.318
1990 11 65.3 39.1 161.7 161.7 57.8 66.3 8.49 17.6 3.0 1.4 26.1 26.1 96.4 65.3 96.4 70.2 70.248
1990 12 44.0 37.1 74.1 74.1 41.5 44.4 5.45 12.1 0.0 0.0 24.5 24.5 30.2 44.0 30.2 5.6 5.632
1991 1 68.9 87.2 138.0 138.0 20.4 22.4 4.26 7.2 4.6 3.6 41.0 41.0 69.1 68.9 69.1 28.0 28.032
1991 2 34.8 43.3 86.0 86.0 13.4 15.5 2.36 4.0 1.1 0.9 22.7 22.7 0.0 47.5 38.6 15.9 15.902
1991 3 32.9 39.6 63.7 63.7 6.1 6.3 1.24 1.7 3.0 2.2 7.6 7.6 30.8 32.9 30.8 23.2 23.174
1991 4 60.1 37.6 212.9 212.9 12.5 13.9 3.17 7.2 1.6 1.0 13.9 13.9 152.9 60.1 152.9 139.0 138.972
1991 5 51.5 47.5 113.7 113.7 7.1 7.5 1.33 2.1 8.1 6.2 28.8 28.8 62.2 51.5 62.2 33.4 33.368
1991 6 94.3 101.8 134.8 134.8 14.3 15.2 3.56 5.5 0.2 0.1 8.3 8.3 40.5 94.3 40.5 32.2 32.181
1991 7 36.9 69.6 70.6 70.6 4.8 5.0 1.05 1.9 0.0 0.0 4.3 4.3 33.7 36.9 33.7 29.4 29.446
1991 8 17.2 27.2 51.2 51.2 6.1 6.5 0.80 1.8 0.0 0.0 1.4 1.4 34.1 17.2 34.1 32.7 32.703
1991 9 11.3 14.4 41.5 41.5 2.0 2.2 0.43 0.7 0.0 0.0 2.8 2.8 30.2 11.3 30.2 27.3 27.339
1991 10 34.0 22.8 42.5 42.5 11.7 13.4 1.46 2.8 3.8 2.7 6.0 1.1 8.5 34.0 8.5 2.5 7.373
1991 11 48.5 29.0 130.5 130.5 11.4 12.7 2.40 5.8 4.0 2.4 29.1 29.1 82.0 48.5 82.0 53.0 52.956
1991 12 42.6 35.9 84.4 84.4 4.5 5.0 1.39 3.0 5.6 3.1 32.0 32.0 41.9 42.6 41.9 9.9 9.876
1992 1 20.4 25.9 62.8 62.8 2.0 2.5 0.64 1.4 0.0 0.0 9.1 9.1 42.4 20.4 42.4 33.3 33.318
1992 2 2.6 3.3 24.4 24.4 1.4 1.9 0.30 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 21.8 2.6 21.8 21.8 21.763
1992 3 0.0 0.0 26.8 26.8 0.9 0.9 0.32 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 26.8 0.0 26.8 26.8 26.761
1992 4 47.0 29.4 40.6 40.6 1.8 1.9 0.72 0.9 0.0 0.0 14.8 14.8 0.0 22.4 18.2 3.4 3.398
1992 5 53.7 49.6 100.9 100.9 15.6 17.0 2.19 3.9 10.3 7.3 23.9 23.9 47.2 53.7 47.2 23.3 23.339
1992 6 32.3 34.9 68.4 68.4 4.7 4.8 0.70 1.4 0.3 0.0 8.6 8.6 36.1 32.3 36.1 27.5 27.507
1992 7 42.3 79.7 52.5 52.5 6.3 6.4 0.67 0.9 0.0 0.0 5.4 5.4 10.2 42.3 10.2 4.8 4.765
1992 8 30.8 48.8 39.0 39.0 5.1 5.3 0.28 0.4 0.0 0.0 3.4 3.4 8.2 30.8 8.2 4.7 4.739
1992 9 23.5 29.8 34.2 34.2 7.1 7.9 0.65 1.8 0.0 0.0 5.8 5.8 10.7 23.5 10.7 4.9 4.947
1992 10 34.4 23.0 80.2 80.2 11.8 13.9 0.95 2.1 1.5 1.0 6.5 6.5 45.8 34.4 45.8 39.3 39.292
1992 11 68.1 40.8 322.7 322.7 25.4 27.8 3.50 6.4 13.1 9.5 54.6 54.6 254.6 68.1 254.6 199.9 199.914

171
1992 12 55.8 47.1 142.0 142.0 10.4 11.1 1.69 3.2 1.2 0.7 26.5 26.5 86.2 55.8 86.2 59.7 59.673
1993 1 17.5 22.1 39.1 39.1 1.9 2.0 0.50 0.7 0.0 0.0 6.1 6.1 21.6 17.5 21.6 15.5 15.460
1993 2 10.2 12.7 21.7 21.7 1.6 2.0 0.56 1.3 0.0 0.0 6.1 6.1 11.5 10.2 11.5 5.5 5.454
1993 3 27.9 33.6 82.6 82.6 4.7 5.4 1.15 2.2 2.6 1.5 10.3 10.3 54.7 27.9 54.7 44.4 44.387
1993 4 31.6 19.8 77.2 77.2 7.9 8.7 1.18 1.6 0.0 0.0 14.2 14.2 45.6 31.6 45.6 31.5 31.474
1993 5 63.2 58.4 109.1 109.1 55.7 58.3 5.27 7.8 7.2 2.8 24.1 24.1 45.9 63.2 45.9 21.8 21.830
1993 6 81.2 87.7 104.8 104.8 51.6 53.6 3.54 4.8 0.2 0.0 9.0 9.0 23.6 81.2 23.6 14.6 14.632
1993 7 39.0 73.5 74.5 74.5 19.2 20.1 2.41 3.2 0.0 0.0 4.6 4.6 35.5 39.0 35.5 31.0 30.978
1993 8 16.0 25.3 26.5 26.5 4.4 4.4 0.74 0.8 0.0 0.0 2.3 2.3 10.5 16.0 10.5 8.2 8.197
1993 9 10.5 13.3 36.8 36.8 2.5 2.8 0.41 0.5 0.0 0.0 4.9 4.9 26.3 10.5 26.3 21.5 21.468
1993 10 58.9 39.5 122.9 122.9 35.6 39.6 2.61 4.5 10.2 6.7 19.1 19.1 0.0 67.8 55.1 36.0 36.029
1993 11 113.4 67.9 160.4 160.4 44.5 47.9 5.77 9.3 6.3 4.2 46.7 46.7 47.0 113.4 47.0 0.3 0.280
1993 12 108.0 91.2 75.8 75.8 50.3 55.3 6.27 11.1 32.0 22.7 27.1 27.1 0.0 41.8 34.0 6.8 6.840
1994 1 55.6 70.3 140.4 140.4 15.0 16.3 2.11 3.8 9.5 7.1 29.6 29.6 84.8 55.6 84.8 55.3 55.274
1994 2 51.4 64.1 165.7 165.7 11.9 13.7 2.22 3.4 2.3 1.9 19.9 19.9 114.3 51.4 114.3 94.4 94.406
1994 3 31.7 38.2 76.0 76.0 5.0 6.3 1.00 1.9 2.4 1.7 14.4 14.4 44.3 31.7 44.3 29.9 29.933
1994 4 47.3 29.6 149.6 149.6 11.6 13.7 1.40 2.1 0.0 0.0 18.7 18.7 102.3 47.3 102.3 83.6 83.612
1994 5 25.7 23.7 64.7 64.7 9.9 10.3 1.22 2.0 7.0 4.4 15.9 15.9 39.0 25.7 39.0 23.1 23.146
1994 6 18.6 20.1 44.1 44.1 6.9 7.0 0.82 1.2 0.2 0.0 8.1 8.1 25.5 18.6 25.5 17.5 17.471
1994 7 12.1 22.8 25.7 25.7 5.1 5.2 0.49 0.7 0.0 0.0 5.2 5.2 13.6 12.1 13.6 8.3 8.323
1994 8 22.7 35.9 15.7 15.7 10.7 11.8 0.55 0.8 0.0 0.0 2.6 2.6 -7.0 8.7 7.0 4.5 4.472
1994 9 22.5 28.5 27.7 27.7 7.7 8.7 1.08 2.1 0.0 0.0 9.1 5.2 5.2 22.5 5.2 -3.9 0.016
1994 10 72.6 48.6 142.1 142.1 11.3 13.0 2.58 4.8 6.0 4.2 33.1 33.1 0.0 78.4 63.7 30.6 30.645
1994 11 74.2 44.4 131.9 131.9 23.5 26.5 6.32 10.5 0.6 0.4 48.0 48.0 57.7 74.2 57.7 9.7 9.655
1994 12 60.1 50.7 110.3 110.3 22.7 23.8 3.99 5.6 6.8 5.2 19.7 19.7 50.2 60.1 50.2 30.5 30.459
1995 1 42.6 53.9 71.2 71.2 12.4 14.2 2.13 4.1 3.5 2.1 24.6 24.6 28.6 42.6 28.6 4.0 4.022
1995 2 21.2 26.4 46.6 46.6 4.0 4.6 1.26 2.4 0.0 0.0 17.2 17.2 25.4 21.2 25.4 8.1 8.135
1995 3 21.8 26.3 49.9 49.9 4.5 4.7 0.78 1.1 1.8 1.4 5.0 5.0 28.1 21.8 28.1 23.1 23.119
1995 4 140.7 88.0 360.0 360.0 26.2 29.2 2.84 5.1 20.3 14.3 36.5 36.5 219.3 140.7 219.3 182.8 182.812
1995 5 125.9 116.3 363.0 363.0 47.4 50.2 7.20 11.2 9.5 5.9 44.4 44.4 0.0 200.2 162.8 118.4 118.441
1995 6 44.0 47.5 69.7 69.7 23.0 23.5 3.28 4.1 0.3 0.1 9.5 9.5 25.7 44.0 25.7 16.2 16.191
1995 7 24.6 46.4 50.4 50.4 9.5 10.2 1.30 1.6 0.0 0.0 4.9 4.9 25.8 24.6 25.8 20.9 20.933
1995 8 16.1 25.5 42.5 42.5 6.2 6.4 0.84 1.1 0.0 0.0 1.8 1.8 26.4 16.1 26.4 24.6 24.574
1995 9 24.4 30.9 39.5 39.5 10.0 10.2 1.09 1.4 0.0 0.0 2.4 2.4 15.1 24.4 15.1 12.7 12.684
1995 10 52.0 34.8 66.8 66.8 21.7 23.6 1.83 2.8 0.0 0.0 1.5 1.5 14.8 52.0 14.8 13.3 13.294
1995 11 34.2 20.5 74.6 74.6 16.2 18.7 3.05 5.7 3.2 2.2 22.4 22.4 40.4 34.2 40.4 18.0 17.989
1995 12 19.3 16.3 29.6 29.6 7.2 7.6 1.86 3.0 0.0 0.0 21.8 10.0 10.3 19.3 10.3 -11.6 0.252
1996 1 18.6 23.5 20.0 20.0 3.1 3.4 0.94 1.8 0.0 0.0 18.1 0.6 1.4 18.6 1.4 -16.7 0.782
1996 2 22.7 28.3 24.3 24.3 4.3 4.8 0.92 1.8 0.0 0.0 10.5 1.5 1.6 22.7 1.6 -8.9 0.098
1996 3 23.5 28.3 42.2 42.2 4.1 4.1 0.71 1.0 1.2 0.9 5.8 5.8 18.7 23.5 18.7 12.9 12.940
1996 4 52.3 32.7 135.1 135.1 21.5 24.6 3.91 6.7 15.6 10.7 25.4 25.4 82.8 52.3 82.8 57.4 57.380
1996 5 13.8 12.7 46.5 46.5 3.4 3.5 0.88 0.9 4.2 3.7 15.1 15.1 32.7 13.8 32.7 17.5 17.539
1996 6 22.5 24.3 24.6 24.6 3.4 3.6 0.78 1.1 0.1 0.1 5.3 2.0 2.1 22.5 2.1 -3.2 0.090
1996 7 24.6 46.4 18.3 18.3 4.6 4.7 0.64 0.8 0.0 0.0 4.8 4.8 -6.3 10.1 8.2 3.4 3.384
1996 8 15.8 25.0 19.5 19.5 5.0 5.3 0.51 0.7 0.0 0.0 7.5 3.7 3.7 15.8 3.7 -3.8 0.019
1996 9 27.0 34.2 28.0 28.0 14.1 14.9 1.55 2.3 0.0 0.0 4.4 0.9 1.0 27.0 1.0 -3.4 0.097
1996 10 49.8 33.4 59.0 59.0 13.1 14.9 2.43 3.5 0.0 0.0 5.7 5.7 9.2 49.8 9.2 3.6 3.559
1996 11 40.2 24.1 92.9 92.9 7.6 9.3 1.77 3.7 6.9 4.8 27.5 27.5 0.0 51.2 41.7 14.1 14.108
1996 12 27.3 23.1 84.6 84.6 7.4 9.0 5.47 9.2 10.9 8.7 24.1 24.1 57.3 27.3 57.3 33.2 33.231
1997 1 12.1 12.1 36.2 36.2 1.7 2.2 0.83 1.1 0.5 0.5 5.0 5.0 24.1 12.1 24.1 19.0 19.027
1997 2 10.0 10.0 32.7 32.7 2.2 2.4 1.08 1.5 0.0 0.0 3.9 3.9 22.7 10.0 22.7 18.9 18.850
1997 3 9.1 9.1 32.7 32.7 1.3 1.7 0.55 1.4 1.6 1.1 1.0 1.0 23.6 9.1 23.6 22.6 22.565
1997 4 48.0 48.0 85.9 85.9 8.7 9.8 2.08 3.4 14.7 11.0 31.1 31.1 0.0 47.4 38.5 7.4 7.386
1997 5 75.4 75.4 149.2 149.2 31.6 34.5 6.35 10.2 12.5 8.9 47.8 47.8 73.8 75.4 73.8 26.1 26.057
1997 6 17.8 17.8 59.5 59.5 5.0 5.2 1.00 1.3 0.4 0.3 9.4 9.4 41.7 17.8 41.7 32.3 32.314
1997 7 20.3 20.3 44.7 44.7 5.8 5.9 0.79 0.9 0.0 0.0 5.2 5.2 24.4 20.3 24.4 19.3 19.254
1997 8 11.1 11.1 25.6 25.6 2.2 2.3 0.37 0.4 0.0 0.0 1.3 1.3 14.5 11.1 14.5 13.2 13.225
1997 9 48.0 48.0 63.7 63.7 15.7 17.2 2.44 4.1 0.0 0.0 14.9 14.9 0.0 35.1 28.6 13.7 13.703
1997 10 119.2 119.2 277.8 277.8 31.0 35.2 6.39 10.5 14.1 10.7 54.7 54.7 0.0 153.2 124.6 69.9 69.945
1997 11 155.5 155.5 557.5 557.5 82.2 92.3 12.77 23.9 25.2 16.9 92.3 92.3 0.0 307.5 250.0 157.8 157.775
1997 12 101.1 101.1 330.1 330.1 84.5 92.4 6.76 12.5 8.5 5.4 34.4 34.4 0.0 182.0 148.0 113.6 113.627
1998 1 39.6 39.6 206.0 206.0 7.5 8.5 3.66 8.2 3.0 1.7 16.9 16.9 0.0 113.6 92.4 75.5 75.473
1998 2 31.6 31.6 152.5 152.5 4.4 4.6 2.33 3.7 0.0 0.0 8.7 8.7 0.0 84.1 68.4 59.6 59.645
1998 3 23.1 23.1 72.6 72.6 2.2 2.7 1.21 3.7 0.6 0.5 4.6 4.6 49.5 23.1 49.5 44.9 44.889
1998 4 39.5 39.5 92.6 92.6 6.3 7.5 1.61 3.1 0.0 0.0 6.4 6.4 53.1 39.5 53.1 46.8 46.760
1998 5 66.4 66.4 208.1 208.1 6.3 6.6 0.95 1.3 11.2 8.6 28.5 28.5 141.7 66.4 141.7 113.1 113.149
1998 6 28.6 28.6 53.4 53.4 3.1 3.2 0.57 0.8 0.4 0.2 9.8 9.8 24.8 28.6 24.8 15.0 14.964
1998 7 23.4 23.4 46.9 46.9 5.7 6.8 0.63 1.6 0.0 0.0 5.3 5.3 23.5 23.4 23.5 18.2 18.204
1998 8 25.6 25.6 42.7 42.7 7.9 9.2 0.81 1.5 0.0 0.0 6.6 6.6 17.1 25.6 17.1 10.5 10.503
1998 9 30.1 30.1 33.1 33.1 2.7 2.8 0.72 0.9 0.0 0.0 3.4 3.0 3.0 30.1 3.0 -0.3 0.044
1998 10 30.7 30.7 48.5 48.5 3.5 3.6 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.8 30.7 17.8 17.8 17.754
1998 11 26.2 26.2 63.7 63.7 3.8 4.4 1.5 2.6 1.2 0.8 4.0 4.0 37.5 26.2 37.5 33.6 33.562
1998 12 69.1 69.1 124.2 124.2 14.5 16.9 4.6 8.7 22.8 16.0 36.0 36.0 55.1 69.1 55.1 19.1 19.086
1999 1 47.5 47.5 68.2 68.2 4.0 5.0 1.7 3.7 6.5 4.7 32.4 20.6 20.7 47.5 20.7 -11.7 0.051
1999 2 49.8 49.8 96.7 96.7 6.8 7.1 0.6 1.1 3.8 2.1 22.1 22.1 46.9 49.8 46.9 24.8 24.788
1999 3 36.8 36.8 124.2 124.2 2.5 2.8 2.8 4.8 7.4 5.4 22.2 22.2 87.4 36.8 87.4 65.2 65.221
1999 4 37.6 37.6 103.5 103.5 9.0 10.0 3.3 4.6 0.0 0.0 14.6 14.6 65.9 37.6 65.9 51.3 51.296
1999 5 41.8 41.8 26.6 26.6 7.7 7.9 3.5 4.4 6.1 4.4 13.9 11.9 -15.2 14.7 11.9 -2.0 0.025
1999 6 67.3 67.3 92.3 92.3 10.1 10.5 2.2 2.9 0.2 0.1 7.5 7.5 25.0 67.3 25.0 17.5 17.477
1999 7 15.5 15.5 83.1 83.1 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.1 0.0 0.0 4.7 4.7 67.6 15.5 67.6 62.9 62.899
1999 8 17.6 17.6 67.2 67.2 2.4 2.4 0.7 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.3 49.6 17.6 49.6 49.3 49.297

172
1999 9 18.3 18.3 52.2 52.2 1.2 1.4 2.1 2.4 0.0 0.0 5.1 5.1 33.9 18.3 33.9 28.9 28.867
1999 10 23.3 23.3 58.9 58.9 4.2 4.5 1.7 2.7 1.0 0.7 7.7 7.7 0.0 32.5 26.4 18.7 18.734
1999 11 49.3 49.3 89.6 89.6 12.8 14.9 4.8 10.3 7.6 4.5 26.1 26.1 0.0 49.4 40.2 14.1 14.099
1999 12 43.4 43.4 96.9 96.9 11.2 12.1 4.6 7.5 6.7 4.4 15.2 15.2 53.5 43.4 53.5 38.3 38.256
2000 1 47.2 47.2 94.3 94.3 8.9 11.0 1.3 2.6 3.5 2.8 31.8 31.8 47.1 47.2 47.1 15.3 15.281
2000 2 63.6 63.6 132.3 132.3 8.5 9.6 0.4 0.6 7.7 6.3 30.4 30.4 68.7 63.6 68.7 38.3 38.279
2000 3 55.9 55.9 217.5 217.5 18.5 22.5 3.5 6.6 15.2 11.1 36.8 36.8 161.6 55.9 161.6 124.7 124.727
2000 4 42.8 42.8 120.9 120.9 12.4 13.1 3.0 4.5 0.0 0.0 24.8 24.8 78.1 42.8 78.1 53.2 53.231
2000 5 15.9 15.9 75.9 75.9 6.4 6.7 1.1 1.2 5.2 4.5 11.3 11.3 60.0 15.9 60.0 48.7 48.681
2000 6 32.7 32.7 47.1 47.1 11.9 12.1 2.9 3.9 0.1 0.1 6.7 3.2 14.5 32.7 14.5 7.8 11.258
2000 7 17.6 17.6 33.4 33.4 5.5 5.5 1.4 1.5 0.0 0.0 4.7 4.4 15.8 17.6 15.8 11.1 11.419
2000 8 36.3 36.3 40.2 40.2 6.4 6.8 0.7 1.2 0.0 0.0 8.3 3.9 3.9 36.3 3.9 -4.4 0.002
2000 9 22.6 22.6 47.8 47.8 7.3 7.4 2.4 2.7 0.0 0.0 6.4 6.4 25.2 22.6 25.2 18.8 18.805
2000 10 20.3 20.3 35.2 35.2 6.4 6.9 1.7 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.9 20.3 14.9 14.9 14.941
2000 11 34.2 34.2 45.2 45.2 6.8 7.7 2.4 4.9 3.0 2.0 11.9 11.0 11.0 34.2 11.0 -0.8 0.036
2000 12 26.1 26.1 79.6 79.6 4.3 4.6 3.5 6.1 6.6 4.2 22.0 22.0 53.6 26.1 53.6 31.6 31.574

1960 - 2000 INFLOWS TO MODEL

ST NAME Y-Lat X-Lon SML station used in model


SML Samanalawewa 737986 477009 UW stations used for calculating
UW Uda walawe 711334 482267
THI Timbolketiya 708031 478015 RuWaDaBa
THI-UW Timbolketiya with Uda
706379
Walawe 482685 Met Dept
PAN Panamure 698767 475908 Hydrodata 1995
HAL Halmillaketiya 697609 484602 Corrected
MAH Mahagama 697533 490392
HAM Hambegamuwa 707253 494360 0.00 original datas
WER Weragala 735306 489440 0.00 calculated datas

173
Annex 7 (Section 4.2.2 and 4.2.2.2) Components Equation 1 and
Equation 2

Land Preparation Requirements (Equation 1)

Land preparation requires varying amounts of water depending on the type of crop
and soil physical properties. Paddy crops consume large volumes of water during the
first 3 6 weeks for land preparation operations, which includes water requirements
for initial land soaking, ploughing, maintaining standing water for decaying of plant
materials, puddling and land leveling activities.

Equation 7
Lp = Ls + (Ev + Pd ) period 81

Ls : water requirement for land soaking, assuming 30 to 125 mm

Ev : evaporation during land preparation (3.5 mm/day/ha during Maha 6 mm/day during Yala)

Pd deep percolation during land preparation (10 7 3 mm/day for Well Drain Moderated Drain Poor
Drain soils, respectively)

Period minimum period for land preparation (15 days)

In case of other field crops and perennials, no special water issues are needed for
land preparation activities.

Land Preparation Requirements (Equation 2)

Equation 8
Lprice = Ls + Lt + (Pd period ) + Sd

Ls : water requirement for land soaking, assuming 170 mm

Lt : water requirement for land tillage, assuming 75 mm

Pd deep percolation during land preparation (20 10 5 mm/day/Ha for WD MD - PD soils, respectively)

Period minimum period for land preparation (21 days)

Sd depth of standing water, assuming 75 mm

Crop pattern

Historical records show a diversified crop mix in the project area. Paddy dominates
during both Maha and Yala seasons82. However, more than 16 other crop types have

81
Values given above are according to MMP and followed by MASL. Only Yala values have been used for
comparison.

174
been observed. For reasons of simplicity, these 16 crops have been grouped into six
main crop categories Paddy rice, Bananas, Sugar cane, Chillies, Vegetables, and
Pulses, where the last tree ones are grouped as OFCs. In general, sugarcane is
planted in early June and bananas during Maha.

For paddy, tree different types of soil have been considered, namely well drained,
moderately drained and low drainage soils. Crop water requirement calculations have
been done for each block based on these crop types.

Effective Rainfall

The effective rainfall is calculated based on the rainfall nominal exceeding a


probability of 80%.

Equation 9
Rain eff = 70% R80 Area i C

Raineff : effective rainfall in MCM for block k

70% R80 : 80% probable rainfall from observed rainfall (mm)

Areai : Crop area in block k

82
Maha seasons usually span a period from the first week of October to the end March), and Yala season from
the second week of April to the end of September).

175
Annex 8 (Section 4.2.2 and 4.2.2.2) - Weekly crop factor (Kc) values for selected crops
ET Crop Coefficients (Kc)
StdWeek mm/day Crop Coefficients PlantWeekN Paddy Chillies Vegetables Pulses Banana Sugar
No ETo Paddy Chillies Vegetables Pulses Banana Sugar o 19 23 19 15 52 52
1 5.1 1.11 0.73 0.59 0.66 0.72 1.04 1 0.25 0.17 0.12 0.14 0.93 0.88
2 5.1 1.13 0.75 0.64 0.76 0.72 1.04 2 0.51 0.33 0.24 0.28 0.93 0.88
3 5.1 1.15 0.81 0.70 0.85 0.72 1.04 3 0.76 0.50 0.35 0.42 0.93 0.88
4 5.1 1.17 0.87 0.75 0.95 0.72 1.04 4 1.01 0.66 0.47 0.56 0.93 0.88
5 5.7 1.19 0.93 0.80 0.85 0.72 1.04 5 1.04 0.68 0.53 0.66 0.85 0.84
6 5.7 1.18 0.99 0.85 0.74 0.72 1.04 6 1.06 0.71 0.59 0.76 0.85 0.84
7 5.7 1.17 0.99 0.90 0.64 0.72 1.04 7 1.09 0.73 0.64 0.85 0.85 0.84
8 5.7 1.15 1.00 0.90 0.53 0.72 1.04 8 1.11 0.75 0.70 0.95 0.85 0.84
9 6.2 1.14 1.00 0.90 0.40 0.78 1.05 9 1.13 0.81 0.75 0.85 0.75 0.83
10 6.2 0.86 1.00 0.89 0.27 0.78 1.05 10 1.15 0.87 0.80 0.74 0.75 0.83
11 6.2 0.57 1.00 0.89 0.13 0.78 1.05 11 1.17 0.93 0.85 0.64 0.75 0.83
12 6.2 0.29 1.00 0.67 0.00 0.78 1.05 12 1.19 0.99 0.90 0.53 0.75 0.83
13 6.2 0.00 0.99 0.45 0.00 0.78 1.05 13 1.18 0.99 0.90 0.40 0.75 0.83
14 5.7 0.00 0.99 0.22 0.00 0.90 1.03 14 1.17 1.00 0.90 0.27 0.72 0.83
15 5.7 0.00 0.74 0.00 0.00 0.90 1.03 15 1.15 1.00 0.89 0.13 0.72 0.83
16 5.7 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.90 1.03 16 1.14 1.00 0.89 0.72 0.83
17 5.7 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.90 1.03 17 0.86 1.00 0.67 0.72 0.83
18 5.6 0.51 0.17 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.97 18 0.57 1.00 0.45 0.72 0.84
19 5.6 0.76 0.33 0.12 0.00 1.00 0.97 19 0.29 0.99 0.22 0.72 0.84
20 5.6 1.01 0.50 0.24 0.14 1.00 0.97 20 0.99 0.72 0.84
21 5.6 1.04 0.66 0.35 0.28 1.00 0.97 21 0.74 0.72 0.84
22 5.6 1.06 0.68 0.47 0.42 1.00 0.97 22 0.50 0.78 0.93
23 5.4 1.09 0.71 0.53 0.56 1.05 0.88 23 0.25 0.78 0.93
24 5.4 1.11 0.73 0.59 0.66 1.05 0.88 24 0.78 0.93
25 5.4 1.13 0.75 0.64 0.76 1.05 0.88 25 0.78 0.93
26 5.4 1.15 0.81 0.70 0.85 1.05 0.88 26 0.78 1.01
27 6 1.17 0.87 0.75 0.95 1.03 0.84 27 0.90 1.01
28 6 1.19 0.93 0.80 0.85 1.03 0.84 28 0.90 1.01
29 6 1.18 0.99 0.85 0.74 1.03 0.84 29 0.90 1.01
30 6 1.17 0.99 0.90 0.64 1.03 0.84 30 0.90 1.01
31 6 1.15 1.00 0.90 0.53 1.02 0.83 31 1.00 1.04
32 6 1.14 1.00 0.90 0.40 1.02 0.83 32 1.00 1.04
33 6 0.86 1.00 0.89 0.27 1.02 0.83 33 1.00 1.04
34 6 0.57 1.00 0.89 0.13 1.02 0.83 34 1.00 1.04
35 6 0.29 1.00 0.67 0.00 1.02 0.83 35 1.00 1.04
36 6 0.00 0.99 0.45 0.00 1.00 0.83 36 1.05 1.04
37 6 0.00 0.99 0.22 0.00 1.00 0.83 37 1.05 1.04
38 6 0.00 0.74 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.83 38 1.05 1.04
39 6 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.83 39 1.05 1.05
40 5.4 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.84 40 1.03 1.05
41 5.4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.84 41 1.03 1.05
42 5.4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.84 42 1.03 1.05
43 5.4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.84 43 1.03 1.05
44 4.7 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.85 0.93 44 1.02 1.03
45 4.7 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.85 0.93 45 1.02 1.03
46 4.7 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.85 0.93 46 1.02 1.03
47 4.7 0.51 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.85 0.93 47 1.02 1.03
48 4.7 0.76 0.33 0.12 0.00 0.75 1.01 48 1.02 0.97
49 4.7 1.01 0.50 0.24 0.14 0.75 1.01 49 1.00 0.97
50 4.7 1.04 0.66 0.35 0.28 0.75 1.01 50 1.00 0.97
51 4.7 1.06 0.68 0.47 0.42 0.75 1.01 51 1.00 0.97
52 4.7 1.09 0.71 0.53 0.56 0.75 1.01 52 1.00 0.97

176
Annex 9 (Section 4.2.2 and 4.2.2.2) Real and MMP coefficients
TO CALCULATE SEASONS

Yala 01 10 38

Maha 01-02 20 46

Yala 02 18 46

Maha 02-03 17 46

Yala 03 17 46

REAL DEMAND
21 days
Paddy OFC SoilType S&P Rates LandPPn LandPPn
Application Efficiency 0.8 0.8 WD 20 824 740
Operational Efficency 1.0 1.0 MD 10 614 530
PD 5 509 425

TO CALCULATE PLOT NEEDS

Paddy OFC SoilType S&P Rates LandPPn


Application Efficiency 0.8 0.8 WD 0 84
Operational Efficency 1.0 1.0 MD 0 84
PD 0 84

TO CALCULATE ET

Paddy OFC SoilType S&P Rates LandPPn


Application Efficiency 1.0 1.0 WD 0 84
Operational Efficency 1.0 1.0 MD 0 84
PD 0 84

PARAMETERS MMP
Yala 14 days Maha 21 days
Paddy OFC SoilType S&P Rates LandPPn SoilType S&P Rates LandPPn
Application Efficiency 1.0 0.6 WD 10 365 WD 10 408
Operational Efficency 1.0 1.0 MD 7 295 MD 7 320
PD 3 165 PD 3 166

177
Annex 10 (Section 4.2) - Crop surfaces and crop water requirements
Areas of soil from SAPI ( ha ) Areas of soil recalculated from MASL ( ha ) Areas of soil ( % )
Main
N ID Canal Block Name Track Tract number RBE RBE LHG WD MD PD Total Max Area served WD MD PD
well drained intermediate poorly well drained intermediate poorly ha ha well drained intermediate poorly

1 RBMC Tract 1 Tract 1 177 79 97 177 79 97 353 353 50.1% 22.4% 27.5%
2 Tract 2 Tract 2 103 12 34 108 13 36 149 156 69.1% 8.1% 22.8%
3 Tract 3 Tract 3 152 79 68 159 82 71 299 312 50.8% 26.4% 22.7%
4 Tract 4 Tract 4 284 128 187 297 134 195 599 626 47.4% 21.4% 31.2%
5 Mkbc (T-5) Tract 5 (Moraketiya) 33 125 75 33 124 75 233 232 14.2% 53.6% 32.2%
6 Mkbc (T-6) Tract 6 (Moraketiya) 161 65 122 172 70 131 348 373 46.3% 18.7% 35.1%
7 Mkbc (T-7) Tract 7 (Moraketiya) 97 21 48 97 21 48 166 166 58.4% 12.7% 28.9%

1 Embilipitiya Sub total 1007 509 631 1043 523 652 2147 2218 46.9% 23.7% 29.4%

8 RBMC Cwbc (T-A) Tract A (CWBC) 457 92 201 463 93 204 750 760 60.9% 12.3% 26.8%
9 Cwbc (T-B) Tract B (CWBC) 477 113 284 489 116 291 874 896 54.6% 12.9% 32.5%

2 Chandrikawewa Sub total 934 205 485 952 209 495 1624 1655 57.5% 12.6% 29.9%

10 RBMC Mmbc (T-8) Tract 8 (MMBC) 399 98 415 391 96 407 912 895 43.8% 10.7% 45.5%
11 Mmbc (T-9) Tract 9 (MMBC) 298 269 235 303 273 239 802 815 37.2% 33.5% 29.3%
12 Mmbc (T-10) Tract 10 (MMBC) 82 227 202 101 280 249 511 630 16.0% 44.4% 39.5%
13 Mmbc (T-11) Tract 11 (MMBC) 195 368 302 195 369 302 865 866 22.5% 42.5% 34.9%

3 Murawasihena Sub total 575 864 739 991 1018 1197 2178 3206 26.4% 39.7% 33.9%

15 RBMC Ggbc Tract 12 (GGBC) 300 158 512 294 155 502 970 951 30.9% 16.3% 52.8%
14 RB 12 Tract 12 (RBMC) 68 87 175 69 88 178 330 335 20.6% 26.4% 53.0%
23 RB 13 & 14 Tract 13 & 14 (RB13 & 14) 108 13 234 92 11 200 355 304 30.4% 3.7% 65.9%
16 RB 13 Tract 17 (RB17) 4 12 13 3 9 10 29 22 13.8% 41.4% 44.8%
24 Mpgbc Tract 14 (MPGBC) 307 61 273 316 63 281 641 661 47.9% 9.5% 42.6%

4 Binkama Sub total 787 331 1207 775 326 1171 2325 2273 33.8% 14.2% 51.9%

17 RBMC Gagbc (T-14) Tract 14 (GAJBC) 29 6 66 35 7 79 101 121 28.7% 5.9% 65.3%
18 Gagbc (T-15) Tract 15 (GAJBC) 34 193 239 35 201 249 466 486 7.3% 41.4% 51.3%
19 Gagbc (T-16) Tract 16 (GAJBC) 176 191 190 154 167 166 557 487 31.6% 34.3% 34.1%
20 Babc (T-17) Tract 17 (BABC) 221 329 250 224 334 254 800 813 27.6% 41.1% 31.3%
21 Babc (T-18) Tract 18 (BABC) 189 151 130 190 152 131 470 472 40.2% 32.1% 27.7%
22 Babc (T-19) Tract 19 (BABC) 119 168 120 121 170 122 407 413 29.2% 41.3% 29.5%

5 Angunukolapelessa Sub total 768 1038 995 759 1032 1001 2801 2791 27.4% 37.1% 35.5%

Total in RBMC 4071 2947 4057 4519 3108 4516 11075 12143 36.8% 26.6% 36.6%

6 LBMC Sugar Area 1830 0 610 3020 0 1007 2440 4027 75.0% 0.0% 25.0%

8 LBMC Kiriibbanwewa 489 46 584 527 49 630 1119 1206 43.7% 4.1% 52.2%

Suriyawewa left 569 259 594 165 75 172 1422 40.0% 18.2% 41.8%

Suriyawewa right 349 185 349 163 87 163 882 39.5% 21.0% 39.5%

9 LBMC Suriyawewa 917 444 943 947 458 973 2304 2379 39.8% 19.3% 40.9%

7 LBMC Mahagama 0 62 520 0 58 487 582 545 0.0% 10.6% 89.4%

Total in LBMC 3236 552 2657 4494 566 3097 6444 8157 50.2% 8.6% 41.2%

Extension North 0 396 538 0 396 538 934 2489 0.0% 42.4% 57.6%

Extension South 0 493 577 0 493 577 1070 2851 0.0% 46.1% 53.9%

10 LBMC Extension 0 889 1115 0 2369 2971 2004 5340 0.0% 44.4% 55.6%

Total in LB extension area 0 889 1115 0 2369 2971 2004 5340 0.0% 44.4% 55.6%

25 LIY R Liyangastota Right 2454 2454

26 LIY L Liyangastota Left 2553 2553

27 KAL Kaltota 880 880

28 WEL Weli Oya 800 800 1600

178
YALA 01 Crop surface (ha)
PWD Y01 PMD Y01 PPD Y01 TOTAL OFC OFC OFC TOTAL TOTAL BANANA Y01 SC Y01 OFC Y01
WD MD PD Paddy WD MD PD OFC Surface

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
23 13 36 72 60 23 0 83 155
0 29 71 100 166 42 0 208 308
0 102 195 297 204 94 0 298 595
0 0 68 68 86 75 6 167 235
0 0 100 100 109 131 31 270 370
0 0 43 43 71 48 5 124 167

23 143 513 679 695 412 42 1150 1829 809 0 341

249 93 204 546 163 110 0 273 819


149 116 291 555 288 175 0 463 1019

397 209 495 1101 451 286 0 736 1837 425 0 311

104 96 407 607 0 228 0 228 835


0 136 239 375 253 103 0 355 730
0 110 249 359 38 139 0 177 536
0 201 302 504 154 101 0 255 759

104 544 1197 1845 445 570 0 1015 2860 787 0 228

36 155 502 693 0 292 0 292 985


0 79 178 257 0 75 0 75 331
49 11 200 260 0 31 0 31 291
0 3 10 13 2 6 0 9 22
186 63 281 530 0 130 0 130 660

270 311 1171 1753 2 534 0 536 2289 490 0 47

7 7 79 93 0 10 0 10 103
0 70 249 320 0 148 0 148 468
0 25 166 191 144 141 0 285 476
0 158 254 412 121 96 0 217 629
0 82 131 212 196 49 0 245 457
0 0 93 93 0 114 29 143 236

7 342 972 1321 461 558 29 1048 2369 370 0 678

11184

0 0 527 527 2014 1007 480 3500 4027 0 3500 0

32 49 630 712 0 247 0 247 959 247 0 0

0 138 973 1112 0 405 0 405 1517 405 0 0

0 0 175 175 0 15 312 328 503 323 0 5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

179
MAHA 01-02 Crop surface (ha)
PWD M01/02 PMD M01/02 PPD M01/02 TOTAL OFC OFC OFC TOTAL TOTAL BANANA M01/02 SC M01/02 OFC M01/02
WD MD PD Paddy WD MD PD OFC Surface

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
24 13 36 73 79 0 0 79 152
0 26 71 97 146 57 0 203 300
0 84 195 279 281 50 0 331 610
0 2 75 76 23 123 0 146 222
0 28 131 159 149 41 0 190 349
0 17 48 65 103 4 0 108 172

24 168 555 748 781 275 0 1057 1805 740 0 316

233 93 204 530 294 0 0 294 824


156 116 291 563 449 0 0 449 1012

390 209 495 1093 742 0 0 742 1835 454 0 288

287 96 407 790 139 0 0 139 930


0 118 239 357 165 155 0 321 677
0 115 249 364 39 165 0 204 568
0 216 302 519 126 152 0 279 797

287 546 1197 2030 470 472 0 942 2972 942 0 0

113 155 502 770 239 0 0 239 1009


0 72 178 250 53 16 0 70 319
75 11 200 287 22 0 0 22 309
0 3 10 13 2 6 0 8 21
162 63 281 507 129 0 0 129 635

351 304 1171 1826 445 22 0 467 2293 443 0 24

16 7 79 103 3 0 0 3 106
0 143 249 392 0 43 0 43 436
22 167 166 356 97 0 0 97 453
0 134 254 388 0 172 0 172 560
0 98 131 228 126 54 0 180 408
0 0 92 92 0 83 29 112 204

39 549 971 1559 226 352 29 607 2166 310 0 297

11072

0 0 527 527 3020 0 480 3500 4027 0 3500 0

0 38 630 668 410 11 0 421 1089 307 0 114

0 247 973 1221 330 211 0 541 1762 512 0 29

0 0 179 179 5 58 308 371 550 244 0 127

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

180
YALA 02 Crop surface (ha)
PWD Y02 PMD Y02 PPD Y02 TOTAL OFC OFC OFC TOTAL TOTAL BANANA Y02 SC Y02 OFC Y02
WD MD PD Paddy WD MD PD OFC Surface

0 0 52 52 0 75 45 120 172
42 13 36 91 59 0 0 59 150
0 17 71 88 138 65 0 203 291
0 25 195 221 270 109 0 379 599
0 0 28 28 0 116 47 162 190
0 0 46 46 145 70 85 300 345
0 0 38 38 97 21 10 128 166

42 55 466 563 709 455 186 1351 1914 828 0 523

163 93 204 460 370 0 0 370 830


162 116 291 569 348 0 0 348 917

326 209 495 1029 718 0 0 718 1747 414 0 304

175 96 407 679 182 0 0 182 861


0 96 239 335 180 177 0 357 692
0 106 249 355 44 174 0 218 573
0 209 302 512 43 159 0 202 714

175 508 1197 1881 449 510 0 959 2839 946 0 12

107 155 502 764 209 0 0 209 974


0 83 178 261 55 5 0 60 321
69 11 200 280 27 0 0 27 307
0 0 5 5 0 3 5 8 13
193 63 281 537 128 0 0 128 665

369 312 1167 1848 419 8 5 432 2279 432 0 0

0 0 71 71 36 7 8 51 122
0 101 249 350 0 71 0 71 421
0 0 69 69 0 0 73 73 142
0 103 254 357 29 231 0 260 617
0 89 131 220 47 62 0 109 329
0 0 97 97 0 54 25 79 176

0 293 871 1165 112 425 106 643 1807 310 0 333

10587

0 0 527 527 3020 0 480 3500 4027 0 3500 0


0
0 38 630 668 398 11 0 409 1077 303 0 106

0 197 973 1171 423 261 0 684 1854 556 0 128

0 0 190 190 1 58 297 356 546 331 0 25

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

181
MAHA 02-03 Crop surface (ha)
PWD M02/03 PMD M02/03 PPD M02/03 TOTAL OFC OFC OFC TOTAL TOTAL BANANA M02/03 SC M02/03 OFC M02/03
WD MD PD Paddy WD MD PD OFC Surface

0 0 52 52 0 75 45 120 172
33 13 36 81 68 0 0 68 149
0 14 71 85 145 68 0 214 299
0 0 94 94 0 123 102 225 319
0 0 26 26 0 122 48 170 197
0 0 39 39 132 70 92 293 332
0 0 28 28 101 21 20 142 170

33 27 345 404 446 479 307 1233 1637 840 0 392

182 93 204 479 345 0 0 345 824


169 116 291 576 359 0 0 359 935

351 209 495 1055 704 0 0 704 1759 486 0 218

226 96 407 729 219 0 0 219 948


0 108 239 346 202 166 0 368 714
0 106 249 355 29 174 0 204 558
0 237 302 540 81 131 0 212 752

226 547 1197 1971 532 471 0 1003 2973 998 0 4

90 155 502 747 268 0 0 268 1015


0 68 178 246 34 20 0 54 300
56 11 200 267 53 0 0 53 320
0 5 10 15 3 4 0 7 22
168 63 281 512 201 0 0 201 713

314 302 1171 1788 559 24 0 583 2370 499 0 83

13 7 79 99 7 0 0 7 106
0 132 249 381 0 24 0 24 406
0 47 166 214 0 31 0 31 244
0 133 254 387 33 201 0 234 621
0 114 131 244 177 38 0 215 460
0 0 118 118 0 104 3 107 226

13 433 997 1443 217 399 3 619 2062 331 0 288

10801

0 0 527 527 3020 0 480 3500 4027 0 3500 0

0 41 630 671 406 8 0 415 1085 322 0 93

0 343 973 1316 731 115 0 847 2163 604 0 243

0 0 258 258 0 50 230 280 538 253 0 27

0 0 2130 2130 0 2369 841 3210 5340 540 0 2670

0 0 2454 2454 0 0 0 0 2454 0 0 0

0 0 2553 2553 0 0 0 0 2553 0 0 0

0 880 0 880 0 0 0 0 880 0 0 0

0 800 0 800 0 0 800 800 1600 0 0 800

182
YALA 03 Crop surface (ha)
PWD Y03 PMD Y03 PPD Y03 TOTAL OFC OFC OFC TOTAL TOTAL BANANA Y03 SC Y03 OFC Y03
WD MD PD Paddy WD MD PD OFC Surface

0 0 64 64 100 79 33 212 276


25 13 36 74 72 0 0 72 145
0 18 71 89 144 65 0 209 297
0 80 195 275 252 54 0 306 581
0 0 25 25 19 124 49 193 218
0 0 32 32 150 70 99 319 350
0 0 27 27 95 21 22 138 164

25 110 450 585 832 413 203 1447 2032 823 0 624

164 93 204 461 363 0 0 363 824


111 116 291 518 448 0 0 448 966

275 209 495 979 812 0 0 812 1790 401 0 411

206 96 407 709 182 0 0 182 891


0 98 239 337 199 175 0 374 711
0 116 249 365 58 164 0 223 587
0 252 302 554 156 117 0 273 827
0
206 562 1197 1966 596 456 0 1051 3017 917 0 134

92 155 502 749 298 0 0 298 1048


0 78 178 256 56 10 0 66 322
69 11 200 280 27 0 0 27 307
0 0 3 3 0 0 5 5 9
154 63 281 499 121 0 0 121 619

315 307 1165 1787 502 10 5 518 2305 507 0 11

19 7 79 106 1 0 0 1 107
0 101 249 351 0 54 0 54 404
0 59 166 226 0 105 0 105 331
0 74 254 328 146 260 0 406 734
0 96 131 227 103 56 0 159 385
0 34 122 156 0 108 0 108 264

19 372 1001 1392 250 583 0 833 2225 286 0 546

4661 11369 2935 0 1726

0 0 527 527 3020 0 480 3500 4027 0 3500 0

0 0 607 607 336 49 23 409 1016 290 0 118

0 279 973 1252 536 180 0 716 1968 560 0 156

0 0 325 325 0 42 162 204 530 204 0 0

0 0 2130 2130 0 2369 841 3210 5340 540 0 2670

0 0 2454 2454 0 0 0 0 2454 0 0 0

0 0 2553 2553 0 0 0 0 2553 0 0 0

0 880 0 880 0 0 0 0 880 0 0 0

0 800 0 800 0 0 800 800 1600 0 0 800

183
Donnes

Sum MMP Sum Real Sum Agro Sum MMP Sum Real Sum Agro
Sum Sum Sum MKBC Sum MKBC Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum ET Sum CWBC Sum CWBC Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL
Year Month Sum RBMC Sum LBMC DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND Sum ET CW
Rainfall Storage VT VA EMB VT EMB VA EMB VT VA CW VT CW VA
EMB EMB EMB CW CW CW

1999 1 23.40 11.39 136.60 1073.37


2 32.63 20.26 71.60 912.50
3 23.75 18.64 286.30 1321.50
4 30.66 1.90 78.70 1040.14
5 61.59 9.31 95.00 1107.10
6 53.13 33.54 27.60 776.24
7 56.60 25.48 1.00 714.57
8 47.34 34.63 48.70 796.41
9 16.18 17.49 100.50 591.27
10 41.79 26.96 128.00 798.65 3.48 3.08 4.38 4.65 8.74 7.06 8.74 7.06
11 38.96 26.31 313.90 606.76 2.81 2.94 6.43 13.93 7.40 8.08 7.40 8.08
12 39.06 24.64 107.50 679.72 2.81 2.30 6.43 10.94 7.40 8.25 7.40 8.25
Total 1999 465.09 250.55 1395.40 10418.23 9.10 8.32 17.25 29.52 23.54 23.39 23.54 23.39
2000 1 64.79 41.51 198.50 996.06 3.86 3.27 8.85 15.54 9.78 12.56 9.78 12.56
2 25.80 18.41 224.20 856.53 0.00 0.30 0.00 1.43 0.00 2.97 0.00 2.97
3 8.09 11.91 426.40 1067.84 0.00 0.00
4 34.38 9.33 36.60 1058.18 2.62 2.55 6.00 12.12 5.45 6.63 5.45 6.63
5 70.32 45.18 82.20 1225.03 3.61 3.57 8.27 16.94 9.82 11.66 9.82 11.66
6 57.66 30.57 30.70 750.68 2.81 2.69 6.43 12.76 7.47 8.80 7.47 8.80
7 70.54 37.50 12.30 580.17 1.93 2.64 4.43 12.55 5.96 9.83 5.96 9.83
8 39.20 23.32 81.10 237.48 0.00 0.79 0.00 3.75 0.11 6.47 0.11 6.47
9 12.05 18.26 52.10 169.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.58 0.00 0.58
10 8.02 8.36 142.50 295.67
11 0.20 8.50 128.10 307.09
12 5.37 10.27 98.60 445.95
Total 2000 396.42 263.12 1513.30 7989.85 14.84 15.82 33.97 75.09 38.59 59.51 38.59 59.51
2001 1 0.14 0.52 437.00 850.78
2 2.11 8.42 144.70 925.10
3 54.63 27.47 36.40 896.19 3.29 3.55 7.53 16.84 2.97 4.58 1.89 1.51 7.63 9.08 7.63 9.08 3.65 7.45 1.68 1.35
4 59.70 36.32 195.20 1038.43 3.09 1.75 7.08 8.30 4.60 4.83 3.55 2.84 10.82 9.65 10.82 9.65 5.68 7.75 3.66 2.93
5 54.88 39.45 22.00 784.18 2.40 2.21 5.49 10.48 4.55 4.67 3.49 2.79 8.09 8.27 8.09 8.27 5.45 7.09 3.66 2.93
6 56.59 31.75 0.00 599.42 1.37 2.13 3.14 10.10 4.86 4.93 3.71 2.97 6.21 8.15 6.21 8.15 5.72 7.34 3.87 3.09
7 42.30 41.81 14.20 509.99 0.00 0.31 0.00 1.46 5.58 5.54 3.98 3.19 0.40 6.07 0.40 6.07 6.30 8.14 3.76 3.01
8 11.31 18.00 0.00 240.93 2.63 1.97 1.97 1.58 1.50 1.12 1.13 0.90
9 7.28 1.70 169.40 299.19 2.11 1.56 1.67 1.33 1.16 0.84 0.95 0.76
10 9.54 10.39 177.10 457.63 1.77 1.16 1.82 1.45 0.88 0.58 1.11 0.89
11 33.82 18.69 207.70 532.77 1.81 3.52 1.76 1.41 2.21 5.54 1.58 1.26
12 45.37 30.16 105.60 587.76 3.40 3.83 2.42 1.93 4.48 6.44 2.45 1.96
Total 2001 377.66 264.69 1509.30 7722.36 10.15 9.94 23.25 47.18 34.27 36.58 26.26 21.00 33.14 41.21 33.14 41.21 37.02 52.30 23.85 19.08
2002 1 53.90 32.33 14.30 500.67 4.54 5.01 3.41 2.73 5.86 7.94 3.75 3.00
2 35.30 24.08 64.70 272.05 4.31 4.65 3.27 2.62 5.39 7.07 3.61 2.89
3 19.63 8.18 56.10 176.43 4.16 4.41 3.17 2.54 5.07 6.65 3.34 2.67
4 10.68 10.11 530.00 397.16 2.69 2.20 2.05 1.64 2.12 2.12 1.44 1.15
5 50.39 32.88 46.40 616.57 2.47 2.92 5.65 13.84 3.09 4.31 2.12 1.69 6.46 8.98 6.46 8.98 3.50 6.93 1.73 1.39
6 45.16 26.18 0.00 407.17 1.99 1.84 4.55 8.72 4.07 3.78 3.03 2.43 5.21 6.38 5.21 6.38 4.61 5.68 2.95 2.36
7 48.54 31.55 24.50 270.87 2.48 2.32 5.69 11.01 6.11 5.73 4.64 3.71 6.51 7.43 6.51 7.43 6.61 8.16 4.48 3.58
8 32.13 25.07 3.40 172.16 0.53 1.66 1.22 7.89 5.33 5.15 4.09 3.27 1.40 6.81 1.40 6.81 5.66 7.07 3.96 3.17
9 17.20 5.03 120.10 186.15 0.00 0.19 0.00 0.89 5.21 5.55 3.92 3.13 0.00 1.67 0.00 1.67 4.95 7.60 3.15 2.52
10 2.84 2.76 226.50 268.86 1.82 1.67 1.84 1.47 0.73 0.72 0.94 0.75
11 18.91 13.36 355.50 527.59 1.11 0.95 2.55 4.53 1.52 2.09 1.64 1.31 5.01 6.22 5.01 6.22 2.17 5.31 1.57 1.25
12 36.76 25.30 43.80 739.73 2.29 1.55 5.25 7.36 2.74 2.74 2.11 1.68 6.87 6.86 6.87 6.86 4.35 6.16 2.42 1.93
Total 2002 371.44 236.83 1485.30 4535.41 10.88 11.42 24.90 54.23 45.60 47.28 35.28 28.22 31.46 44.34 31.46 44.34 51.01 71.39 33.33 26.66
2003 1 45.80 29.35 33.10 651.26 2.23 1.90 5.10 9.03 3.71 3.66 2.86 2.28 6.68 7.92 6.68 7.92 5.59 7.53 3.61 2.88
2 47.73 28.06 24.60 351.55 0.70 1.40 1.60 6.63 3.60 3.49 2.75 2.20 2.10 5.79 2.10 5.79 5.12 6.69 3.45 2.76
3 10.94 5.01 371.00 652.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.31 4.04 3.32 2.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.71 7.49 3.64 2.91
4 36.53 25.05 175.50 1018.15 1.85 1.97 4.74 9.11 3.17 4.20 2.28 1.82 4.15 6.71 4.15 6.71 3.00 5.77 1.74 1.39
5 42.84 30.19 99.20 1079.76 2.06 2.04 4.56 10.75 3.27 3.49 2.46 1.96 6.58 6.88 6.58 6.88 3.68 4.86 2.08 1.67
6 66.44 37.69 9.40 1319.33 2.48 1.87 5.41 10.27 5.70 5.77 4.42 3.54 7.54 8.86 7.54 8.86 6.11 7.63 4.11 3.29
7 48.67 32.25 51.00 915.01 1.35 2.31 3.00 9.15 5.36 5.30 4.22 3.38 4.86 7.38 4.86 7.38 5.55 6.72 3.91 3.13
8 48.42 31.82 4.80 906.84 0.00 0.38 0.00 1.38 6.87 6.26 4.95 3.96 0.43 3.95 0.43 3.95 6.49 7.89 4.41 3.52
9 20.06 14.77 25.50 630.24 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.60 2.39 2.38 1.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.90 1.83 1.36 1.08
10 30.59 23.90 67.80 379.46 1.66 0.85 1.60 1.28 0.48 0.28 0.79 0.63
11
12
Total 2003 398.01 258.08 861.90 7904.13 10.67 11.86 24.42 56.31 41.25 39.45 31.23 24.99 32.34 47.48 32.34 47.48 43.64 56.69 29.09 23.27
Total 2008.62 1273.27 6765.20 38569.97 55.63 57.36 123.79 262.33 121.12 123.31 92.76 74.21 159.08 215.94 159.08 215.94 131.67 180.38 86.26 69.01

184
Sum MMP Sum Real Sum Agro
Sum MMBC Sum MMBC Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum ET Sum GGBC Sum GGBC Sum Sum Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum MMP Sum Real Sum Agro Sum BABC Sum BABC Sum Sum GMGC Sum TOTAL
DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND
VT VA MW VT MW VA MW VT VA MNPBC VT MNPBC VA BI VT BI VA DEMAND BI DEMAND BI DEMAND BI VT VA GMGBC VT VA AN VT
MW MW MW

10.49 10.91 10.49 10.91 3.79 3.98 2.85 2.22 9.08 9.81 5.53 3.04 3.01 2.94 8.70
8.84 10.66 8.84 10.66 3.22 3.50 2.40 2.17 7.69 8.99 4.66 4.85 3.70 3.66 8.52
8.84 11.26 8.84 11.26 3.22 3.86 2.40 2.58 7.69 10.21 4.66 4.17 3.56 3.10 8.38
28.17 32.83 28.17 32.83 10.23 11.35 7.65 6.98 24.47 29.02 14.85 12.06 10.27 9.70 25.61
11.68 16.45 11.68 16.45 4.26 5.77 3.17 3.88 10.16 15.28 6.16 7.01 2.59 3.96 8.92
0.00 5.41 0.00 5.41 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.70 0.00 1.82 0.00 0.93 0.00 1.54 0.00

6.12 8.13 6.12 8.13 2.83 2.94 1.36 1.50 5.74 7.03 3.05 3.04 1.99 2.13 5.14
12.56 14.22 12.56 14.22 3.88 4.77 3.02 3.15 9.44 12.55 6.50 6.38 4.71 4.47 11.43
9.46 10.96 9.46 10.96 3.02 3.72 2.33 2.35 7.32 9.61 4.93 4.55 3.56 3.10 8.66
7.98 11.43 7.98 11.43 2.17 3.49 1.65 2.32 5.23 9.19 3.00 5.26 2.59 3.43 5.70
0.19 9.10 0.19 9.10 0.00 2.42 0.00 1.77 0.00 6.64 0.00 1.51 0.00 2.07 0.00
0.00 2.05 0.00 2.05 0.00 0.00

47.99 77.75 47.99 77.75 16.14 23.56 11.54 15.68 37.89 62.13 23.63 28.68 15.45 20.69 39.84

11.18 11.63 11.18 11.63 5.40 10.61 2.94 2.35 3.66 3.95 2.06 2.31 7.84 9.91 4.67 10.10 2.39 5.38 4.77 3.10 3.36 8.64
13.46 13.77 13.46 13.77 8.37 10.35 6.08 4.86 5.03 4.51 3.25 3.29 11.34 12.35 7.24 9.76 5.09 6.48 5.43 4.40 3.88 11.10
10.28 11.34 10.28 11.34 7.90 9.54 5.87 4.70 3.77 3.72 2.40 2.37 8.44 9.65 6.68 8.80 4.86 4.93 4.93 3.29 3.65 8.38
6.95 11.19 6.95 11.19 8.25 9.87 6.14 4.91 2.83 3.70 1.97 2.06 6.57 9.12 6.90 9.03 5.04 3.33 4.68 2.47 3.19 5.92
0.27 10.03 0.27 10.03 9.03 10.71 5.99 4.79 0.17 1.77 0.15 1.61 0.44 5.35 7.44 9.76 4.73 0.00 5.24 0.16 2.79 0.16
2.46 1.84 1.85 1.48 1.44 1.08 1.09
2.29 1.68 1.85 1.48 1.19 0.86 1.00
2.00 1.35 2.31 1.85 0.77 0.47 1.09
4.02 9.53 3.09 2.47 2.91 8.21 2.14
7.49 9.99 4.50 3.60 5.90 8.56 3.40
42.13 57.95 42.13 57.95 57.20 75.46 40.61 32.49 15.47 17.64 9.83 11.64 34.63 46.37 45.14 66.64 30.83 20.13 25.05 13.43 16.87 34.20
9.26 12.15 6.35 5.08 7.51 10.51 5.11
8.34 10.76 5.95 4.76 6.77 9.28 4.83
7.87 10.09 5.53 4.42 6.25 8.61 4.35
3.41 3.27 2.38 1.90 1.95 2.15 1.28
9.92 10.42 9.92 10.42 6.12 11.41 3.46 2.77 2.89 3.20 2.31 1.91 7.12 8.09 4.95 10.84 2.47 4.27 4.97 2.36 3.50 6.76
9.34 10.91 9.34 10.91 7.76 8.94 5.39 4.32 2.33 3.15 1.85 2.08 5.72 8.28 6.49 8.37 4.31 4.40 4.57 2.76 2.99 7.30
11.39 12.03 11.39 12.03 10.58 12.54 7.70 6.16 2.91 3.34 2.31 2.10 7.15 8.61 8.88 11.75 6.26 5.23 4.98 3.26 2.34 8.64
3.58 10.23 3.58 10.23 8.93 10.78 6.68 5.35 0.62 2.56 0.79 1.45 1.94 6.34 7.49 10.06 5.47 2.01 2.68 1.42 2.01 3.50
0.00 3.41 0.00 3.41 7.85 11.43 5.35 4.28 0.00 0.56 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.89 6.15 10.61 3.91 0.00 0.89 0.00 1.14 0.00
1.51 1.39 1.83 1.46 0.52 0.45 0.83
9.38 7.32 9.38 7.32 3.96 9.03 3.10 2.48 1.77 1.74 1.19 1.67 4.06 5.40 2.85 7.99 2.17 3.12 3.90 1.84 2.77 5.05
12.86 12.28 12.86 12.28 7.33 9.57 4.51 3.61 3.84 3.19 2.55 2.59 8.75 9.16 5.86 8.34 3.46 7.08 5.58 4.06 3.29 11.35
56.47 66.60 56.47 66.60 82.92 111.35 58.25 46.60 14.37 17.74 11.01 11.78 34.74 46.76 65.68 98.96 44.45 26.10 27.58 15.69 18.04 42.60
12.51 13.45 12.51 13.45 9.06 11.68 6.30 5.04 3.51 3.71 2.40 2.60 8.09 10.00 7.53 10.32 5.19 5.65 5.00 3.77 3.32 9.60
3.93 11.11 3.93 11.11 8.18 10.37 5.90 4.72 1.74 2.52 1.20 1.77 4.03 6.80 6.83 9.16 4.92 3.11 2.87 1.94 2.20 5.15
0.00 0.32 0.00 0.32 9.12 11.47 6.24 4.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.39 9.99 4.97 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
6.37 8.91 6.37 8.91 5.37 10.50 3.26 2.61 2.00 2.84 1.10 1.68 5.26 7.66 4.05 9.12 2.33 4.30 3.45 1.82 2.55 6.30
9.71 12.41 9.71 12.41 6.96 8.57 4.23 3.38 3.31 4.06 2.15 2.50 7.30 10.49 5.49 7.40 3.19 5.50 6.67 3.20 4.03 8.86
9.68 13.89 9.68 13.89 10.70 13.06 7.56 6.05 3.77 4.32 2.48 2.84 8.32 11.23 8.48 11.23 5.91 5.31 6.57 3.68 4.70 9.17
5.87 11.29 5.87 11.29 9.35 11.29 6.89 5.51 2.53 3.17 1.77 2.26 5.45 8.53 7.35 9.63 5.38 3.50 3.53 2.95 4.75 6.54
0.41 7.61 0.41 7.61 10.96 13.21 7.77 6.21 0.23 1.59 0.22 1.48 0.45 4.43 8.54 11.24 5.96 0.29 3.50 0.42 1.24 0.71
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.27 3.07 2.35 1.88 0.00 0.00 1.98 2.12 1.35
1.17 0.73 1.71 1.37 0.52 0.28 0.94

48.49 78.98 48.49 78.98 74.13 93.95 52.21 41.77 17.09 22.21 11.33 15.14 38.90 59.14 58.15 80.48 40.14 27.68 31.58 17.78 22.78 46.33
223.24 314.12 223.24 314.12 214.25 280.77 151.06 120.85 73.30 92.49 51.35 61.22 170.62 243.42 168.98 246.08 115.42 112.40 124.96 72.62 88.08 188.58

185
Sum MMP Sum Real Sum Agro Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum Real Sum Agro
Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum Real Sum Agro Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL
DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND Sum ET AN Real Agro DEMAND DEMAND
AN VA BC VT BC VA RBC VT RBC VA ET SE VT SE VA KI VT KI VA DEMAND KI DEMAND KI MA VT MA VA
AN AN AN DEMAND DEMAND SE SE

0.00 0.00 0.00


0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
6.28 37.88 33.22 41.39 38.70 0.00 0.00 0.00
8.95 33.03 35.88 38.89 50.63 0.00 0.00 0.00
7.64 32.90 35.53 38.75 48.30 0.00 0.00 0.00
22.87 103.80 104.62 119.03 137.63 0.00 0.00 0.00
11.53 41.50 52.91 49.39 71.37 0.00 0.00 0.00
2.59 0.00 12.29 0.00 14.21 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
5.43 23.42 26.91 28.44 39.33 0.00 0.00 0.00
11.41 44.10 48.23 51.52 66.79 0.00 0.00 0.00
8.04 33.58 36.17 39.34 50.18 0.00 0.00 0.00
9.14 25.28 38.40 29.29 52.14 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.77 0.30 24.14 0.30 29.73 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 2.63 0.00 2.63 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
51.91 168.19 241.68 198.28 326.38 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
8.55 3.26 6.96 1.80 1.44 36.31 38.65 42.82 56.01 39.71 10.70 8.56 9.96 8.11 3.52 1.10
9.79 5.66 6.89 4.31 3.45 46.54 42.27 53.79 53.85 39.59 22.70 18.16 11.07 10.78 3.34 2.27
9.02 5.91 6.81 4.54 3.63 35.16 36.49 40.68 48.75 36.90 22.41 17.93 8.67 8.09 3.16 2.21
8.27 6.35 7.19 4.87 3.90 25.13 35.08 28.78 46.81 38.36 23.63 18.90 8.32 7.65 3.29 2.32
8.45 6.75 7.62 4.68 3.74 1.15 27.82 1.27 31.36 41.77 23.14 18.51 9.39 8.47 3.51 2.28
1.67 1.25 1.26 1.01 7.26 7.29 5.83 6.13 6.14 0.74 0.74
0.87 0.62 0.75 0.60 5.56 6.22 4.98 5.86 6.10 0.54 0.60
0.43 0.23 0.76 0.61 3.78 7.09 5.67 5.89 7.35 0.32 0.61
2.14 6.37 1.72 1.37 33.17 10.27 8.22 5.61 5.87 3.26 5.32 2.64 0.98
4.76 6.41 2.90 2.32 35.22 15.67 12.54 8.01 7.81 3.50 5.60 2.55 1.51
44.07 37.82 50.34 27.59 22.07 144.28 180.30 167.35 236.78 281.32 149.13 119.30 78.92 76.37 6.75 10.92 23.60 14.61
6.55 8.38 4.65 3.72 43.99 23.27 18.61 9.67 9.04 3.24 4.53 3.39 2.23
6.08 7.60 4.49 3.59 39.35 22.15 17.72 9.00 8.27 1.17 3.31 3.11 2.12
5.57 6.97 4.04 3.23 36.72 20.43 16.34 9.23 8.83 0.00 0.51 2.87 1.97
1.76 1.76 1.21 0.97 11.50 8.35 6.68 9.23 9.46 1.92 0.87
8.91 2.90 6.16 1.66 1.33 30.68 35.89 35.91 50.23 39.65 11.44 9.15 9.26 7.40 4.95 5.74 3.10 1.19
7.95 4.13 4.65 3.02 2.41 27.87 31.91 32.12 42.23 31.42 18.70 14.96 8.17 7.43 3.01 3.62 2.91 1.93
7.70 6.09 6.98 4.64 3.71 34.09 34.53 39.39 46.77 45.14 27.72 22.17 9.69 8.92 3.77 3.85 4.03 2.86
4.93 5.27 6.18 4.12 3.30 10.35 27.39 11.63 36.20 39.24 24.33 19.46 8.18 7.43 1.36 3.10 3.49 2.51
2.14 4.37 6.33 3.12 2.50 0.00 7.87 0.00 9.00 41.52 19.45 15.56 9.42 8.41 0.00 0.48 2.93 2.01
0.53 0.51 0.75 0.60 4.74 6.19 4.95 5.22 5.83 0.47 0.64
7.01 1.92 5.78 1.65 1.32 23.42 24.57 26.05 30.48 30.20 10.12 8.10 8.26 5.15 5.87 3.40 2.62 2.39 0.94
9.33 4.34 5.74 2.76 2.21 39.56 35.35 45.08 44.99 32.55 15.25 12.20 8.48 8.01 7.81 3.66 3.63 2.29 1.41
47.97 49.51 67.04 36.10 28.88 165.98 197.52 190.17 259.90 396.03 207.40 165.92 16.74 100.25 94.72 24.56 31.39 32.90 20.68
8.74 6.01 7.59 4.39 3.51 36.75 37.91 41.98 49.14 40.79 22.34 17.87 7.57 9.67 9.04 3.38 3.67 3.07 2.08
5.33 5.61 6.91 4.24 3.39 14.73 27.67 16.81 35.66 36.62 21.26 17.01 6.11 9.00 8.27 1.13 3.16 2.84 1.99
0.00 5.98 7.38 4.28 3.42 0.00 0.32 0.00 0.32 40.37 22.45 17.96 0.40 11.34 10.91 0.00 0.37 3.04 2.10
6.26 3.06 6.64 1.92 1.54 21.60 28.10 26.83 38.65 36.22 11.53 9.22 8.26 9.21 7.80 3.51 4.71 3.26 1.15
11.13 3.86 4.91 2.41 1.93 32.51 38.60 37.00 51.67 29.22 14.36 11.49 7.07 8.09 7.44 3.05 4.66 2.44 1.47
11.95 6.88 8.27 5.09 4.07 34.95 43.03 40.12 56.19 45.96 27.08 21.67 7.50 9.98 9.06 3.48 4.45 3.91 2.67
8.78 6.36 7.44 4.89 3.91 22.83 34.68 25.73 45.13 40.38 25.30 20.24 6.22 8.08 7.35 2.01 3.67 3.45 2.45
4.95 7.32 8.57 5.43 4.34 2.01 19.75 2.01 22.32 47.17 28.52 22.81 1.77 9.83 9.00 0.00 0.49 3.99 2.77
1.74 1.65 1.30 1.04 0.00 0.00 11.07 8.72 6.98 5.86 6.18 0.97 0.86
0.24 0.12 0.60 0.48 2.26 5.63 4.50 4.21 5.69 0.26 0.61

57.16 47.06 59.49 34.53 27.62 165.37 230.04 190.48 299.08 330.05 187.19 149.75 44.88 85.28 80.75 16.55 25.18 27.24 18.15
223.98 134.38 176.87 98.22 78.58 747.63 954.17 865.32 1259.79 1007.40 543.72 434.98 61.63 264.45 251.85 47.87 67.49 83.74 53.44

186
Sum Real Sum Agro Sum Real Sum Agro
Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL Sum TOTAL
DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND
SU VT SU VA LBC VT LBC VA
MA MA SU SU

6.58 0.55 1.18 1.93


6.13 1.03 1.26 3.91
5.67 1.03 1.26 3.70
5.86 1.10 1.34 3.84
6.29 1.19 1.50 3.73
1.12 0.61 0.61 1.12
0.85 0.61 0.58 0.98
0.40 0.79 0.61 0.99
0.92 0.67 4.70 1.73
1.06 0.83 4.65 2.67
34.87 8.40 17.69 24.61
1.31 1.01 6.09 3.86
1.20 0.94 5.57 3.66
1.17 0.95 5.13 3.41
1.01 0.78 3.44 1.52
1.13 0.63 5.75 2.06
1.14 0.90 5.34 3.31
1.64 1.35 7.24 4.77
1.44 1.19 6.21 4.16
1.35 1.13 5.16 3.24
0.45 0.53 0.63 1.00
1.39 0.60 4.93 5.03 1.85 15.81
1.28 0.81 7.43 5.08 2.80 19.54
14.52 10.82 12.35 60.69 35.65 35.35
1.63 1.10 6.57 6.62 4.11 17.81
1.48 1.03 5.02 6.04 3.90 14.29
1.61 1.11 0.00 6.50 4.10 0.76
1.43 0.64 6.01 6.62 2.23 18.98
1.16 0.81 7.40 5.12 2.85 19.13
1.78 1.33 7.11 8.15 5.25 19.05
1.56 1.20 6.09 7.18 4.86 15.98
1.83 1.39 1.55 8.34 5.48 3.80
0.62 0.60 1.98 1.69
0.27 0.47 0.45 1.14

13.38 9.68 39.74 56.99 35.60 109.80


62.76 28.90 52.10 135.37 95.85 145.15

187
Annex 11 (Section 4.2.2.3) - Efficiency Analysis
% CONFORT
BLOCK R/OFC A EF 1-EF VA % V TOTAL SEASON R/OFC T VT % VT % VT TOTAL DIF VA - VT % CONFORT
TOTAL
EMB
1.0 0.35 0.6 47.2 0.20 Y 01 1.4 23.2 0.49 0.14 23.93 0.34

0.7 0.42 0.6 42.3 0.23 Y 02 1.0 17.1 0.40 0.14 25.24 0.39 0.60

0.7 0.42 0.6 40.7 0.19 Y 03 0.7 17.7 0.44 0.13 22.94 0.28 0.56
CW
2.5 0.40 0.6 41.2 0.17 Y 01 4.7 33.1 0.80 0.20 8.07 0.12

2.4 0.52 0.5 31.3 0.17 Y 02 1.1 19.6 0.63 0.16 11.69 0.18 0.37

2.0 0.45 0.5 33.8 0.16 Y 03 2.5 23.6 0.70 0.18 10.21 0.12 0.30
MW
3.0 0.47 0.5 57.9 0.24 Y 01 3.6 42.1 0.73 0.25 15.82 0.23

3.3 0.61 0.4 47.0 0.25 Y 02 1.1 34.2 0.73 0.29 12.77 0.20 0.27

3.1 0.52 0.5 54.1 0.25 Y 03 3.4 32.0 0.59 0.24 22.05 0.27 0.41
BI
5.4 0.48 0.5 46.4 0.20 Y 01 5.0 34.6 0.75 0.21 11.74 0.17

7.1 0.70 0.3 32.2 0.17 Y 02 1.1 21.9 0.68 0.18 10.26 0.16 0.32

5.8 0.51 0.5 42.3 0.20 Y 03 3.7 26.8 0.63 0.20 15.56 0.19 0.37
AN
2.1 0.46 0.5 44.1 0.19 Y 01 3.6 34.2 0.78 0.20 9.87 0.14

3.0 0.52 0.5 31.6 0.17 Y 02 1.1 26.2 0.83 0.22 5.43 0.08 0.17

2.8 0.44 0.6 43.1 0.20 Y 03 2.5 31.6 0.73 0.24 11.51 0.14 0.27
237 167 69
TOTAL 184 119 65
214 132 82

Relation Efficencies - Comfort by block (Yala 02 and Yala 03) Relation Paddy/OFC - Volume Target by block
(Yala 01, Yala 03)
1.0 6

y = 0.145x - 1.2278
5
R2 = 0.56
Efficency = Plot Needs / VA

0.8 EMB EMB

CW 4 CW

Paddy/OFC
0.6

MW 3 MW
0.4
BI BI
2