You are on page 1of 43

1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The primary purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the level of preparedness of the

Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee (BDRRMC) of Barangay

No. 649, Zone 68, Manila, in order to address the gap between the concerned

barangays disaster risk reduction and management projects and activities and the

present strength and direction of the preparedness of the BDRRMC. This study aims to

categorize the measurement of community disaster preparedness efficiency in terms of

the so-called 4 Cs, namely: Community Risk Assessment, Contingency Planning,

Communication System and Capacity-Building. It also intends to find out if there is any

significant relation between the profile and the level of preparedness of the concerned

BDRRMC members. With all these in mind, the researchers have agreed that by staying

true to the course of this study they shall be able to achieve their desired objectives as

well as produce their intended outputs: a valid and useful evaluation tool for disaster

preparedness of any Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee

and a program of action to make them well-prepared in responding to disasters.


2

What are these so-called 4 Cs being harped on by the researchers of this

study?

The 4 Cs actually represent the priority areas of concern for disaster

preparedness which will help the researchers formulate the general statement of the

problem as well as rationalize the corresponding findings, conclusions and

recommendations of this thesis. It will also help them define the scope and delimitations

of this study.

The first C, Community Risk Assessment. The community must concern itself

with a proper assessment of the three (3) components of disaster risk, namely: hazards,

vulnerabilities and capacities.

Second is Contingency Planning. In (h), Section 1, RULE 2 of the IRR of R.A.

No. 10121, it is considered as a management process that analyzes specific potential

events or emerging situations that might threaten society or the environment and

establishes arrangements in advance to enable timely, effective and appropriate

responses to such events and situations.


3

Communication System is the third C. Communication system may include all

the factors involved in contingency planning, too, such as, but not limited to, early

warning systems, the development of arrangements for coordination, evacuation and

public information.

To illustrate: implementation of a disaster preparedness program is done through

the cooperation and collaboration of efforts by various sectors. Each sector shares its

resource and expertise in the conduct of disaster management activities in the

community. Even the private enterprises (e.g. Chinese Fire Brigade), non-government

organizations (e.g. ABS-CBN Foundation Inc., a giant media network), volunteers (e.g.

MMDA volunteers), and non-government organizations (Philippine Red Cross) play

active and clustered roles.

Finally, the fourth is Capacity-Building. The following elements of capacity as

provided in (b) Section I, Rule 2, IRR of R.A. No. 10121 and could be developed for

disaster preparedness may include, but not limited to, infrastructure and physical means,

institutions, societal coping abilities, as well as human knowledge, skills, tools, systems,

processes, appropriate technologies and collective attributes, such as social

relationships, leadership and management.


4

This study, therefore, serves as a challenge to institutionalize the implementation

of disaster preparedness as carried out within the context of disaster risk reduction and

management of Barangay 649, Manila. The researchers feel this can be accomplished

through a proper evaluation of the BDRRMC priority projects and activities as well as by

assisting in the development of a program of action for them.

This thesis seeks to understand the concepts and principles which relate to and

describe the aforementioned level of preparedness of the BDRRMC in terms of

community risk assessment, contingency planning, communication system and capacity-

building. This research shall rely on the general theory of the disaster management

cycle. This study shall also involve theories concerning Maslows hierarchy of needs

(self-preservation as primary motivation), team building and creating effective work

systems, the positive reinforcement of the conduct of disaster preparedness trainings

and drills (B.F. Skinners Operant Theory), management concepts related to contingency

planning and communication as well as leadership (Leadership Theories). One unique

dimension of this study the researchers want to add is the variable risk assessment and

the attempt to classify it as either a motivator or hygienic factor in Herzbergs Two-

Factory Theory of Motivation. This is very important since it is the assumption of this

study that Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Best Practices may be
5

promptly gauged according to the soundness of their disaster risk assessment. Finally,

based on the findings of the study, the researchers shall propose action/s on the part of

the government and/or on the part of the researchers which would result to a more

effective and efficient implementation of R.A. No. 10121 in Barangay No. 649 in terms of

preparedness. It is important to note that, since its implementation on 2010 up to the

present, the Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan of Barangay No.

649 shall cover the three-year period 2013-2016. Thus, the development of a

preparedness-related program of action clearly underlines the need for a comprehensive,

holistic and well-developed barangay disaster readiness plan.

Meanwhile, the gist of this thesis shall remain true to the basic laws of human

nature and of man himself; such as, but not limited to, mans basic law of self-

preservation, or survival, which is: there is strength in numbers. If the readers would

closely follow the line of thinking, this would be a common sense-based approach in

dealing with this study. After all, every disaster that comes and goes is as unique as any

persons own individual differences. Thus, in disaster preparedness, it may be quite

proper to apply a wise mans idiom about the art of war, Know your enemy.
6

Ironically, when faced with the most horrendous calamities and back-breaking

disasters, mans greatest enemy is not nature. Ultimately, it is himself.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The cornerstone of disaster management policy in the Philippines dates back to

1978 when Presidential Decree No. 1566 was enacted, which called for the

strengthening of Philippine disaster control and capability and establishing the national

program on community disaster preparedness. By encouraging self-help and mutual

assistance, thus, primary responsibility was placed upon LGUs, especially officials such

as the Governor, City or Municipal Mayor, and the Barangay Captain. In planning and

actual operations, inter-agency and multi-sectoral coordination was required to optimize

utilization of resources, LGUs were directed to utilize local resources fully before support

from the national government can be sought.

As a signatory to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), the Philippine

Government, through the then National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) has

adopted the HFA five priorities for action by developing and enhancing current plans,

programs, and activities on disaster risk reduction. In June 2007, NDCC initiated through
7

the Partnership for Disaster Reduction in the Southeast Asia Phase 4 Project (PDRSEA

4), the formulation of the Philippine National Strategic Plan on Community-Based

Disaster Reduction Management (CBDRM) that outlined activities in establishing an

effective system to promote CBDRM. The same is true with the country being a signatory

to the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response

(AADMER).

The major shift of the disaster management strategy of the country bored down

to the smaller political subdivisions of the land. At the local level, a Local Disaster Risk

Reduction and Management Fund (LDRRMF) is appropriated amounting to not less than

5 percent of the estimated revenue from regular sources as mandated under the Local

Government Code of 1991 to support disaster risk management activities such as, but

not limited to, pre-disaster preparedness programs including training, purchasing life-

saving rescue equipment, supplies and medicines, for post-disaster activities and for the

payment of premiums on calamity insurance. In the same way as at the national level, 30

percent of the amount appropriated for the LDRRMF is allocated as Quick Response

Fund (QRF). Before 2010, most of the remaining fund was used for post-disaster

activities. With the enactment of the disaster risk reduction and management law, it is
8

now specified that 70 percent of the LDRRMF can be allocated for pre-disaster

preparedness activities.

An online news article about a disaster preparedness seminar in Manila for

barangay officials published last March 8, 2013 by www.journal.com.ph and written by

Itchie Cabayan began with this statement: By next month, all barangays in Manila will be

prepared to face any disaster within their jurisdiction. Then a typhoon-induced habagat

coupled with monsoon rains came down on the greater part of Luzon on the third week of

August this year which practically halted all economic activities and public services in

Manila, and may have resulted to a considerable damage to property, buildings and

structures, as well as infrastructures.

These two events and other circumstances exposed the level of implementation

of R.A. No. 10121, both from the side of the implementers and from the side of the

affected communities. The urgent need to properly assess the preparedness of the

barangay is as real as the disaster risks it has to face day-in and day-out, from season to

season. Especially so if one is living near or within the port area where the community is

susceptible to flooding, sanitation and waste problems as well as the prevalence of

diseases.
9

Henceforth, as expressly provided for under Section 12 (a) of Republic Act No.

10121, also known as the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

(PDRRM) Act of 2010, approved May 27, 2010: There shall be established a Local

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (LDRRMO) in every province, city and

municipality, and a Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee

(BDRRMC) in every barangay which shall be responsible in setting the direction,

development, implementation and coordination of disaster risk management programs

within their territorial jurisdiction.

The composition of the Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council

(LDRRMC) reflects the comprehensiveness as well as the complexities of disaster risk

reduction and management.

While Section 5 of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R.A. No. 10121

defines the BDRRMC, to wit: It shall be a regular committee of the existing BDC

(Barangay Development Council) and subject thereto. The punong barangay shall

facilitate and ensure the participation of at least two (2) CSO (Civil Society Organization)

representatives from existing and active community-based peoples organizations

representing the most vulnerable and marginalized groups in the barangay. This
10

provision further strengthens the selection of the barangay to be included in the study.

Also, the aforementioned IRR aims to strengthen the local government units (LGUs)

together with partner stakeholders, to build the disaster resilience of communities, and to

institutionalize arrangements and measures reducing disaster risks, including projected

climate risks, and enhancing disaster preparedness and response capabilities at all

level

Disaster preparedness, as operationally defined in the thesis, consists of the

knowledge and capacities developed by government, professional response and

recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to,

and recover from the impacts of likely, imminent or current hazard events or

conditions. It also adds that preparedness is based on a sound analysis of disaster

risk, and good linkages with early warning systems, and includes such activities as

contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, the development of

arrangements for coordination, evacuation and public information and associated training

and filed exercises. Disaster risk reduction, on the other hand, is considered a

challenge to development at the global, national, local, community and even individual

level. This study, therefore, is particularly focused on the level of preparedness of


11

Barangay No. 649, Zone 68, Manila as stipulated in their respective Barangay Risk

Reduction and Management Plan and as implemented by its BDRRMC.

The role of the barangay in disaster risk reduction and management cannot be

understated. In Section 384 of the Republic Act No. 7160, also known as the Local

Government Code of 1991, it is provided, thus, that as the basic political unit, the

barangay serves as the primary planning and implementing unit of government policies,

plans, programs, projects, and activities in the community xxx. While (6), Section 389 of

the same Code provides that the Punong Barangay as the chief executive officer of the

community organized and lead an emergency group whenever the same may be

necessary for the maintenance of peace and order or on occasions of emergency or

calamity within the barangay xxx.

Historical background of the selected community BASECO, or the Bataan

Shipyard and Engineering Company, was formerly known as NASSCO (National

Shipyard and Steel Corporation). The area covers five shipyard centers in Manila:

Bataan, Iligan, Punta, Sta. Ana, Pandacan, and North Harbor.


12

Its first inhabitants were fisherfolk from the Visayas (mostly from Samar) and

Bataan who built staging posts or temporary huts while fishing in the area. Later, the

relatives of the caretakers and the stay-in guards of the shipping companies in the

BASECO Compound began to reside there.

In 1982, BASECO was officially declared Barangay 649, Zone 68. In 1986, the

government, under the administration of then President Corazon C. Aquino, sequestered

the shipping facilities formerly acquired by the Romualdez family (during the Marcos era),

which were believed to be part of the ill-gotten wealth of the Marcos family. The series of

informal settlement demolitions in Quezon City and other parts of Metro Manila between

1990 and 1993 accelerated the growth of the barangay as it became the governments

relocation site for the evicted slum dwellers. Further contributing to the sudden increase

in population are the professional squatters in the area, who sell houses for PhP1,000

to PhP5,000 to those looking for a permanent residence there.

With a total land area of approximately 52 hectares, BASECO is located at South

Harbor, Port Area, Manila. Its largest portion lies within the eastern part of Manila Bay,

beside the mouth of Pasig River, bordering the northeast coast of the river and straddling

the northern and southern boundaries of Manila.


13

There are three (3) major roads leading to BASECO Compound: 2nd Street,

Muelle del Rio, and Tacoma. From Manila City Hall, one can reach the barangay by

taking a jeep to Pier South and a tricycle (three-wheeled motorized vehicle) at the

BASECO tricycle terminal besides the Red Cross building along Bonifacio Drive.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The PDRRM Act of 2010 realizes the comprehensive elements involved in

disaster readiness and, thus, made cognizance of the fact that disaster preparedness is

both an individual and group activity for a particular organization in a specific place and

period of time.

Certain general theories concerning motivation amplify disaster preparedness

within the context of disaster risk reduction, such as Maslows hierarchy of needs (self-

preservation as motivation), B.F. Skinners Operant Theory using positive reinforcements

(disaster simulation exercises and drills), and Herzbergs Two-Factor theory concerning

risk as a motivator or hygienic factor of motivation.


14

In Abraham Maslows theory, the most basic physiological level is the first in the

hierarchy of mans need which includes food, clothing and shelter. This connotes the

essence of self-preservation in terms of being able to survive physically, and to subsist in

the context of external environment factors, such risks and, more importantly for this

study, disasters.

Next is B.F. Skinners reinforcement theory wherein it states that man learns

from his environment and greater control of this environment improves his development.

Through understanding the principles of learning, one understands much about how

human behavior makes the individual learn and perform accordingly. Thus, this theory

justifies the absolute necessity for trainings, simulation exercises and drills in disaster

preparedness so that the appropriate response from the BDRRMC could be adequately

obtained.

In Herzbergs theory, he classified two factors of motivation, the hygienic factors

which produce no real growth in terms of motivation and output (policies and

administration, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, money, security),

as differentiated from the real satisfying factors which act primarily as motivators
15

(achievement, recognition for accomplishment, challenging work, increased

responsibility, growth and development).

Is risk, as part of the respondents profile, a hygienic factor or a motivator? This

sub-problem proved to be vital for the chapters on analysis of data as well as the

findings, conclusions and recommendations.

There is still yet another element that comes into play when it comes to disaster

preparedness: teamwork. According to John Paul Jones (from the article entitled

Preliminaries to Team Building, 1992), the five elements needed to make an effective

team are the following:

1. Mutual Trust,

2. Mutual Support,

3. Genuine Communication,

4. Acceptance of Conflicts as Normal, and

5. Mutual Respect for individual differences.

As discussed in the background of the study, the principles of self-help and

mutual assistance were generated by the countrys previous law on disaster control.
16

When it comes to team building, Tomas D. Andres (TEAM BUILDING AND CREATING

EFFECTIVE WORK SYSTEMS, 1992, page 25) stated that, in teamwork, one must be

aware of the values one has. A Filipino value that can play a big role in team building is

bayanihan.

As reiteration in the area of the preparedness, trainings and drills of the

BDRRMC, the researchers found complete solace in B.F. Skinners Operant Theory

(Human Behavior in Organizations, 3rd Ed., by Concepcion Rodil Martires, 2011) which,

ironically, is a deviation from the human needs theory as determinant of human behavior.

Burrhaus Frederick Skinner believed that the environment determines the individual

behavior. In his theory, positive reinforcements are found to be more powerful than the

negative and neutral reinforcement. Thus, this theory supports the belief that all

stakeholders of community disaster management like official participants and unlisted

volunteers must ensure a high level of preparedness in disaster situations through

positive reinforcements of the regular conduct of trainings and drills.


17

Figure 1. Disaster Management Cycle

DISASTER PREVENTION,
ADAPTATION
& MITIGATION

DISASTER PREPAREDNESS

DISASTER RESPONSE

DISASTER RECOVERY

These priority areas are not autonomous from the other nor do they have clear start and
end points. The four priority points are NOT seen as a mere cycle which starts in prevention and
ends in recovery. They:
1. Mutually reinforce each other and are interoperable.
2. DO NOT, SHOULD NOT and CANNOT stand alone.
3. Have no clear starting nor ending points between each of the aspects and overlaps are
to be expected.
4. Are problem-needs and asset-strengths centered.
5. All point to one direction: reduce peoples vulnerabilities and increasing their
capabilities.

(The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan 2011-2028, p. 6)

REDUCE VULNERABILITIES

INCREASE CAPACITIES
18

In so far as management concepts are concerned, although Gulicks

POSDCORB, namely, Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting,

Budgeting (Zulueta, et. al., 1999) remains predominant in the basic approach of tackling

the methodology of disaster preparedness, the researchers believed they could add

another component to this set of principles. This is the component of research and

analysis, most especially in the field of risk assessment which is virtually the basis of

disaster preparedness and contingency planning. Albeit, recognizing also the

importance of POSDCORB as a process, this study would like to emphasize on the value

of communication in the process of disaster risk reduction and management.

Communication is the lifeblood of an organization. The internal and external coordination

required from disaster readiness to response is vital because this will dictate not

necessarily the speed of the response, but the timeliness and appropriateness of any

disaster response.

Finally, leadership theories provide us not only with a framework on how to

measure the satisfaction of the BDRRMC and constituents, but also of the decision-

making powers the respondents possess as individuals and as members of a group.

This is the rationale why the study wants to justify the classification of disaster risk as a

motivator or hygienic factor of Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory of Motivation since the


19

researchers believe this will not only hold the key in future capacity-building programs for

disaster risk reduction and management but also make the readers of this study have a

deeper understanding of risk perception as a sub-topic of disaster risk assessment.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The conceptual framework presents the Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and

Management Plan (2013-2016) of Barangay No. 649, Zone 68, Manila as integral

component of Barangay Development Planning and as part and parcel of the

implementation of R.A. No 10121. Thus, the Government Planning involved here in the

thesis is formulated at the community level using the bottom-up and proactive approach

in planning. The projects and activities submitted and utilized by the BDRRMC will, like

any set of government plans and programs, be evaluated for review in terms of their own

level of efficiency.

It is worthy to note that the old thinking of disasters and calamities being

intangibles or off-grid components of development is now being drastically overhauled

by the paradigm shift of mainstreaming disaster risk reduction to development planning,

most especially in community-based disaster risk reduction and management.


20

PARADIGM OF THE STUDY

Input Process Output


The Projects & Actions that could The intended
Activities of the be taken: outcome of the
BDRRMC of Bgy. study:
649, Z 68 Evaluate the level
of preparedness of The efficiency of
the BDRRMC in the BDRRMC in
terms of their responding to
projects and disasters
activities thru
survey responses
by respondents
from the locale
under study

Figure 2.
The Level of Preparedness of the Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Committee (BDRRMC) of Barangay No. 649, Zone 68, Manila

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The study focused on the level of preparedness of the Barangay Disaster Risk

Reduction and Management Committee (BDRRMC) of Barangay No. 649, Zone 68,

Manila.

Specifically, the study will answer the following:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:


21

1.1. Age

1.2. Civil Status

1.3. Highest Educational Attainment

1.4. Residency

1.5. Training

2. What is the level of preparedness of the Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and

Management Committee (BDRRMC) in disaster risk reduction in terms of:

2.1. Community Risk Assessment

2.1.1 Hazards

2.1.2 Vulnerabilities

2.1.3 Capacities

2.2. Contingency Planning

2.2.1 CP-Indicator 1: Standard Operating Procedures for Deployment,

Evacuation and Coordination with Rapid Assessment Teams, etc.

2.2.2 CP-Indicator 2: Early Warning System

2.2.3 CP-Indicator 3: Regular Review of Contingency Plans

2.2.4 CP-Indicator 4: Stockpiling of Basic Emergency Supplies

2.3. Communication System


22

2.3.1 CS-Indicator 1: Information, Education and Communication

Campaign and Information-Sharing between LGUs/Communities

and the National Government

2.3.2 CS-Indicator 2: Multi-Stakeholders Dialogue

2.3.3 CS-Indicator 3: Information and Database Generation

2.4. Capacity-Building

2.4.1 CB-Indicator 1: Trainings on Disaster Preparedness and

Response, Search, Rescue and Retrieval Operations

2.4.2 CB-Indicator 2: Simulation Exercises at Various Levels to Test

Plans and Skills

2.4.3 CB-Indicator 3: Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

Researches

2.4.4 CB-Indicator 4: Standard Operating Manual for Disaster Operation

Center

3. Does the profile of the BDRRMC significantly affect the level of preparedness of

the BDRRMC in disaster risk reduction?


23

4. What program of action can be recommended to the members of the Barangay

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee for them to be well-

prepared in responding to disasters?

HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY

This is the null hypothesis of the study:

Ho: r = 0

There is no significant level of relationship between profile of the Barangay

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee (BDRRMC) and level of

preparedness.

The alternative hypothesis states that:

Ha: r 0

There is a significant level of relationship between profile of the Barangay

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee (BDRRMC) and level of

preparedness.
24

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The implementation of R.A. No. 10121 provides for a mechanism to develop,

promote, execute and coordinate a disaster preparedness plan which is carried out within

the context of disaster risk reduction and management. It is important that the readers

and users of this thesis understand the significance of the study to the over-all

development of Disaster Management in the Philippines today and in the future.

The study shall be beneficial to the following:

1. Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) this study will help

enhance the disaster risk reduction checklist and modules they formulated by

providing new inputs and information regarding the profile and the level of

preparedness of the BDRRMC of Barangay 649.

2. City Government of Manila this research will help the disaster risk reduction

strategy of the city by enhancing and improving the system of disaster

preparedness which is the twin requisite of a disaster response system.


25

3. Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee (BDRRMC) of

Barangay No. 649, Zone 68, Manila the principal beneficiaries of this research

study in terms of helping Barangay 649 develop a program of action which will

improve their level of preparedness in terms of disaster response.

4. The Academic Community an important move forward since there is a need to

evaluate and mainstream disaster preparedness studies to the formal and

informal education systems.

5. The Researchers a fulfilling goal which goes beyond being a partial fulfillment

of their requirements for graduation in the Special Program, Bachelor of Science

in Public Administration, Universidad de Manila.

6. Future Researchers so they may be inspired to keep the flame of socially

relevant statistical research and analysis of disaster management alive and

ferociously burning.
26

SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The study focused on the level of preparedness of the BDRRMC of Barangay

649, Manila. As of May 1, 2010 census made by the National Statistics Office (NSO), the

following is its respective population: 50,918. Its location boundaries are, as follows:

North Delpan, East Intramuros, West Manila Bay, and South Port Area. The total

land area of Barangay No. 649, Zone 68, Manila: 54 hectares.

The number of BDRRMC respondents for the selected barangay is estimated at,

more or less, forty-two (42), namely: punong barangay, seven (7) kagawads, barangay

treasurer, barangay secretary, two (2) Civil Society Organization (CSO) representatives,

twenty (20) barangay tanod, and ten (10) listed volunteers. This is the over-all estimated

number of the purposive sample. The high vulnerability of the community guided the

researchers to select this barangay for their study this last quarter of 2013.

Adanza (2003) speaks of the purposive or judgment sample as also a deliberate

sampling decision where the researchers select a particular group or groups based on a

certain criteria of purposes or variables. Thus, this thesis is concerned with the criteria of

the level of preparedness of the particular group, the BDRRMC of Barangay 649, Manila.
27

The researchers are well aware of the risks involved in the making of this thesis.

Nonetheless, the sense of having a higher purpose in their academic endeavors became

a common objective for each member of the research group. The recent disastrous

landfalls of the super typhoon Yolanda and the storm surges which followed November of

2013 in the country more than multiplied the need to finish this study through its natural

course.
28

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The fundamental use of the terms in this section remains as a valuable reference

guide that should surely aid the readers of this study in understanding both the content

and context of this research.

TERM OPERATIONAL CONCEPTUAL

1. AGE A demographic variable The length of time that a

used in the study as an person has lived or a

independent variable thing has existed. (The

associated with disaster American Heritage

preparedness. Dictionary, 3rd Ed. 1994)

2. BARANGAY A regular committee of the At the barangay level, the

DISASTER RISK existing Barangay BDRRMC shall be

REDUCTION AND Development Council and responsible in setting the

MANAGEMENT subject thereto. direction, development,

COMMITTEE implementation and

(BDRRMC) coordination of disaster

risk management
29

programs within its

territorial jurisdiction. (No.

1 Section 4, Functions,

IRR of R.A. 10121)

3. CAPACITY A combination of all It is the total amount that

strengths and resources can be contained or

available within a produced. (The American

community, society or Heritage Dictionary, 3rd

organization that can Ed. 1994)

reduce the level of risk, or

effects of a disaster.

Capacity may include

infrastructure and physical

means, institutions, societal

coping abilities, as well as

human knowledge, skills

and collective attributes

such as social

relationships, leadership
30

and management.

Capacity may also be

described as capability.

4. CAPACITY- It is the disaster risk It focuses on

BUILDING reduction and management understanding the

strategy to reduce risk and obstacles that inhibit

vulnerability by creating the people, governments,

necessary institutional, international

legal and budgetary organizations and non-

capacities. governmental

organizations from

realizing their

developmental goals

while enhancing the

abilities that will allow

them to achieve

measurable and

sustainable results.

(Google search,
31

keyword/keyphrase:

capacity-building)

5. CIVIL STATUS Age-related demographic Vital records of life events

variable which also has kept under governmental

association with disaster authority. (The American

preparedness. Heritage Dictionary, 3rd

Ed. 1994)

6. COMMUNICATION A disaster risk reduction A collection of individual

SYSTEM and management strategy communications

to raise public awareness, networks, transmissions

coordination, integration systems, relay stations,

and information with tributary stations, and

regards to disaster data terminal equipment

preparedness. usually capable of

interconnection and

interoperation to form an

integrated whole. (Google

search,

keyword/keyphrase:
32

communication system)

7. COMMUNITY- A process of disaster risk It is a specialization

BASED DISASTER reduction and management course under the NDRMP

RISK REDUCTION in which at risk that introduces concepts,

AND MANAGEMENT communities are actively tools, and mechanisms to

(CBDRRM) engaged in the help design and

identification, analysis, implement community-

treatment, monitoring and based disaster programs.

evaluation of disaster risks (Primer on the NDRRMP)

in order to reduce their

vulnerabilities and enhance

their capacities, and where

the people are at the heart

of decision-making and

implementation of disaster

risk reduction and

management activities.

8. COMMUNITY RISK It is the process of It is simply a careful

ASSESSMENT identifying the hazards of a examination of what, in


33

certain locale, the your community, could

vulnerabilities of the cause harm to people.

elements at risk, and the (Lomerio-Ondiz, R &

capacities available to Redito, B, CLIMATE

reduce and manage CHANGE AWARENESS,

disaster risk. Revised Ed., 2009)

9. CONTINGENCY A management process It is a type of planning

PLANNING that analyzes specific devised for an outcome

potential events or other than in the usual

emerging situations that (expected) plan. (The

might threaten society or American Heritage

the environment and Dictionary, 3rd Ed., 1994)

establishes arrangements

in advance to enable timely,

effective and appropriate

response to such events

and situations.

10. DISASTER A serious disruption of the A sudden event, such as

functioning of a community an accident or natural


34

or a society involving catastrophe, that causes

widespread human, great damage or loss of

material, economic or life. (The American

environmental losses and Heritage Dictionary, 3rd

impacts, which exceeds the Ed. 1994)

ability of the affected

community or society to

cope using its own

resources. Disasters are

often described as a result

of the combination of the

exposure to hazard; the

conditions of vulnerability

that are present; and

insufficient capacity or

measures to reduce or

cope with potential negative

consequences. Disaster

impacts may include loss of


35

life, injury, disease and

other negative effects on

human, physical, mental

and social well-being

together with damage to

property, destruction of

assets, loss of services,

social and economic

disruption and

environmental degradation.

11. DISASTER The knowledge and Also referred to as

PREPAREDNESS capacities developed by Emergency Management

governments, professional or Disaster Management,

response and recovery the discipline of dealing

organizations, communities with and avoiding risks.

and individuals to (Google search,

effectively anticipate, keyword/keyphrase:

respond to, and recover disaster preparedness)

from the impacts of likely,


36

imminent current hazard

events or conditions.

Preparedness action is

carried out within the

context of disaster risk

reduction and management

and aims to build the

capacities needed to

efficiently manage all types

of emergencies and

achieve orderly transitions

from response to sustained

recovery. Preparedness is

based on a sound analysis

of disaster risk and good

linkages with early warning

systems and includes such

activities as contingency

planning, stockpiling of
37

equipment and supplies,

the development of

arrangements for

coordination, evacuation

and public information, and

associated training and field

exercises. These must be

supported by formal

institutional, legal and

budgetary capacities.

12. DISASTER RISK The potential disaster A situation involving

losses in lives, health exposure to hazard.

states, livelihood, assets (Lomerio-Ondiz, R. &

and services, which could Redito, B, CLIMATE

occur to a particular CHANGE AWARENESS,

community or a society Revised Ed., 2009)

over some specified future

time period.
38

13. DISASTER RISK The concept and practice of

REDUCTION reducing disaster risks

through systematic efforts

to analyze and mange the

causal factors of disaster,

including through reduced

exposures to hazards,

lessened vulnerability of

people and property, wise

management of land and

the environment, and

improved preparedness for

adverse events.

14. EARLY WARNING The set of capacities A chain of communication

SYSTEM needed to generate and information systems.

disseminate timely and (Google search,

meaningful warning keyword/keyphrase: early

information to enable warning system)

individuals, communities
39

and organizations

threatened by a hazard to

prepare and to act

appropriately and in

sufficient time to reduce the

possibility of harm or loss.

A people-centered early

warning system necessarily

comprises of four (4) key

elements: knowledge of the

risks, monitoring, analysis

and forecasting of the

hazards, communication or

dissemination of alerts and

warnings and local

capabilities to respond to

the warnings received. The

expressions end-to-end

warning system is also


40

used to emphasize that

warning systems need to

span all steps from hazard

detection to community

response.

15. EDUCATIONAL Socio-economic Term commonly used by

ATTAINMENT demographic variable statisticians to refer to the

linked to disaster highest degree of

preparedness. education an individual

has completed. (Google

search,

keyword/keyphrase:

highest educational

attainment)

16. HAZARD A dangerous phenomenon, It is a situation that poses

substance, human activity a level of threat to life,

or condition that may cause health, property, or

loss of life, injury or other environment. (The

health impacts, property American Heritage, 3rd


41

damage, loss of livelihood Ed., 1994)

and services, social and

economic disruption, or

environmental damage.

17. LEVEL OF Degree of pre-disaster State of being prepared,

PREPAREDNESS actions and measures especially in combat.

being undertaken within the (Google search,

context of disaster risk keyword/keyphrase: level

reduction and management of preparedness)

and are based on sound

risk analysis as well as pre-

disaster activities to avert or

minimize loss of life and

property such as, but not

limited to, community-

organizing, training,

planning, equipping,

stockpiling, hazard

mapping, insuring of
42

assets, public information

and education initiatives.

18. VULNERABILITY The characteristics and Susceptible to physical or

circumstances of a emotional injury. (The

community, system or asset American Heritage, 3rd

that make it susceptible to Ed., 1994)

the damaging effects of a

hazard. Vulnerability may

arise from various physical,

social, economic and

environmental factors such

as poor design and

construction of buildings,

inadequate protection of

assets, lack of public

information and awareness,

limited official recognition of

risks and preparedness

measures, and disregard


43

for wise environmental

management.