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# ASSIGNMENT 1

EEE382
1. A production facility contains two machines that are used to reword items that are
initially defective. Let X be the number of hours that the first machine is in use, and let Y
be the number of hours that the second machine is in use, on a randomly chosen day.
Assume that X and Y have joint probability density function given by

a. What is the probability that both machines are in operation for more than half an
hour?
b. Find the marginal probability density functions fx (x) and fy (y).
c. Are X and Y independent? Explain.

2. Refer to Question 1.
a. Find Cov (X ,Y ).
b. Find x , y .
c. Find the condition probability density function fY |X ( y |0.5).
d. Find the conditional expectation E(Y | X = 0.5).

3. The lifetime, in months, of two components in a system, denoted X and Y, have joint
probability density function

a. What is the probability that both components last longer than one month?
b. Find the marginal probability density functions fx (x) and fy (y).
c. Are X and Y independent? Explain.

## 4. The lifetime of a certain component of a certain component, in years, has probability

density function

Two such components, whose lifetimes are independent, are available. As soon the first
component fails, it is replaced with the second component. Let X denote the lifetime of
the first component, and let Y denote the lifetime of the second component.
a. Find the joint probability density function of X and Y.
b. Find P ( X 1 and Y > 1).
5. In a piston assembly, the specifications for the clearance between piston rings and the
cylinder wall are very tight. In a lot of assemblies, let X be the number with too little
clearance and let Y be the number with too much clearance. The joint probability mass
function of X and Y is given in the table below:

y
x 0 1 2 3

## 0 0.15 0.12 0.11 0.10

1 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.04
2 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.02
3 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01

## a. Find the marginal probability mass function of X.

b. Find the marginal probability mass function of Y.
c. Are X and Y independent? Explain.
d. Find x and y.
e. Find x and y.
f. Find Cov( X,Y ).
g. Find ( X, Y ).

## 6. The number of customers in line at a supermarket express checkout counter is a random

variable whose probability mass function is given in the following table.

x 0 1 2 3 4 5
p(x) 0.10 0.25 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.05

For each customer, the number of items to be purchased is a random variable with
probability mass function

y 1 2 3 4 5 6
p(y) 0.05 0.15 0.25 0.30 0.15 0.10

Let X denote the number of customers in line, and let Y denote the total number of items
purchased by all the customers in line. Assume the number of items purchased by one
customer is independent of the number of items purchased by any other customer.
a. Find P( X = 2 and Y = 2).
b. Find P( X = 2 and Y = 6).
c. Find P(Y = 2).
7. Fission tracks are trails found in uranium-bearing minerals, left by fragments released
during fission events. The article Yo-yo Tectonics of the Nigde Massif During
Wrenching in central Anatolia (D. Whitney, P. Umhoefer, et al., Turkish Journal of
Earth Sciences, 2008:209-217) reports that fifteen tracks on one rock specimen had an
average track length of 13 m with a standard deviation of 2 m. Assuming this to be a
random sample from an approximately normal population, find a 99% confidence interval
for the mean track length for this rock specimen.

## 8. The article Effect of Granular Subbase Thickness on Airfield Pavement Structural

Response (K. Gopalakrishnan and M. Thompson, Journal of Materials in Civil
Engineering, 2008:331-342) presents a study of the effect of subbase thickness on the
amount of surface deflection caused by aircraft landing on an airport runway. In six
application of a 160 kN load on a runway with a subbase thickness of 864 mm, the
average surface deflection was 2.03 mm with the standard deviation of 0.090 mm. Find a
90% confidence interval for the mean deflection caused by a 160 kN load.

9. Surfactants are chemical agents, such as detergents, that lower the surface tension of a
liquid. Surfactants play an important role in the cleaning of contaminated soils. In the
experiment to determine the effectiveness of a certain method for removing toluene from
sand, the sand was washed with a surfactant, and then rinsed with de-ionized water. Of
interest was the amount of toluene that came out in the rinse. In five such experiments,
the amount of toluene removed in the rinse cycle, expressed as a percentage of the total
amount originally present, were 5.0, 4.8, 9.0, 10.0 and 7.3. Find a 95% confidence
interval for the percentage of toluene removed in the rinse. (This exercise is based on the
article Laboratory Evaluation of the Use of Surfactants for Ground Water Remediation
and the Potential for Recycling Them, D. Lee, R. Cody, and B. Hoyle, Ground Water
Monitoring and Remediation, 2001:49-57.)