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Exam 1 Review Notes:

instantaneous power (function of time) is

VI cos ( V I ) { 1 + cos ( 2t + V ) } + VI sin ( V I ) sin ( 2t + V )

we designate P and Q as

P = VI cos ( V I )

Q = VI sin ( V I )

and the power factor is defined as:

power factor = cos ( V I )

power factor is always given as a positive number since the cosine function is positive for both
positive V I and negative V I . Therefore we always have to specify leading or lag-
ging to indicate which angle is larger. Then

V > I implies lagging power factor

V < I implies leading power factor

Note that by the definition of Q above, a lagging power factor implies positive Q, a leading power
factor implies negative Q. Also, a mostly inductive circuit will have a lagging power factor (posi-
tive Q) and a mostly capacitive circuit will have a leading power factor (negative Q).
One final equation

S = VI pf + j VI ( 1 pf 2)

Per Unit Problems:

Usually you are given equipment and told three parameters Sbaseequipment , V baseLLequipment and
Z perunitequipment (the per unit value of its internal impedance) for generators and transformers where
it is understood that the per unit impedance is on the impedance base for the equipment.

To convert everything to the system per unit circuit diagram we proceed in three steps:

Step 1) Convert Z perunitequipment to Zactual using

( V baseLL equipment )2
Z baseequipment = ----------------------------------------
S base equipment


Z actual = Z perunit equipment *Z base equipment

You can also convert any P or Q values given to actual (if they were given in per unit on the
equipment base using

P perunit equipment
P actual = ---------------------------------

Step 2) Now you need to select a system or network value for the power base, we shall call it
Sbasenetwork . Most of our problems will use 100 MVA for this value.
Each section of the power system network has a different V baseLLequip and therefore the Z basenetwork
value is different for each different base voltage. For each different voltage section

( V baseLL equip) 2
Z basenetwork = ---------------------------------
S base newtork

Then to find the per unit value for the impedance use

Z actual
Zperunit network = -----------------------
Z base network

Step 3)

Convert all P and Q or generators and loads from actual to per unit values

P actual
P perunitnetwork = -----------------------
S base network

and convert all voltage magnitudes to perunit

V actualequipment
V perunitnetwork = ---------------------------------
V baseLL equipment