CCNA Exploration Module 2 Chapter 7

RIPv2
V 4.0
7.0.1.1

Why has RIP lost favor as
opposed to other protocols?
offer more features and are
more scalable.

When is RIP a desirable
protocol?
its sheer simplicity and
widespread use in multiple
operating systems makes it an
ideal candidate for smaller,
homogeneous networks where
multi-vendor support is
necessary - especially within
UNIX environments.
What are the enhanced
features of RIPv2?
-Next-hop addresses included
in the routing updates
-Use of multicast addresses in
sending updates
-Authentication option available
What do both versions of RIP
share in features and
limitations?
-Use of holddown and other
timers to help prevent routing
loops.
-Use of split horizon or split
horizon with poison reverse to
also help prevent routing loops.
-Use of triggered updates when
there is a change in the
topology for faster
convergence.
-Maximum hop count limit of 15
hops, with the hop count of 16
signifying an unreachable
network.

101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100

101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100

7.1.1.3

What type of address must be
used when a packet is sent
outside your private network?
a public IP address must be
used.

7.1.1.4

7.1.2.1

101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100

What subnet mask is used
101010101010101101010
when only two ip addresses are 001111101001010101010
needed?
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
a /30 mask.
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is a loopback interface?
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
is a software-only interface that 110110101010110101001
is used to emulate a physical
010101011010101101010
interface.
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is a loopback address
101010101010101101010
used for in the lab setting?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
are useful in creating additional 010101011010101101010
networks without having to add 111111100101010101010
more physical interfaces on the 101010011111111010101
router.
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is the command to
101010101010101101010
establish a supernet route?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
R2(config)#ip route 192.168.0.0 010101011010101101010
255.255.0.0 Null0
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What does a supernet route do 101010101010101101010
to the routing table?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
reducing the size of routing
010101011010101101010
tables.
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110

What are the two
characteristics of a null
interface?
It is always up but does not
forward or receive traffic.

111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100

What happens to traffic sent to
a null interface?

7.1.2.2

101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
Traffic sent to the null interface 010101011010101101010
is discarded.
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What command will send a
101010101010101101010
route to other routers in the
001111101001010101010
network?
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
R2(config-router)#redistribute
111111100101010101010
static
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is the first command to
101010101010101101010
check network connectivity?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
show ip interface brief
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What should the result of the
101010101010101101010
above command show?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
If a link is down, the Status field 010101011010101101010
or the Protocol field (or both
111111100101010101010
fields) will display down in the
101010011111111010101
command output. If a link is up, 010100101111110011110
both fields will display up
111101010101010001100
What is the second command
to use to check connectivity?
ping

7.1.3.1

What is not included in a RIPv1

101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010

message?
does not include the subnet
masks in its routing updates.

7.1.3.3

What happens if RIP has two
routes to the same network?
routing table only contains the
major classful network address

Why doesn’t R2 include the
route to 172.30.0.0/24 to either
routers?
R2 only knows about the
172.30.0.0/16 classful network
and is unaware of any
172.30.0.0 subnets.
7.1.4

What are the two methods
RIPv1 uses to determine the
subnet mask for an ip address?
RIPv1 either summarizes the
subnets to the classful
boundary or uses the subnet
mask of the outgoing interface
to determine which subnets to
advertise.

7.1.5.1

Why is the route 192.168.0.0 /
16 not included in the routing
updates from R2?
Because the mask does not
match the class or a subnet of
the class.
What subnet mask would allow
this route to be included in the
routing updates?
a /24 mask or greater

7.2.1.1

What type of packet is a RIPv2

001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100

101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010

encapsulated in?
a UDP segment

What port number does it use?
using port 520

How many routes can be
included?
can carry up to 25 routes.

What are the two extensions
added to RIPv2?
-the subnet mask field that
allows a 32 bit mask to be
included in the RIP route entry.
And the addition of the Next
Hop address.
7.2.1.2

What does a router running
RIPv1 do with a RIPv2 update?
A RIPv1 router will just ignore
the RIPv2 fields in the route
entry.
What command is used to
modify the version of RIP being
used to version 2?
show ip protocols

What command can be used to
revert back to version 1?

001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001

no version

7.2.2.1

7.2.3.1

7.2.4.1

010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is the new route included 101010101010101101010
in the routing table?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
172.30.0.0 subnets
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
Why is the only route in the
101010101010101101010
table 172.30.0.0/16 used?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
The command show ip
010101011010101101010
protocols verifies that
111111100101010101010
"automatic summarization is in 101010011111111010101
effect."
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is the command to turn
101010101010101101010
off autosummarization?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
no auto-summary
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is different in the show ip 101010101010101101010
protocols display?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
"automatic network
010101011010101101010
summarization is not in effect." 111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What has been added to the
101010101010101101010
routing tables?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
subnets for 172.30.0.0/16
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What happens when a route is 101010101010101101010
incremented?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
For example, the update that
010101011010101101010
was received on Serial 0/0/1 for 111111100101010101010
the 172.30.100.0/24 network
101010011111111010101

with 1 hop is sent out other
interfaces, such as Serial 0/0/0,
with a metric of 2, or 2 hops.
What type of address is being
used for routing updates?

7.3.1

7.3.2

010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100

101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
using the multicast address
010101011010101101010
224.0.0.9.
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is the advantage of using 101010101010101101010
the above type of address?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
multicasts can take up less
010101011010101101010
bandwidth on the network
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
How does RIPv2 determine the 101010101010101101010
subnet mask for a route?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
The network and the mask are 010101011010101101010
explicitly included in each and
111111100101010101010
every routing update.
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is one of the goals of
101010101010101101010
CIDR?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
"to provide a mechanism for the 010101011010101101010
aggregation of routing
111111100101010101010
information."
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is a supernet?
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
is a block of contiguous classful 110110101010110101001
networks that is addressed as a 010101011010101101010
single network.
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is a characteristic of a
101010101010101101010
supernet’s subnet mask?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
masks that are smaller than the 010101011010101101010
classful mask
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101

7.4.1

Where should you start when
troubleshooting? List them.
1. Make sure all of the links
(interfaces) are up and
operational.
2. Check the cabling.

010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100

3. Check to make sure you
have the correct IP address
and subnet mask on each
interface.
4. Remove any unnecessary
configuration commands that
are no longer necessary or
have been replaced by other
commands.
What will the show ip route
command verify?
to check for network
convergence.

What will the show ip interface
brief command verify?
verifies the status of all
interfaces

What will the show ip protocols
command verify?
Verify routing configuration

What will the debug ip rip
command verify?

101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010

use to examine the contents of
the routing updates that are
sent and received by a router

7.4.2

111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What will the ping command
101010101010101101010
verify?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
to verify round-trip connectivity 010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What will the show running101010101010101101010
config command verify?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
to verify all the commands
010101011010101101010
currently configured.
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What is considered a good
101010101010101101010
place to begin when
001111101001010101010
troubleshooting RIPv2?
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
is to verify that version 2 is
111111100101010101010
configured on all routers.
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What 2 things does the network 101010101010101101010
command do?
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
-It enables the routing protocol 010101011010101101010
to send and receive updates on 111111100101010101010
any local interfaces that belong 101010011111111010101
to that network.
010100101111110011110
-It includes that network in its
111101010101010001100
routing updates to its
neighboring routers.
What is the final command
listed to check for?
Automatic Summarization

7.4.3.1

What is a security concern for
routing updates?

101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
101010101010101101010
001111101001010101010
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010

is the possibility of accepting
invalid routing updates.

111111100101010101010
101010011111111010101
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100
What are the three methods of 101010101010101101010
receiving an invalid update
001111101001010101010
listed?
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
-attacker maliciously attempting 111111100101010101010
to disrupt the network
101010011111111010101
-trying to capture packets by
010100101111110011110
tricking the router into sending
111101010101010001100
its updates to the wrong
destination
-a misconfigured router.
What is listed as a good
101010101010101101010
practice when configuring a
001111101001010101010
routing protocol?
110110101010110101001
010101011010101101010
to authenticate routing
111111100101010101010
information transmitted
101010011111111010101
between routers.
010100101111110011110
111101010101010001100

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