2 JACOB LEWIS BOURJAILY

Therefore, we see that
˜
G(x, x

) will automatically be a symmetric function if
F(x) −F(x

) =
1
S

∂Ω
(G(x

, y) −G(x, y)) da.
In particular, this will be true if we define F(x) by
F(x) =
−1
S

∂Ω
G(x, y)da.
We have shown that for any arbitrary Green’s function, G(x, x

), satisfying Neumann
boundary conditions there exists a Green’s function
˜
G(x, x

) ≡ G(x, x

)−
1
S

∂Ω
G(x, y)da,
which satisfies the same boundary conditions as G(x, x

) and has the property that

∂Ω

˜
G(x, y)

∂n
˜
G(x

, y) −
˜
G(x

, y)

∂n
˜
G(x, y)

da = 0.
From our derivation in part (a), this implies that the Green’s function
˜
G(x, x

) is
symmetric.

´ oπρ

´ δι διξαι
2. Capacitance I
a) We are to determine the capacitance of two large, flat, parallel conducting sheets of area A
separated by a distance d.
If we chose a Gaussian region that completely encloses one of the plates such that the
edges are arbitrarily small, then the surface integral of the electric field will give E· A
where E is the magnitude of the electric field. Notice that we have used the fact that
the electric field will be non-vanishing only between the plates.
Using Gauss’ law, was see that the surface integral is equal to the total charge contained
within the region divided by
0
. Specifically, we have that
E · A =
Q

0
=⇒E =
σ

0
,
where σ is the charge density on the surface of one of the plates.
The magnitude of the voltage difference between the two plates is equal to the line
integral of the electric field from one plate to the other. Because we know that in the
region between the two plates the electric field is independent of position, this will
be simply ∆V =
σd

0
.
Therefore, using the definition of capacitance, we see that
∴ C =
A
0
d
.
b) We are to determine the capacitance of two concentric conducting spheres with radii a and b
where b > a.
If we chose a Gaussian region that completely encloses the inner sphere, then the surface
integral of the electric field will give E · A where E is the magnitude of the electric
field and A = 4πr
2
, the area of the boundary of the region.
Using Gauss’ law, was see that the surface integral is equal to the total charge contained
within the region divided by
0
. Specifically, we have that
E · 4πr
2
=
Q

0
=⇒E =
Q

0
r
2
,
where a < r < b and Q is the charge on one of the spheres.
The magnitude of the voltage difference between the two spheres is equal to the line
integral of the electric field from one to the other. Specifically,
∆V =

b
a
Ed =
Q

0

b
a
1
r
2
dr =
Q

0
b −a
ab
.
Therefore, using the definition of capacitance, we see that
∴ C =

0
ab
b −a
.
PHYSICS 505: CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS HOMEWORK 1 3
c) We are to determine the capacitance of two concentric conducting cylinders of length L with
radii a and b where b > a.
If we chose a Gaussian region that completely encloses one the inner cylinder, then the
surface integral of the electric field will give E · A where E is the magnitude of the
electric field and A = 2πrL, the area of the boundary of the region.
Using Gauss’ law, was see that the surface integral is equal to the total charge contained
within the region divided by
0
. Specifically, we have that
E · 2πrL =
Q

0
=⇒E =
Q

0
Lr
,
where a < r < b and Q is the charge on one of the cylinders.
The magnitude of the voltage difference between the two cylinders is equal to the line
integral of the electric field from one to the other. Specifically,
∆V =

b
a
Ed =
Q

0
L

b
a
dr
r
=
Q

0
log

b
a

.
Therefore, using the definition of capacitance, we see that
∴ C =

0
L
log

b
a
.
3. Capacitance II
We are to approximate the capacitance per unit length of two parallel, cylindrical conductors
with radii a
1
and a
2
which are separated by a distance d.
Let us work within the coordinate system such that the center of the first cylinder, with
radius a
1
, is located at r = 0 and the second cylinder, with radius a
2
, is located at
r = d.
Because the electric field is linear, we can consider the field caused by each of the
conductors separately. Specifically, for points between the two cylinders, we can add
the electric fields produced by each cylinder separately. We can determine the electric
field per unit length induced by each cylinder by imagining a Gaussian region that
completely encloses a unit length of either cylinder. Therefore, for a point collinear
with the centers of each cylinder, we have that
E =
Q

0
r
+
Q

0
(d −r)
.
The magnitude of the voltage difference between the two cylinders is equal to the line
integral of the electric field from one to the other. Specifically,
∆V =
Q

0

d−a
2
a
1

1
r
+
1
d −r

dr,
=
Q

0
¸
log

d −a
2
a
1

−log

a
2
d −a
1

,
=
Q

0
log

(d −a
2
)(d −a
1
)
a
1
a
2

,

Q

0
log

d
2
a
1
a
2

,
=
Q
π
0
log

d

a
1
a
2

.
Therefore, using the definition of capacitance per unit length, we see that
∴ C ≈
π
0
log

d

a
1
a
2
.

using the definition of capacitance. we see that π 0 ∴C≈ . Therefore. The magnitude of the voltage difference between the two cylinders is equal to the line integral of the electric field from one to the other. we can consider the field caused by each of the conductors separately. is located at r = d. Specifically. is located at r = 0 and the second cylinder. 3. we have that Q Q E= + . Therefore. 2π 0 a1 a2 Q d2 log . 2π 0 a1 a2 Q d log √ . Capacitance II We are to approximate the capacitance per unit length of two parallel. π 0 a1 a2 . ∆V = = = ≈ = d−a2 Q 1 1 + dr.PHYSICS 505: CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS HOMEWORK 1 3 c) We are to determine the capacitance of two concentric conducting cylinders of length L with radii a and b where b > a. Let us work within the coordinate system such that the center of the first cylinder. we can add the electric fields produced by each cylinder separately. then the surface integral of the electric field will give E · A where E is the magnitude of the electric field and A = 2πrL. we have that Q Q E · 2πrL = =⇒ E = . Specifically. with radius a1 . with radius a2 . 2π 0 a1 r d−r Q d − a2 a2 log − log 2π 0 a1 d − a1 (d − a2 )(d − a1 ) Q log . b log a b ∆V = Ed = b a . 2π 0 r 2π 0 (d − r) The magnitude of the voltage difference between the two cylinders is equal to the line integral of the electric field from one to the other. Specifically. If we chose a Gaussian region that completely encloses one the inner cylinder. the area of the boundary of the region. was see that the surface integral is equal to the total charge contained within the region divided by 0 . Because the electric field is linear. 2π 0 Lr 0 where a < r < b and Q is the charge on one of the cylinders. We can determine the electric field per unit length induced by each cylinder by imagining a Gaussian region that completely encloses a unit length of either cylinder. we see that 2π 0 L ∴C= . b Q dr Q = log 2π 0 L a r 4π 0 a Therefore. Specifically. using the definition of capacitance per unit length. log √ad a2 1 . cylindrical conductors with radii a1 and a2 which are separated by a distance d. for points between the two cylinders. Using Gauss’ law. for a point collinear with the centers of each cylinder.