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**Therefore, we see that
**

˜

G(x, x

**) will automatically be a symmetric function if
**

F(x) −F(x

) =

1

S

∂Ω

(G(x

, y) −G(x, y)) da.

In particular, this will be true if we deﬁne F(x) by

F(x) =

−1

S

∂Ω

G(x, y)da.

We have shown that for any arbitrary Green’s function, G(x, x

), satisfying Neumann

boundary conditions there exists a Green’s function

˜

G(x, x

) ≡ G(x, x

)−

1

S

∂Ω

G(x, y)da,

which satisﬁes the same boundary conditions as G(x, x

) and has the property that

∂Ω

˜

G(x, y)

∂

∂n

˜

G(x

, y) −

˜

G(x

, y)

∂

∂n

˜

G(x, y)

da = 0.

From our derivation in part (a), this implies that the Green’s function

˜

G(x, x

) is

symmetric.

‘

´ oπρ

’

´ δι διξαι

2. Capacitance I

a) We are to determine the capacitance of two large, ﬂat, parallel conducting sheets of area A

separated by a distance d.

If we chose a Gaussian region that completely encloses one of the plates such that the

edges are arbitrarily small, then the surface integral of the electric ﬁeld will give E· A

where E is the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. Notice that we have used the fact that

the electric ﬁeld will be non-vanishing only between the plates.

Using Gauss’ law, was see that the surface integral is equal to the total charge contained

within the region divided by

0

. Speciﬁcally, we have that

E · A =

Q

0

=⇒E =

σ

0

,

where σ is the charge density on the surface of one of the plates.

The magnitude of the voltage diﬀerence between the two plates is equal to the line

integral of the electric ﬁeld from one plate to the other. Because we know that in the

region between the two plates the electric ﬁeld is independent of position, this will

be simply ∆V =

σd

0

.

Therefore, using the deﬁnition of capacitance, we see that

∴ C =

A

0

d

.

b) We are to determine the capacitance of two concentric conducting spheres with radii a and b

where b > a.

If we chose a Gaussian region that completely encloses the inner sphere, then the surface

integral of the electric ﬁeld will give E · A where E is the magnitude of the electric

ﬁeld and A = 4πr

2

, the area of the boundary of the region.

Using Gauss’ law, was see that the surface integral is equal to the total charge contained

within the region divided by

0

. Speciﬁcally, we have that

E · 4πr

2

=

Q

0

=⇒E =

Q

4π

0

r

2

,

where a < r < b and Q is the charge on one of the spheres.

The magnitude of the voltage diﬀerence between the two spheres is equal to the line

integral of the electric ﬁeld from one to the other. Speciﬁcally,

∆V =

b

a

Ed =

Q

4π

0

b

a

1

r

2

dr =

Q

4π

0

b −a

ab

.

Therefore, using the deﬁnition of capacitance, we see that

∴ C =

4π

0

ab

b −a

.

PHYSICS 505: CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS HOMEWORK 1 3

c) We are to determine the capacitance of two concentric conducting cylinders of length L with

radii a and b where b > a.

If we chose a Gaussian region that completely encloses one the inner cylinder, then the

surface integral of the electric ﬁeld will give E · A where E is the magnitude of the

electric ﬁeld and A = 2πrL, the area of the boundary of the region.

Using Gauss’ law, was see that the surface integral is equal to the total charge contained

within the region divided by

0

. Speciﬁcally, we have that

E · 2πrL =

Q

0

=⇒E =

Q

2π

0

Lr

,

where a < r < b and Q is the charge on one of the cylinders.

The magnitude of the voltage diﬀerence between the two cylinders is equal to the line

integral of the electric ﬁeld from one to the other. Speciﬁcally,

∆V =

b

a

Ed =

Q

2π

0

L

b

a

dr

r

=

Q

4π

0

log

b

a

.

Therefore, using the deﬁnition of capacitance, we see that

∴ C =

2π

0

L

log

b

a

.

3. Capacitance II

We are to approximate the capacitance per unit length of two parallel, cylindrical conductors

with radii a

1

and a

2

which are separated by a distance d.

Let us work within the coordinate system such that the center of the ﬁrst cylinder, with

radius a

1

, is located at r = 0 and the second cylinder, with radius a

2

, is located at

r = d.

Because the electric ﬁeld is linear, we can consider the ﬁeld caused by each of the

conductors separately. Speciﬁcally, for points between the two cylinders, we can add

the electric ﬁelds produced by each cylinder separately. We can determine the electric

ﬁeld per unit length induced by each cylinder by imagining a Gaussian region that

completely encloses a unit length of either cylinder. Therefore, for a point collinear

with the centers of each cylinder, we have that

E =

Q

2π

0

r

+

Q

2π

0

(d −r)

.

The magnitude of the voltage diﬀerence between the two cylinders is equal to the line

integral of the electric ﬁeld from one to the other. Speciﬁcally,

∆V =

Q

2π

0

d−a

2

a

1

1

r

+

1

d −r

dr,

=

Q

2π

0

¸

log

d −a

2

a

1

−log

a

2

d −a

1

,

=

Q

2π

0

log

(d −a

2

)(d −a

1

)

a

1

a

2

,

≈

Q

2π

0

log

d

2

a

1

a

2

,

=

Q

π

0

log

d

√

a

1

a

2

.

Therefore, using the deﬁnition of capacitance per unit length, we see that

∴ C ≈

π

0

log

d

√

a

1

a

2

.

using the deﬁnition of capacitance. we see that π 0 ∴C≈ . Therefore. The magnitude of the voltage diﬀerence between the two cylinders is equal to the line integral of the electric ﬁeld from one to the other. we can consider the ﬁeld caused by each of the conductors separately. is located at r = d. Speciﬁcally. is located at r = 0 and the second cylinder. 3. we have that Q Q E= + . Therefore. 2π 0 a1 a2 Q d2 log . 2π 0 a1 a2 Q d log √ . Capacitance II We are to approximate the capacitance per unit length of two parallel. π 0 a1 a2 . ∆V = = = ≈ = d−a2 Q 1 1 + dr.PHYSICS 505: CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS HOMEWORK 1 3 c) We are to determine the capacitance of two concentric conducting cylinders of length L with radii a and b where b > a. Let us work within the coordinate system such that the center of the ﬁrst cylinder. we can add the electric ﬁelds produced by each cylinder separately. then the surface integral of the electric ﬁeld will give E · A where E is the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld and A = 2πrL. we have that Q Q E · 2πrL = =⇒ E = . Speciﬁcally. with radius a1 . with radius a2 . 2π 0 a1 r d−r Q d − a2 a2 log − log 2π 0 a1 d − a1 (d − a2 )(d − a1 ) Q log . b log a b ∆V = Ed = b a . 2π 0 r 2π 0 (d − r) The magnitude of the voltage diﬀerence between the two cylinders is equal to the line integral of the electric ﬁeld from one to the other. Speciﬁcally. If we chose a Gaussian region that completely encloses one the inner cylinder. the area of the boundary of the region. was see that the surface integral is equal to the total charge contained within the region divided by 0 . Because the electric ﬁeld is linear. 2π 0 Lr 0 where a < r < b and Q is the charge on one of the cylinders. We can determine the electric ﬁeld per unit length induced by each cylinder by imagining a Gaussian region that completely encloses a unit length of either cylinder. we see that 2π 0 L ∴C= . b Q dr Q = log 2π 0 L a r 4π 0 a Therefore. Speciﬁcally. using the deﬁnition of capacitance per unit length. log √ad a2 1 . cylindrical conductors with radii a1 and a2 which are separated by a distance d. for points between the two cylinders. Using Gauss’ law. for a point collinear with the centers of each cylinder.

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