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ENGR. ALBERTO C.

CAETE

All Rights Reserved!!!


BSCE SE V
SY 2006 - 07

STEEL DESIGN
Syllabus
Reference: Steel Structures by Salmon and Johnson
NSCP, Vol. 1, 2010 ed.
Tables of Steel Sections (ASEP Steel Handbook and AISC Manual of Steel
Construction)

Introduction 2
Tension Members 19
Compression Members 27
Quiz 1
Torsion
Quiz 2
Plastic Design
o Beams 101
Quiz 3
o Frames 116
Quiz 4
Rolled Beams
42
Torsion
Lateral-Torsional Buckling 45
Quiz 5
Cover Plated Beams 60
Composite Beams 64
Shear Connectors 69
Quiz 6
Columns subjected to Combined Axial and Bending 75
Quiz 7
Bolted Connections 80
o Type of Bolts
o Type of Connections
o Tension Splice
o Combined Stresses
o Eccentric Connections
Quiz 8
Welded Connections 92
o Type of Welds, Weld Symbols
o Splices
o Eccentric Connections
Quiz 9
Design of Base Plate 123
Quiz 10
INTRODUCTION
UBC Uniform Building Code AISC American Institute for Steel Construction

National Structural Code of the Philippines

Chapter 2 Loads EQ
Chapter 4 Concrete
Chapter 5 Steel
Chapter 6 Wood

Materials:
Structural Grade
Fy (yield stress) Fu (tensile stress)
A-36 36 ksi = 248 MPa 58 ksi = 400 MPa
A-50 50 ksi = 345 MPa 65 ksi = 448 MPa

Conversion factor = ksi x 6.9 = MPa

Stress: f = actual stress


F = allowable stress, material properties

e.g. ft = T/A Ft Fy
fb = My/I Fb Fu
fv = V/dtw Fv

ELASTIC DESIGN CONCEPT

Design Procedures based on limit design


or f
1. Allowable Strength Design (ASD)
2. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) 0
y = mx + b

f=E - Hookes Law


Fu

Fy


y u

Es = 29000 ksi = 200 GPa


Assignment # 1

Use Virtual Work

B
20 kN

3m

A D
C
4m 3m

50 kN

Determine the member forces.

Member Area E = 200000 MPa or 200 GPa


AB 400 mm2
BD 350
AC 300
CD 325
BC 200
SUPERPOSITION
S2
w w +
S1
R
L L
R

RL
EI
wL2
2EI

S2 = RL * L * 2L
S1 = wL2 * 1 * 3L
2EI 3
2EI 3 4
S2 = 1 * RL3
S1 = 1 * wL4
3 EI
8 EI

Compatibility Requirement

S1 S2 F 0
4 3
wL RL w 5
M v wL
8EI 3EI 8
3
R wL M 0
8 1 3
v 3wL M wL2 wL2
8 2 8
1
M wL2
8
VIRTUAL WORK

Procedure:
A = 500 mm2
1. Determine the number of degrees of freedom E = 200 GPa
DOF: weightless A = 500 mm2 L = 2.0 m
rigid bar very small)
2. Apply a virtual (imaginary, E = 100 GPa
displacement in the direction of the DOF.
L = 1.5 m
F1 F2

4m 4m P 2m

3. Determine the works done by the active forces.


work force distance
4 8
P D F1 D F2 D 0
10 10
external work internal work 0
4 8
P - F1 10 F2 10 D 0

Equal equation:
M A 0
4F1 8F2 10P
AE 4 AE 8
F1 D F2 D
L 10 L 10
700120 4 500 200 8
D D
1500 10 2000 10
kN kN
22.4 D 40 D
mm mm

20 = 4/10 (22.4D) +8/10 (40D)


D = 0.48828125 mm

F1 = 22.4 (0.488)
F1 = 10.9375 kN

F2 = 40 (0.488)
F2 = 19.53125 kN

External work = Internal work


120 kN

50 kN 50 kN

B F

0 kN A H
C E G

110 kN 110 kN
3m 4m 4m 3m

Area (mm2)
Top chord 1500
Bottom chord 1200
Diagonals 800
Verticals 600

E = 200 GPa (steel)

Find the vertical displacement of joint E.

Solution:

Internal work
= FP (FQ * L/AE)

External work
= Q
Q=1

A BC DE G F H
= FP FQ L/AE

(Determinate)

Q=1

0.8 BD (3) + 06 BD (4) + 110 (7) = 50 (4)


BD = -118.75 kN

0.8 BE (3) + 0.6 BE (4) + 50 (4) = 110 (7)


BE = 18.75 kN

Member Fp Fq AE/L (FpFqL)/AE


AB -155.56 -0.7071 70.71 1.5556
BD -118.75 -0.7292 60 1.4432
DF -118.75 -0.7292 60 1.4432
FH -155.56 -0.7071 70.71 1.5556
AC 110 0.5 80 0.6875
CE 110 0.5 60 0.9167
EG 110 0.5 60 0.9167
GH 110 0.5 80 0.6875
BE -18.75 0 32 0
EF -18.75 0 32 0
BC 0 0 40 0
DE 22.5 1 20 1.125
FG 0 0 40 0
=10.331 mm

(Indeterminate)
D

B F

A H Q=1
Member Fp Fq AE/L (FpFqL)/AE (Fq2L)/AE Fr Ft = Fp + Fr
AB -155.56 C
0 70.71 E - G - - -
BD -118.75 0 60 - - - -
DF -118.75 0 60 - - - -
FH -155.56 0 70.71 - - - -
AC 110 1 80 1.375 0.0125 -110 0
CE 110 1 60 1.833 0.01667 -110 0
EG 110 1 60 1.833 0.01667 -110 0
GH 110 1 80 1.375 0.0125 -110 0
BE -18.75 0 32 - - - -
EF -18.75 0 32 - - - -
BC 0 0 40 - - - -
DE 22.5 0 20 - - - -
FG 0 0 40 - - - -
6.416 0.05833

For indeterminate:
D

B F

A H
C E G
D

B F

A H
C E G Q=1
D

B F
2

A H
C E G R

F F L F
2
p q q L
1 2 R=cQ
AE AE

F F L p q
1 AE
c FR cFQ
Fq L
2
2
AE
Seatwork # 1
1. Find the member forces using Virtual work method.
140 kN 280 kN
C E Members: Area (mm)2
B 100 kN
6m Top chord 1500
Diagonals 1000
Vertical 800
D
12 m E = 200 GPa

A F

8m 8m 8m 8m

Solution:

Release at F; Q applied at F
140 kN 280 kN 140 kN 280 kN

100 kN 100 kN

Q=1 R

Solving for reactions:

M F 0 +
10018 - 28016 - 140 24 R A 32 0
R AV 188.75 kN
R AH 100 kN
F v 0
140 kN
R F 231.25 kN MD 0 +

a - 140 8 R 16 R AH 12 BC 6 0
AV
4 B BC 516.67 kN CE
9 M 0 +
B
At section a-a: 4
3 a R 8 R AH 18 AD 3 16 0
A
AV 5
RAH AD 344.79 kN

RAV
At joint A:

AB FV 0
AD
3 9
AD R AV AB 0
A RAH 5 97
AB 432.94kN
Check :
RAV
FH 0

4 4
R AH AD AB 0
5 97
00
At joint B:
FV 0

140 kN 9 3
140 AB BD 0
97 5
BD 426.04kN
B BC
3
Check :
4 BD
AB FH 0

4 4
BC BD AB 0
5 97
00

b CD 280kN
ME 0
E
100 kN
3
At section b-b: R F 8 DF 16 0
5
+
DF 192.70kN
F
b

RF
At joint F:
FV 0
EF
3 9
R F DF EF 0
DF 5 97
F EF 379.59kN
Check :
RF FH 0

4 4
EF DF 0
97 5
00
At joint E:
FH 0
CE E 100 kN
4 4
100 CE EF DE 0
97 5
DE EF DE 578.13kN
Check :
FV 0

3 9
DE EF 0
5 97
00
Summary of member forces:

AB = -432.94 kN
AD = 344.79 kN
BC = -516.67 kN
BD = 426.04 kN
CE = -516.67 kN
CD = -280 kN
DE = 578.13 kN
EF = -379.59 kN
DF = 192.71 kN

Virtual forces: Q = 1
B C E

A
RAH F
1

RAV

By inspection:

RAH = 1 kN
RAV = 0
CD = 0

At section a-a:
a MD 0 +
4 B 1 12 BC 6 0

9
BC 2kN CE
MB 0 +
4
3 a 3
1 18 AD
4
A 8 AD 18 0
1
5 5
AD 1.875kN DF
MA 0
+
3 4
BC 18 BD 8 BD 16 0

5 5
BD 1.875kN DE

At joint A:
AB FV 0

3 9
AD AB 0
AD
5 97
1 A AB 1.2311kN EF

Summary of forces:

AB = -1.2311 kN
AD = 1.875 kN
BC = -2 kN
BD = 1.875 kN
CE = -2 kN
CD = 0 kN
DE = 1.875 kN
EF = -1.2311 kN
DF = 1.875 kN

AE/L Ft = Fp +
MEMBER Fp (kN) Fq (FpFqL)/AE (FqL)/AE Fr
(kN/m) Fr
AB -432.94 -1.2311 15230 0.034996 9.9515E-05 264.93 -168.01
AD 344.79 1.875 10000 0.064648 0.00035156 -403.50 -58.71
BC -516.67 -2 37500 0.027556 0.00010667 430.40 -86.27
BD 426.04 1.875 20000 0.039941 0.00017578 -403.50 22.54
CD -280 0 26667 0 0 0 -280.00
CE -516.67 -2 37500 0.027556 0.00010667 430.40 -86.27
DE 578.13 1.875 20000 0.054200 0.00017578 -403.50 174.63
DF 192.7 1.875 10000 0.036131 0.00035156 -403.50 -210.80
EF -379.59 -1.2311 15230 0.030684 9.9515E-05 264.93 -114.66
0.315712 1.46705E-03

2. Determine member forces using virtual work method.


400 N

B 400 N
3m
D
400 N
2m
A C E F

200 N 200 N

Specifications:
2m 4m
Area (mm2) 6 m
Top chord 1600
Bottom chord 1300
Diagonals 700
Vertical 500

E = 200 GPa

Release at F (F becomes roller support)


P at F:

MA 0
R
F
12 600 2 600 6 400 2 0
R 466.67N
F
MF 0
R
AV
12 60010 600 6 400 2 0
R 733.33N
AV
FH 0
R 400N
AH

By inspection:
ED 200N
EC EF

At joint F:
FV 0

1
DF R F DF 0
10
DF 1475.7N
EF F
FH 0

3
RF DF EF 0
10
EF 1400N CE

FV 0
At joint A:
5
R AV AB 0
AB
29
RAH AB 789.82N
A AC
FH 0

2
RAV R AH AB AC 0
29
AC 693.33N
At joint B:
FH 0
900 N
2 4
AB BD 0
29 5
B
BD 366.67N
BD FV 0
AB
BC
5 3
400 AB BD BC 0
29 5
At joint C: BC 553.33N
BC FH 0
CD
4
AC CE CD 0
AC C CE 20
CD 790.08N
Check :
200 N
FV 0

2
BC 200 CD 0
20
00
Q at F:

By inspection:
RAH = 1
RAV = 0
DE = 0
AB = 0
DF = 0
CD = 0
BC = 0
BD = 0
AC = 1 = CE = EF

Ft = Fp +
MEMBER Fp Fq AE/L (FpFqL)/AE (FqL)AE Fr
Fr
AC 0.6933 1 130 0.0053 0.0077 -1.2822 -0.5889
AB -0.7898 0 59.423 0 0 0 -0.7898
BD -0.3667 0 64 0 0 0 -0.3667
BC 0.5333 0 20 0 0 0 0.5333
CE 1.4 1 65 0.0215 0.0154 -1.2822 0.1178
CD -0.7901 0 31.305 0 0 0 -0.7901
DF -1.4757 0 50.596 0 0 0 -1.4757
DE 0.2 0 50 0 0 0 0.2
EF 1.4 1 43.333 0.0323 0.0231 -1.2822 0.1178
0.0592 0.0462