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Chapter 1


The design of steel structures is based on the National Structural Code of

the Philippines (NSCP), Volume I, 2010 Edition. The relevant chapters
in the NSCP are chapter 2 entitled loads and chapter 5 entitled steel.
In chapter 2 of the NSCP contains the loads, load factors and load
combinations to be used in the design of structural components and
system. Two groups of load factors are presented: 1. for allowable stress
design 2. For ultimate strength design or load and resistance factor
design (LRFD). The load factors and load combinations for ASD
(allowable stress design) are as presented below.
The load combinations used in allowable stress design are presented in
Article 203.4 of the NSCP and presented below:
D+F (203-8)
D+H +F+L+T (203-9)
D+H+F+ (L, or R) (203-10)
D+ H + F +0.75[L+T + (L, or R)] (203-11)
D +H + F + (W or
) (203-12)
The load combinations using strength design or load and resistance
factor design (LRFD) are presented in Article 203.3 of the NSCP and are
listed below:
1.4(D + F) (203-1)
1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L+ H ) + O. 5(Lr or R) (203-2)
1.2D + 1.6( Lr or R )+ (1L or O.8W) (203-3)
I .2D + 1.6W + 1L +O.5 (Lr or R) (203-4)
1.2D + 1 .0E + 1L (203-5)
0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H (203-6)
O.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H (203-7)
Where the values of f1:
f1= 1.0 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads in excess of
4.8 kPa, and for garage live load
= 0.5 for other live loads
For steel design, the code in the NSCP chapter 5 presents 2 design
procedures, namely: ASD and LRFD. In ASD, the actual design loads
prescribed in the NSCP at their service level are used and the stress in
the steel members are keep below the yield stress by prescribing
allowable stress that are below this yield stress. The allowable stress
dictates the capacity of the steel sections.
In LRFD, the loads are increased by multiplying them with load factors
that are greater than 1.0. Therefore the design loads are higher than the
actual service loads and these are to be resisted by the capacities of the
steel components. The capacity of the steel components are further
reduced by multiplying them with resistance factors that are less than 1.0
which depends on the type of forces acting on the steel component.
Thus, with the increased load and the reduced capacity, the stress in the
steel components will likewise be below the yield stress level.

The materials used in steel construction are referred to structural grade.
The commonly available grades are A36 and A50 with yield stresses and
ultimate tensile stresses are mentioned below. Other high grade steel are
available although still not commonly used in this country, e.g. A70
In steel design, the small letter f is used to represent actual stresses while
capital letter F is used as a symbol for allowable stress and material
properties for example. Actual tensile stress ft = T/A, which tension
force over the area, whereas allowable tensile stress Ft , actual bending
stress fb = My/I whereas the allowable bending stress is Fb and actual
shear stress is fv = V/dtw whereas the allowable shear stress is Fv. Also
the yield stress is represented by th7e symbol Fy and the ultimate tensile
stress is represented by the symbol Fu. This notation is in contrast with
the symbols used in concrete design where only the small letter f is used.
Stress: f = actual stress
F = allowable stress, material properties
Shown below is the stress-strain diagram for the steel which shows a
well-defined yield point. Where strains the below the yield strain y, The
relationship between stress and strain is linear and defined by the
Hookes Law f=E. The modulus of Elasticity of steel is 200Gpa.

Figure 1-1 Stress-Strain Diagram

Using Elastic analysis, determine the maximum design positive and
negative moments for ASD and LRFD. Use PDL=200 kN and PLL=120
Using ALCC Procedures:
P (3)(42 ) 60
MB = 2 [(32 )(4) + ]= P
7 2 49
4 MB
VA = P
7 7
4 60 136
VA = P P= P
7 49(7) 343
MPOS = (VA)(3) = P

P= 200+120 = 320 kN
MNEG = (320) = 391.84 kNm
MPOS = (320) = 380.64 kNm

Pu = 1.2 PDL + 1.6 PLL
Pu = 1.2 (200) + 1.6 (120) = 432 kN
MNEG = (432) = 528.98 kNm
MPOS = (432) = 513.868 kNm
Using elastic analysis, determine the maximum design positive and
negative moments for ASD and LRFD. Use WDL=35kN/m and

Using ALCC Procedures:
1 1 1 1 1 1 11
MA = WL2 [ (0.5) + (1.0) + ( ) (0.5) + ( ) (1)] = WL2
2 30 2 30 2 20 120

(Shortcut for C.G. of triangle)

10L MA 17WL
VA= [2(0.5) + 1.0] + =
6 L 40
Point of zero shear:
W(x) = 0.5W + (x)
F = 0:
x x 0.5W
VA = 0 Wxdx = 0 [0.5W + (x)] dx
17 W 2
WL = 0.5Wx + x
40 4L
x = 0.64L
W (0.64L) = 0.82W
MPOS = VAx - [2(0.5) + 0.82] - MA
17 2 11
MPOS = WLx - [2(0.5) + 0.82] - WL2
40 6 120
17 91 11
MPOS = Wx ( L x) - WL2
40 300 120
MPOS = 0.056088WL

W = 35 + 12 = 47kN/m
MNEG = (47)(72) = 211.11 kNm
MPOS = 0.056088(47)(72) = 129.17 kNm

Wu = 1.2WD + 1.6WL
Wu = 1.2(35) + 1.6(12) = 61.2 kN/m
MNEG = (61.2)(72) = 274.89 kNm
MPOS = 0.056088(61.2)(72) = 168.20 kNm

Chapter 2

There are two types of failure for tension members. The first is yielding
failure and the other is fracture failure. The relevant article in the NSCP
is found in Section 504. For yielding failure, the tensile capacity at the
gross section is Pn=FyAg is given by NSCP eq. 504.2-1 where Ag is the
gross area and Fy is the yield stress. For LRFD, the resistance factor is
0.90 while for ASD the nominal capacity shall be divided by t = 1.67.
For fracture failure the capacity of the net section is given by the NSCP
504.2-2 Pn=FuAe where Ae is the effective net area and Fu is the specified
minimum tensile strength of the part of steel being used. For LRFD, the
resistance factor is 0.75 while for ASD the divisor t =2.00.

The gross area of a member Ag is the total cross sectional area.
The net area of the member is the sum of the products of thicknesses and
net width of each element. In computing net area for tension and shear,
the widths of the bolt holes shall be taken 2mm greater than the nominal
dimension of the hole. The nominal dimension of the bolt is greater than
the bolt diameter in order that the bolt can fit in to the hole. The actual
hole diameter is as defined in Table 2-1 (NSCP Table 510.3.3).

Hole Dimensions
Bolt Long-Slot
Dia. Standard Oversize Short-Slot (Width x
(Width x
(Dia) (Dia) Length)
M16 18 20 8 x 22 18 x 40
M20 22 24 22 x 26 22 x 50
M22 24 28 24 x 30 24 x 55
M24 27 30 27 x 32 27 x 60
M27 30 35 30 x 37 30 x 67
M30 33 38 33 x 40 33 x 75
M36 d+3 d+8 (d + 3) x (d + 10) (d + 3) x 2.5d
Table 2-1 Nominal Hole Dimensions

In creating the holes for bolts, the immediate vicinity of the hole is
damaged and therefore neglected in the design. Therefore, the design of
the hole diameter is equal to the actual hole diameter + 2 millimeters.
The above are based on NSCP code which is also based on AISC. The
actual dimensions in AISC are 1/16 of an inch which translates to 1.6
mm. For example, for standard hole the nominal hole dimension is 1.6
mm + bolt diameter and the design hole dimension is 1.6 mm + nominal
whole dimension which is equal to 3.2 mm + actual bolt diameter.
In some instances the bolt holes are in a diagonal or in a zigzag line. For
this case, the net width is obtain by deducting from the gross width the
sum of the diameters of all holes in the chain, and adding for each gage
based in the chain, the quantity s2/4g where s = longitudinal center-to-
center spacing (pitch) of any two consecutive holes in mm and g =
transverse center-to-center spacing (gage) fastener gage lines in mm.

In this example for the plate shown, the net area is equal to the width b
minus the whole diameter dh multiplied by the t=thickness, whereas the
gross area is b*t
For the plate with thickness of 10 mm and a width of 200 mm there are 2
holes in a line using 19 mm diameter bolts, therefore the design hole
diameter is 19+3.2=22.2 mm. The net area is therefore is equal to 200-
For staggered holes shown is a plate with a width of 200 mm and 3 holes
placed in a zigzag fashion. The possible failure paths for fracture are
ABCD or ABECD. For the failure path ABCD the net width are equal to
200 -2*(hole diameter). The bolt diameter of 22 mm, the design hole
diameter is 22 + 3.2 mm = 25.2mm, therefore the net width is 200-
2*(25.2) = 149.6mm. For the second figure path ABECD which is in a
zigzag fashion, the net width is 200-3*(25.2) + [502/4(60) + 502/4(70)]
=143.75 mm. Take note that there are two diagonal lines BE and EC,
therefore there are two terms for s2/4g. Now comparing the net widths of
case 1 and case 2, since the net width in case 2 is 143.75 mm < 149.6
mm. Therefore the critical net width is that for case 2 which is equal to
143.75 mm. This is the width that will have to be multiplied with the
thickness to determine the net area.
According to the code for angles, the procedure for computing the net
area is determined by the sum of the gages of back minus the thickness
(draw in two figures)

The effective area and the net area are not the same. In some cases the
net area and the effective area are equal at in situations where there is
shear lag, and then the effective area will be less than the net area. Shear
lag happens when at the joints; the members are connected to the joint
through some of its section elements only. In the example shown, in the
figure shown where an angle is connected to a plate the angle is
connected on one of its legs only at the point of the angle away from its
joint the tension force is acting at the centroid of the cross-section and
the stresses in the angle cross-section is uniform P/A. This stresses will
have to be transfer to the plate through the in the bolts only which
located on one leg only and so there will be a concentration of stress on
this one leg only. While the other leg without bolts will have very low
stresses, so therefore the effective area of the angle is decrease.
In the other example, where an I-section if the connection is through the
flanges only then again there will be a concentration of stress on the
flanges and a reduction of stress in web. Therefore this will result in the
effective area of the I-section. The effect of shear lag is given by the
NSCP eq 504.3-1 Ae=AnU where U is the shear lag factor. The shear lag
factor is determine as shown in NSCP Table 504.3.1
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14