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You are on page 1of 22

INTRODUCTION

the Philippines (NSCP), Volume I, 2010 Edition. The relevant chapters

in the NSCP are chapter 2 entitled loads and chapter 5 entitled steel.

In chapter 2 of the NSCP contains the loads, load factors and load

combinations to be used in the design of structural components and

system. Two groups of load factors are presented: 1. for allowable stress

design 2. For ultimate strength design or load and resistance factor

design (LRFD). The load factors and load combinations for ASD

(allowable stress design) are as presented below.

The load combinations used in allowable stress design are presented in

Article 203.4 of the NSCP and presented below:

D+F (203-8)

D+H +F+L+T (203-9)

D+H+F+ (L, or R) (203-10)

D+ H + F +0.75[L+T + (L, or R)] (203-11)

E

D +H + F + (W or

1.4

) (203-12)

The load combinations using strength design or load and resistance

factor design (LRFD) are presented in Article 203.3 of the NSCP and are

listed below:

1.4(D + F) (203-1)

1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L+ H ) + O. 5(Lr or R) (203-2)

1.2D + 1.6( Lr or R )+ (1L or O.8W) (203-3)

I .2D + 1.6W + 1L +O.5 (Lr or R) (203-4)

1.2D + 1 .0E + 1L (203-5)

0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H (203-6)

O.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H (203-7)

Where the values of f1:

f1= 1.0 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads in excess of

4.8 kPa, and for garage live load

= 0.5 for other live loads

For steel design, the code in the NSCP chapter 5 presents 2 design

procedures, namely: ASD and LRFD. In ASD, the actual design loads

prescribed in the NSCP at their service level are used and the stress in

the steel members are keep below the yield stress by prescribing

allowable stress that are below this yield stress. The allowable stress

dictates the capacity of the steel sections.

In LRFD, the loads are increased by multiplying them with load factors

that are greater than 1.0. Therefore the design loads are higher than the

actual service loads and these are to be resisted by the capacities of the

steel components. The capacity of the steel components are further

reduced by multiplying them with resistance factors that are less than 1.0

which depends on the type of forces acting on the steel component.

Thus, with the increased load and the reduced capacity, the stress in the

steel components will likewise be below the yield stress level.

MATERIALS

The materials used in steel construction are referred to structural grade.

The commonly available grades are A36 and A50 with yield stresses and

ultimate tensile stresses are mentioned below. Other high grade steel are

available although still not commonly used in this country, e.g. A70

steel.

In steel design, the small letter f is used to represent actual stresses while

capital letter F is used as a symbol for allowable stress and material

properties for example. Actual tensile stress ft = T/A, which tension

force over the area, whereas allowable tensile stress Ft , actual bending

stress fb = My/I whereas the allowable bending stress is Fb and actual

shear stress is fv = V/dtw whereas the allowable shear stress is Fv. Also

the yield stress is represented by th7e symbol Fy and the ultimate tensile

stress is represented by the symbol Fu. This notation is in contrast with

the symbols used in concrete design where only the small letter f is used.

Stress: f = actual stress

F = allowable stress, material properties

Shown below is the stress-strain diagram for the steel which shows a

well-defined yield point. Where strains the below the yield strain y, The

relationship between stress and strain is linear and defined by the

Hookes Law f=E. The modulus of Elasticity of steel is 200Gpa.

EXAMPLE 1

Using Elastic analysis, determine the maximum design positive and

negative moments for ASD and LRFD. Use PDL=200 kN and PLL=120

kN.

SOLUTION:

Using ALCC Procedures:

P (3)(42 ) 60

MB = 2 [(32 )(4) + ]= P

7 2 49

4 MB

VA = P

7 7

4 60 136

VA = P P= P

7 49(7) 343

408

MPOS = (VA)(3) = P

343

ASD:

P= 200+120 = 320 kN

60

MNEG = (320) = 391.84 kNm

49

408

MPOS = (320) = 380.64 kNm

343

LRFD:

Pu = 1.2 PDL + 1.6 PLL

Pu = 1.2 (200) + 1.6 (120) = 432 kN

60

MNEG = (432) = 528.98 kNm

49

410

MPOS = (432) = 513.868 kNm

343

EXAMPLE 2

Using elastic analysis, determine the maximum design positive and

negative moments for ASD and LRFD. Use WDL=35kN/m and

WLL=12kN/m.

SOLUTION:

Using ALCC Procedures:

1 1 1 1 1 1 11

MA = WL2 [ (0.5) + (1.0) + ( ) (0.5) + ( ) (1)] = WL2

2 30 2 30 2 20 120

10L MA 17WL

VA= [2(0.5) + 1.0] + =

6 L 40

Point of zero shear:

0.5W

W(x) = 0.5W + (x)

L

F = 0:

x x 0.5W

VA = 0 Wxdx = 0 [0.5W + (x)] dx

L

17 W 2

WL = 0.5Wx + x

40 4L

x = 0.64L

W (0.64L) = 0.82W

2

MPOS = VAx - [2(0.5) + 0.82] - MA

6

17 2 11

MPOS = WLx - [2(0.5) + 0.82] - WL2

40 6 120

17 91 11

MPOS = Wx ( L x) - WL2

40 300 120

2

MPOS = 0.056088WL

ASD:

W = 35 + 12 = 47kN/m

11

MNEG = (47)(72) = 211.11 kNm

120

MPOS = 0.056088(47)(72) = 129.17 kNm

LRFD:

Wu = 1.2WD + 1.6WL

Wu = 1.2(35) + 1.6(12) = 61.2 kN/m

11

MNEG = (61.2)(72) = 274.89 kNm

120

MPOS = 0.056088(61.2)(72) = 168.20 kNm

PROBLEMS

Chapter 2

TENSION MEMBERS

There are two types of failure for tension members. The first is yielding

failure and the other is fracture failure. The relevant article in the NSCP

is found in Section 504. For yielding failure, the tensile capacity at the

gross section is Pn=FyAg is given by NSCP eq. 504.2-1 where Ag is the

gross area and Fy is the yield stress. For LRFD, the resistance factor is

0.90 while for ASD the nominal capacity shall be divided by t = 1.67.

For fracture failure the capacity of the net section is given by the NSCP

504.2-2 Pn=FuAe where Ae is the effective net area and Fu is the specified

minimum tensile strength of the part of steel being used. For LRFD, the

resistance factor is 0.75 while for ASD the divisor t =2.00.

AREA DETERMINATION

The gross area of a member Ag is the total cross sectional area.

The net area of the member is the sum of the products of thicknesses and

net width of each element. In computing net area for tension and shear,

the widths of the bolt holes shall be taken 2mm greater than the nominal

dimension of the hole. The nominal dimension of the bolt is greater than

the bolt diameter in order that the bolt can fit in to the hole. The actual

hole diameter is as defined in Table 2-1 (NSCP Table 510.3.3).

Hole Dimensions

Bolt Long-Slot

Dia. Standard Oversize Short-Slot (Width x

(Width x

(Dia) (Dia) Length)

Length)

M16 18 20 8 x 22 18 x 40

M20 22 24 22 x 26 22 x 50

M22 24 28 24 x 30 24 x 55

M24 27 30 27 x 32 27 x 60

M27 30 35 30 x 37 30 x 67

M30 33 38 33 x 40 33 x 75

M36 d+3 d+8 (d + 3) x (d + 10) (d + 3) x 2.5d

Table 2-1 Nominal Hole Dimensions

In creating the holes for bolts, the immediate vicinity of the hole is

damaged and therefore neglected in the design. Therefore, the design of

the hole diameter is equal to the actual hole diameter + 2 millimeters.

The above are based on NSCP code which is also based on AISC. The

actual dimensions in AISC are 1/16 of an inch which translates to 1.6

mm. For example, for standard hole the nominal hole dimension is 1.6

mm + bolt diameter and the design hole dimension is 1.6 mm + nominal

whole dimension which is equal to 3.2 mm + actual bolt diameter.

In some instances the bolt holes are in a diagonal or in a zigzag line. For

this case, the net width is obtain by deducting from the gross width the

sum of the diameters of all holes in the chain, and adding for each gage

based in the chain, the quantity s2/4g where s = longitudinal center-to-

center spacing (pitch) of any two consecutive holes in mm and g =

transverse center-to-center spacing (gage) fastener gage lines in mm.

DRAWING OF BOLTS:

EXAMPLES

In this example for the plate shown, the net area is equal to the width b

minus the whole diameter dh multiplied by the t=thickness, whereas the

gross area is b*t

For the plate with thickness of 10 mm and a width of 200 mm there are 2

holes in a line using 19 mm diameter bolts, therefore the design hole

diameter is 19+3.2=22.2 mm. The net area is therefore is equal to 200-

(2)(22.2)*10=1556mm2.

For staggered holes shown is a plate with a width of 200 mm and 3 holes

placed in a zigzag fashion. The possible failure paths for fracture are

ABCD or ABECD. For the failure path ABCD the net width are equal to

200 -2*(hole diameter). The bolt diameter of 22 mm, the design hole

diameter is 22 + 3.2 mm = 25.2mm, therefore the net width is 200-

2*(25.2) = 149.6mm. For the second figure path ABECD which is in a

zigzag fashion, the net width is 200-3*(25.2) + [502/4(60) + 502/4(70)]

=143.75 mm. Take note that there are two diagonal lines BE and EC,

therefore there are two terms for s2/4g. Now comparing the net widths of

case 1 and case 2, since the net width in case 2 is 143.75 mm < 149.6

mm. Therefore the critical net width is that for case 2 which is equal to

143.75 mm. This is the width that will have to be multiplied with the

thickness to determine the net area.

According to the code for angles, the procedure for computing the net

area is determined by the sum of the gages of back minus the thickness

(draw in two figures)

The effective area and the net area are not the same. In some cases the

net area and the effective area are equal at in situations where there is

shear lag, and then the effective area will be less than the net area. Shear

lag happens when at the joints; the members are connected to the joint

through some of its section elements only. In the example shown, in the

figure shown where an angle is connected to a plate the angle is

connected on one of its legs only at the point of the angle away from its

joint the tension force is acting at the centroid of the cross-section and

the stresses in the angle cross-section is uniform P/A. This stresses will

have to be transfer to the plate through the in the bolts only which

located on one leg only and so there will be a concentration of stress on

this one leg only. While the other leg without bolts will have very low

stresses, so therefore the effective area of the angle is decrease.

In the other example, where an I-section if the connection is through the

flanges only then again there will be a concentration of stress on the

flanges and a reduction of stress in web. Therefore this will result in the

effective area of the I-section. The effect of shear lag is given by the

NSCP eq 504.3-1 Ae=AnU where U is the shear lag factor. The shear lag

factor is determine as shown in NSCP Table 504.3.1

Chapter 3

COMPRESSION MEMBERS

Chapter 4

PLASTIC ANALYSIS

Chapter 5

ROLLED BEAMS

Chapter 6

TORSION

Chapter 7

LATERAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING

Chapter 8

COVER PLATED BEAMS

Chapter 9

COMPOSITE BEAMS

Chapter 10

SHEAR CONNECTORS

Chapter 11

COMBINED COMPRESSION AND

BENDING

Chapter 12

BOLTED CONNECTIONS

Chapter 13

WELDED CONNECTIONS

Chapter 14

DESIGN OF BASE PLATES

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