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I. INTRODUCTION Reading is commonly understood as passive skill because the readers seem not to produce anything from the passage they read. Yet, reading actually involves communication. Specifically, it is the communication between the readers and the writers. Some people find that reading is difficult. It might due to the vocabulary, sentence structures, and the topic of the reading. That matter will be more complicated when the passage is not written in the readers’ native tongue. For EFL learners, reading can be quite a challenge since they deal with both content and language of the passage. To help the EFL learners, the teachers need to employ certain techniques that facilitate the learners to understand the reading passage. Building the schema, involving the learners as active readers, or directing them to make predictions before reading in details might be helpful to build the students’ comprehension. The meaning one taken from the text is the result of the linkages of prior knowledge and previous experience and the information on the text. With the background information and reason(s) for reading, the readers make predictions about the text. Then, all of the elements of comprehension, such as prior knowledge and previous experience, information available in the text, reader stance, and social interaction become merged. That is why the teachers need to provide students opportunities to relate their prior knowledge and the information available in the text, let them make their own predictions about the points being asked without stating whether those are “correct” or “wrong”. Seemingly, teaching reading should be carried out in sequence that assists the students to gradually understand the content of the reading.
READING TECHNIQUES A. DR-TA The DR-TA is aimed to develop high level of thinking while reading. Its key element is predictions. The teacher needs to organize the lesson in a way that enable the students to make predictions about what they are going to read, to read in order to match the predictions and the information available in the text, to revise or add predictions, and to read again.
B. TEACHING PROCEDURE The teaching procedure in DR-TA is as follows: Step 1 Identifying purposes for reading The first step in DR-TA is creating intellectual links by combining prior knowledge with information in the text to make prediction what is the text going to be about. The predictions can be broad and speculative. During the discussion, the teacher is supposed to accept student prediction without judging whether it is “correct” or “wrong”. Then the teacher can probe more questions to assist students in making linkage between what they predicted and what they found in the passage. Step 2 Adjusting Rate to Purposes and Material Adjusting the rate can appear in two dimensions, that is, 1) rate and flow of information (teacher determined) and 2) reading rate (student determined). The teacher determines the amount of text to be revealed between the stop points and the length of the discussion time. The first stop point should occur immediately after a title or opening line. Here the students are given time to speculate what is the text going to discuss based on the title. The second stop point might be after one or two paragraphs. The purpose is to show readers the cycle of predicting-sampling text-repredicting-resampling that is essential for comprehension. Step 3 Observing the reading A certain amount of guided silent reading needs to be done in school. Teacher can observe during that reading. Silent reading allows the teacher to assist the students with the reading and to learn which students are faster readers and which are slower, which students are really reading and which are not. S/he can also identify what strategies students use to get the meaning from the text or figure out unknown words, and many other activities. Step 4 Developing Comprehension Developing comprehension occurs as students combine prior knowledge and new information to make predictions, read to confirm or adjust their predictions, and draw conclusions and speculate during class discussion. It also occurs during the time when the students discuss their knowledge with others. During this process, the teacher can see that the new concepts are developed and reinforced and that students can comprehend them within the framework of their prior knowledge. Another important point in developing
comprehension is the questioning strategies that teachers use to extend the discussion. The teachers can use questions to guide the discussion.
C. REFERENCES Ruddel, Martha Rapp. 2005. Teaching Content Reading and Writing. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Nuttall, Christine. 2005. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Oxford: Macmillan. D. LESSON PLAN
Level Grade Time allocation Topic Lesson objectives
: : : : :
Teaching technique Teaching procedure N o 1. Activities
University students – Faculty of Engineering Semester 3 100 minutes The development of society and technology • To figure out the meaning of the new words. • To learn how to relate the students’ prior knowledge and the new information in the text. • To make predictions of the reading content. • To comprehend the main ideas and details of the reading. : Reading passage Whiteboard Slide show for pictures Paper and whiteboards : DR-TA :
Time Allocati on 15’
Building schemata a. Ask students questions • Imagine if you lived 300 years ago: – How would you travel? – How would you
Answer the questions
send messages? How would you build houses? – What would your clothes be like? – In your opinion, what has caused a change in today’s society? b. Show students pictures about the society in the past (50 years – 300 years ago) Vocabulary Building – a. Ask the students to look at the list of vocabulary. b. Ask them to scale themselves whether they have known the vocabulary or not. c. Discuss with them the vocabulary. Pre-reading using DR-TA a. Asking students to predict the passage. – Read the title, what information do you think we’ll find in this passage? – What else? Any other ideas? b. Ask more questions that require students to draw a conclusion. – What makes you say that? Why? – Now what do you think? 2. Whilereading Activities Reading using DR-TA a. Ask the students to work in pairs and make predictions on several points: – Life in the year 1700. – – Scale their understanding of the vocabulary. Involve in the discussion of the word meaning.
15’ Answer the questions.
20’ – – – Work in pairs Make predictions upon the points being asked. Share their
The appearance of people 5,300 years ago. – The differences between society with advanced technology and that with simpler technology. – Agrarian society. – Industrial society. – Post-industrial society. b. Now ask the students to share with the class their predictions. c. While sharing, together ask them to look at the passage to check whether their predictions are in line with the reading. 3. Post-reading Activities a. Reading comprehension through paragraph drawing. – Put the students into groups of 3. – Assign them a paragraph to read (the paragraph will be different for each group). – Ask them to draw what the paragraph is about on a piece of paper. – After they have done drawing, have them retell their picture to the class. – Discuss the students’ answer. – Take all pictures and stick them on to the board. – Put the pictures into a graphic organizer containing number of paragraph, pictures,
predictions with the class. Read the passage while discussing their predictions.
30’ – – Work in groups Discuss the paragraph with their friends in the group. Draw the content of the paragraph. Present the picture. Make the graphic organizer as shown by the teacher.
– – –
and main ideas. Review the content of the passage based on the graphic organizer. b. Answering reading comprehension questions – Divide students into groups of 3 or ask them to stay with their group. – Put strips of paper containing reading comprehension questions on the desk in front of the class. – Label the strips of paper according the groups. – Tell the students that they are going to compete in answering the questions. – Tell them that each group will send one member as a runner whose job is to take a piece of paper in front of the class and give it to his/her group. – Together ask each group to write the answer of the question. The runner will return the paper to the teacher. Then the teacher will check it. If it is correct, s/he can take another piece of paper. The cycle repeats until all questions are answered. The group that finishes the race first is the winner. – After all groups have done with answering the questions, review the answers. –
10’ – – Work in groups. Send one member of the group to take each piece of paper. Discuss the answer of the question. Show the answer to the teacher.
E. EVALUATION After the class, it is expected that the students understand the approaches to be used to comprehend the reading content. Asking the students to activate their prior knowledge about the topic is helpful in establishing the discourse. Otherwise, they are not ready for receiving new information presented in the text. For further activity, the teacher can give them written homework related to the topic.
LESSON PLAN FOR TEACHING READING USING DR-TA
YULIANA DEWI 8212710007
Post Graduate Program – English Education Department WIDYA MANDALA CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY SURABAYA
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