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Cooling power of underground environments*

Dunean Mitehell M.Se. (Rand)** (Visitor) and Austin Whillier B.Se. (Eng.) (Rand) Se.D. (M.I.T.) (Fellow)

ABSTRACT
The problem of heat stress underground in the gold mines is approached on the basis of the heat transfer
between the human body and the underground environment. Experimental measurements of radiant and con-
vective heat transfer and a theoretical calculation of maximum evaporative heat transfer enable the maximum
cooling power of an environment to be calculated in terms of the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature, the mean
radiant temperature, the wind speed and the barometric pressure. For most underground applications the
cooling power can be expressed as a function of wet-bulb temperature and wind speed only. The relative
importance of wind speed and wet-bulb temperature can be assessed: in working places where wind speed is
Iow additional cooling of workmen can be achieved better by increased wind speed than by decreased wet-bulb
temperature. The wet kata reading proves to be of limited value as an index of heat stress because environ-
ments with equal wet kat a do not necessarily have the same cooling power. Finally, thermal equilibrium with
the environment is possible when cooling power equals or exceeds the rate of metabolic heat generation. The
rates of metabolic heat generation for various underground tasks are indicated.

LIST OF SYMBOLS INTRODUCTION

Ab total body surface area (m2) Five parameters define the thermal environment
Ae area of human body participating in convective underground in the gold mines. In practice the ventir
heat transfer (m2) lation engineer can manipulate only two of them, ai,
Ae area of human body participating in evaporative temperature and air speed. The other three, pressure-
heat transfer (m2) radiant temperature, and air humidity are fixed, to all
Ar area of human body participating in radiant intents and purpose, by the depth of the mine, the
heat transfer (m2) nature of the rock, and the dust abatement procedures.
Pa atmospheric pressure (mbar) Because the aim of ventilation is to provide a suitable
Qmax maximum total heat transfer rate per unit of working environment for the miner, the ventilation
total body area = maximum cooling power engineer needs to know the influence of the various
(W(m2) environmental parameters on the heat transfer between a
Ta dry-bulb temperature of air (C) man and his environment. It was the patent inadequacy
Tr mean radiant temperature of surroundings (C) of available methods for predicting human heat transfer14
that necessitated the building of the wind tunnel at the
Ts mean body surface temperature (C)
Human Sciences Laboratory. Sophisticated environ-
Tw wet-bulb temperature of air (C) mental control in the tunnel, and accurate measuring
V wind speed (m(s) techniques, have allowed the development of reliable
Cl' Cz constants methods for predicting heat transfer from the human
ea ambient water vapour pressure (mbar) body. The ventilation engineer can now calculate the
es saturated water vapour pressure at mean skin cooling power of underground environments in terms of
temperature (mbar) air temperature, speed and humidity, radiant tempera-
ew saturated water vapour pressure at the wet-bulb ture and barometric pressure.
temperature (mbar) Some predictive graphs based on heat transfer
ir radiation posture factor=Ar(A b equations derived in the HSL wind tunnel12 have already
he convective heat transfer coefficient (W (m2C) been published. Those graphs, however, required the
hm mass transfer coefficient (kg(m2 mbar) user to assess skin temperature. This limitation is re-
hr radiant heat transfer coefficient (W (m2C) moved in the current treatment.
qe convective heat flow (W)
qemax maximum evaporative heat flow (W)
qr radiant heat flow (W) HUMAN HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDER-
.de =(es-ea) GROUND ENVIRONMENTS
E emissivity of skin
;\. A man exchanges heat with his environment by
heat of evaporation (J(kg)
radiation, convection and evaporation. Conductive heat
a Stefan-Boltzmann constant
transfer is negligible unless a large proportion of the
=5,67 x1O-8 W(m2 K4
body surface is in contact with solid material at a
temperature very different from skin temperature. In a
given environment radiant and convective heat transfer
*Contribution to joint S.A.I.M.M.jMVS colloquium on Ventila-
tion, ]7 November, ]971. are fixed if skin temperature and body posture are fixed.
**Human ScienceR Laboratory, Chamber of MincR of South The same is not true of evaporative heat transfer. The
Africa, J ohanncsburg.
tChief, App]ied Mechanics DiviRion, Mining Rcsearch Labora-
amount of water on the skin surface depends on the
tory, Chamber of Mines of SouthAfrica, Johannesburg. sweat rate, and sweat rate is under the control of the

JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY OCTOBER 1971 93
nervous system. However, in response to heat stress heat transfer. About a thousand measurements each of
more and more sweat is produced until the body surface radiation and convection have been made, in environ-
is completely wet. Evaporative heat transfer is then ments spanning the complete range of temperature,
maximum, and maximum evaporative heat transfer is a wind speed and humidity experienced underground.
function of environmental parameters and skin temp- The equations. are:
erature only. radiant cooling (W/m2)
Evaporation is by far the most powerful avenue of =17,0 X 1O-8(Tr/2+290,7)3(Ts-Tr) (2)
body cooling so that body cooling in hot environments
will be maximum when evaporation is maximum. We convective cooling (W /m2)
can therefore define a maximum cooling power (Qmax) =8,32(Pa/l013)O,6Vo,6(1's-Ta) . . . . . (3)
for any particular environment: Because of the analogy between heat transfer and mass
Qmax=radiant cooling + convective cooling+ transfer across a boundary layer, the evaporation from a
maximum evaporative cooling (1) fully wet surface can be calculated if the convection from
After a series of systematic studies in the wind tunnel that surface is known. For underground environments.:
it is now possible to write equations for radiant and maximum evaporative cooling (W /m2)
convective cooling. The equations are based on measure- =15 140(Pa/l 013)O,6Vo,6L1e/Pa (4)
ments of the heat transfer of nude men, or men wearing
where Lle= 6,105 exp [17,27 1's/(1's+237,3)]
shorts only. The restriction that the equations apply only
to nudity, or near-nudity, is not serious in underground -6,105 exp[17,27 Tw/(Tw+237,3)]
conditions. If men working in hot wet environments +6,6Xl0-4Pa(Ta-Tw) [1+1,15xl0-3
wear anything other than helmets, shorts and boots the (Ta-Tw)] (5)
type of clothing they wear interferes only slightly with The calculation of maximum cooling power involves
the simultaneous solution of equations Ts, (1) to (5) for
*The derivation of these equations is discussed in more detail
various combinations of the parameters T s, Ta, T r, T w,
in the appendix. V and Fa. A digital computer is the most suitable

CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM HEAT TRANSFER RATES FOR THE HUMAN BODY IN UNDERGROUND
ENVIRONMENTS
Insert air (dry bulb) temperature Ta (in degrees celsius)
34
Insert rock surface temperature or mean radiant temperature (in degrees celsius)
35

Do you wish to insert a skin temperature other than 35 degrees celsius (95 degrees F)? If "Yes" type chosen temperature (in
celsius), else type "0.".
0
Insert barometric pressure (in millibars)
1000
The program increments wet bulb temperature stepwise from 20 degrees C to the air temperature. Specify the size of the step
required (not less than 0.1 degrees C)

Do you wish the results to be printed on the terminal or line-printer (ie remote)? If terminal type "6", else type "9".
6
TABLE OF WIND VELOCITIES (in metres/sec) AT VARIOUS WET BULB TEMPERATURES GIVING MAXIMUM
HEAT TRANSFER RATES BETWEEN 0 AND 500 WATTS/M.SQ.. (Valid only between.l & 5 m/s)
Conditions: Ta=34., Tr=35., Ts=35., P=lOOO.
~--
Wet bulb
temp 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 (watts/m.sq.)

20.0 .133 .193 .262 .338 .423 .515 .613


21.0 .145 .211 .285 .369 .461 .561 .669
22.0 .160 .232 .314 .406 .507 .617 .735
23.0 .110 .177 .257 .349 .451 .563 .685 .817
24.0 .123 .199 .289 .391 .506 .632 .769 .917
25.0 .140 .227 .329 .446 .576 .720 .876 1.044
26.0 .162 .262 .381 .516 .667 .833 1.014 1.208
27.0 .192 .310 .450 .609 .788 .984 1.198 1.427
28.0 .118 .233 .376 .545 .739 .955 1.194 1.452 1.731
29.0 .149 .292 .472 .685 .928 1.199 1.498 1.823 2.173
30.0 .196 .385 .621 .901 1. 221 1.578 1.972 2.400 2.860
31.0 .276 .542 .876 1.270 1. 721 2.225 2.780 3.383 4.032
32.0 .137 .434 .8.52 1. 377 1.997 2.706 3.499 4.371
33.0 .263 .834 1.639 2.647 3.840 ..... *..*. ..... *****
**..*
*****
*.**.
34.0 .832 2.642 ...*. ..... ..... ..*.. *.**. *.*.* ****. *****
---..---- ~--~.- ------

Fig. 1-Example of computer calculation of cooling power Output in tabular form.

94 OCTOBER 1971 JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY
I Because the influence of pressure, rock temperature
"
3B
and dry-bulb temperature per se (that is, at fixed wet-
-
bulb) on the cooling power of underground environ-
I
36
-- - - -- --
en
- ments is small, it seems reasonable to calculate the
- -------
cooling power of underground environments for fixed
~
u

~
"
J2
5OW/m2
----- - values of pressure, rock temperature and wet-bulb
0 '1190 /' ~-- -- depression. The following values are considered typical
~
Q 30
V ISO /' /' ---------- of underground conditions:
/"
.
E

- 28
1!V20:25300/:// Pa=1 000 mbar
-
~ AI 350/
400
----
Ta=Tw+2C
."
~

/
Ta d4'C
T, d5'C
1'; ~ 35'C
-
T r=T a
If skin temperature could be specified, maximum
" - ~
~ 1000 mba' - cooling power in underground environments, to a very
" I - ---
I 1_- good approximation, would be a function only of wet-
j-
10
bulb temperature and wind speed. That skin tempera-
OH4060A10 15 20 15 30 35 ;0
ture can indeed be specified, at least for acclimatized
W,nd s, e.d (m/sed " "
men, is evident from the results of measurements of
Fig. 2-Example of computer calculation of cooling power. skin temperature made at the Human Sciences Lab-
Output in graphical form. Curved solid lines are lines of
equal cooling power. oratory.
It has been shown previously4 that acclimatized men
means. Programs have been written by means of which resting in hot dry environments have mean skin temp-
cooling power can be calculated and reported either in eratures very close to 35 C irrespective of air tempera-
tabular or in graphical form. ture or wind speed. In a recent experiment in the wind
An example of the tabulating program is given in tunnel two men were exposed nude to environments with
Fig 1. The program has been written in conversational air temperatures of 35 C and 41C, water vapour
mode. The user carries out a number of instructions pressures between 20 mbar and 47 mbar and wind
issued by the computer. For given values of the air speeds of 0,67 and 3,11 m/so The men rested and worked
temperature, radiant temperature, skin temperature and at two rates: 45W and 113W. Skin temperature was
barometric pressure, the computer prints out the values measured using a roving thermocouple. Mean skin
of wind velocity which, together with a particular wet- temperature was obtained by averaging over 15 critically
bulb temperature, give a particular maximum cooling chosen sites on the body3. Fig 3 shows mean skin temp-
power. erature as a function of wet-bulb temperature.
An example of the plotting program is given in :Fig 2. It would seem that men in equilibrium with hot
The lines in Fig 2 are lines of equal maximum cooling environments have skin temperatures close to 35 C
power. whatever the air temperature, wind speed, humidity or
work rate within the range studied. In the experiments
on which this conclusion is based the subjects (five in
SPECIFIC COOLING POWER number) did not exhibit excessive physiological strain.
Maximum cooling powers have been calculated on the Body core temperatures and heart rates were well
computer for environments in which the five variables below those associated with significant risks of heat
Ta, Tw, V, Pa and Tr span the entire range of con- stroke. It seems reasonable to suggest (although further
ditions found underground. The calculations reveal validation is clearly necessary) that equilibrium skin
wind speed and wet-bulb temperature to be the most temperatures of 35 C in acclimatized men are associated
important environmental parameters affecting cooling with combinations of work and heat which offer little
power. The result provides a theoretical basis for the or no risk to the safety of the man. This being so, it is
experimental findings of Wyndham et ap3, 15, 16 who convenient to define the specific cooling power (SCP)
twenty years ago established wet-bulb temperature and of an underground environment to be the maximum
wind speed as the most important environmental cooling power assuming Pa=1000 mbar, Ta=Tr=
determinants of physiological reactions to heat. (Tw+2C), and Ts=35C.
Over the range of pressures found in the gold mines,
cooling power is changed only a few per cent by changes ~ ::
in pressure, the cooling decreasing as pressure increases. .
r'r f'/'t=
~
Except for very newly-blasted areas rock temperature is
always close to air temperature. Also, in very humid
environments much of the radiation incident on a man
:
~ 35-
~~ i'
:'
",
1J;'
"jPl-,!j"
:i~ r~-~:
'1:'.
f '., ,
arises from the water vapour in the air and not from the EL' . . J5~,,'c
solid surroundings. Wet-bulb temperature, as an en- ~0 "I " pH,0.10.33.47mbo,

~ 33 . v. 067.311m/m
vironmental parameter, adequately combines the effects Wo,.'o"~0.".113.o"
of dry-bulb temperature and atmospheric humidity on 32 l I
21
I I I I
26
I I
28
I
30 J2
cooling power, when the gap between wet-bulb temp- " Wet bulb temperoture (aC)
"
erature and dry-bulb temperature is small (less than Fig. 3-Mean skin temperature as a function of wet-bulb
5 or lOOC). temperature for nude acclimatized men in hot environments

JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY OCTOBER 1971 95
advantage in terms of pbysioiogicai strain in increasing
wind speed from 2 mfs to 4 mfs in hot environments.

COMPARISON WITH WET KATA


-
NE '00 The wet kata reading, measured or, more usually,
~ calculated, is used commonly in the gold mining industry
as an index of heat stress. If it is a good index of heat
" stress, lines of equal kata reading should be parallel to
.. u lines of equal cooling power. In other words, lines of
~ 0
0 I equal kata reading should be horizontal on Fig 4. The
C-
o> . dotted lines in Fig 4 are lines corresponding to calculated

u0~.
C
wet katas of 5, 10 and 15 mcalfcm2 s, and are clearly
far from horizontal, particularly at low wind speeds.
:>
.~ It is clear from Fig 4 that all environments having a
~ wet kata of 5 also have a low specific cooling power.
C-
l/) Environments with low wet katas, therefore, which
100

Ts ~
35'C
have come to be recognised as dangerous by the in-
Po ~ 1000 mbor dustry, are indeed environments with low cooling
To ~ Tw' 2 'c
Tr ~ To
power. In the intermediate range of wet kata readings,
0 however, there is poor agreement between wet kata
20 25 30 35
Wet bulb temperature 'c
reading and cooling power. A kata of 10 corresponds to a
Fig. 4-Specific cooling power: simplified calculation of specific cooling power of about 150 W fm2 at a wind speed
cooling power for general use underground. of 0,2 mfs and a cooling power of 250 Wfm2 at a wind
Specific cooling power is then a function of wet-bulb speed of 2 mfs.
temperature and wind speed only. Fig 4 shows specific Environments having the same kata reading do not
cooling power plotted as a function of wet-bulb temp- necessarily have the same cooling power. The value of
erature with wind speed as parameter. the wet kata as an index of heat stress is therefore
limited.
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF WIND SPEED
AND WET-BULB TEMPERATURE COOLING POWER AND METABOLIC HEAT
The solid curved lines in Fig 2, 01' any of the hori- The adverse physiological reactions shown by men
zontal lines in Fig 4, are lines of equivalent environ- working hard in hot humid environments such as those
mental cooling power. Each point on such a line repre- occurring underground are the result not of environ-
sents a combination of wet-bulb temperature and wind mental heat stress per se but of an inability of the body
speed. Therefore each line represents all the combi- to reject metabolic heat to the environment. In order to
nations of wind speed and wet-bulb temperature which prevent heat accumulation within the body, and the
will produce the same cooling power. concomitant rise in body temperature, heat must be
Ventilation procedures underground are traditionally transferred from body to environment at least as fast
orientated towards reducing wet-bulb temperatures. The as it is generated within the body.
calculations of cooling power indicate that this strategy Human physical work is mechanically inefficient.
may not be the best. Wind speeds in the working places Even in the most efficient of the tasks performed under-
underground are generally low. In most working places ground, only about 20 per cent of the energy liberated
the wind speeds are below 1 mfs and in a considerable in the muscles leaves the body in an energy form other
number, wind speeds are below 0,5 mfs. In the region than heat. In a great many underground tasks all
of low wind speed the cooling power of the environment energy is converted to heat within the body. To a good
increases rapidly with increasing wind speed, but only approximation, therefore, it is acceptable to assume that
slowly with decreasing wet-bulb temperature. For all metabolic energy liberated in the body must leave
example, using Fig 4, the specific cooling power at the body in the form of heat. A working man will then
32C wet-bulb and 0,1 mfs wind speed is about 40 Wfm2. reach thermal equilibrium if the cooling power of the
Increasing the wind speed to 1 mfs increases the cooling environment equals, or cxceeds, his rate of metabolic heat
power to 160 Wfm2. In order to reach the same cooling generation.
power by decreasing wet-bulb temperature rather than Each task has a particular rate of metabolic heat
by increasing wind speed, it is necessary to reduce the generation associated with it, the metabolic heat gene-
wet-bulb temperature to about 24 C. In working places ration being directly proportional to the oxygen uptake
where wind speeds are low, a great deal of benefit would necessary for the task. The oxygen uptake for various
be gained by local re circulation of air, provided the mining tasks has been determined experimentally 7.
build-up in airborne dust, gases, and other toxic materials Fig 5 shows the oxygen consumptions and metabolic
is not excessive. heat generation rates for various tasks, calculated for
At high wind speeds the beneficial effect of an increase men with low (1,5 m2), average (1,75 m2) and high
in wind speed diminishes. The benefits of increasing (2 m2) surface areas.
wind speeds above 2 mfs are small. This supports the Fig 5 can be used in conjunction with calculations of
earlier conclusion of Wyndham et a1I3 that there is little cooling power to assess whether men performing a

96 OCTOBER 1971 JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY
particular task will be capable of reaching thermal
,0
equilibrium in a particular environment. 38 ~----
---- -- --

ENVIRONMENTAL LIMITS BASED ON COOLING 36 e-~- _n-


----- ---- -- --- --- t-
POWER
The three dashed, horizontal lines in Fig 4 are lines of
specific cooling power equal to 90, 190 and 270 Wfm2.
Metabolic heat generation rates of 90, 190 and 270 Wfm2
-
u

~32
0
3'

!..
SOW/m;'
V
V
- ::::--
~L----
V-- ---
~/
- =--
are typical of light work (eg winch driving), moderate ~ 30
150/ v/
[//
-=--- =---
D-
I 250 [/;
1/200
-~. 28 I
E
work (eg sweeping, machine, barring) and hard work 300'"
(eg tramming and shovelling) respectively. Men can /11 /350/

reach thermal equilibrium with a skin temperature of


0
.Q -' /1/00
Ta . 34 c
26 t-
,..
T, .35 c
35 QCif the point defining the environment in which they 1//,/ ; 35QC
r.
are working lies above the line relevant to their work "";1O00mba, t-
rate in Fig 4. As stated previously skin temperatures of
"
22 '/ I
35 QC appear to be associated with conditions in which
physiological strain is not high in acclimatized men. 20 (Q
02" 0608 15 20 25 30 35 40 50
The limits imposed by the dashed lines in Fig 4 may be Wind speed (m/sec) "
regarded, therefore, as safe or very low risk limits for
acclimatized men, working at light, moderate and hard
rates respectively. "
38

36 --~

E3
l oU "
Jl
SOW/m,/,
1001 ./ --.--
....... - -
1..---'
--- 1--- J::.--
J----
-- ~~------
~
0
150 / /'
-- f----
Q
~ 30
I {200 / / ./ V
E' D- I 250/ '/
E 300
~ 28
1/350
~
0 Ta ;; HoC
, '"0 T, 35QC
0< ~26
I Ts
; 36QC -
~ I
; 1000mba,

[Rill] " I "" -


'00 '00 300 <00 22
MoIobolio hoot goo"o"oo (wott'/m')
Fig. 5-0xygen consumptions and metabolic heat genera- 20
020<06081'0 1,5 30 3,5 ,0 50
tion rates associated with various underground tasks. 2'0
Wind
2'5
speed (m/sec)
"5

It will be apparent to those familiar with underground


conditions that many men are working in environments 40

where, according to Fig 4, they cannot be in equilibrium.


J8
If a man is not in equilibrium in a hot environment, he
accumulates heat and his body temperature rises. 36
Evaporative heat transfer rises very rapidly with rising
_34
skin temperature. The diagrams in Fig 6 differ only as
regards skin temperature, the skin temperatures being
oU 1O6wjn'V -.--- =-- =-- ~i--
150% 1/ /' V ---.......
35 QC, 36 QC and 37 QC respectively. A man with a skin ~ 32
0 I 200V 1/ '/./
temperature of 35 QC, unable to attain thermal equi- ~
. 30 / 2501 1/ i/
librium in a particular environment, may well be able to D- 300/ 1/
attain equilibrium when his skin temperature has risen
.
E
-~ 28 350 -----
--
'/'00 ;
a few degrees. In fact, his skin temperature will con- 0
I
Ta 34 c
T, ; 35 QC
,..
~26
tinue to rise until either he succumbs or he reaches / Ts
;
37
QC

equilibrium. p., ;
1000mba,

There are considerable physiological disadvantages "


associated with rising skin temperature. Metabolic 22
heat is transported by the bloodstream from the sites
of generation (mainly the muscles) to the interface with 20
02"060810 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

the environment (the skin). For this transport to take Wind speed (m/sec)

place the central temperatures of the body must be


higher than the skin temperature. In particular, rectal
temperature is higher than skin temperature and will Fig. 6-Graphs of cooling power differing only in assumed
skin temperature: 35 QC (top), 36QC (middle), 37QC (bottom).
tend to rise when skin temperature rises.

JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY OCTOBER 1971 97
In order to combat a rise in body core temperature, the APPENDIX
circulation of blood between muscles and skin is auto-
matically increased. Increasing the blood circulation Derivation 01 heat transfer equations
increases circulatory strain, which usually manifests
itself as an increased heart rate. Thus increases in skin The rates of radiant and convective heat transfer
temperature in the heat are associated with increases in between the human body and its environment can be
core temperature or circulatory strain or both. calculated using equations (6) and (7) respectively
The f;>.,etthat skin temperature will increase during qr/Ar=hr (Ts-Tr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . (6)
work in hot environments until equilibrium is reached
and that physiological strain increases with increasing qe/Ae=he (Ts-Ta) (7)
skin temperature suggests that predicted equilibrium The radiant heat transfer equation is given in linear
skin temperature might be a useful index of heat stress form. Strictly, radiant heat transfer depends on the
in the region where metabolic heat generation exceeds difference of fourth powers of absolute temperatures
specific cooling power. The predicted equilibrium skin but in the range of environments experienced under-
temperature can be calculated from a knowledge of the ground, the linear approximation is more than adequate.
task and the environmental conditions only. This For a fully wet body surface the evaporative heat
possibility is currently being pursued, and preliminary transfer is given by equation (8);
results indicate that it will be possible to develop a qemax/Ae=A hm (es-ea) . . . . . . . . . . . (8)
series of limits for which the risk of heat stroke is Whillierll has shown that, for underground conditions,
1:1000 000, 1 :100 000, 1 :10000 etc. These limits will be by virtue of the analogy between heat and mass transfer:
associated with skin temperatures elevated above 35 cC. Ahm/he=Cl/Pa (9)
Equation (8) can therefore be written
CONCLUSION qemax/Ae=Clhe (es-ea)/Pa (10)
"""'"
The maximum total heat transfer per unit of total
This paper presents an approach to the problem of body area (Ab) is therefore:
heat stress underground based on the transfer of heat
Qmax=(qr+qe+qemax)/Ab
between the man and his underground environment.
Belding and Hatchl have presented a similar approach =hr(Ts-Tr) (Ar/Ab)+h (Ts-Ta) (Ae/Ab)
c
to the problem of heat stress in general. Their technique + [clhe (es-ea)/Pa] (Ae/Ab) , (11)
became untenable when they attempted to extrapolate The area terms in equation (11) can be simplified.
to situations for which there was no experimental The miner has virtually his whole surface available for
verification. Because of the assumptions made, it should evaporative and convective heat transfer. Thus
not be assumed without careful analysis of each case on Ae/Ab=Ae/Ab=l
its merits that the approach presented here applies to The area available for radiant heat transfer is some
any stress situation other than that prevailing in the fraction (/r) of the total area, the fraction depending on
South African gold mines. posture. Thus
The most important implication of the analysis is Ar/Ab=lr
economic. The gold mining industry spends millions of Expressing all body areas in terms of the total area:
rands annually on the construction, running and staffing
Qmax=lrhr(T s-Tr)+he ('1's-T a)+clhe(es-ea)/Pa
of ventilation and refrigeration systems. Ventilation
engineers are faced with the problem of optimizing
. . . . . . . . (12)
the various environmental parameters over which they The heat transfer coefficients hr and he can be ex-
have control. The work presented in this paper now pressed in terms of measurable quantities. The form of
allows an assessment of the actual cooling provided by the radiant heat transfer coefficient may be derived
any particular environment, and the relative importance theoretically:
of the two most important parameters, wet-bulb temp- hr=4 Ea (Tr/2+1\/2+273,2)3 . . . . . . . . (13)
erature and wind speed.
The value of the Stefan-Boltzman constant is known
and measurement has shown the emissivity of skin,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
black or white, to be close to unity6. Because the skin
The work reported here is part of a joint research temperature of men working underground never differs
effort by the Human Sciences Laboratory and the much from 35 C :
Mining Research Laboratory of the Chamber of Mines hr~22,68Xl0-8 (Tr/2+290,7)3 (14)
of South Africa. The value of the radiation posture""'" factor Ir varies
We are grateful to the following for the cooperation from about 0,6 for the foetal posture to 0,96 for the
during planning, experimentation and analysis: Mr M. spreadeagle postureD. The value for men standing
Busansky, Mr A. J. van Rensburg, Professor C. H. upright is about 0,8. An average value of Ir=0,75 may
Wyndham and Professor N. B. Strydom (all of the be used for most working postures in mines. The actual
Human Sciences Laboratory) and Mr R. Hemp (of Rand value assigned to the combined term Irhr is not im-
Mines Ltd). portant because radiation plays a minor role in heat
The figures were prepared by Mr D. Rabe. exchange underground. Hence:
Aspects of this work were presented to the Mine Irhr~17,Ox1O-8 (Tr/2+290,7)3 (15)
Ventilation Society at a meeting during December, 1969. The convective coefficient (he) depends predominantly

98 OCTOBER 1971 JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY
on wind speed. For near-nude men exposed to air temp- and es=6,1O5 exp [17,27 1's/(1's+237,3)]
eratures and pressure within the range in which they
can live and work, the convective coefficient can be ew=6,1O5 exp [17,27 Tw/(Tw+237,3)]
derived5, 12from the equation.
kC=C2 {Pa/l 013)O,6VO,6 (16) REFERENCES
where C2 is approximately constant and is to be de- 1. BELDING, H. S., and HATCH, T. F. Index for evaluating heat
termined experimentally. stress in terms of resulting physiological strains. Heating,
Piping and Air Conditioning 27: 129-136, 1955.
The value of the constant C2has been measured in the 2. HODGMAN, C. D. (Editor-in-Chief). Handbook oJ Chemiatry
HSL wind tunnel. Mitchell et al5 reported measurements and Phyaica. Cleveland, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co,
made on two nude Bantu male subjects resting in head- 39th Edition, 1957-1958, p 2316.
3. MITCHELL, D., and WYNDHAM, C. H. Comparison of weight-
wind environments at temperatures between 10 C and ing formulas for calculating mean skin temperature. J. Appl.
50C and wind speeds between 0,5 and 5 m/so The Phyaiol. 26: 616-622, 1969.
measurements have now been extended to two more 4. MITCHELL,D., WYNDHAM,C. H., ATKINS, A. R., VERMEULEN,
A. J., HOFMEYR, H. S., STRYDOM,N. B., and HODGSON, T.
subjects. The best available value is Direct measurement of the thermal response of nude resting
c2=8,32::J:0,39 WsO,6/ml,4 C men in dry environments. Pftugera Archiv. gea. Phyaiol. 303:
324-343, 1968.
The equation for convective heat transfer applies only 5. MITCHELL, D., WYNDHAM, C. H., VERMEULEN, A. J., HOD-
to forced convection. Vermeulenlo has demonstrated that GSON, T., ATKINS, A. R., and HOFMEYR, H. S. Radiant and
in the relevant range of Reynolds number the effects of convective heat transfer of nude men in dry air. J. Appl.
Phyaiol. 26: 111-118, 1969.
natural convection (buoyancy) are not apparent ex- 6. MITCHELL, D., WYNDHAM, C. H., and HODGSON, T. Emis-
perimentally at wind speeds as low as 0,5 m/so In sivity and transmittance of excised human skin in its thermal
underground conditions the difference between skin emission wave band. J. Appl. Phyaiol. 23: 390-394, 1967.
7. MORRISON,J. F., WYNDHAM, C. H., MIENIE, B., and STRY-
temperature and air temperature is generally small, DOM, N. B. Energy expenditure of mining tasks and the
and it is probably safe12 to use the equation of forced need for the selection of labourers. J.S. AJr. Inat. Min.
convective heat transfer for values of air speed down Metall. 69: 185-191, 1968.
8. SNELLEN, J. W., MITCHELL, D., and WYNDHAM, C. H. Heat
to 0,1 or 0,2 m/so of evaporation of sweat. J. Appl. Phyaiol. 29: 40-44, 1970.
9. VAN GRAAN, C. H. The determination of body surface area.
The value of the constant Cl=P a Akm/he connecting S. AJr. Med. J. 43: 952-959, 1969.
convective and evaporative heat transfer can be cal- 10. VERMEULEN, A. J. An investigation into the convection
heat transmission between a circular cylinder with large
culated theoretically. For underground conditions Whil- diameter and air in transverse flow. Report MEG 476, Council
lieI'll has calculated Cl to be 1 780C. Subsequent for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa, 1966.
calculations have indicated 1 700C to be a better value 11. WHILLIER, A. The calculation of heat exchan~e between air
and wet surfaces. J.S. AJr. Inat. Min. Metall. 67: 396-402,
(A. Whillier, personal communication). Whillier's A was 1967.
the latent heat of evaporation of water. Experiments 12. WHILLIER, A., and MITCHELL, D. Prediction of the cooling
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103-114, 1968.
cent higher than that of waters. Correcting for this 13. WYNDHAM, C. H., BouwER, W. V.D. M., DEVINE, M. G., and
difference gives PATERSON, H. E. Physiological responses of African labour-
ers at various saturated air temperatures, wind velocities
Cl=1 820C and rates of energy expenditure. J. Appl. Phyaiol. 5: 290-
Finally, atmospheric humidity is generally expressed in 298, 1952.
14. WYNDHAM, C. H., BouwER, W. V.D. M., DEVINE, M. G.,
the mining industry in terms of the wet-bulb depression PATERSON, H. E., and MAcDoNALD, D. K. C. Examination
and not the water vapour pressure. The vapour pressure of use of heat exchange equations for determining changes
in body temperature. J. Appl. Phyaiol. 5: 299-307, 1952.
difference Lle=(es-ea) can be expressed in terms of 15. WYNDHAM, C. H., BouwER, W. V.D. M., PATERSON, H. E.,
temperature using a standard expression for the wet- and DEVINE, M. G. Practical aspects of recent physiological
bulb depression2 and the empirical formula for saturated studies in Witwatersrand gold mines. J. Chem. Metall.
Min. Soc. S. AJr. 53: 287-306, 1953.
water vapour pressure quoted in the British Standard 16. WYNDHAM, C. H., STRYDOM, N. B., MORRISON, J. F., DU
Specificationl? on the humidity of air. Accordingly: TorT, F. D., and KRAAN, J. G. Responses of unacclimatized
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=es-ew+6,6 X lO-iPa(Ta-T w) 17. Humidity of the air. Definitions, formulae and constants.
[1+1,15 X 1O3(Ta-T w)] British Standard Specification BSS 1339, 1946.

NOTICES Keidanren Kaikan (3rd Floor),


9-4, Otemachi 1 - Chome,
FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON Chiyoda-ku,
VACUUM METALLURGY Tokyo,
JAPAN.
This Conference will take place in Tokyo from June
4th-8th 1973. The language used will be English. SYMPOSIUM ON BLAST FURNACE INJECTION
Inquiries should be addressed to: (A.I.M.M.)
February 15-17, 1972
Mr S. Tabata,
Conference Secretariat, Circulars setting out the programme for the sym-
The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, posium, and registration forms, may be obtained from
(Nippon Tekko Kyokai), the Secretary of the S.A.I.M.M.

JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY OCTOBER 1971 99