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FIELDWORK NO. 5

TRIANGULATION SYSTEM

RATING

Instructor

Fieldwork no. 5

Triangulation System

OBJECTIVES

between two points at triangular figures with sides computed by means of trigonometric

principles and formulas.

2. To adjust the chain of triangles by approximate method using station adjustment and figure

adjustment.

3. To determine the length of check base using the relative strength of figure with the strongest

chain in the triangulation system.

THEORY

One of the first steps in typical mapping, land development or construction project is to

establish a network of both vertical and horizontal control points on or near the ground in the vicinity

of the project. One or combination of the following methods may establish a horizontal control

network: traversing, triangulation and trilateration.

Triangulation involves a system of joined or overlapping triangles in which the lengths of two

sides called baseline and check base are measured precisely and the other sides are then computed

from the angles measured in triangular figures.

In the approximate method of adjustment of the chain of triangles in triangulation system, two

steps are being performed. (1) Station adjustment - where the objective is to make the sum of the

angles about each station equal to 360 and (2) figure adjustment making the sum of the three angles

in each triangle equal to 180. Check base can be determined in precise measurement using the relative

strength of figure of the strongest chain in quadrilateral along the triangulation system.

INSTRUMENTS

1 stadia rod

4 range poles

1 steel tape

4 marking pins

PROCEDURE

1. Designate the stations of the triangulation system at random position on an open field. Mark these

points or stations as pts. A, B, C, and D using marking pins or range poles.

2. Choose two lines such as AB as the baseline and CD as the check base. Measure accurately the distance

of each line for three trials and obtain the average value as their respective actual length.

3. Position and set-up the instrument at the first station (sta. A), then orient it such that the compass will

be at the magnetic meridian. Loosen the upper clamp and sight the succeeding station to measure the

azimuth or bearing of the first line.

4. Release the upper clamp and measure accordingly in at least two repetitions the interior and exterior

horizontal angles and record its corresponding observed values.

5. Transfer the instrument from the next station (sta. B) then set-up and orient the instrument in the

stations of the triangulation system until to the last station of the traverse.

6. Tabulate and adjust the chain of triangles in the triangulation system first by station or local adjustment

then next by figure adjustment, the computed values should be consistent with the distances along each

triangle along the system.

7. Determine the strongest chain of the traverse to determine the final length of the check base. Compare

to the actual length to determine the relative precision of the survey conducted.

PHOTO OF SET-UP

FINAL DATA SHEET

FIELDWORK No. 5

Triangulation System

1 2932' 6.68m

2 3022' 7.005m

A

3 30033' 10.67m

SUM 36027' 24.35m

4 5817' 10.64m

5 3827' 7.005m

B

6 26320' 13.56m

SUM 3604' 31.20m

7 5016' 11.081m

8 5342' 10.64m

C

9 256 10.67m

SUM 35958' 32.39m

10 3650' 6.68m

11 6136' 11.081m

D

12 26130' 13.56m

SUM 35956' 31.32m

I. Station Adjustment:

Station Angle Correction

Angle of Angle

1 29320 -090 29230

2 30220 -090 30130

A 3 300330 -090 300240

SUM 360270 -0270 36000

4 58170 -0120 581540

5 38270 -0120 382540

B 6 263200 -0120 2631840

SUM 36040 -040 36000

7 50160 0040 501640

8 53420 0040 534240

C 9 25600 0040 256040

SUM 359580 020 36000

10 36500 0120 365120

11 61360 0120 613720

D 12 261300 0120 2613120

SUM 359560 040 36000

II. Figure Adjustment

Angle from Station Adjusted Value of

Station Angle Correction

Adjustment Angle

1 29230 1130 30360

4&5 581540 + 382540 1130 975420

ABC

7 501640 1130 512940

SUM 176210 3390 18000

5 382540 01433.33 384013.33

7&8 501640 + 534240 01433.33 1041353.33

BCD

10 365120 01433.33 37553.33

SUM 1791620 04340 18000

2 30130 -0486.67 292453.33

8 534240 -0486.67 525433.33

ACD

10 & 11 365120 + 613720 -0486.67 974033.33

SUM 1822420 -22420 18000

1&2 29230 + 30130 01020 594620

4 581540 01020 58260

ABD

11 613720 01020 614740

SUM 179290 0310 18000

SKETCH OF LAYOUT:

SUMMARY OF FINAL DATA AND RESULTS

Sta Angle Adj. Angle Figure of the Quadrilateral

1 29230

A 2 30130

3 300240

4 581540

B 5 382540

6 2631840

7 501640

C 8 534240

9 256040

10 365120

D 11 613720

12 2613120

COMPUTATION

I. STATION ADJUSTMENTS

a.) STATION A:

= 2932+3022+30027 = 360 - 36027 = - 0270 / 3

= 36027 = - 0270 = - 090

Adjusted Angles:

a= a corr = 2932 - 090 = 2923

b= b corr = 3022 - 090 = 3013

c= c corr = 30033 - 090 = 30024

sum checks: 36000

b.) STATION B:

= 5817+3827+26320 = 360 - 36040 = - 040 / 3

= 36040 = - 040 = - 1200

Adjusted Angles:

d= d corr = 5817 - 1200 = 581540

e= e corr = 3827 - 1200 = 382540

f= f corr = 26320 - 1200 = 2631840

sum checks: 36000

c.) STATION C:

= 5016+5342+256 = 360 - 359580 = 020 / 3

= 35958 = 020 = 0040

Adjusted Angles:

g= g corr = 5016 - 0040 = 501640

h= h corr = 5342 - 0040 = 534240

i= i corr = 25600 - 0040 = 256040

sum checks: 36000

d.) STATION D:

= 3650+6136+26130 = 360 - 359560 = 040 / 3

= 35956 = 040 = 0120

Adjusted Angles:

j= j corr = 3650 - 0120 = 365120

k= k corr = 6136 - 0120 = 613720

l= l corr = 26130 - 0120 = 2613120

sum checks: 36000

= 2923+964120+501640 = 180 - 176210 = 3390 / 3

= 176210 = 3390 = 1130

Adjusted Angles:

a= a corr = 292300 + 1130 = 30360

de= de corr = 964120 + 1130 = 975420

g= g corr = 501640 + 1130 = 512940

sum checks: 18000

= 382540+1035920+365120 = 180 - 1791620 = 04340 / 3

= 1791620 = 04340 = 01433.33

Adjusted Angles:

e= e corr = 382540 + 01433.33 = 384013.33

gh= gh corr = 1035920 + 01433.33 = 1041353.33

j= j corr = 365120 + 01433.33 = 37553.33

sum checks: 18000

c.) Considering Triangle ACD

= 3013+534240+982840 = 180 - 1822420 = - 22420 / 3

= 1822420 = - 22420 = - 0486.67

Adjusted Angles:

b= b corr = 3013 - 0486.67 = 292453.33

h= h corr = 534240 - 0486.67= 525433.33

kj= kj corr = 982840 - 0486.67= 974033.33

sum checks: 18000

= 5936+581540+613720 = 180 - 1792920 = 0310 / 3

= 1792920 = 0310 = 01020

Adjusted Angles:

ab= ab corr = 5936 + 01020 = 594620

d= d corr = 581540 + 01020 = 58260

h= h corr = 613720 + 01020 = 614740

sum checks: 18000

ANALYSIS OF DATA AND RESULTS

In this field work our main objective is to know what is triangulation system? So first, we are about to

designate set point or location. Which is Station A, B, C & D. We set up all our instrument. We

measure angles a, b and c at Station A, angle d, e and f at Station B, angle g, h and i at Station C, angle

j, k and l at Station D. After obtaining all the data that we need. We started the computation, the error

and adjustment that weve made at each station. We adjust the chain of triangles by approximate

method using station adjustment and figure adjustment. We also determine the length of check base

using the relative strength of figure.

CONCLUSION

I therefore conclude that we could determine the location of a point by measuring only angles to it

from known points at either end of a fixed baseline, rather than measuring distances to the point

directly as in trilateration.

RECOMMENDATION

I basically recommend is to always set zero every time you will measure the angle of each station to

have more precisely data and results.

QUESTIONS

a. Horizontal and Vertical Controls

Horizontal control surveys over extensive areas generally establish geodetic latitudes and longitudes

of stations. Plane rectangular coordinates are subsequently computed from these values. When control

surveys are performed on smaller areas, plane rectangular coordinates are determined directly without

obtaining geodetic latitudes and longitudes. The main objective of horizontal control surveys is the

establishment of a network of triangulation stations.

Vertical Control in vertical control surveys, the main objective is the establishment of a network of

reference bench marks. The elevations of these bench marks are determined usually with respect to mean

sea level or some other preferred datum. Vertical control surveys maybe run either by barometric,

trigonometric, or differential leveling. The choice is more dependent on accuracy requirements. Inertial

and satellite Doppler systems are now also used in the establishments of vertical control.

Triangulation a method for extending horizontal control for topographic and similar surveys which

require observations of triangular figures whose angles are measured and whose sides are determined

by trigonometric computations.

Trilateration a method used for horizontal control survey which is based exclusively on measured

horizontal distances. It consists of a series of joined or overlapping triangles where sides are measured

and the angles are computed.

c. Baseline and Check Base

Baseline is one of the lines in a triangulation system whose length is precisely measured and its true

direction determined by astronomical observation. It is usually located at the beginning of the

triangulation system and its length is used as basis for computing the length of other lines of the

system.

Check Base one of the lines in a triangulation system whose length is also precisely measured and

maybe located at regular intervals or at the end of triangulation system. It serves as a check for

triangulation computations involving length of lines.

d. Chain of Triangles and Chain of Quadrilaterals

Chain of Triangles a chain of single triangles is the simplest form of triangulation system since it

involves a minimum of angular measurements and calculations for the amount of area covered. This

type of a triangulation system does not provide the most accurate results because it lacks certain

checks to balance small errors which are certain to occur even in the most careful work. Extensive

triangulation systems do not contain single triangles as units in a chain of figures.

It is usually employed in long and narrow surveys of low precision such as for a valley or a narrow

body of water. There is only one route through this type of system and it is necessary to frequently

measure base lines as checks for the work. Although it is the least costly to run, this system should be

used only when it is impossible to arrange as strong a system by the other method. Also, it is

important in this system that no small angles should be included.

Chain of Quadrilaterals the chain of quadrilaterals is the most commonly used triangulation

systems. It is best adopted to long and narrow surveys where a high degree of precision is required.

Each figure is composed of two pairs of overlapping triangles which gives the maximum opportunity

for the distribution of angular errors. In the individual quadrilateral there is no triangulation station at

the intersection of the diagonals. Although it is the most expensive system to use, it still is desired

because it gives the highest accuracy. Most of the major arcs of triangulation in country wide surveys

consist of chains of quadrilaterals.

2. Enumerate the different methods of adjusting the triangulation system and rank the degree of

precisions it can make in the horizontal control surveys.

1. Least Square Method

2. Station Adjustment

3. Figure Adjustment

4. Trilateration

5. Triangulation

3. Give some practical applications of the simple triangulation system specifically in engineering

construction and mapping.

Establishing accurately located control points for plane and geodetic surveys of large

areas.

Establishing accurately located control points in connection with aerial surveying

Accurate location of engineering projects such as Centre lines, terminal points and shafts

for long tunnels, and Centre lines and abutments for long span bridges.

PROBLEM

1. Balance the interior angle of each angle in each station in the given chain of triangles of the

quadrilateral ABCD. Tabulate the corrected value of each angle. After all the angles are

adjusted, determine the length of line BD if distance of line CD is 5,160.3m using strongest

chain of the traverse.

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