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College of Engineering and Architecture

HIGHER SURVEYING ( CE 312F )

FIELDWORK NO. 5

TRIANGULATION SYSTEM

RATING

GROUP No: 3 SCHEDULE: T 7:00AM-10:00AM DATE SUBMITTED: AUGUST 08, 2017

Instructor
Fieldwork no. 5
Triangulation System

OBJECTIVES

1. To establish horizontal control for topographic surveys by determining horizontal angles

between two points at triangular figures with sides computed by means of trigonometric
principles and formulas.
2. To adjust the chain of triangles by approximate method using station adjustment and figure
3. To determine the length of check base using the relative strength of figure with the strongest
chain in the triangulation system.

THEORY

One of the first steps in typical mapping, land development or construction project is to
establish a network of both vertical and horizontal control points on or near the ground in the vicinity
of the project. One or combination of the following methods may establish a horizontal control
network: traversing, triangulation and trilateration.

Triangulation involves a system of joined or overlapping triangles in which the lengths of two
sides called baseline and check base are measured precisely and the other sides are then computed
from the angles measured in triangular figures.

In the approximate method of adjustment of the chain of triangles in triangulation system, two
steps are being performed. (1) Station adjustment - where the objective is to make the sum of the
angles about each station equal to 360 and (2) figure adjustment making the sum of the three angles
in each triangle equal to 180. Check base can be determined in precise measurement using the relative
strength of figure of the strongest chain in quadrilateral along the triangulation system.

INSTRUMENTS

Theodolite with tripod

4 range poles
1 steel tape
4 marking pins
PROCEDURE

1. Designate the stations of the triangulation system at random position on an open field. Mark these
points or stations as pts. A, B, C, and D using marking pins or range poles.
2. Choose two lines such as AB as the baseline and CD as the check base. Measure accurately the distance
of each line for three trials and obtain the average value as their respective actual length.
3. Position and set-up the instrument at the first station (sta. A), then orient it such that the compass will
be at the magnetic meridian. Loosen the upper clamp and sight the succeeding station to measure the
azimuth or bearing of the first line.
4. Release the upper clamp and measure accordingly in at least two repetitions the interior and exterior
horizontal angles and record its corresponding observed values.
5. Transfer the instrument from the next station (sta. B) then set-up and orient the instrument in the
stations of the triangulation system until to the last station of the traverse.
6. Tabulate and adjust the chain of triangles in the triangulation system first by station or local adjustment
then next by figure adjustment, the computed values should be consistent with the distances along each
triangle along the system.
7. Determine the strongest chain of the traverse to determine the final length of the check base. Compare
to the actual length to determine the relative precision of the survey conducted.
PHOTO OF SET-UP
FINAL DATA SHEET
FIELDWORK No. 5
Triangulation System

Station Angle Measured Value of Angle Distance

1 2932' 6.68m
2 3022' 7.005m
A
3 30033' 10.67m
SUM 36027' 24.35m
4 5817' 10.64m
5 3827' 7.005m
B
6 26320' 13.56m
SUM 3604' 31.20m
7 5016' 11.081m
8 5342' 10.64m
C
9 256 10.67m
SUM 35958' 32.39m
10 3650' 6.68m
11 6136' 11.081m
D
12 26130' 13.56m
SUM 35956' 31.32m

Station Angle Correction
Angle of Angle
1 29320 -090 29230
2 30220 -090 30130
A 3 300330 -090 300240
SUM 360270 -0270 36000
4 58170 -0120 581540
5 38270 -0120 382540
B 6 263200 -0120 2631840
SUM 36040 -040 36000
7 50160 0040 501640
8 53420 0040 534240
C 9 25600 0040 256040
SUM 359580 020 36000
10 36500 0120 365120
11 61360 0120 613720
D 12 261300 0120 2613120
SUM 359560 040 36000
Angle from Station Adjusted Value of
Station Angle Correction
1 29230 1130 30360
4&5 581540 + 382540 1130 975420
ABC
7 501640 1130 512940
SUM 176210 3390 18000
5 382540 01433.33 384013.33
7&8 501640 + 534240 01433.33 1041353.33
BCD
10 365120 01433.33 37553.33
SUM 1791620 04340 18000
2 30130 -0486.67 292453.33
8 534240 -0486.67 525433.33
ACD
10 & 11 365120 + 613720 -0486.67 974033.33
SUM 1822420 -22420 18000
1&2 29230 + 30130 01020 594620
4 581540 01020 58260
ABD
11 613720 01020 614740
SUM 179290 0310 18000

SKETCH OF LAYOUT:
SUMMARY OF FINAL DATA AND RESULTS

1 29230
A 2 30130
3 300240
4 581540
B 5 382540
6 2631840
7 501640
C 8 534240
9 256040
10 365120
D 11 613720
12 2613120
COMPUTATION

a.) STATION A:

sum = a + b + c error = 360 - sum corr = error / n

= 2932+3022+30027 = 360 - 36027 = - 0270 / 3
= 36027 = - 0270 = - 090

a= a corr = 2932 - 090 = 2923
b= b corr = 3022 - 090 = 3013
c= c corr = 30033 - 090 = 30024
sum checks: 36000

b.) STATION B:

sum = d + e + f error = 360 - sum corr = error / n

= 5817+3827+26320 = 360 - 36040 = - 040 / 3
= 36040 = - 040 = - 1200

d= d corr = 5817 - 1200 = 581540
e= e corr = 3827 - 1200 = 382540
f= f corr = 26320 - 1200 = 2631840
sum checks: 36000

c.) STATION C:

sum = g + h + i error = 360 - sum corr = error / n

= 5016+5342+256 = 360 - 359580 = 020 / 3
= 35958 = 020 = 0040

g= g corr = 5016 - 0040 = 501640
h= h corr = 5342 - 0040 = 534240
i= i corr = 25600 - 0040 = 256040
sum checks: 36000
d.) STATION D:

sum = j + k + l error = 360 - sum corr = error / n

= 3650+6136+26130 = 360 - 359560 = 040 / 3
= 35956 = 040 = 0120

j= j corr = 3650 - 0120 = 365120
k= k corr = 6136 - 0120 = 613720
l= l corr = 26130 - 0120 = 2613120
sum checks: 36000

sum = a + de + g error = 180 - sum corr = error / n

= 2923+964120+501640 = 180 - 176210 = 3390 / 3
= 176210 = 3390 = 1130

a= a corr = 292300 + 1130 = 30360
de= de corr = 964120 + 1130 = 975420
g= g corr = 501640 + 1130 = 512940
sum checks: 18000

sum = e + gh + j error = 180 - sum corr = error / n

= 382540+1035920+365120 = 180 - 1791620 = 04340 / 3
= 1791620 = 04340 = 01433.33

e= e corr = 382540 + 01433.33 = 384013.33
gh= gh corr = 1035920 + 01433.33 = 1041353.33
j= j corr = 365120 + 01433.33 = 37553.33
sum checks: 18000
c.) Considering Triangle ACD

sum = b + h + kj error = 180 - sum corr = error / n

= 3013+534240+982840 = 180 - 1822420 = - 22420 / 3
= 1822420 = - 22420 = - 0486.67

b= b corr = 3013 - 0486.67 = 292453.33
h= h corr = 534240 - 0486.67= 525433.33
kj= kj corr = 982840 - 0486.67= 974033.33
sum checks: 18000

sum = ab + d + h error = 180 - sum corr = error / n

= 5936+581540+613720 = 180 - 1792920 = 0310 / 3
= 1792920 = 0310 = 01020

ab= ab corr = 5936 + 01020 = 594620
d= d corr = 581540 + 01020 = 58260
h= h corr = 613720 + 01020 = 614740
sum checks: 18000
ANALYSIS OF DATA AND RESULTS

In this field work our main objective is to know what is triangulation system? So first, we are about to
designate set point or location. Which is Station A, B, C & D. We set up all our instrument. We
measure angles a, b and c at Station A, angle d, e and f at Station B, angle g, h and i at Station C, angle
j, k and l at Station D. After obtaining all the data that we need. We started the computation, the error
method using station adjustment and figure adjustment. We also determine the length of check base
using the relative strength of figure.

CONCLUSION

I therefore conclude that we could determine the location of a point by measuring only angles to it
from known points at either end of a fixed baseline, rather than measuring distances to the point
directly as in trilateration.

RECOMMENDATION

I basically recommend is to always set zero every time you will measure the angle of each station to
have more precisely data and results.
QUESTIONS

1. Differentiate the definition of the following terms used in control surveying:

a. Horizontal and Vertical Controls
Horizontal control surveys over extensive areas generally establish geodetic latitudes and longitudes
of stations. Plane rectangular coordinates are subsequently computed from these values. When control
surveys are performed on smaller areas, plane rectangular coordinates are determined directly without
obtaining geodetic latitudes and longitudes. The main objective of horizontal control surveys is the
establishment of a network of triangulation stations.

Vertical Control in vertical control surveys, the main objective is the establishment of a network of
reference bench marks. The elevations of these bench marks are determined usually with respect to mean
sea level or some other preferred datum. Vertical control surveys maybe run either by barometric,
trigonometric, or differential leveling. The choice is more dependent on accuracy requirements. Inertial
and satellite Doppler systems are now also used in the establishments of vertical control.

b. Triangulation and Trilateration

Triangulation a method for extending horizontal control for topographic and similar surveys which
require observations of triangular figures whose angles are measured and whose sides are determined
by trigonometric computations.

Trilateration a method used for horizontal control survey which is based exclusively on measured
horizontal distances. It consists of a series of joined or overlapping triangles where sides are measured
and the angles are computed.
c. Baseline and Check Base
Baseline is one of the lines in a triangulation system whose length is precisely measured and its true
direction determined by astronomical observation. It is usually located at the beginning of the
triangulation system and its length is used as basis for computing the length of other lines of the
system.
Check Base one of the lines in a triangulation system whose length is also precisely measured and
maybe located at regular intervals or at the end of triangulation system. It serves as a check for
triangulation computations involving length of lines.
d. Chain of Triangles and Chain of Quadrilaterals
Chain of Triangles a chain of single triangles is the simplest form of triangulation system since it
involves a minimum of angular measurements and calculations for the amount of area covered. This
type of a triangulation system does not provide the most accurate results because it lacks certain
checks to balance small errors which are certain to occur even in the most careful work. Extensive
triangulation systems do not contain single triangles as units in a chain of figures.
It is usually employed in long and narrow surveys of low precision such as for a valley or a narrow
body of water. There is only one route through this type of system and it is necessary to frequently
measure base lines as checks for the work. Although it is the least costly to run, this system should be
used only when it is impossible to arrange as strong a system by the other method. Also, it is
important in this system that no small angles should be included.

Chain of Quadrilaterals the chain of quadrilaterals is the most commonly used triangulation
systems. It is best adopted to long and narrow surveys where a high degree of precision is required.
Each figure is composed of two pairs of overlapping triangles which gives the maximum opportunity
for the distribution of angular errors. In the individual quadrilateral there is no triangulation station at
the intersection of the diagonals. Although it is the most expensive system to use, it still is desired
because it gives the highest accuracy. Most of the major arcs of triangulation in country wide surveys

2. Enumerate the different methods of adjusting the triangulation system and rank the degree of
precisions it can make in the horizontal control surveys.
1. Least Square Method
4. Trilateration
5. Triangulation

3. Give some practical applications of the simple triangulation system specifically in engineering
construction and mapping.

Establishing accurately located control points for plane and geodetic surveys of large
areas.
Establishing accurately located control points in connection with aerial surveying
Accurate location of engineering projects such as Centre lines, terminal points and shafts
for long tunnels, and Centre lines and abutments for long span bridges.
PROBLEM

1. Balance the interior angle of each angle in each station in the given chain of triangles of the
quadrilateral ABCD. Tabulate the corrected value of each angle. After all the angles are
adjusted, determine the length of line BD if distance of line CD is 5,160.3m using strongest
chain of the traverse.