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All About

Space
AtexRaynham
R e a da n d d i sco vear l t a b o u to u l gat,r r v.tttr l
7 everythingin the universe...

gr . What are stars made of?


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HT activitiesand project work.
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Alex Raynham

Introduction 3
1 OurSolarSystem 4
2 ThelnnerPlanets 8
3 TheOuterPlanets L2
4 Rocksandlce 16
5 Astronomy 20
5 Lifeon OtherPlanets 24
7 Peoptein Space 28
8 OurFuturein Space 32
Activities 36
Projects 52
Glossary 54
About ReadandDiscover 56

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countrics
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lhtrbilse right Oxli)rd Iinivcrsily l\'css lnrJl(cr) l-aboralory/NASA irrages); Oxford tLriversitv l'ress P.:l (errtl1,
First published zoro noon. suD, satur n).9, 11. 17,23 (Hubtllc tcles(\)pc), 27 (Lllro)
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No unauthorized photocopying
All rights rcscrued. No pafl of this publicrl iou ntay l)c
Will fJkinksfo: Ann Fullick fbr sciencc checking Spaceis everything that'saroundptanetEarth,andit's
rcproduced, stored in il rctricvill systcm, or trunsnritted.
in any form or by rny ncaDs. without the prior Ptrnrission
'thc jtllowing imttges are digrteny created phoLo-reol illustratiore,
trotphotogl?ph-sr pp6-7 solar system, p15 asteroid belt,
biggerthanwe canimagine.Whenyou tookat the sky
in writing ofOxford Univcrsity Prcss, or rs exprcssly
pcmittcd by law' or under ternls rgreed with the rpproprirtc
rcprol.lriphics righl s orgrni/al ion. I
juqtrir
ie: r oDrr.rning
p19 Chicxulub meteorite, p25 Mars robot, p27 alien
solar systen, p32 space hotel, p33 Moon base, p35 space
at night,you canseethousands of stars.Didyou know
in the filture.
reproductioD outside the scope of the above shotrlcl be scnt
to the ELT Rights Department. OxIbrd Unive$ity Prcss. at that the 5un is a star,too?Therearealsobillionsof
the address above

You must rrot circulate this book in any othcr binding or


otherstarsin space,andbittionsof ptanets!
cover rnd you must inposc this sane condition orr any
ilcquiref

Any websites refeued to in this publication are in the


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Howmanyplanetsdo youknow?
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managed s(^trces.

Nowreadanddiscover
moreaboutspace!
@qm
Soilaffi
SysGem OurAmazing
Sun
The Sun and all other stars are
made of two gasescalled
Starsare hugebaltsof hot gas.A starwith planets hydrogen and helium.
aroundit is ca[[eda solarsystem.OurSunhaseight The hydrogen changes
ptanets- this is our solarsystem. into helium in a process
called nuclear fusion.This
OurGalaxy processproduces heat and
light. Our Sun is about
Groups of stars are called galaxies.Each galaxy has
150 million kilometers
billions of stars.Our solar systemis in a galaxy called
away from Earth, but it's
the MilkytVay that has 200 billion stars.There are
hot enough to burn you
billions of other galaxiesin the universe.
at the beach! Plants on
Earth use energy from the
Sun to grow. Animals and people
also get their energy from the Sun
becausethey eat plants.

EarthandtheSun
A planet goes around, or orbits,
a star. It takes our planet Earth
one year to orbit the Sun.
A planet also turns on its
axis. It takes Earth 24 hours
Theuniverse is everything
thatexists- altthe to do a complete turn on
starsin all thegataxies.
lt appeared
in a single its axis.\fhen a place on
moment, catledthe BigBang,about14bittion Earth is opposite the Sun,
yearsago.Beforethen,therewerenostars. it's daytime in that place.
frrtr
H

All the planets in our solar systcm orbit tl-rcSun. Each planet in our solar system is different, but
A year is the time that it takes a planct to orbit the Mercury, Venus, and Mars are rocky planets like
Sun - it's 365 days for E,arth. Mercurv antl Vcnus are Earth. If you landed on these planets, you would
near the Sun, so they have shorter ycars bccausc they find rocks, and you could walk around on them.
travel a shorter distance around thc Sr-rn.A vcar on
Mercury is the same as 88 days on Ilarth. I)lancts Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are called gas
giants. They are much bigger than the rocky planets,
that are further from the Sun have longcr orl-rits.
and they are made mostly of gas.
A year on Neptune is the same as I (r5 vclirs on liarth.

q Astronomers have discovered five dwarf planets in our


-i1
'1 solar system. Dwarf planets are like very small planets
-t
and they orbit the Sun. The biggest dwarf planet is
I
ri called E r i s , and i t's 2,500 k i l om eter s ac r os s .
I
I
I
Themostfamousdwarfptanetis Ptuto.lt wasdiscovered
{ in 1930,andfor morethan70 years,it wascalledthe ninth
I
,.1
,,'t
I Nowit'sca[[eda dwarfptanet.
ptanetin the solarsystem.
n+

$ G o t o p a g e s3 6 - 3 7 f o r a c t i v i t i e s . ii;i.
iit
Venus
Vcnus is the secondplanet from the Sun, and the
ncarestplanet to Earth, but it would not be a nice
Theinnerptanetsin oursolarsystemareMercuryVenus, place to visit! Pressureis the force or weight of
Earth,andMars.Theyarethe nearestplanetsto the Sun something on your body.Venus has more gas in
andtheyaremadeof rocksandsoil.Venus,Earth,and its atmospherethan Earth, and all that gas creates
Marshavegasaroundthem,calledatmosphere. pressure.If astronautsvisitedVenus,the pressure
would kill them.
In the atmospherearoundVenus, a gas called carbon
dioxide traps heat from the Sun. The temperature on
Venus rs 462 degreescentigrade- that's hotter than
a pizza oven!The sky onVenus is yellow
becausethere are clouds of
sulphuric acid.This
dangerous chemical
can burn metal.

Mercury
Mercury is the smallestplanet in the solar systemand
it doesn't have an atmosphere.A planet's atmosphere
traps the Sun's heat, and keepsthe temperature warm
at night. Mercury is very hot in the daytime because
it's the nearestplanet to the Sun, but it's very cold at
night. \When the temperature on one half of Mercury
is 427 degreescentigrade,the other half is minus
173 degrees!
'j.,:lf'tir"l, MAr -\
E,arthis our home, and it's the third planet from the t\tars is the fourth planet from the Sun and it has two
Sun. Billions of years ago, Earth was very hot. Later, snrall moons. Mars is smaller than Earth and it's called
the planet became cooler and oceansof water formed. tlrc red planet because chemicals make the soil red.
Life began in these oceansabout 3.5 billion years ago.
Mars has some amazing places. Mons Olympus is a
Earth is a great place for life becauseit isn't too hot or volcano, and it's 25 kilometers high!That's three times
too cold for liquid water. Plants, animals, and people higher than Mount Everest, the highest mountain on
need liquid water to live, and they also need oxygen. trarth.TheValles Marineris is a huge canyon. It's ten
Most of the gas in E,arth'satmosphereis nitrogen, times longer and three times deeper than the Grand
but 20.7%ois oxygen. Canyon, the biggest canyon on Earth!
A moon orbits a planet, and often looks like a small
planet. Earth has one moon, but some planetshave
a lot. Our Moon takes 27 daysto orbit Earth. Mars,
Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune all have moons, too. ':l';rt.;rf-i
ffie@q@mfilon@& Jupiter
Iupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun. It's the
biggestplanet in our solar system,and it's more than
Thefourouterplanetsin our solarsystemarethe farthest a thousand times bigger than Earth! Jupiter has about
awayfromthe Sun,andthey areJupiter,Saturn,Uranus, 60 moons, and some of them are bigger than planets.
andNeptune.Doyou knowwhattheyaremadeof? Huge storms move clouds of gas around Jupiter, and
they make beautiful colors in the atmosphere.Jupiter
GasGiants has a big red circle of storm clouds called the red spot.
The outer planets are bigger than the inner planets, This is the biggest storm in our solar system.Storms
and they don't have a rocky surface.\Wecall them gas on Earth can last for days,but this storm started
giants becausethey are made of hydrogen, helium, 300 years ago and it hasn't finished yet!
and other gasesaround a rocky center. Inside these
planets,pressurechangesthe gasesinto a liquid.

Jupiterandthe othergas
giantshavea lot of moons.
arediscovering
Scientists
new moons all the time.
Saturn Uranu a
s n dN e p ti rn #
Uranus is the seventhplanet in the solar system.
It's 2.4 billion kilometers from the Sun! If you travel
another 2 billion kilometers out into space,you will
reach Neptune, the farthest planet from the Sun.
Uranus and Neptune are far from the Sun, so they
are very cold. The temperature on Neptune is minus
214 degreescentigrade.Both planets are made mostly
of gas,like Jupiter and Saturn, but different chemicals
in their atmospheresmake them green and blue.
LJranus];,.as27 moons and
Neptune has 13.

Saturn is the secondbiggestplanet in our solar


systemand the sixth planet from the Sun. There are
thousands of rings around Saturn.The farthest ring
is millions of kilometers from Saturn.The rings are
made of billions of piecesof dust and ice. Some
piecesof ice are very small, and some are bigger than
houses.Saturn's rings are different colors becauseof
chemicalsin the ice.
Saturn has about 60 moons.The biggestmoon is
calledTitan. Titan has atmosphere,clouds, and lakes,
but the lakes are made of chemicals.not water.
,aa a
^ -\',

ffi Jupiter,Uranus, andNeptune alsohaverings,but they


\g
aren'tas big or as beautifulasthe ringsaroundSaturn.
Com ets ar e hugc pi c c es ; r nt l t lt t sl. lt t t t l st t llle t ll

t h e m a re 50 k i l o n - r c t e l ' st l L ' l ' o s s(. . o l t t t ' l s c ( ) l ' l l c l r t l t l r


Therearetwo ringsaroundthe sun,cattedthe asteroid t h e I (u ip e r b e l t , o r l i ' o t t t l t t t ' t l t t ' t ' r l \ \ ' i . t vi t t s p a c c , b u t
belt andthe Kuiperbett.Theasteroidbett is between s o me t ime s t h e i r o r b i t s b r i r r s t l t c t t t l t c t l r c r l i a r t h a n d
MarsandJupiter.lt's madeof rockscaltedasteroids. the Sun. \When comcts c()nrc ltcLll'cr thc Sun, they
TheKuiperbelt is furtherawaythanNeptune. rt'smade b e c o me h ot t e r a n d t h c y l c a v c p i c c e s o f i c e a n d d u s t
of piecesof ice. behind them. This is callcd a comet's tail and it can
be millions of kilometerslong!

" .,. slt,

&WW

l*ffi-.
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qb

fr 'iE

,l[M.

Some rocks in the asteroid belt are the size of h'uses,


but others are many kilometers across.when planets
come near them, or other asteroids hit them, these
t
rocks can leave the asteroid belt. Somctimes.,they
|
travcl toward the inncr planets. \-:i/-,d HaU,ey's
Cometis a famouscomet.lt comesnear
Earthevery75 or 76 years.
Wewit[ seeit againin 2061.
tr l fA

Meteors
{7ffi

andMeteorites EffiY In 1908,a meteoriteexptodedin the skyabove


Meteors are pieces of rock, dust, or ice that enter W.-7
the Tunguska River,in Siberiain Russia.
Noonelived
a planet's atmosphere.They come from asteroids there,but a forestof 80 mitliontreeswasburned.
and comets.

Most meteors burn when they enter the atmosphere, About 65 million years ago, there were no people on
but sometimespieceshit a planet's surfaceand these Earth, and the animals were different, too. Dinosaurs
piecesare called meteorites.More than 11000metric lived here.Then one day a bright light appeared in
tons of ice, dust, and rocks from spaceland on Earth the sky. It was a huge meteorite. Some of it burned
every year, but most of these pieces are very small. in the atmosphere,but a piece hit Earth - it was
about 20 kilometers long. The meteorite crater is
Sometimesbig meteoriteshit Earth and make a huge
in Chicxulub, in theYucatan in Mexico, and it's
hole called a crater. Big meteorites don'r hit planets
180 kilometersacross!
very often, but they are very dangerous.In I gg4,
\When the meteorite hit Earth, there was a huge
2l piecesof a comet hit Jupiter. Some of the
explosions were bigger than our planet Earth! explosion. Scientists think that fires and acid destroyed
most of the world's forests. Clouds of dust covered
the sky, and light from the Sun didn't reach Earth's
surface. It became very cold for many years.At about
the same time, the dinosaurs and 70% of all the plants
and other animals on Earth died.
Under sta n d i nthge So l aSYste
r m
@Asffion@my Most ancient astronomcrs bclicvcd that Earth was at
the center of our solar sysrcm.'l'hcy thought that the
Astronomyis studyingthe ptanetsandthe stars,and Sun. the other stars, and all thc planets orbited Earth.
peoplewho studyastronomyare cattedastronomers.
Doyou knowwhat they havediscovered?

AncientAstronomers
Thousands of years ago,people in placeslike China,
Iraq, and Greece used the Sun, the Moon, and the
stars to calculatethe time of year and the seasons.
This is how they knew the dates of festivals and
when to plant seeds.Many people, like the Ancient
Egyptians or the Incas of South America, thought
that the Sun was a god. In 1543,a Polish astronomer called copernicus said
They built beautiful that the Sun was at the center of our solar system,but
temples for the Sun. people didn't believehim. Later, other astronomers
like Galileo Galilei, from Pisa, now in Italy, believed
him, but important people stopped them writing
about their ideas.Almost 150 yearslater, a British
astronomer called IsaacNewton proved that
Earth orbits the Sun.

Suntight
fa[[son the statues
in this @,saac Newton the
discovered
*force
AncientEgyptiantempteat sunrise of gravity.Gravitymakesthings
on two dayseveryyear.Thesewere fattto the groundon Earth.lt atso
importantdaysin the Egyptiancatendar. makesthe Ptanets orbitthe Sun.
--=

-
Telescopeshelp people to learn about our
s o la r syste m.In 1 6 0 9 , Galileo used one of
the first telescopesto look ar rhe night sky.
He saw mountains and craters on the ';
-2*
a.5:a
Moon, and four moons around Jupiter. -F

The first telescopeswere very small. Later,


people made bigger telescopes,and they
discovered new planets and moons. -+:+;.
,,tl

\il71-rcn
Galileo looked at a bright area in the night sky,
hc clisc.vcred that it was made of many stars. Later,
pc.plc discovcred that this is the center of our galaxy,
the MilkyWay. For a long time, asrronomers thought Today, astronomers usc huge telcscopesto study the
that the Milkytvuy was the only galaxy in the universe. stars.They can see the light from galaxiesbillions of
Then in 1930, an American astronomer called Edwin kilometers from E,arth. Astronomers use different
Hubble discovered another galaxy. Now we know telescopesto look for other types of energy from
that
there are billions of galaxies in the universe. stars, called radio waves and X-rays. Astronomers also
use spacccraft to explore our solar system. Spacecraft
orbit or fly past other planets and take photos' Some
spacecrafthave visited other planets and moons) too'
I
#sF s#tr
ffi s,#$
'ffiW$
.ry.dF#
-\ :11/ TheHubbtespaceTelescope
hasorbitedEarthsince1990. ,-.
F+i:
g'$s
ffi
than
It cantakebetterPhotos **"ii*ll'*
I
tetescoPes
atmosPhere.
outsideEarth's
it's $E
on Earthbecause
ffi
Go to pages44-45 for activities.
WaterandBacteria
l.if-e on Earth needs liquid
water, carbon, and gaseslike
oxygen and nitrogen. When
scientists look for life on other
planets, they look for Places that
have liquid water.
Bacteria are simple living things on Earth,
and they can live in very hot and cold places,and
even inside rocks. Scientistsare looking for bacteria
on Mars and in other placesin our solar system.

LifeonMars
It's very cold on Mars, so all the water on the surface
is ice. Many scientiststhink that there is liquid water
Martians! in the soil or even in underground rivers. Maybe
A hundred yearsago, telescopes
were smaller, and it there is life on Mars, too. At the moment, robots
was difficult to seeMars clearly.
Astronomers thought from Earth are exploring Mars and looking for life.
that they saw lines on the surface
of Mars, and some
people thought that they were
canals.At the time,
people were building grear canals
on Earth, like the
Panama Canal in Central America.
Some asrronomersimagined aliens
building these
canalsand living in cities on Mars. people
wrote
storiesand made movies about
aliens from Mars,
called Martians, visiting Earth.
Now wc kn.w thar
there aren't any Martians, but
we still movies
about them! 'ral<c
Europa is one of Jupiter's moons and
it's coveredin ice.The surfaceis very
cold, but scientiststhink it's warmer
inside. Maybe there are oceans
under the ice. Maybe there are
bacteria or other living things in the
oceans)too. One day peoplewill
send robots to explore Europa and
to look for life.

what do we know about life in other solar systems/


near
Astronomers have found hundreds of planets
planet like
I ii' . : ii. , other stars)but they are still looking for a
of
Saturn's largestmoon, Titan, is the Earth. Some scientiststhink that there are lots
the
only moon in the solar systemwith planets like Earth in our galaxy' and millions in
On
atmosphere.It has rivers,lakes,rain, universe.Maybe there is life on some of them'
here'
and clouds.These are made of another planet billions of kilometers from
chemicalscalled hydrocarbons,and maybe alien astronomersare
scientiststhink that there is warer looking at the stars!
under the surfaceof Titan, too.
Living things are made of
hydrocarbons and water. Maybe one
'''-
day we will discover life on Titan. objectsin the skY,catledUFOs'
Somepeoptethinkthattheyarealienspacecraft'
but theyareusuallythingsLikebattoonsor comets'

Goto pages46-47for activities' trtr


fr,/,{,rtrrt
AStfOnaUtSOn th{,:,
orbited
In 1968, asffonautsin the Apollo 8 spacccrali
21" 1969'
the Moon for the first time'-l'hcn' on IulY
Morethan450 astronauts Moon' Millions
haveseenEarth rheApollo 1/ spacecraftlanded on thc
from space.Theyhavedoneexperiments, two American
of people watched on televisionwhen
visitedthe Moon,andtaughtus a lot about E'dwin 'Brlzz'
astronauts called Neil Armstrong and
our sotarsystem.Woutdyou tiketo travel an incredible
Aldrin steppedonto the Moon' It was
in space? people walked
moment - for the first time in history'
on another world.
TheFirstAstronauts Another ten American astronautsvisited
the Moon
and
In L957, Russiasent the first rocket between 1969and 1972.They did experiments
a specialcar
into space.It took a machine called
L
collected rocks and soil.They also drove
a satellite.Then on l2'h April 196l, called a lunar rover, or moon buggY!
lr^

another Russianrocket called


Vostokcarried a small spacecraft
into space.Inside there was a man
calledYuri Gagarin. He was the
;1
first person in space.His spacecraft
orbited Earth for 108 minutes, and ,,1
then returned to Earth. Later,
Russiaand America built bigger
and better rockets,and more
astronautswent into space.
f"lr

flf,y
\{ry Today,
hundreds
of satettites
orbitEarth.We usethemto study I,
I

the weather, to takephotos,and I


to do [otsof otherthings.
Space
Shuttles Livingin Space
In 1981,a new type of
If you drop something
spacecraftflew for the
on Earth, it falls to the
first time. It was called
ground becauseof
a spaceshuttle. Space
gravity. In a spacecraft, r&l
shuttles can fly into space l'
astronautsdon't feel 'il
many times becausethey
gravity becausetheir
take off like a rocket and
spacecraftis moving
they land like a plane.
very fast.This is called
They have taken very big
zero gravity, and you
things into space,like the
can float!
Hubble SpaceTelescope.
In space,things float, so
Space
Stations astronautsuse a material called
A spacestation is a place in spacewhere Velcro'*'tostick everything to the walls.Astronauts
asffonaurs cook food in specialcontainers,and they use a special
can live and do experiments.The first space
stations shower becausewater floats, too. They also use special
were very smalr,but the Internationar space
Station sleepingbags to stop them floating when they sleep!
(ISS) is much bigger. It was built in
space.The
first astronautsvisited it in 1998. Now, Gravity makes you strong on Earth becauseyou
teams of
asffonauts from different countries live exerciseyour body every time you walk or lift
and
work on the spacestation all the time. something.Yourbody doesn't do this in space,
so astronautscan become weak.They have to use
exercisemachines to keePstrong.
/{r lq{Li,J !

trffi lt's difficutt


Earthonceevery90 minutes.
*for TheISSorbits
-qffi/
theSunrisesor setsevery
to steepbecause
astronauts
Astronauts
45 minutes. wearmasksovertheireyes'

* Goto pages48-49for activities.


flm l

A hundredyearsago,spee'travel
was
a dream.Now,peoplearelivingin space.
Whatwitt happenin the next
hundredor thousand years?

LivingontheMoon
\7e are building new spacecraftto take people to the
Moon. The first astronautswill visit the Moon in
about 2020, and they will stay there for a week.
Later, astronautswill build a Moon base.Scientists,
Space
Tourism engineers,and astronomerswill live in the Moon base
A few tourists have alreadyvisited space,but their for months, so that they can do experiments.Living on
trips cost millions of dollars. Now, people have the Moon won't be easy.Food and equipment will
designedspecialspaceplanes to take tourists into come from Earth, 386,000 kilometers away!There is
space.They are cheaperthan rockets,but at the no atmosphereon the Moon, so people will wear space
moment, spaceplane trips only last a few hours. In suits to protect themselveswhen they go outside.
the future, maybe tourists will orbit Earth and stay in
{ry_uia.

spacehotels. Maybe they will enjoy amazingviews


Earth from the hotel windows, and play gamesand
of ffiM"r
1W TheSunproduces typeof energycatled
a dangerous
sports in zero gravity, too! Earth's
radiation. atmosphere protectsus,but scientists
mustfinda wayto protectpeoptein the Moonbase.
Exploring
Mars fromNow
Years
ln a Thousand
$fith today's spacecraft,it would take asffonauts Maybe one day peoplewill livc on Mars or in huge
about two yearsto reach Mars and return to Earth. spacestations.There are lots of matcrialslike metals,
It would be very difficult to take enough food and ice, and hydrocarbons in our solar systcm.\7e can use
water for such a long trip, and the Sun,s radiation thesematerials to produce oxygen and water, and to
would be very dangerous,too. grow food. \7e can also make fuel for rockets, and build
In the future, scientists will probably invent faster new spacecraft.If we invent very fast spacecraft,maybe
spacecraft,and ways to protect the asffonautsfrom we will explore other solar systemsone day, too.
radiation.The first astronautswill probably visit A thousand years ago,people traveledby horse, and
Mars in about 50 yearsfrom now. we didn't know that the world was round. In a
Radiation isn't a problem for robots, thousand years from now, we will have new
and they don't need water, oxygen,or technologiesand new ways to explore space.
food! Engineers are designingnew What do you think our life will be
robots called robonaurs.Thev look like?\Wheredo you think we will live?
and move like people and they
can do almost everything that
,.., astronautsdo.
\ If ir's too
diffrcult or
dangerousto
send astronauts
to a planet, robonauts
will go there.
OurSolarSystern write the wordsin order,fromsmatlestto biggest.
gataxy Otm"Wrytenet sotarsystem ptanet universestar
3 Readpages4-7.
1 3 5
Completethe sentences. 6
2 4
axis sotar orbit g+e)ry
Circtethe correctwords.
1 Oursotarsystemis in a ago'
1 TheBisBangwasabout14 mittionZ{$jjiit-l:Vears
cattedthe MitkyWay.
#;nhmy.d
2 Starswith planetsaroundthemarecalted 2 Dwarfplanets orbittheSun/ otherplanets'
systems. andMarsaremadeof gas/ rocks'
3 Mercury
3 Att the ptanetsin oursotarsystem has200bittion/ mittionstars'
4 Ourgataxy
t h eS u n .
4 A planetturnson its fusionproduces
5 Nuclear andgas/ heat'
l,ight
Completethe puzzte.Writethe secretword. Answerthe questions.
1 Ptanets, tikeJupiterandNeptune, arecail.ed
gas_.
2
on Earth?
1 Whenis it daYtime
_ a r e h u g eba [tso f h o tg a s.
3 TheSunis madeof hydrogen and_.
4 _ ptanets aretikeverysma[[ptanets. the heaton the Sun?
2 WhatProduces
5 lt takesEarth24 hoursto do a completeturn on
its _.
6 Att ptantson Earthgettheir_ fromthe Sun.
for plants?
3 Whyis the Sunimportant

2- >
3- > Whydo the planetsthat arenearerthe Sunhave
4- > shorteryears?
$->

5 Whatis the biggestdwarfplanet,andhowbig is it?


$->

Thesecretwordis:
d Thelnnerplanets Write the words.

carbondioxidetemperatureatmosphere
+ Readpages8-11. pressurecanyon sulphuric
acid

Writethe numbers.
Thenwritethe words. is
t howhotsomething
Mars Venus Mereffry Earth a planet
2 the gasaround
3 it'sverydeep
4 a gasthattrapsheatfromthe Sun
on yourbody
5 theforceor weightof something
thatcanburnmetal
chemical
6 a dangerous
tvtercury
Fl mars! tarth! venus[-l
Answerthe questions.
1 Thisplanetis red.{r4;xu.m
2 Thisptanethasa yettowsky. 1 Whataretheinnerplanets
madeof?

3 Thisptanetdoesn'thavean atmosphere.
4 Thisptanethasoceans. 2 Whatarethe cloudsmadeof on Venus?

5 Thisptanethasshortyearsandlongdays.
6 Thisplanethassomeamazing 3 Whyis Eartha greatplacefor [ife?
ptaces.
Write true or false.
4 Howlongdoesit takeourMoonto orbitEarth?
1 Someptanetshavean atmosphere. *t'r".lg
2 Mercuryis veryhot at night.
5 Whyis the soilredon Mars?
3 Thepressure
on Venusis higherthanon Earth.
4 Earthis the nearest
ptanetto the Sun.
thinktherewason Marsin the past?
6 Whatdo scientists
5 Ptants
andanimals
needtiquidwater.
6 Thereis tiquidwateron Marstoday.
6 Theouter planets Circtethe correctwords
1 lnsidegasgiants,pressure the gasesintoa
changes
+ Readpagest2-L5. tiquid/ ctoud.
/ storm.
redspotis a hugeatmosphere
2 Jupiter's
1 write the ptanetsin the correctorder,from nearestto
farthestfromthe Sun. / water.
3 Thelakeson Titanaremadeof chemicals

Earth Neptune #!-eeury Saturn 4 Att of the gasgiantshavemoonsandrocks/ rings.


Jupiter Venus UranusMars 5 Saturnis the second,/ sixthbiggestplanet.

o+r iff f l
rl

Match.
1 Theouterplanets madeof ice.
arecalted .,
'tl l 27 moons.
2 Titanis oneof i
t f'u4i{i l'i:;ii i.y 4
I
farthestplanetfromthe Sun.
7 3 Jupiteris the biggest
"th eg a sg i a n ts.
2 5 8 4 Saturn's ringsare
planetin the sotarsystem.
3 6 5 Neptune is the
moons.
Saturn's
6 Uranus has
2 Writethe words.
ctoud lake ice ring rock storm 5 Answerthe questions.
gasgiantsandrockyptanets?
between
1 Whatisthedifference

(%1 #4 rings?
2 Whyaretheredifferentcotorsin Saturn's

*2
dm5 veryco[d?
3 Whyis Neptune

@6
Bocksandlce meteoriteor C for the
Writef for the Tunguska
Chicxulubmeteorite.
+ Readpages16-19. Thismeteorite
...
t hit Earthmitlionsof yearsago. [,.
1 Writethe words.
a forest.
2 destroyed
meteor comet meteoriteasteroid
[ong.
3 wasabout20 kitometers
1 Thisis madeof iceanddust. a tot of animals.
4 kiLted
2 Thisis a bigrock. in the sky.
5 exptoded
3 Thisis a pieceof rock,dust,or icethat enters the weatherfor a [ongtime.
6 changed
the
atmosphere. about100yearsago.
7 hit Russia
4 Thisis a pieceof iceor rockthat hitsa planet.
Correctthe sentences.
Completethe sentences. andtheSun.
Earth
bettis between
1 Theasteroid
ice crater dinosaurstait rings rocks burn ;**hm9ti* 9rs
1 Therearetwo bett.
2 A tot of cometscomefromthe asteroid
around
the Sun.
2 Theasteroid
bettis madeof
3 TheKuiperbettis madeof piecesof 3 Cometsbecomecotderwhentheyarenearthe Sun.

4 Whena cometcomesnearthe Sun,it hasa


5 Mostmeteors Cometin the skyatLthe time.
4 We canseeHalley's
whentheyenterthe
atmosphere.
6 A big meteorite
canmakea hit the Moonin 1994.
5 Somemeteorites
on Earth.
7 The werebiganimalsthat tiveda long
timeago. 6 About65 mittionyearsago,therewereno animats
on Earth.
Astronomy Completethe sentences.
discoveredbelieved Sun universe
3 Readpages20-23. gravity believed important proved

1 Writethe words. in the sotarsystemorbited


saidthat everything
1 Copernicus
tetescopetempte seeds astronomerspacecraftca[endar but nobody hi m .

2 Ga[ileo but
Copernicus, peopte

m
-A
# didn'twanthimto writeabouthisideas.
Newtondiscoveredthe forceof .H e

ft
wasright.
that Copernicus

W 4 Hubbte
therearelotsof gataxies
anothergalaxy.
in the
Nowwe knowthat

# Findand write the words.


W
f e s t V a t e
Write true or false.
1 Ancientpeopleusedthe starsto calculate
things.
thoughtthatthe Earthorbitedthe Sun.
2 Galiteo
1 showthatsomething o x s g n I o t
is 3 Gravitymakesp[anetsorbitthe Sun.
correct F$-#V#" r f j k a p c X e
4 TheMilkyWayis madeof bitlionsof comets.
c a t c u t a t e
2 a speciaI
day 5 Hubbte
discovered universe.
another
e o h a J X m e n
3 thinkthatsomething
is e X p t o r e m s Whatdo youthinkwasthe mostimportantdiscovery
in
true z s a k r W p e Why?
I the historyof astronomy?
a buitding
withstatues b e t I e V e t s
of gods e V u (p I o V c) t
5 [ookarounda newptace
6 usenumbers
to findout something I
7 it canmovethings t
x
, Lifeon OtherPlanets Completethe sentences.
simpte
imaginecovers underground
3 Readpages24-27.
are
1 Bacteria livingthingson Earth.
1 Write the words. UFO canal bacteria alien 2 We can lifeon otherplanets.
3 Maybethereare riverson Mars.
4 lce of Europa.
the surface

Circlethe correctwords.
1 Lifeon Earthneedssotid/ tiquidwater.
2
Venus/ Mars.
2 Atthe moment,robotsareexptoring
is warmer/ colder
thinkthat the insideof Europa
3 Scientists
thanthe suface.
4 Thetakeson Titanaremadeof oxygen/ hydrocarbons.

Answerthe questions.
Write Earth,Mars,Europa,or Titan.
thinktherewerecanatson Mars?
1 Whydid peopl,e
places
1 These haveanatmosphere.
, and
of Mars?
2 Whyisn'tthereanywateron the surface
of theseplacesis ice.
2 Thesurface
and
3 Robots this ptace.
areexptoring 3 Whatarelivingthingsmadeof?

4 Theseplaceshavelakeson the surface. Doyouthink we witt find life on otherplanets?


Whyor
and why not?
5 Lotsof livingthingsarein this place.
T
3 Completethe puzzte.
People
in Space 1 thi ngs- w heny oudon'thol dthem .
In space,
2 AstronautssleePin a sPecial
-.
+ Readpages28-gL. orbited SpaceStation
3 Astronautsdon'tfeel- in sPace.
ree{tet Moon person
1 Comptete 4 Astronautshaveto use- machines to keeptheirbodiesstrong.
the chart. spaceshuttle
5 Astronautsweara - to covertheireyes.
6 Astronautsusea specia[- because waterfloatsin space.
TheHistoryof SpaceTravel
7 cookfoodin specia[
Astronauts -.
L957 Thefirst 8 canbecome
Astronauts - in sPace.
wentintospace.
1961 Thefirst visitedspace.
1 958 Astronauts
in Apollo8 the Moon
for the firsttime.

1969 Astronauts [andedon the for


the firsttime.

1 981 The flewfor the firsttime.


1998 Thefirstastronauts
visitedthe International

2 Write true or false. 4 Woutdyou tiketo live in space?Whyor why not?


1 Thefirstpersonin spacewasAmerican.
2 Astronauts
col[ected
thingsfromthe Moon.
3 A spaceshuttletakesoff tikea ptane.
4 A spacestationis whereastronauts
can[ive.
5 Gravitymakesyourbodystrong.
6 TheInternational
Space
Station
wasbuilton Earth.
tF
OurFuturein Space 3 Comptetethe chart.
exploringothersotarsystems robotson Mars spacetourism
3 Readpages32-35. findingatiens spacehotels veryfastnewspacecraft
a Moonbase spaceptanes astronauts on Mars
1 Comptete
the sentences.
Thishashappened:
EngineersRadiationexperiments
space
suit

1 Youhaveto weara to protectyourbody


in space. Thiswitt happen:
is dangerous
energy
fromthe Sun.
3 Scientists
wit[do in the Moonbase.
aredesigning
newrobots. Maybethiswilt happenoneday:
2 Match.Thenwrite sentences.

Spaceplanesare-*:=_ inventfasterspacecraft.
Robonauts stayin spacehotets.
atmosphere t..,
Earth's go to dangerous
ptaces. 4 Answerthe questions.
Maybetouristswilt -- cheaper thanrockets. 1 Whathavepeopte intospace?
buittto taketourists
witl probabty
Scientists protectsusfromradiation.

q'{}*.bl*t*. go backto the Moon?


2 Whenwitl astronauts
*Pftc;w,
ffi$mfiir'ti
i*r'"q;,
c;$rr.;'*F::r
l1=;rr'*

ptaces?
in dangerous
3 Whyis it easierto userobonauts

4 Whatdo youthinkwitt happen


in spacein thefuture?
A PlanetPoster $foteiledvert
A Spanffi
1 lmagineyoucanvisitanyptanetin the solarsystem. 1 lmaginea newspacehotel.Writenotes.
2 Choosea planetandwrite notes.
t\t\t\t\It\t\ \\\\\\\ \\\\ \\ \ \ \
t\\ t\t\{\t\\.\\
Temperature 1 ls yourhotelorbitingEarthor is it on the Moon?
\rlh1visit?
andvreather:
2 HowmanytouristscanstaYthere?

3 Dotheytrave[thereby rocketor spaceplane?


Moonsand Whereia if?
atmosphore:
4 Howlongdo they stay?

./
5 Howis it differentfroma hoteton Earth?

Thingsio \ FocKlplanet
seeand do; or ga6gianl? thingscanpeopledo in the hotet?
6 Whatinteresting
?roblams
and dangers:
7 Whyis yourhote[a greatplaceto stay?

3 Makea posteraboutthe planet.Writesentences


and 2 Makean advert.Writeaboutyourhotelandaddpictures
addpicturesto decorateyourposter. to decorateyouradvert.
yourposter.
4 Disptay 3 Disptayyouradvert.
GIossary lillilU"*:il"Jli
^1
::::,:l,llli
ii?kX?iil1,:L'nll, ki[[ to makesomethingor someonedie
lake a big areaof water
set to go down
shower y<-rLr wasltyourseltwith this
land to fly a ptaneor rocketfromthe air single ottc
acid a dangerous [iquidthat candestroy die to stopliving ontothe [and size lr owbig or sm at [som et hing or
metaland burnskin distance the spacebetweentwo ptaces last to happenfor an amountof time sonteoncis
alien a tivingthingfromanotherplanet; dust verysmallpiecesof dirt tife att thingsthat [ive,[ikeanimats,ptants, sky wherethe ctoudsandthe Sunare
fromanotherotanet dwarf a verysmatlpersonor thing and peopte soil the groundthat pLantsgrowin
ancient fromthousands of yearsin the past energy we needenergyto moveandgrow; tiquid not a sotid;wateris a tiquid solar system a sunwith planetsaroundit
appear to start to be seen machinesneedenergyto work mask you wearthis overYourfaceor space everything aroundEarthandoutside
area part of a place enough how muchwe want or need youreyes Earth'satmosphere
asteroid a big rockthat orbitsthe Sun enter to go into material somethingthat you useto make spacecrafta machinethat travelsthrough
astronomera personwho studiesthe equipment thingsyou need,[ike machines otherthi ngs space
ptanetsandstars andtools metal a hardmateriaImadefrom minerats; spaceshuttle a spacecraft that cango into
astronomystudyingthe planetsandstars exercise what we do when we moveto rocketsand ptanesare madeof this spacem anyt im es
atmospherethe gasandcloudsaround stayheatthy meteor a materialfrom spacethat entersa spacestation a ptacein sPacefor
a D[anet exist to live p[anet'satmosphere astronauts to live in
bacteria verysimplelivingthings experimenta test usingscienceequipment meteorite a materialfrom spacethat hits spacesuit speciaIctothesthat protect
believe to think that somethingis true explode to suddenlydivideinto lots of a ptanet astronauts
belt somethingthat goesaround pieces Moon base a placeon the Moonfor spot a roundshape
something explore to travel to new placesto discover astronauts to live andwork statue a man-made shaPeof a Person,
bright futt of tight n e wth i n gs object a thing often madeof stone
burn to makeflamesand heat explosionwhat you get whensomething orbit to go aroundsomething step to put yourfeet on something
catculateto usenumbersto find out explodes outer on the outside stick to join onethingto another
something farthest at the biggestdistance oven you cookfood insideit storm badweather;lots of wind and rain
calendar a recordof the monthsand days finish to end past manyyearsago sunrise whenthe SuncomesuP in the
in a year float to moveslowlyon wateror in the air planet a large,roundthing in spacethat m or ning
canal it's man-made and [ikea river forest a placewith a [ot of trees goesarounda star surface the outsideor the top of something
canyon a deepvaltey form to makeor to be made ptant to put seedsor ptantsin the soilto t ait a longt hingbehindan anim aIor a
ca rb o n a c hem ic alt hat is i n a l l l i v i n g fuel somethingthat we useto produce makethem grow comet
th i n g s heator energy pressurethe forceor weightof something take off to leavethe ground
center the middte galaxy a verybig groupof starsin space on anotherthing technotogythe designof new machines
change to becomedifferent;to make g a s n o t a soti dor l i qui d;ai r i s a gas processwhenthingshappenoneafter telescope a machinethat makesthings
somethingdifferent giant a verybig personor thing another look bigger
chemicaIa solidor tiquidthat is madeby gravity this makessma[[thingsmove produce to makesomething temperature how hot or cotdsomethingis
chemistry towardbiggerthingsin spaceand putls protect to keepsafefrom danger temple a retigiousbuitding
comet a big pieceof ice anddustthat thingstowardthe groundon Earth prove to showthat somethingis true trap to keepsomethingin a placewhereit
orbitsthe Sun group a numberof peopleor thingsthat reach to get to can'tescape
container we put thingslike food in this aretogether rea[ that exists UFOan unidentified ftyingobject;we don't
cover to put somethingoversomething; grow to get bigger ring a circle knowwhatt his is
to be oversomething hote a spacein something rise to go up universe everything that existsin space
crater a big hotein the groundmadeby huge verybig rocky with a [ot of rocks andt im e
an explosion hydrocarbona chemicalmadeof hydrogen, satellite a machinethat goesinto space view the thingsthat you canseefroma
deep goinga longway down carbon,and otherthings seed the sma[[,hardpartof a ptanua new placelike a window
destroy to damagesomethingverybadly imagine to think of a possiblesituation plantcangrowfromthis weight how heavysomethingis
i n n e r o n the i nsi de
SeriesEditor:HazelGeatches
. CLILAdviser:
JohnCtegg
OxfordReadand Discovergradedreaders areat fourlevets,from
3 to 6, suitablefor students
fromage8 andoLder.Theycovermany
topicswithinthreesubjectareas, andcansupportEngtish across the
curriculum, or contentandLanguage Integrated
Learning(cllL).
Avaitable for eachreader:
. A u d i oC DPa c k( b o o k& a u d i oC D )
. ActivityBook
ForTeacher's
Notes& CLILGuidance go to
www.oup.com/ elt/ teacher,/reada
nddiscover
r.. Subject
The World of Science The Natural The World of Arts
\rea
Level \ & Technotogy World & SocialStudies
HowWe Make Products AmazingMinibeasts * FestivalsAround
@ SoundandMusic Animalsin the Air the World
u FreeTimeAround
600 SuperStructures Life in Rainforests
headwords YourFiveSenses the World
WonderfulWater
s .
ffi
t5u
*
r
AUAbout Plants
How to Stay Heatthy .
.
At[ About DesertLife
All About OceanLife
' Animalsin Art
, Wondersof the Past
Machines Thenand Now Animalsat Night
headwords . Why We Recycle . IncredibleEarth
Materialsto Products * A[1Aboutlslands HomesAround
@ MedicineThenand Now *
*
AnimalLifeCyctes theWortd
OurWortdin Art
900 Transportation
Then Exploring
OurWortd
headwords and Now * GreatMigrations
Witd Weather
. Cetlsand Microbes . A[[ About Space e HelpingAround
@ . CtothesThenand Now . Caringfor Our Ptanet
.
the Wortd
1,050 r IncredibleEnergy . EarthThenand Now FoodAround
headwordso YourAmazingBody . the Wortd
Wondeful Ecosystems

Foryoungerstudents,DotphinReadersLevelsstarter,t, and2 areavaitable.

(@