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# Chapter 3

AUTODYN Basics

IIntroduction
t d ti to t ANSYS
AUTODYN

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Structured and Unstructured Parts (Meshes) Training Manual

## An AUTODYN Part can use a

Structured mesh or an Unstructured
mesh
Structured meshes can be g
generated in
AUTODYN
Use (I,J,K) index space

## Unstructured meshes must be imported

(e.g. from Workbench)

## Lagrange Parts (Solid, Shell, Beam)

Can be Structured or Unstructured
Unstructured Parts are solved more
efficiently (speed and memory)
A Structured Part can be converted to an
Unstructured Part prior to solving

Lagrange
g g Parts ((structured or
unstructured) can be used to fill regions
of Euler and SPH Parts

## Euler and ALE Parts

Always Structured
Euler meshes are usually rectilinear
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1
AUTODYN Basics
Structured Parts - Index Space Training Manual

## Each Structured Part in AUTODYN has a defined index space (i,j) in 2D or

(i,j,k) in 3D, where i, j and k are integer values ranging from 1 to Ni, Nj, Nk
This index space
p is always
y rectangular
g

j=6

j i=1 i = 11

j=1

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Structured Parts - Physical Space Training Manual

## Each Structured Part is also defined in a physical xyz-space, where x,

y and z are real values
The mesh can have a g
general shape in physical
y space

j=6

i=1 i = 11
y

j=1
x

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Structured Parts Unused Elements Training Manual

## Not all elements defined in the index space need to be defined in

physical space
Elements
El t nott assigned
i d a material
t i l are Unused
U d
Allows complicated geometries to be meshed

Unused
Elements

Index Space
p y
Physical Space
p

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Creating Structured Parts Training Manual

## Part Wizard allows automatic generation of quality

structured Parts for predefined (Predef) geometries
2D Volume
Box, Quad, Circle, Ogive, Rhombus, Triangle, Wedge

3D Volume
Box, Hex, Cylinder, Sphere, Ogive, Fragments/Bricks

Shells Part
Wizard
Plate, Cylinder

Nodes
N d
Lines
Surfaces
Volumes

## Import Structured Meshes

ICEM-CFD
TrueGrid
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1
AUTODYN Basics
Part Wizard Training Manual

## Part Wizard generates a Part in three steps

Define a Predef geometry
Define the zoning
Fill the whole Part

## Geometry Zoning Fill

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1
AUTODYN Basics
Part Wizard 2D Box Predef Training Manual

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Part Wizard 2D Circle Predef Training Manual

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Part Wizard 2D Predefs Training Manual

Ogive

Rhombus

Wedge

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Part Wizard 3D Box Predef Training Manual

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Part Wizard 3D Cylinder Predef Training Manual

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Part Wizard 3D Predefs Training Manual

Sphere
Ogive

Hex
Bricks / Fragments

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Part Wizard 3D Shell Predefs Training Manual

Plane
Cylinder

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Manual Zoning Training Manual

using
Node
Line
Surface
Volume
Interpolation
Extrusion

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Importing 3D Structured Parts Training Manual

ANSYS, ICEM-CFD

## Powerful 3D hex mesh

generator
t

CATIA
CATIA, Pro/Engineer,
P /E i SDRC II-
DEAS, SolidWorks, Unigraphics, .

An interface to ICEM-CFD is
provided to allow import of
structured (mapped) meshes
into AUTODYN
ICEM multiblock meshes (.geo file)

TrueGrid

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Materials and Initial Conditions Training Manual

## Materials and Initial Conditions are defined from

the Materials and Init. Cond. Dialog Panels
respectively
Once defined, they can be applied to Parts using
the Part Wizard and / or the Fill options in the
Parts dialog panel.

Apply
Define

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Filling Parts with Materials and Initial Conditions Training Manual

## Additional fills can be performed after the Wizard

completes
Each fill replaces materials / initial conditions of previous fills

## Lagrange elements are filled if their center lies inside

the fill region (no multi-material cells are permitted)

Wizard Fill
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1
AUTODYN Basics
Boundary Conditions Training Manual

Boundary Conditions
C are defined
f f
from the Boundaries Dialog Panel
Once defined, Boundary Conditions can be applied to structured Parts
g index space from the Boundary
using y option in the Parts dialog
g panel

Apply

Define

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Boundary Conditions Training Manual

## Boundary Conditions can be applied the outside faces of a mesh and

the outside faces of Unused regions of the mesh
The default boundary condition is:
Lagrange: Free boundary (pressure = 0.0)
Euler : Rigid wall (no flow, velocity = 0.0)

U
Unused
d elements
l t

Filled elements

Boundary Conditions
can be applied here

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Boundary Conditions: Stress Training Manual

## Applied to Lagrange Parts

Constant Trapezoid

t t

Triangular Exponent
Pk = Pe-kt

t t

Piecewise User
subroutine
EXSTR

t t

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Boundary Conditions: Velocity Training Manual

## Applied to Lagrange, ALE, Shell, Beam and

SPH Parts
X, Y, Z Velocity Constraints
Constant
Fixed at a constant value

Limit
Limit position between max and min coordinates
Displacement constraint in Explicit Dynamics

Piecewise
Piecewise linear segments

## General Velocity Constraints

Fixed constant velocities in XX, Y
Y, Z (3D) and
fixed rotational velocities about coordinate axes

## User subroutine EXVEL

User Time-Dependant X,
X Y,
Y Z velocity

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Boundary Conditions: Force Training Manual

Subroutine EXFOR

## Element force/unit length

g
boundary conditions

Subroutine EXFOR

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Boundary Conditions: Transmit Training Manual

transmitted

## The impedance of the boundary can be

specified
I = c
If impedance is set to zero the
impedance of the adjacent cell is used

## The Transmit boundary condition is only

approximate and should be placed as
far as possible from regions of interest

F
For air
i blast
bl t iin E
Euler,
l Outflow
O tfl b
boundary
d
with p = 0.0 is recommended
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1
AUTODYN Basics
Boundary Conditions: Flow Training Manual

## Applied to Euler Parts

Inflow
Specify the full state of the material flowing
into the grid (density, internal energy and
velocity)
Outflow ((P = = e = 0)
Only the preferred material needs to be set
Reverse flow can be specified. If conditions
of reverse flow are reached,, an external
reservoir with prescribed conditions controls
inflow
You must specify the full state of the material
flowing
o g into
to tthe
eggrid
d (de
(density,
s ty, internal
te a e energy
e gy
and velocity)
The Outflow boundary condition is only
approximate and should be placed as far as
possible from regions of interest

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Lagrange Interactions Training Manual

## Options are the same as those used in Explicit

Dynamics (ANSYS)
Details given in the Body Interactions section of the
Explicit Dynamics training course

Contact type
Trajectory (default)

Method (Formulation)
Penalty
Decomposion Response

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Units Training Manual

## AUTODYN uses single precision to make optimum use of solver power

and memory, so the choice of units is important, particularly for Euler
problems
Avoid pressures below 10-6 of a unit
Avoid cell masses less than 10-6 of a unit
The default set of units work well for virtually all problems
Length mm
Mass mg
Time ms
Velocity m/s
Force mN
Stress kPa
Density g/cm3
Energy mJ
Workbench Units will be converted to the chosen AUTODYN units when
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1
AUTODYN Basics
Solution Controls Training Manual

Wrapup Criteria
Must specify Cycle limit and Time limit

## AUTODYN will stop and give warning if

energy error exceeds Energy fraction
(default 5%)

Timestep Options
Defaults are usually OK

## If Initial timestep is left zero, it is computed

as half the stability timestep

## If Minimum timestep is left zero

zero, it is
computed as 1/10th of the Initial time step

## Safety factor can be safely increased to 0.9

for most Lagrange calculations
calc lations

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Conservation Equations Training Manual

## Mass and Momentum

are conserved exactly
Energy is not
conserved exactly

Practical numerical
methods which are
fully conservative have
problems of stability
and can be noisy
Good energy
gy
Conservation of conservation
energy and Problem

momentum can be
monitored using
history plotting
features. Good model
set-ups and analyses
will tend to have low
errors
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1
AUTODYN Basics
Output Controls Training Manual

## Save Files / Results Files

Frequency specified by
Cycle
C l iincrement
Time increment
Calculation can be re-started
re started from Save files
(not Results files)
Results files are significantly smaller than
Save files
Plots can be created from any Save file or
Results file
Animations can be created from a sequence
of Save / Results files
More flexible than Capture image

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Output Controls Training Manual

## Used to create plots

All
Allows post-processing
i off llarge models
d l on
computers with limited resources

## Must be present to load Results file data

bcyc - the cycle number for the Base file

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Release 12.1

AUTODYN Basics
Workshop 1: 2D Fragment Impact Training Manual

Goal:
Model a multi-material
cylindrical
y fragment
g
impacting a plate

Procedure:
Startt AUTODYN
St
standalone
Set up the problem in
using 2D Axial
Symmetry
Solve the problem
View the results
Create animations of
the results