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Philippine Administrative System

(DPA 102)
PAS refers to a network of organizations
with specific rules and goals, structures,
resources and programs. It includes the
internal processes of and the interaction
between and among public
organizations, which are constituted to
implement, help formulate, monitor or
assess public policies
Public

PA Socio-political
and economic
environment

This system covers the PA relationship with its


immediate public in contact, as well as the PAs
reactions to or how it is affected by the greater
socio-political and economic environment within
which it operates
PAS empowers people:
1) institutionalizes access to PAS services;
2) decentralizes & makes operations transparent;
3) listens and works with people;
4) procedures should be made simple and local language should be used.
Components of PAS:
Public organization - legal mandates, major functions
and structures, etc.
Internal procedures and interactive efforts - perform
public functions thru defined rules and procedures
internal to the org.
Responsible for implementing public policies
formulated jointly by the legislative and executive
branches
Conscious of the different kinds of clientele that it
deals with
Socio-political, economic environment PAS as part
of the bigger social system with competing claims to
limited resources and, institutions play a role in
determining the utilization of resources
Components of PAS:

Public organization - legal mandates, major


functions and structures, etc.
Internal procedures and interactive efforts -
perform public functions thru defined rules
and procedures internal to the organization
Responsible for implementing public policies
formulated jointly by the legislative and
executive branches
Components of PAS:

Conscious of the different kinds of clientele


that it deals with
Socio-political, economic environment
PAS as part of the bigger social system with
competing claims to limited resources and,
institutions play a role in determining the
utilization of resources
Sources of Power of the PAS

Instrument of the state government


functions are exercised legitimately,
supported by enabling state policies and
authority
Enforcer and implementor of public policy
discretion in policy implementation
Service delivery system discretion to
determine quantity, quality, adequacy and
timeliness of services it provides
Sources of Power of the PAS

Participant in policy formulation advice is


sought on legislation and policy-making
Technical expertise professional training of
civil servants in areas of competence on policy
issues
Nationwide presence expansive reach to
mobilize support for programs all over the
country.
Capability-Building (CB)

CB refers to the building of people-based


structures and institutions which is the real
essence of the concept. It means enabling
people to organize themselves around
common needs and to work together towards
common ends. It is addressed to policy makers,
program implementor, and program
beneficiary.
Four Stages of CB Process

Stages of CB
Process

Problem Identification

Objective Setting

Program planning

Structure building
Four Outputs of CB Process

Outputs of
CB Process

Effective self sustaining


community organizations

Installation of community self


management process

Partnership/linkage with outside


structures

Community problem solving


capability
Political and Administrative Accountability

Accountability is defined as a condition in which


individuals who exercise power are
constrained by external means and by
internal norms.
It refers to the institution of checks and
balances in an organization thru which an
administrator accounts for his stewardship of
resources or authority.
Political and Administrative Accountability

The political-administrative continuum means that


elected officials are politically accountable to
the electorate or their constituencies who voted
them to their positions. These elected officials
are held responsible thru regular elections and
other means, i.e. recall and referendum.
Appointive public officials answer to the people
thru the elected officials who appointed them
and directly to the public whom they serve.
Four Types of Accountability

Types of Accountability

Individual
Accountability

Accountability
of Administrators

Political
Accountability

Accountability
of National Leaders
Four Types of Accountability

Individual accountability public employees are


answerable for the responsible, efficient and
effective performance of their tasks.
Accountability of administrators for their
stewardship of the administrative authority,
resources and information placed at their
disposal as leaders of public organization.
Four Types of Accountability
Political accountability of institutions that must
answer for their organizational mandate and
functions, particularly as they form part of the
incumbent government strategy for national
development.
Accountability of national leaders elected
national leadership must answer for the
performance in pursuing their programs of
government and their use of national resources,
given the authority, power and resources vested in
them by their constituency
PAS Structure
Constitutional bodies: 1) constitutional
commissions - CSC, COA, COMELEC; 2)
constitutionally created/mandated special
bodies CHR and Ombudsman
Executive Departments
GOCCs (wholly-owned or at least 51%)
Chartered institutions (created by law)
LGUs
Administrative Relationships
If an office is under the supervision and control of another
unit, it means that the higher office:
Has authority to act directly, whenever specific function is
entrusted by law or regulation to a subordinate
Directs the performance of a duty
Restrains the commission of acts
Reviews, approves, reverses or modified acts or decision of
subordinate officials and units
Determines priorities in executing plans and programs
Prescribes standards, guidelines, plans and programs
Administrative Supervision and Attachment

Administrative supervision:
Oversee the operations of such agencies to insure
these are managed effectively, efficiently and
economically; no interference in day to day
activities
Require submission of reports; cause the conduct
of mgt audit, performance evaluation and
inspection to determine rectification of
violations, abuses, etc.
Review and pass upon budget proposal of such
agencies, but may not increase or add to them.
Administrative Supervision and Attachment

Attachment (Attached agencies or corporations)


Department represented in the board, as chair or
member
Comply with periodic reporting
Department provides general policies thru its
board representatives
Government Reorganization (GR)

Pre planning or
Reorganization

Government Preparation of
Reorganization
Reorganization proposals

Final Stage
Government Reorganization (GR)
GR - planned deliberate efforts to systematically alter the
existing organizational structure usually for the purpose
of achieving government objectives with more economy,
efficiency and effectiveness.
Pre-planning or reorganization: 1) how reorganization is
initiated; 2) who is the authority vested with
reorganization; 3) setting goals and tasks; 4) defining the
powers to reorganize & outline the scope; 5) setting
resources
Preparation of reorganization proposals: 1) constituting
the reorganization body; 2) preparing the reorganization
proposals; 3) recruiting support and staff; 4) creating
information base for preparation of proposals
Final stage is the passage of a law that grants the
authority to implement the reorganization process
Budget Cycle: Budget Preparation
Budgetary parameters is determined by the
Department Budget Coordination Committee (DBCC)
composed of DBM, NEDA, DOF, BSP and OP. DBCC
recommends:
level of annual government expenditure program and
ceiling for government spending for economic and social
development, national defense, general government and
debt service
proper allocation of expenditures for each development
activity between current operating expenditures and
capital outlay
amount set to be allocated for capital outlay under each
development's activity for the various capital or infra
projects. Sets budget ceiling consistent with macro-
economic targets as presented in the MTPDP
Budget Cycle: Budget Preparation

Approval
Budget Budget of the
Budget
Review & validation & President
Hearings
Consolidation confirmation & the
Cabinet
Budget Cycle: Budget Preparation

Budget
Approval Budget Budget
Execution Accountability
(GAA)
Budget Cycle: Budget Preparation
After budget parameters are approved, DBM issues the budget call
(National Budget Circular), defining the budget framework.

Budget hearings. Upon receipt of the budget call, agencies issue their
own internal office guidelines to prepare budgetary estimates along
the broad framework of the policy guidelines.

Budget review and consolidation. After agency hearings, modifications


and revisions of agency budget proposals may be made. DBM
consolidates results of these changes and clears with the President
thru DBCC. President then authorized DBM to estimate total
expenditures & reconcile with revenue estimates.
Budget Cycle: Budget Preparation

Budget validation and confirmation. After consolidation into a


national budget, this is subjected to further
evaluation/validation, by DBM thru comprehensive policy
review of all agency and special purpose fund budgets, then
to DBCC for examination.

Approval by the President and Cabinet. The approved budget is


forwarded to Congress, together with the Presidents budget
message and other documents, i.e. Budget of Expenditure
and Sources of Financing, the National Expenditure Program,
and the Regional Expenditure Program.
Budget Approval, Execution & Accountability

Budget approval. Converting budget proposal into law


the General Appropriations Act (GAA)
Budget Execution: Allotment and cash release program
based on the GAA. Agency submits to DBM its
Agency Budget Matrix (ABM). DBM issues the Special
Allotment Release Order (SARO) and Notice of Cash
Allocation (NCA)
Budget Accountability. Establishes accountability of
government agencies that received public funds, thru
system of monitoring agency performance vis--vis
approved work targets.
The Budget Cycle
Budget
Preparation
(DBCC, agencies)
Budget
Budget
Approval
Accountability
(Congress)
(agencies, COA) Budget
Process

Budget
Execution
(agencies)
Sources:

Alfiler Ma. Concepcion P. Philippine Administrative


System (PAS)., UP Open University, Diliman Quezon City

Rubico, Naty. Philippine Administrative System


UP NCPAG 2010