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- Lecture 39
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- SCIENTIA MAGNA, book series, Vol. 4, No. 4
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L L qk , q k , t

Let us introduce a new function H, known as

Hamiltonian, a function (p, q, t) and defined as

H pk q k L qk , q k , t

k

of motion

H H

q k , p k ,

pk qk

L H

and also ,

t t

Physical significance of the Hamiltonian function :-

is constant of motion i.e.

L H

0

t t

or H const.

depend upon generalized velocity, i.e

V

0

q k

and also we know that

H pk q k L qk , q k , t

k

L

H q k L qk , q k , t

k q

k

(T V )

q k L qk , q k , t

k q k

2

1 mq k2

q k L qk , q k , t

k q k

2T L

T V E (total energy )

H represents the total energy of the system.

Variational principles :

(i) Euler-Lagrange differential equation for one dependent

and one independent variable :-

(i) Variational principle give the necessary conditions that

the quantity appearing as an integral has either a

minimum or maximum i.e. stationary value.

Consider the simplest integral

x2

J f ( y, y ' , x)dx

x1

dy

such that y'

dx

The dependence of y on x is not specified initially.

We have to choose the path of integration i.e. y(x) such that

J has stationary value.

such that the difference between these two for the given value

of x is the variation of y.

We get the condition that the integral

x2

J f ( y, y ' , x)dx

x1

d f f

0

dx y ' y

This is known as Euler-Lagrangian Differential equation.

Simple application of Euler-Lagrangian Differential

equation :-

points in a plane is a straight line :-

line is given by

ds dx

1/ 2

2

dy 2

2 1/ 2

dy

1 dx

dx

The total distance between two points having co-ordinates (x1, y1)

and (x2, y2) is given by

2 1/ 2

x 2, y 2 x 2, y 2 dy

J ds 1 dx

x1, y1 x1, y1

dx

x2

J f ( y, y ' , x)dx

x1

dy

such that y'

dx

We get,

2 1/ 2

dy 2 1/ 2

f ( y , y ' , x ) 1

1 y'

dx

If J is to be minimum, it must be satisfied Euler- Lagrangian

Equation. Therefore,

d 2 1/ 2 2 1/ 2

(1 y ' ) (1 y ' ) 0

dx y ' y

d y'

or 2 1/ 2

0

dx (1 y ' )

y'

or 2 1/ 2

c

(1 y ' )

c c

or y' 2 1/ 2

a ( where a 2 1/ 2

is const )

(1 c ) (1 c )

dy

or a

dx

or y ax b

Where, b is constant of integration.

Which is the equation of a straight line. Hence Eulers equation

predicts that the shortest distance between two fixed points in a

plane is a straight line.

(ii). Equation of a curve which when revolved about y axis

gives minimum surface of revolution.

curves passing between two fixed end points (x1, y1) and (x2,

y2) defining the x-y plane , and revolving it about the y-axis

as shown in figure. The area2

of a strip of the surface is

2xds 2x 1 y ' dx and the total area

2

is 2 x 1 y '2 dx

1

x2

J f ( y, y ' , x)dx

x1

dy

such that y'

dx

We get,

2 1/ 2

f ( y, y ' , x) x 1 y '

and

If J is to be minimum, it must be satisfied Euler- Lagrangian

Equation. Therefore,

d 2 1/ 2 2 1/ 2

x (1 y ' ) x (1 y ' ) 0

dx y ' y

d xy '

or 2 1/ 2

0

dx (1 y ' )

xy ' 2 2 2 2

or a or y ' ( x a ) a

(1 y '2 )1/ 2

dy a

or y ' 2

dx ( x a 2 )1/ 2

The general solution of this differential equation is

dx x

y a 2 2 1/ 2

b a arccos h b

(x a ) a

y b

or x a cosh

a

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