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Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition

Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala

McGraw-Hill, 2010

Chapter 10

Lecture slides by
Assoc.Prof.Dr.Hasan Hacevki
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
In this chapter, we discuss several approximations that simplify the
Navier-Stokes equation, including creeping flow, where viscous terms
dominate inertial terms. The flow of lava from a volcano is an example
of creeping flowthe viscosity of molten rock is so large that the
Reynolds number is small even though the length scales are large.
Appreciate why approximations are necessary to
solve many fluid flow problems, and know when
and where such approximations are appropriate
Understand the effects of the lack of inertial terms
in the creeping flow approximation, including the
disappearance of density from the equations
Understand superposition as a method of solving
potential flow problems
Predict boundary layer thickness and other
boundary layer properties

In Chap. 9, we derived the differential equation
of linear momentum for an incompressible
Newtonian fluid with constant propertiesthe
NavierStokes equation.
The vast majority of practical fluid mechanics
problems cannot be solved analytically and
require either
(1) further approximations
(2) computer assistance.
We consider option 1 here;
For simplicity, we consider only incompressible
Exact solutions begin with flow of Newtonian fluids in this chapter.
the full NavierStokes
equation, while approximate We must be very careful of the
solutions begin with a approximations we apply, and we
simplified form of the Navier should always verify and justify our
Stokes equation right from the approximations wherever possible.
start. 4
A particular approximation of the NavierStokes equation is
appropriate only in certain regions of the flow field; other
approximations may be appropriate in other regions of the flow field.


Nondimensionalized NavierStokes:

The gradient operator is

nondimensionalized by Eq.
103, regardless of our
choice of coordinate system.
For flows without free-surface effects,
gravity does not affect the dynamics
of the flowits only effect is to
superpose a hydrostatic pressure on
the dynamic pressure field.

For complete dynamic similarity

between prototype (subscript p) and
model (subscript m), the model must
be geometrically similar to the
prototype, and (in general) all four
dimensionless parameters, St, Eu, Fr,
and Re, must match.
Pressure and modified pressure
distribution on the right face of a
fluid element in Couette flow
between two infinite, parallel,
horizontal plates: (a) z = 0 at the
bottom plate, and (b) z = 0 at the top
plate. The modified pressure P is
constant, but the actual pressure P
is not constant in either case. The
shaded area in (b) represents the
hydrostatic pressure component.

Our first approximation is the class of fluid flow called
creeping flow (Stokes flow or low Reynolds
number flow).
As the latter name implies, these are flows in which
the Reynolds number is very small (Re << 1). By
inspection of the definition of the Reynolds number,
Re = VL/, we see that creeping flow is encountered
when either , V, or L is very small or viscosity is
very large (or some combination of these).
The bacterium
through water.

The slow flow of a

very viscous liquid
like honey is
classified as
creeping flow. 10
A person swims at a very high
Reynolds number, and inertial terms
are large; thus the person is able to
glide long distances without moving.

In the creeping flow approximation,

density does not appear in the
momentum equation.
A child trying to move in a pool of
plastic balls is analogous to a
microorganism trying to propel itself
without the benefit of inertia.

A sperm of the sea

squirt Ciona swimming
in seawater; flash
photographs at 200
frames per second. 12
Drag on a Sphere in Creeping Flow
The drag force FD on a three-dimensional object of characteristic dimension L
moving under creeping flow conditions at speed V through a fluid with viscosity
is FD = constant VL.
Dimensional analysis cannot predict the value of the constant, since it
depends on the shape and orientation of the body in the flow field.
For the particular case of a sphere, Eq. 1011 can be solved analytically.


An inviscid region of flow is

a region where net viscous
forces are negligible
compared to inertial and/or
pressure forces because
the Reynolds number
is large; the fluid itself is still
a viscous fluid.

Inviscid regions of flow are regions of high Reynolds number

the opposite of creeping flow regions.
The NavierStokes equation loses its viscous term and reduces
to the Euler equation,

Because of the no-slip condition at solid walls, frictional forces are not negligible in
a region of flow very near a solid wall. In such a region, called a boundary layer,
the velocity gradients normal to the wall are large enough to offset the small value
of 1/Re.

The Euler equation is an

approximation of the Navier
Stokes equation, appropriate
only in regions of the flow where
the Reynolds number is large
and where net viscous forces
are negligible compared to
inertial and/or pressure forces.

Euler equation approximation, we cannot specify the no-slip boundary

condition at solid walls, although we still specify that fluid cannot flow
through the wall (the wall is impermeable).
Solutions of the Euler equation are therefore not physically meaningful
near solid walls, since flow is allowed to slip there.
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation
in Inviscid Regions of Flow

Solid body rotation is an
example of an inviscid
region of flow that is
also rotational. The
Bernoulli constant C differs
from streamline to
streamline but is constant
along any particular

There are regions of flow in which fluid particles have no net rotation; these regions
are called irrotational.
In general, inviscid regions of flow far away from solid walls and wakes of bodies
are also irrotational, although as pointed out previously, there are situations in
which an inviscid region of flow may not be irrotational (e.g., solid body rotation).
Solutions obtained for the class of flow defined by irrotationality are thus
approximations of full NavierStokes solutions.
Mathematically, the approximation is that vorticity is negligibly small.

The irrotational flow

approximation is
appropriate only in certain
regions of the flow where
the vorticity is negligible. 23
Continuity Equation

velocity potential function

Regions of irrotational flow are also

called regions of potential flow.

The vector identity of Eq.

1020 is easily proven
by expanding the terms
in Cartesian coordinates. 24
In irrotational regions of flow,
The Laplace equation for velocity three unknown scalar
potential function is valid in both two components of the velocity
and three dimensions and in any vector are combined into one
coordinate system, but only in unknown scalar functionthe
irrotational regions of flow (generally velocity potential function. 25
away from walls and wakes).
Momentum Equation

The NavierStokes equation reduces to the Euler

equation in irrotational regions of the flow,

An irrotational region of flow is

a region where net viscous
forces are negligible compared
to inertial and/or pressure
forces because of the
irrotational approximation. All
irrotational regions of flow are
therefore also inviscid, but not
all inviscid regions of flow are
irrotational. The fluid itself is still
a viscous fluid in either case.
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation
in Irrotational Regions of Flow
If the gradient of some scalar quantity (the quantity in
parentheses in the equation is zero everywhere, the
scalar quantity itself must be a constant.

In an irrotational region of flow, the

Bernoulli constant is the same
everywhere. The irrotational
approximation is more restrictive
than the inviscid approximation.

Flowchart for obtaining solutions in an

irrotational region of flow. The velocity
field is obtained from continuity and
irrotationality, and then pressure is
obtained from the Bernoulli equation.
The lowest pressure occurs at
the center of the tornado, and
the flow in that region can be
approximated by solid body
Nondimensional tangential velocity distribution (blue curve) and
nondimensional pressure distribution (black curve) along a horizontal radial
slice through a tornado. The inner and outer regions of flow are marked.

Two-Dimensional Irrotational Regions of Flow
We can assume two-dimensionality in any region of the flow where only two
directions of motion are important and where there is no significant variation in the
third direction.
The two most common examples are:
planar flow (flow in a plane with negligible variation in the direction normal to the
axisymmetric flow (flow in which there is rotational symmetry about some axis).
We may also choose to work in Cartesian coordinates, cylindrical coordinates, or
spherical polar coordinates, depending on the geometry of the problem at hand.

Two-dimensional flow is a subset of

three-dimensional flow; in two-
dimensional regions of flow we can
define a stream function, but we
cannot do so in three-dimensional
flow. The velocity potential function,
however, can be defined for any
irrotational region of flow. 33
Planar Irrotational Regions of Flow

Velocity components and unit

vectors in Cartesian
coordinates for planar
twodimensional flow in the xy-
plane. There is no variation
normal to this plane.

Velocity components
and unit vectors in
cylindrical coordinates
In planar irrotational regions of flow, curves of constant for planar flow in the
(equipotential lines) and curves of constant r-plane. There is no
(streamlines) are mutually orthogonal, meaning that variation normal to this
they intersect at 90 angles everywhere. plane.

Axisymmetric Irrotational Regions of Flow
Flow over an axisymmetric
body in cylindrical coordinates
with rotational symmetry about
the z-axis. Neither the
geometry nor the velocity field
depend on ; and u = 0.

The equation for the
stream function in
irrotational flow (Eq.
1034) is not the
Laplace equation.

Summary of Two-Dimensional Irrotational Regions of Flow

Superposition in Irrotational Regions of Flow
If a region of irrotational flow is modeled by the sum of two or more separate
irrotational flow fields, e.g., a source located in a free-stream flow, one can
simply add the velocity potential functions for each individual flow to describe the
combined flow field.

Superposition is the process of

adding two or more irrotational flow
solutions together to generate a
third (more complicated) solution.

In the superposition of two irrotational

flow solutions, the two velocity vectors
at any point in the flow region add
vectorially to produce the composite 38
velocity at that point.
Elementary Planar Irrotational Flows

With superposition we build

up a complicated irrotational
flow field by adding together
elementary building block
irrotational flow fields.

Building Block 1Uniform Stream

(solid) and
equipotential lines
(dashed) for a
uniform stream in
the x-direction.

Streamlines (solid) and equipotential 40

(dashed) for a uniform stream inclined at angle .
Building Block 2Line Source or Line Sink
Fluid emerging uniformly from a finite line segment
of length L. As L approaches infinity, the flow
becomes a line source, and the xy-plane is taken
as normal to the axis of the source.

Line source: The line from which the fluid

Line source strength: The volume flow
rate per unit depth.
Line sink: The opposite of a line source;
fluid flows into the line from all directions in
planes normal to the axis of the line sink.

ur is infinite at the origin since r is zero in the denominator.
We call this a singular point or a singularity.

Some useful
trigonometric identities.

Building Block 3Line Vortex

Building Block 4Doublet

Streamlines (solid) and

equipotential lines (dashed) for
a doublet of strength K located
at the origin in the xy-plane and
aligned with the x-axis.

Irrotational Flows Formed by Superposition
Now that we have a set of building block irrotational
flows, we are ready to construct some more interesting
irrotational flow fields by the superposition technique.
We limit our examples to planar flows in the xy-plane.

Superposition of a Line Sink and a Line Vortex

Streamlines created by
superposition of a line sink
and a line vortex at the
origin. Values of are in
units of m2/s. 51
Superposition of a Uniform Stream and a
DoubletFlow over a Circular Cylinder

Superposition of a uniform
stream and a doublet;
vector velocity addition is
shown at some arbitrary
location in the xy-plane.


Doublet strength:
Alternate form of
stream function:

Superposition of a uniform
Nondimensional stream and a doublet yields a
streamlines: streamline that is a circle. 52
This flow represents
potential flow over a circular
There are two stagnation
points in this flow field, one
at the nose of the cylinder
and one at the tail.

On the surface
of the cylinder:

A fishs body is designed such that its
eye is located near the zero-pressure
point so that its vision is not distorted
while it swims. Data shown are along
the side of a bluefish.

(a) DAlemberts paradox is that the aerodynamic drag on any

nonlifting body of any shape is predicted to be zero when the
irrotational flow approximation is invoked; (b) in real flows there
is a nonzero drag on bodies immersed in a uniform stream. 56
The same nondimensionalized
streamlines as in Fig. 1061,
except streamline * = 0.2 is
modeled as a solid wall. This
flow represents flow of air over a
symmetric hill.


boundary layer
concept splits
the flow into an
outer flow
region and a
thin boundary
layer region
(not to scale).

Boundary layer approximation

Divides the flow into two regions:
an outer flow region that is inviscid
and/or irrotational, and
an inner flow region called a
(a) A huge gap exists between the Euler equation boundary layera very thin region
(which allows slip at walls) and the NavierStokes of flow near a solid wall where
equation (which supports the no-slip condition); (b) viscous forces and rotationality
the boundary layer approximation bridges that gap. cannot be ignored
At a given x-location, the higher the Reynolds
number, the thinner the boundary layer.

Flow of a uniform stream parallel to a

flat plate (drawings not to scale): (a)
Rex ~ 102, (b) Rex ~ 104. The larger Flow visualization of a laminar flat plate boundary layer
the Reynolds number, the thinner the profile. Photograph taken by F. X. Wortmann in 1953 as
boundary layer along the plate at a visualized with the tellurium method. Flow is from left to
given x-location. right, and the leading edge of the flat plate is far to the
left of the field of view. 66
Comparison of streamlines and the curve representing
as a function of x for a flat plate boundary layer.
Since streamlines cross the curve (x), (x) cannot
itself be a streamline of the flow.

Three additional flow regions where Transition of the laminar boundary

the boundary layer approximation layer on a flat plate into a fully turbulent
may be appropriate: (a) jets, (b) boundary layer (not to scale). 67
wakes, and (c) mixing layers.
In real-life engineering flows, transition to turbulent Thickness of the
flow usually occurs more abruptly and much earlier boundary layer on a flat
(at a lower value of Rex) than the values given for a plate, drawn to scale.
smooth flat plate with a calm free stream. Laminar, transitional, and
turbulent regions are
Factors such as roughness along the surface, free-
indicated for the case of a
stream disturbances, acoustic noise, flow
smooth wall with calm
unsteadiness, vibrations, and curvature of the wall
free-stream conditions.
contribute to an earlier transition location.

A trip wire is often

used to initiate early
transition to turbulence
in a boundary layer
(not to scale). 68
The Boundary Layer Equations

The boundary layer coordinate

system for flow over a body; x
follows the surface and is typically
set to zero at the front stagnation
point of the body, and y is
everywhere normal to the surface

Magnified view of the boundary

U is the magnitude of the velocity
layer along the surface of a
component parallel to the wall at a
body, showing length scales x
location just above the boundary layer
and and velocity scale U. 70
Highly magnified view of the Pressure may change along a
boundary layer along the surface of a boundary layer (x-direction), but the
body, showing that velocity change in pressure across a boundary 71
component v is much smaller than u. layer (y-direction) is negligible.
The pressure in the
irrotational region of flow
outside of a boundary layer
can be measured by static
pressure taps in the
surface of the wall. Two
such pressure taps are

Outer flow speed parallel to the
wall is U(x) and is obtained from
the outer flow pressure, P(x).
This speed appears in the x-
component of the boundary layer
momentum equation, Eq. 1070. 73
The boundary
layer equation set
is parabolic, so
conditions need to
be specified on
only three sides of
the flow domain.
The Boundary Layer Procedure

Summary of the boundary layer

procedure for steady,
incompressible, two-dimensional
boundary layers in the xy-plane.

Displacement Thickness

Displacement thickness
defined by a streamline
outside of the boundary
layer. Boundary layer
thickness is exaggerated.

For a laminar flat plate

boundary layer, the
displacement thickness is
roughly one-third of the 99
percent boundary layer
thickness. 82
The boundary layer affects the Displacement
irrotational outer flow in such a thickness is the
way that the wall appears to imaginary increase
take the shape of the in thickness of the
displacement thickness. The wall, as seen by
apparent U(x) differs from the the outer flow, due
original approximation because to the effect of the
of the thicker wall.
growing boundary

The effect of boundary layer growth on flow entering a two-dimensional channel: the
irrotational flow between the top and bottom boundary layers accelerates as indicated by
(a) actual velocity profiles, and (b) change in apparent core flow due to the displacement 83
thickness of the boundary layer (boundary layers greatly exaggerated for clarity).
Momentum Thickness

A control volume is defined by the thick

dashed line, bounded above by a
streamline outside of the boundary
layer, and bounded below by the flat
plate; FD, x is the viscous force of the
plate acting on the control volume.

Turbulent Flat Plate Boundary Layer
Illustration of the unsteadiness of a turbulent
boundary layer; the thin, wavy black lines are
instantaneous profiles, and the thick blue line
is a long time-averaged profile.

All turbulent expressions discussed here represent

time-averaged values.
One common empirical approximation for the time-
averaged velocity profile of a turbulent flat plate
boundary layer is the one seventh-power law

Comparison of laminar and turbulent flat plate

boundary layer profiles, nondimensionalized by
boundary layer thickness.
Another common approximation is the log law, a semi-empirical expression that
turns out to be valid not only for flat plate boundary layers but also for fully
developed turbulent pipe flow velocity profiles.
The log law turns out to be applicable for nearly all wall-bounded turbulent
boundary layers, not just flow over a flat plate.
The log law is commonly expressed in variables nondimensionalized by a
characteristic velocity called the friction velocity u*.

A clever expression that is valid all the way to the wall is

called Spaldings law of the wall,

Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients
When the flow in the inviscid and/or
irrotational outer flow region (outside of the
boundary layer) accelerates, U(x)
increases and P(x) decreases.
We refer to this as a favorable pressure
It is favorable or desirable because the
boundary layer in such an accelerating flow
is usually thin, hugs closely to the wall, and
therefore is not likely to separate from the
When the outer flow decelerates, U(x)
decreases, P(x) increases, and we have an
unfavorable or adverse pressure
Boundary layers with nonzero pressure gradient.
gradients occur in both external flows As its name implies, this condition is not
and internal flows: (a) boundary layer
developing along the fuselage of an
desirable because the boundary layer is
airplane and into the wake, and (b) usually thicker, does not hug closely to the
boundary layer growing on the wall of a wall, and is much more likely to separate
diffuser (boundary layer thickness from the wall. 97
exaggerated in both cases).
The boundary layer along a
body immersed in a free
stream is typically exposed to
a favorable pressure gradient
in the front portion of the body
and an adverse pressure
gradient in the rear portion of
the body.
The closed streamline indicates a region of recirculating flow called a separation bubble.

Examples of boundary layer separation in regions of adverse pressure gradient:

(a) an airplane wing at a moderate angle of attack, (b) the same wing at a high
angle of attack (a stalled wing), and (c) a wide-angle diffuser in which the 98
boundary layer cannot remain attached and separates on one side.
CFD calculations of flow over a twodimensional bump: (a) solution
of the Euler equation with outer flow streamlines plotted (no flow
separation), (b) laminar flow solution showing flow separation on
the downstream side of the bump, 100
CFD calculations of flow over a twodimensional bump: (c) close-up view of
streamlines near the separation point, and (d) close-up view of velocity
vectors, same view as (c). The dashed line is a dividing streamline fluid
below this streamline is trapped in the recirculating separation bubble.
Flow visualization
comparison of
laminar and turbulent
boundary layers in an
adverse pressure gradient;
flow is from left to right. (a)
The laminar boundary layer
separates at the corner, but
(b) the turbulent one does
not. Photographs taken by
M. R. Head in 1982 as
visualized with titanium

CFD calculation of turbulent flow over the same bump as that of Fig. 10
124. Compared to the laminar result of Fig. 10124b, the turbulent
boundary layer is more resistant to flow separation and does not
separate in the adverse pressure gradient region in the rear portion of the

The turbulent boundary layer remains attached (no flow separation), in

contrast to the laminar boundary layer that separates off the rear portion
of the bump. In the turbulent case, the outer flow Euler solution is a
reasonable approximation over the entire bump since there is no flow
separation and since the boundary layer remains very thin. 103
The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary Layers
In many practical engineering applications, we do not need to know all the details
inside the boundary layer; rather we seek reasonable estimates of gross features of
the boundary layer such as boundary layer thickness and skin friction coefficient.
The momentum integral technique utilizes a control volume approach to obtain
such quantitative approximations of boundary layer properties along surfaces with
zero or nonzero pressure gradients.
It is valid for both laminar and turbulent boundary layers.

Control volume (thick dashed

black line) used in derivation
of the momentum integral
equation. 104
Mass flow balance on the control
volume of Fig. 10127.

The product rule is
utilized in reverse in
the derivation of the
momentum integral

Integration of a known
(or assumed) velocity
profile is required
when using the
Krmn integral

Flow over an infinitesimally thin flat plate
of length L. CFD calculations are reported
for ReL ranging from 10-1 to 105.

Drag on a Sphere in Creeping Flow
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Inviscid Regions of Flow
Continuity Equation
Momentum Equation
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Irrotational Regions of Flow
Two-Dimensional Irrotational Regions of Flow
Superposition in Irrotational Regions of Flow
Elementary Planar Irrotational Flows
Irrotational Flows Formed by Superposition
The Boundary Layer Equations
The Boundary Layer Procedure
Displacement Thickness
Momentum Thickness
Turbulent Flat Plate Boundary Layer
Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients
The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary Layers 114