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McGraw-Hill, 2010

Chapter 10

APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS

OF THE NAVIERSTOKES

EQUATION

Lecture slides by

Assoc.Prof.Dr.Hasan Hacevki

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

In this chapter, we discuss several approximations that simplify the

Navier-Stokes equation, including creeping flow, where viscous terms

dominate inertial terms. The flow of lava from a volcano is an example

of creeping flowthe viscosity of molten rock is so large that the

2

Reynolds number is small even though the length scales are large.

Objectives

Appreciate why approximations are necessary to

solve many fluid flow problems, and know when

and where such approximations are appropriate

Understand the effects of the lack of inertial terms

in the creeping flow approximation, including the

disappearance of density from the equations

Understand superposition as a method of solving

potential flow problems

Predict boundary layer thickness and other

boundary layer properties

3

101 INTRODUCTION

In Chap. 9, we derived the differential equation

of linear momentum for an incompressible

Newtonian fluid with constant propertiesthe

NavierStokes equation.

The vast majority of practical fluid mechanics

problems cannot be solved analytically and

require either

(1) further approximations

(2) computer assistance.

We consider option 1 here;

For simplicity, we consider only incompressible

Exact solutions begin with flow of Newtonian fluids in this chapter.

the full NavierStokes

equation, while approximate We must be very careful of the

solutions begin with a approximations we apply, and we

simplified form of the Navier should always verify and justify our

Stokes equation right from the approximations wherever possible.

start. 4

A particular approximation of the NavierStokes equation is

appropriate only in certain regions of the flow field; other

approximations may be appropriate in other regions of the flow field.

5

102 NONDIMENSIONALIZED

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

6

Nondimensionalized NavierStokes:

nondimensionalized by Eq.

103, regardless of our

7

choice of coordinate system.

For flows without free-surface effects,

gravity does not affect the dynamics

of the flowits only effect is to

superpose a hydrostatic pressure on

the dynamic pressure field.

between prototype (subscript p) and

model (subscript m), the model must

be geometrically similar to the

prototype, and (in general) all four

dimensionless parameters, St, Eu, Fr,

and Re, must match.

8

Pressure and modified pressure

distribution on the right face of a

fluid element in Couette flow

between two infinite, parallel,

horizontal plates: (a) z = 0 at the

bottom plate, and (b) z = 0 at the top

plate. The modified pressure P is

constant, but the actual pressure P

is not constant in either case. The

shaded area in (b) represents the

hydrostatic pressure component.

9

103 THE CREEPING FLOW APPROXIMATION

Our first approximation is the class of fluid flow called

creeping flow (Stokes flow or low Reynolds

number flow).

As the latter name implies, these are flows in which

the Reynolds number is very small (Re << 1). By

inspection of the definition of the Reynolds number,

Re = VL/, we see that creeping flow is encountered

when either , V, or L is very small or viscosity is

very large (or some combination of these).

The bacterium

Salmonella

abortusequi

swimming

through water.

very viscous liquid

like honey is

classified as

creeping flow. 10

A person swims at a very high

Reynolds number, and inertial terms

are large; thus the person is able to

glide long distances without moving.

density does not appear in the

momentum equation.

11

A child trying to move in a pool of

plastic balls is analogous to a

microorganism trying to propel itself

without the benefit of inertia.

squirt Ciona swimming

in seawater; flash

photographs at 200

frames per second. 12

13

Drag on a Sphere in Creeping Flow

The drag force FD on a three-dimensional object of characteristic dimension L

moving under creeping flow conditions at speed V through a fluid with viscosity

is FD = constant VL.

Dimensional analysis cannot predict the value of the constant, since it

depends on the shape and orientation of the body in the flow field.

For the particular case of a sphere, Eq. 1011 can be solved analytically.

14

15

16

104 APPROXIMATION FOR INVISCID

REGIONS OF FLOW

a region where net viscous

forces are negligible

compared to inertial and/or

pressure forces because

the Reynolds number

is large; the fluid itself is still

a viscous fluid.

the opposite of creeping flow regions.

The NavierStokes equation loses its viscous term and reduces

to the Euler equation,

17

Because of the no-slip condition at solid walls, frictional forces are not negligible in

a region of flow very near a solid wall. In such a region, called a boundary layer,

the velocity gradients normal to the wall are large enough to offset the small value

of 1/Re.

approximation of the Navier

Stokes equation, appropriate

only in regions of the flow where

the Reynolds number is large

and where net viscous forces

are negligible compared to

inertial and/or pressure forces.

condition at solid walls, although we still specify that fluid cannot flow

through the wall (the wall is impermeable).

Solutions of the Euler equation are therefore not physically meaningful

18

near solid walls, since flow is allowed to slip there.

Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation

in Inviscid Regions of Flow

19

Solid body rotation is an

example of an inviscid

region of flow that is

also rotational. The

Bernoulli constant C differs

from streamline to

streamline but is constant

along any particular

streamline.

20

21

22

105 THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW APPROXIMATION

There are regions of flow in which fluid particles have no net rotation; these regions

are called irrotational.

In general, inviscid regions of flow far away from solid walls and wakes of bodies

are also irrotational, although as pointed out previously, there are situations in

which an inviscid region of flow may not be irrotational (e.g., solid body rotation).

Solutions obtained for the class of flow defined by irrotationality are thus

approximations of full NavierStokes solutions.

Mathematically, the approximation is that vorticity is negligibly small.

approximation is

appropriate only in certain

regions of the flow where

the vorticity is negligible. 23

Continuity Equation

called regions of potential flow.

1020 is easily proven

by expanding the terms

in Cartesian coordinates. 24

In irrotational regions of flow,

The Laplace equation for velocity three unknown scalar

potential function is valid in both two components of the velocity

and three dimensions and in any vector are combined into one

coordinate system, but only in unknown scalar functionthe

irrotational regions of flow (generally velocity potential function. 25

away from walls and wakes).

Momentum Equation

equation in irrotational regions of the flow,

a region where net viscous

forces are negligible compared

to inertial and/or pressure

forces because of the

irrotational approximation. All

irrotational regions of flow are

therefore also inviscid, but not

all inviscid regions of flow are

irrotational. The fluid itself is still

a viscous fluid in either case.

26

Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation

in Irrotational Regions of Flow

If the gradient of some scalar quantity (the quantity in

parentheses in the equation is zero everywhere, the

scalar quantity itself must be a constant.

Bernoulli constant is the same

everywhere. The irrotational

approximation is more restrictive

than the inviscid approximation.

irrotational region of flow. The velocity

field is obtained from continuity and

irrotationality, and then pressure is

27

obtained from the Bernoulli equation.

28

29

30

The lowest pressure occurs at

the center of the tornado, and

the flow in that region can be

approximated by solid body

rotation.

31

Nondimensional tangential velocity distribution (blue curve) and

nondimensional pressure distribution (black curve) along a horizontal radial

slice through a tornado. The inner and outer regions of flow are marked.

32

Two-Dimensional Irrotational Regions of Flow

We can assume two-dimensionality in any region of the flow where only two

directions of motion are important and where there is no significant variation in the

third direction.

The two most common examples are:

planar flow (flow in a plane with negligible variation in the direction normal to the

plane)

axisymmetric flow (flow in which there is rotational symmetry about some axis).

We may also choose to work in Cartesian coordinates, cylindrical coordinates, or

spherical polar coordinates, depending on the geometry of the problem at hand.

three-dimensional flow; in two-

dimensional regions of flow we can

define a stream function, but we

cannot do so in three-dimensional

flow. The velocity potential function,

however, can be defined for any

irrotational region of flow. 33

Planar Irrotational Regions of Flow

vectors in Cartesian

coordinates for planar

twodimensional flow in the xy-

plane. There is no variation

normal to this plane.

34

Velocity components

and unit vectors in

cylindrical coordinates

In planar irrotational regions of flow, curves of constant for planar flow in the

(equipotential lines) and curves of constant r-plane. There is no

(streamlines) are mutually orthogonal, meaning that variation normal to this

they intersect at 90 angles everywhere. plane.

35

Axisymmetric Irrotational Regions of Flow

Flow over an axisymmetric

body in cylindrical coordinates

with rotational symmetry about

the z-axis. Neither the

geometry nor the velocity field

depend on ; and u = 0.

36

The equation for the

stream function in

axisymmetric

irrotational flow (Eq.

1034) is not the

Laplace equation.

37

Superposition in Irrotational Regions of Flow

If a region of irrotational flow is modeled by the sum of two or more separate

irrotational flow fields, e.g., a source located in a free-stream flow, one can

simply add the velocity potential functions for each individual flow to describe the

combined flow field.

adding two or more irrotational flow

solutions together to generate a

third (more complicated) solution.

flow solutions, the two velocity vectors

at any point in the flow region add

vectorially to produce the composite 38

velocity at that point.

Elementary Planar Irrotational Flows

up a complicated irrotational

flow field by adding together

elementary building block

irrotational flow fields.

39

Streamlines

(solid) and

equipotential lines

(dashed) for a

uniform stream in

the x-direction.

lines

(dashed) for a uniform stream inclined at angle .

Building Block 2Line Source or Line Sink

Fluid emerging uniformly from a finite line segment

of length L. As L approaches infinity, the flow

becomes a line source, and the xy-plane is taken

as normal to the axis of the source.

escapes.

Line source strength: The volume flow

rate per unit depth.

Line sink: The opposite of a line source;

fluid flows into the line from all directions in

planes normal to the axis of the line sink.

41

ur is infinite at the origin since r is zero in the denominator.

We call this a singular point or a singularity.

42

43

44

Some useful

trigonometric identities.

45

Building Block 3Line Vortex

46

47

48

Building Block 4Doublet

equipotential lines (dashed) for

a doublet of strength K located

at the origin in the xy-plane and

aligned with the x-axis.

49

Irrotational Flows Formed by Superposition

Now that we have a set of building block irrotational

flows, we are ready to construct some more interesting

irrotational flow fields by the superposition technique.

We limit our examples to planar flows in the xy-plane.

50

Superposition of a Line Sink and a Line Vortex

Streamlines created by

superposition of a line sink

and a line vortex at the

origin. Values of are in

units of m2/s. 51

Superposition of a Uniform Stream and a

DoubletFlow over a Circular Cylinder

Superposition of a uniform

stream and a doublet;

vector velocity addition is

shown at some arbitrary

location in the xy-plane.

Superposition:

Doublet strength:

Alternate form of

stream function:

Superposition of a uniform

Nondimensional stream and a doublet yields a

streamlines: streamline that is a circle. 52

This flow represents

potential flow over a circular

cylinder.

There are two stagnation

points in this flow field, one

at the nose of the cylinder

and one at the tail.

On the surface

of the cylinder:

53

54

55

A fishs body is designed such that its

eye is located near the zero-pressure

point so that its vision is not distorted

while it swims. Data shown are along

the side of a bluefish.

nonlifting body of any shape is predicted to be zero when the

irrotational flow approximation is invoked; (b) in real flows there

is a nonzero drag on bodies immersed in a uniform stream. 56

The same nondimensionalized

streamlines as in Fig. 1061,

except streamline * = 0.2 is

modeled as a solid wall. This

flow represents flow of air over a

symmetric hill.

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

106 THE BOUNDARY LAYER APPROXIMATION

Prandtls

boundary layer

concept splits

the flow into an

outer flow

region and a

thin boundary

layer region

(not to scale).

Divides the flow into two regions:

an outer flow region that is inviscid

and/or irrotational, and

an inner flow region called a

(a) A huge gap exists between the Euler equation boundary layera very thin region

(which allows slip at walls) and the NavierStokes of flow near a solid wall where

equation (which supports the no-slip condition); (b) viscous forces and rotationality

65

the boundary layer approximation bridges that gap. cannot be ignored

At a given x-location, the higher the Reynolds

number, the thinner the boundary layer.

flat plate (drawings not to scale): (a)

Rex ~ 102, (b) Rex ~ 104. The larger Flow visualization of a laminar flat plate boundary layer

the Reynolds number, the thinner the profile. Photograph taken by F. X. Wortmann in 1953 as

boundary layer along the plate at a visualized with the tellurium method. Flow is from left to

given x-location. right, and the leading edge of the flat plate is far to the

left of the field of view. 66

Comparison of streamlines and the curve representing

as a function of x for a flat plate boundary layer.

Since streamlines cross the curve (x), (x) cannot

itself be a streamline of the flow.

the boundary layer approximation layer on a flat plate into a fully turbulent

may be appropriate: (a) jets, (b) boundary layer (not to scale). 67

wakes, and (c) mixing layers.

In real-life engineering flows, transition to turbulent Thickness of the

flow usually occurs more abruptly and much earlier boundary layer on a flat

(at a lower value of Rex) than the values given for a plate, drawn to scale.

smooth flat plate with a calm free stream. Laminar, transitional, and

turbulent regions are

Factors such as roughness along the surface, free-

indicated for the case of a

stream disturbances, acoustic noise, flow

smooth wall with calm

unsteadiness, vibrations, and curvature of the wall

free-stream conditions.

contribute to an earlier transition location.

used to initiate early

transition to turbulence

in a boundary layer

(not to scale). 68

69

The Boundary Layer Equations

system for flow over a body; x

follows the surface and is typically

set to zero at the front stagnation

point of the body, and y is

everywhere normal to the surface

locally.

U is the magnitude of the velocity

layer along the surface of a

component parallel to the wall at a

body, showing length scales x

location just above the boundary layer

and and velocity scale U. 70

Highly magnified view of the Pressure may change along a

boundary layer along the surface of a boundary layer (x-direction), but the

body, showing that velocity change in pressure across a boundary 71

component v is much smaller than u. layer (y-direction) is negligible.

The pressure in the

irrotational region of flow

outside of a boundary layer

can be measured by static

pressure taps in the

surface of the wall. Two

such pressure taps are

sketched.

72

Outer flow speed parallel to the

wall is U(x) and is obtained from

the outer flow pressure, P(x).

This speed appears in the x-

component of the boundary layer

momentum equation, Eq. 1070. 73

The boundary

layer equation set

is parabolic, so

boundary

conditions need to

be specified on

only three sides of

the flow domain.

74

The Boundary Layer Procedure

procedure for steady,

incompressible, two-dimensional

boundary layers in the xy-plane.

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

Displacement Thickness

Displacement thickness

defined by a streamline

outside of the boundary

layer. Boundary layer

thickness is exaggerated.

boundary layer, the

displacement thickness is

roughly one-third of the 99

percent boundary layer

thickness. 82

The boundary layer affects the Displacement

irrotational outer flow in such a thickness is the

way that the wall appears to imaginary increase

take the shape of the in thickness of the

displacement thickness. The wall, as seen by

apparent U(x) differs from the the outer flow, due

original approximation because to the effect of the

of the thicker wall.

growing boundary

layer.

The effect of boundary layer growth on flow entering a two-dimensional channel: the

irrotational flow between the top and bottom boundary layers accelerates as indicated by

(a) actual velocity profiles, and (b) change in apparent core flow due to the displacement 83

thickness of the boundary layer (boundary layers greatly exaggerated for clarity).

84

85

Momentum Thickness

dashed line, bounded above by a

streamline outside of the boundary

layer, and bounded below by the flat

plate; FD, x is the viscous force of the

plate acting on the control volume.

86

87

Turbulent Flat Plate Boundary Layer

Illustration of the unsteadiness of a turbulent

boundary layer; the thin, wavy black lines are

instantaneous profiles, and the thick blue line

is a long time-averaged profile.

time-averaged values.

One common empirical approximation for the time-

averaged velocity profile of a turbulent flat plate

boundary layer is the one seventh-power law

boundary layer profiles, nondimensionalized by

88

boundary layer thickness.

89

90

91

92

Another common approximation is the log law, a semi-empirical expression that

turns out to be valid not only for flat plate boundary layers but also for fully

developed turbulent pipe flow velocity profiles.

The log law turns out to be applicable for nearly all wall-bounded turbulent

boundary layers, not just flow over a flat plate.

The log law is commonly expressed in variables nondimensionalized by a

characteristic velocity called the friction velocity u*.

called Spaldings law of the wall,

93

94

95

96

Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients

When the flow in the inviscid and/or

irrotational outer flow region (outside of the

boundary layer) accelerates, U(x)

increases and P(x) decreases.

We refer to this as a favorable pressure

gradient.

It is favorable or desirable because the

boundary layer in such an accelerating flow

is usually thin, hugs closely to the wall, and

therefore is not likely to separate from the

wall.

When the outer flow decelerates, U(x)

decreases, P(x) increases, and we have an

unfavorable or adverse pressure

Boundary layers with nonzero pressure gradient.

gradients occur in both external flows As its name implies, this condition is not

and internal flows: (a) boundary layer

developing along the fuselage of an

desirable because the boundary layer is

airplane and into the wake, and (b) usually thicker, does not hug closely to the

boundary layer growing on the wall of a wall, and is much more likely to separate

diffuser (boundary layer thickness from the wall. 97

exaggerated in both cases).

The boundary layer along a

body immersed in a free

stream is typically exposed to

a favorable pressure gradient

in the front portion of the body

and an adverse pressure

gradient in the rear portion of

the body.

The closed streamline indicates a region of recirculating flow called a separation bubble.

(a) an airplane wing at a moderate angle of attack, (b) the same wing at a high

angle of attack (a stalled wing), and (c) a wide-angle diffuser in which the 98

boundary layer cannot remain attached and separates on one side.

99

CFD calculations of flow over a twodimensional bump: (a) solution

of the Euler equation with outer flow streamlines plotted (no flow

separation), (b) laminar flow solution showing flow separation on

the downstream side of the bump, 100

CFD calculations of flow over a twodimensional bump: (c) close-up view of

streamlines near the separation point, and (d) close-up view of velocity

vectors, same view as (c). The dashed line is a dividing streamline fluid

101

below this streamline is trapped in the recirculating separation bubble.

Flow visualization

comparison of

laminar and turbulent

boundary layers in an

adverse pressure gradient;

flow is from left to right. (a)

The laminar boundary layer

separates at the corner, but

(b) the turbulent one does

not. Photographs taken by

M. R. Head in 1982 as

visualized with titanium

tetrachloride.

102

CFD calculation of turbulent flow over the same bump as that of Fig. 10

124. Compared to the laminar result of Fig. 10124b, the turbulent

boundary layer is more resistant to flow separation and does not

separate in the adverse pressure gradient region in the rear portion of the

bump.

contrast to the laminar boundary layer that separates off the rear portion

of the bump. In the turbulent case, the outer flow Euler solution is a

reasonable approximation over the entire bump since there is no flow

separation and since the boundary layer remains very thin. 103

The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary Layers

In many practical engineering applications, we do not need to know all the details

inside the boundary layer; rather we seek reasonable estimates of gross features of

the boundary layer such as boundary layer thickness and skin friction coefficient.

The momentum integral technique utilizes a control volume approach to obtain

such quantitative approximations of boundary layer properties along surfaces with

zero or nonzero pressure gradients.

It is valid for both laminar and turbulent boundary layers.

black line) used in derivation

of the momentum integral

equation. 104

Mass flow balance on the control

volume of Fig. 10127.

105

The product rule is

utilized in reverse in

the derivation of the

momentum integral

equation.

106

107

Integration of a known

(or assumed) velocity

profile is required

when using the

Krmn integral

equation.

108

109

110

Flow over an infinitesimally thin flat plate

of length L. CFD calculations are reported

for ReL ranging from 10-1 to 105.

111

112

113

Summary

INTRODUCTION

NONDIMENSIONALIZED EQUATIONS OF MOTION

THE CREEPING FLOW APPROXIMATION

Drag on a Sphere in Creeping Flow

APPROXIMATION FOR INVISCID REGIONS OF FLOW

Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Inviscid Regions of Flow

THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW APPROXIMATION

Continuity Equation

Momentum Equation

Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Irrotational Regions of Flow

Two-Dimensional Irrotational Regions of Flow

Superposition in Irrotational Regions of Flow

Elementary Planar Irrotational Flows

Irrotational Flows Formed by Superposition

THE BOUNDARY LAYER APPROXIMATION

The Boundary Layer Equations

The Boundary Layer Procedure

Displacement Thickness

Momentum Thickness

Turbulent Flat Plate Boundary Layer

Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients

The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary Layers 114

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