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7

Brunislav Marijanovi
Uvod
Introduction

15 Brunislav Marijanovi
Jokina glavica prapovijesni grobovi
Jokina glavica prehistoric graves

49 Karla Gusar
Jokina glavica ranosrednjovjekovni grobovi
Jokina glavica early medieval graves

83 Ivana Anteri, eljana Bai, Elia kori, imun Anelinovi


Rezultati antropoloke analize osteolokog materijala
s tumula Jokina glavica prapovijesni grobovi
Results of the anthropological analysis of the osteological
remains from the tumulus of Jokina glavica prehistoric graves

89 Mario laus, Mario Novak, eljka Bedi, Vlasta Vyroubal


Antropoloka analiza starohrvatskog kotanog
uzorka s tumula Jokina glavica
Anthropological analysis of the early croatian skeletal
sample from the KrnezaJokina glavica site

101 Karla Gusar, Dario Vujevi


Duevia glavica
Duevia glavica

135 Ivana Anteri, eljana Bai, Elia kori, imun Anelinovi


Rezultati antropoloke analize grobova
s tumula Duevia glavica
Results of the anthropological analysis of the osteological
remains from the tumulus of Duevia glavica

149 Karla Gusar, Dario Vujevi


Matakova glavica
Matakova glavica

173 eljana Bai, Ivana Anteri, Elia kori, imun Anelinovi


Rezultati antropoloke analize grobova
s tumula Matakova glavica
Results of the anthropological analysis of the osteological
remains from the tumulus of Matakova glavica

177 Brunislav Marijanovi, Karla Gusar


Zakljuak
Conclusion
Brunislav Marijanovi Tumuli iz Krneze
i Podvrja kod Zadra
Tumuli from Krneza and
Podvrje near Zadar

Uvod Introduction

Odjel za arheologiju Sveuilita u Zadru u okvi- The Department of Archaeology of the Universi-
ru nastavnog programa, posebice onoga dijela ty of Zadar has been organizing field practice for
obuhvaenog kolegijem Metodologija arheo- students of all study years for a number of years
lokih istraivanja, ve dulji niz godina provodi as a segment of the teaching program, particu-
redovitu terensku nastavu za studente svih go- larly its part encompassed by the course of lec-
dina studija, koja se u pravilu odrava tijekom tures entitled Methodology of archaeological
svibnja i lipnja u tekuoj akademskoj godini. research. The field practice usually takes place
Neka danas dobro poznata i iznimno znaajna during May and June in the actual academic
arheoloka nalazita na zadarskom podruju year. Some well known and very important ar-
istraena su upravo u okviru tog programa i chaeological sites in the Zadar region were ex-
zahvaljujui sudjelovanju zadarskih studenata plored within this program owing to participa-
arheologije.1 tion of the archaeology students from Zadar.1
Tijekom terenske nastave 2007. i 2008. pro- During the field practice in 2007 and 2008
vedeno je iskopavanje skupine od tri tumula na excavation of a group of three tumuli was car-
podruju dva neposredno susjedna sela - Krne- ried out. These tumuli, which were known in lo-
ze i Podvrja kod Zadra - koji su u lokalnoj to- cal toponymy under the names Jokina glavica,
ponimiji poznati pod nazivima: Jokina glavica, Duevia glavica and Matakova glavica, were
Duevia glavica i Matakova glavica.2 Uz vodi- situated in the area of two neighbouring villag-
telja, u iskopavanju su sudjelovali dr. sc. Dario es of Krneza and Podvrje near Zadar.2 Besides
Vujevi, doc. dr. sc. Karla Gusar i mr. sc. Josipa the research leader, Dario Vujevi, M.Sc., Karla
Baraka, asistenti na Odjelu za arheologiju.3 Gusar, Ph.D., and Josipa Baraka M.Sc., assist-
Tumuli su smjeteni u prostranom polju ants at the Department of Archaeology took
s june strane Ljubake kose i u svojem su se part in the excavation.3
okruenju jasno isticali kao najizrazitije to- The tumuli were situated in a spatious field on
pografske pojedinosti. Premda meusobno the southern side of Ljubaka kosa and they were
razdvojeni i udaljeni nekoliko stotina metara recognizable in their environment as the most
(udaljenost izmeu Jokine glavice i Duevia prominent topographic details. Although they
glavice iznosi 300 m, Jokine glavice i Mata- were several hundreds meters apart and mutually
kove glavice 280 m, te Duevia glavice i Ma- separated (distance between Jokina glavica and
takove glavice 400 m), zbog ega bi se mogli Duevia glavica is 300 m, between Jokina glavi-

1 Ovdje navodim samo neka meu brojnim tako provedenim iskopavanji- 1 I will mention only some of such excavations: years-long excavations in
ma: viegodinje iskopavanje u Ninu - Sv. Kri, neolitikom nalazitu Crno Nin Sv. Kri, Neolithic site of Crno vrilo, early Christian church in Podvr-
vrilo, ranokranskoj crkvi u Podvrju, prapovijesnom tumulu na kornici je, prehistoric tumulus in kornica near Privlaka, Liburnian necropoles at
kod Privlake, liburnskim nekropolama na Ljubau itd. Ljuba, etc.
2 Tumuli se nalaze na privatnim posjedima Ratka Zekanovia, te obitelji 2 The tumuli were situated on private properties of Ratko Zekanovi, and Du-
Duevi i Matak. Iskreno zahvaljujemo vlasnicima, ijom je susretljivou i evi and Matak families. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to
ljubaznou omogueno ovo istraivanje. the owners whose benevolence and kindness made this research possible.
3 Preliminarno izvjee o rezultatima iskopavanja objavio je B. Marijanovi; 3 Preliminary report on the excavations results was published by B. Marija-
B. MARIJANOVI, 2010; pojedinane priloge objavili su i K. Gusar i K. Gusar novi; B. MARIJANOVI, 2010; separate articles were published by K. Gusar
D. Vujevi; K. GUSAR, 2008, 198-202; K. GUSAR, 2009, 169-181; K. GUSAR and K. Gusar D. Vujevi; K. GUSAR, 2008, 198-202; K. GUSAR, 2009, 169-
D. VUJEVI, 2009, 339-356. 181; K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 339-356.
8
doimati i kao posve samostalne i meusobno ca and Matakova glavica 280 m, and between
neovisne formacije, tumuli su ipak tvorili po- Duevia glavica and Matakova glavica 400 m),
sve koherentnu prostornu i sepulkralnu cjeli- because of which they might seem as completely
nu. Nijedan tumul pojedinano, a ni skupinu autonomous and mutually independent forma-
u cijelosti, nije mogue povezati s bilo kakvom tions, tumuli nevertheless formed quite coher-
drugom arheolokom formacijom ili pojavom ent spatial and sepulchral whole. None of the tu-
koja bi vremenski i kulturno korespondirala s muli, nor the entire group, can be related to any
vremenom njihova podizanja; sl. 1. other archaeological formation or phenomenon
Nijedan od istraenih tumula nije zateen which would correspond chronologically or cul-
u svom izvornom obliku i posve intaktan, ali turally to the period of their construction; fig. 1.
recentnija oteenja, koja su prije iskopavanja None of the excavated tumuli was found in
bila vidljiva samo na njihovim perifernim dije- its original form and completely intact, but re-
lovima i nastala iskljuivo ratarskim aktivno- cent damages, which were visible only in their
stima, nisu pridonijela veim devastacijama.4 peripheral parts prior to the excavation and
Razumije se, neki od najmlaih grobova time were formed due to agricultural activities, did
su vjerojatno u cijelosti uniteni ili djelomice not cause larger devastations. 4 Some of the
oteeni, pogotovo s obzirom na prilino plitke latest graves were probably completely or par-
grobne jame u najmlaem sloju ukapanja, ali tially destroyed by these activities, particularly
to danas nije mogue sa sigurnou utvrditi.5 having in mind quite shallow grave pits in the
Premda meu istraenim tumulima posto- latest burial layer, but at present that is impos-
je i neke ozbiljnije razlike u osnovnom ritusu sible to determine with certainty. 5
prakticiranom u primarnim grobovima, a sta- Although there are significant differences in
novite razlike vezane su i za kasnije pokope, sve the main rite used in primary graves of the ex-
tumule povezuju i sljedee osnovne znaajke: plored tumuli, and there are certain differences
_ Svi istraeni tumuli pripadaju srednje ve- between later burials as well, all tumuli are con-
likim formacijama ove vrste, s prosjenim nected by the following basic characteristics:
promjerom izmeu 12-18 m i visinom izmeu _ All explored tumuli belong to medium sized
1,8-3,0 m. Premda, kako sam to ve naglasio, formations of this type, with an average diam-
tvore koherentnu cjelinu, tumuli su podignu- eter between 12-18 m and height between 1,8-
ti na odreenim, rekao bih i prilino ujedna- 3,0 m. Although they form a coherent unit, as
enim meusobnim udaljenostima. Njihove emphasized previously, tumuli were raised at
pojedinane udaljenosti nisu tako naglaene certain, quite uniform mutual distances. Their
da bi to upuivalo na posvemanju samostal- mutual distances are neither so great to indicate
nost i meusobnu neovisnost, niti su tumuli absolute autonomy and mutual independence,
prenaglaeno prostorno zbijeni da bi mogli nor are the tumuli so densely distributed to have
imati karakter i znaenje nekropole u pravom the character and meaning of the necropolis in
smislu. ini mi se da je takvim rasporedom i the true sense of the word. In my opinion such
meusobnim udaljenostima naglaena indi- distribution and mutual distances emphasized
vidualnost svake humke i osobe zbog koje je individuality of each mound and each individual
podignuta, s jedne strane, ali i da je, s druge it was raised for, on one hand, but at the same
strane, istodobno sugerirana i sociokulturna time it suggested socio-cultural correlation of all
povezanost svih pokopanih. the buried persons, on the other hand.
_ Korpus svih tumula tvorio je iskljuivo ze- _ Corpus of all tumuli was made of earthen fill,
mljani nasip, formiran od zemlje iz neposred- containing soil from the immediate surrounding.
nog okruenja, i u osnovnom postupku njiho- There are no significant differences in the basic
va podizanja nema nikakvih bitnih razlika; sl. manner of their raising; fig. 2-4. Certain differ-

4 Prema informacijama koje donosi J. Beloevi na povrini tumula Jokina 4 According to information from J. Beloevi on the surface of the tumulus
glavica bili su vidljivi brojni ulomci keramike i pojedinani humani ostat- of Jokina glavica were many pottery sherds and individual human rema-
ci; J. BELOEVI,1980, 59. ins; J. BELOEVI,1980, 59.
5 Prema informacijama J. Beloevia s ovog podruja potjee jedan primje- 5 According to information from J. Beloevi a specimen of medieval we-
Brunislav rak srednjovjekovnog oruja, ali podatak nije bio provjerljiv; J. BELOEVI, apons originates from this area, but information could not be verified; J.
Marijanovi 1972, 125-138. BELOEVI, 1972, 125-138.
9

Sl./ Fig. 1
Prostorni odnos
tumula u Krnezi
The spatial
relationship of the
tumulus in Krneza:
1. Jokina glavica;
2. Duevia glavica;
3. Matakova glavica

Tumuli iz Krneze
i Podvrja kod Zadra
Tumuli from Krneza and
Podvrje near Zadar
10

Sl./ Fig. 2 2-4. Odreene razlike postoje samo u nainu ences are reflected only in the manner of deposit-
Jokina glavica: izgled
prije iskopavanja
polaganja humanih ostataka na osnovnoj ra- ing human remains on the basic level of burying.
Jokina glavica, view zini pokapanja. Sudei prema pojedinanim Judging from the individual finds of flint artifacts
before the excavation nalazima kremenih artefakata u nasipu tumula in the tumulus fill of Jokina glavica, a part of de-
fotografija / photographs
by K. Gusar Jokina glavica, pri njegovom je podizanju dje- posit which may have belonged to a consider-
lomice destruiran dio depozita koji bi mogao ably earlier Neolithic/Eneolithic settlement was
Sl./ Fig. 3
pripadati znatno starijoj, vjerojatno neolitiko/ destroyed. 6 Soil used for raising the tumulus is
Duevia glavica:
izgled prije eneolitikoj, naseobini.6 Zemlja upotrijebljena extremely acid, which resulted in exceptionally
iskopavanja za nasipanje tumula izrazito je kisela, zbog ega poor preservation of anthropological remains.
Duevia glavica, su antropoloki ostatci iznimno slabo sauvani. _ Each tumulus contained primary, i.e. pre-
view before the
excavation _ Svi su tumuli sadravali primarne, odnosno historic, and secondary graves, and they were
fotografija / photographs prapovijesne, i sekundarne grobove, a podi- raised in chronological framework lower bor-
by B. Marijanovi
gnuti su u vremenskim okvirima iju donju der of which is represented by the Bronze Age,
granicu ini bronano doba, a gornju prijelaz and the upper by the transition from the Late
iz kasnog bronanog u starije eljezno doba i Bronze to Early Iron Ages and the beginning of
poetak starijega eljeznog doba.7 the Early Iron Age. 7
_ Premda u korpusu nasipa nije bilo mogue _ Although in the tumulus fill one could not
uoiti nikakve tragove sekundarnih zahvata discern any traces of secondary interventions
na osnovnoj (prapovijesnoj) razini ukapanja, on the basic (prehistoric) level of burials, in
u tumulu Duevia glavica treba raunati na the tumulus of Duevia glavica there was a
primarni pokop i jo dva kasnija prapovijesna primary burial and two later prehistoric buri-
pokopa. Naime, na dnu tumula, na samoj zdra- als. Namely, at the bottom of the tumulus, on
vici, na povrinama bez ikakvih drugih nalaza the bedrock, on the surface without any other
i konstrukcija bile su vidljive izgorjele i po- finds or constructions, tiny bones were found
sve usitnjene kosti za koje je specijalistikom which proved to be human after anthropologi-

6 Danas nije mogue ni naslutiti prostor na kojemu je takva aglomeracija 6 At present it is impossible to assume the area in which such agglomerati-
mogla postojati. on may have existed.
7 Istina, datumi 14C iz mlaeg prapovijesnog groba na Duevia glavici znat- 7 Admittedly 14C dates for the younger prehistoric grave on Duevia glavica
no su vii od ovog vremenskog okvira, to bi posredno sugeriralo jo vii are considerably higher than the proposed chronological framework, whi-
datum za primarni grob u tom tumulu. Meutim, treba naglasiti da nije- ch would indirectly imply an even higher date for the primary grave in this
dan od tih grobova nije sadravao komparativnu arheoloku grau koja tumulus. However it is necessary to emphasize that none of these graves
bi se mogla iskoristiti za provjeru dobivenih datuma. U tom je kontekstu contained comparative archaeological material which may have been used
vana i injenica da datumi potjeu iz groba ija se konstrukcija podudara for controlling acquired dates. In that context it is important to notice that
s tipinim liburnskim grobnim konstrukcijama koje nedvojbeno pripadaju dates correspond to grave whose construction was identical to the typical
eljeznom dobu. Budui da u ovome trenutku nije mogue sa sigurnijim Liburnian funerary structures which definitely belong to the Iron Age. Sin-
uporitem govoriti o predliburnskim korijenima kasnijih tipinih liburn- ce at present it is impossible to discuss pre-Liburnian roots of later typical
skih grobnih konstrukcija, visoko datiranje mlaeg pokopa na Duevia Liburnian funerary structures, high dating of the later burial on Duevia
Brunislav glavici treba uzeti s rezervom. Usporediti poglavlje K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI glavica should be accepted with caution. Cf. article K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI
Marijanovi o Duevia glavici. on Duevia glavica.
11

antropolokom analizom utvrena humana cal analysis, 8 so that they definitely mark the Sl./ Fig. 4
Matakova glavica:
pripadnost,8 pa one zasigurno odreuju i pri- primary burial. Since in the higher part of the
pogled na poetku
marni pokop. Kako je u viem dijelu korpusa same tumulus corpus, almost in the center, iskopavanja
istoga tumula, gotovo u samom sreditu, otkri- another grave without grave goods was dis- Matakova glavica,
ven jo jedan grob bez priloga, ali sa znaajka- covered, with characteristics of the Liburnian view at the
beginning of the
ma liburnskog naina pokapanja i liburnskom burial ritual and Liburnian grave architecture, excavation
grobnom arhitekturom, posve je sigurno da je it is quite certain that in this case later inter- fotografija / photographs
u ovom sluaju provoeno i kasnije pokapa- ment took place; fig. 5.9 However, anthropo- by B. Marijanovi

nje; sl. 5.9 Antropolokom analizom, meutim, logical analysis revealed that the preserved hu-
utvreno je da sauvani humani nalazi u istoj man remains in the same funerary structure do
grobnoj konstrukciji ne pripadaju samo jednoj not belong to one, but two persons, which were
osobi, nego dvjema, pokopanima s odreenim not buried simultaneously.10 Therefore we have
vremenskim razmakom,10 zbog ega se oito to consider two successive burials in the same
mora raunati s dva sukcesivna pokapanja u funerary structure. On the basis of this find it is
istoj grobnoj konstrukciji. Na temelju tog na- impossible to reach any conclusion about pos-
laza nije mogue izvesti nikakav zakljuak i o sible other, perhaps Liburnian graves in the tu-
eventualnim drugim, moda liburnskim grobo- mulus, but such option is also possible.
vima u tom tumulu, ali ni takva mogunost nije _ Except for cremated remains which mark the
posve iskljuena. primary grave on Duevia glavica, this type of
_ Osim spaljenih ostataka koji oznaavaju pri- burial was confirmed in the tumulus of Jokina
marni grob u Duevia glavici, takav nain po- glavica at the bottom of which were four urns
kapanja sigurno je ustanovljen u tumulu Joki- with cremated remains, laid in a common shal-
na glavica na ijem su dnu otkrivene etiri are low pit without any constructional elements.
sa spaljenim ostatcima, poloene u zajedniku Bronze jewelry which was found in urns was
plitku jamu bez ikakvih drugih konstruktivnih deposited after the cremation since it does not
elemenata. Bronani nakit pronaen u arama exhibit any damages caused by exposure to
pohranjen je nakon spaljivanja, jer ne poka- high temperature. Judging from the circum-
zuje nikakva oteenja uzrokovana izlaganjem stances of the find, the position of the urns at
visokoj temperaturi. Sudei prema okolnosti- the basis of the tumulus, and typological char-
ma nalaza, poloaju svih ara na samom dnu acteristics of the urns and bronze offerings, we
tumula, te tipolokim znaajkama ara i bron- can assume with great degree of certainty that

8 Usporediti antropoloku obradu humanih ostataka. 8 Cf. anthropolgical analysis of human remains. Tumuli iz Krneze
9 K. GUSAR, 2008; K. GUSAR, 2009; K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 339-356. Uspo- 9 K. GUSAR, 2008; K. GUSAR, 2009; K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 339-356. CF. i Podvrja kod Zadra
rediti i poglavlja K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI o Duevia glavici i Matakovoj glavici. chapters by K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI on Duevia and Matakova glavica. Tumuli from Krneza and
10 Usporediti poglavlje I. Anteri et al. o Duevia glavici. 10 Cf. anthropological analysis of human remains. Podvrje near Zadar
12

Sl./ Fig. 5 anih priloga, s velikom se vjerojatnou moe this was a simultaneous burial. It is also pos-
Duevia glavica:
prapovijesni i
pretpostaviti da je rije o istodobnom pokopu, sible to consider some other relations between
srednjovjekovni a mogue je pomiljati i na neku drugu poveza- the buried individuals.
grobovi nost pokopanih osoba. _ We can assume with great degree of cer-
Duevia glavica,
_ S velikom se vjerojatnou moe raunati na tainty that identical rite was used in the pri-
prehistoric and early
medieval graves istovjetan ritus i u primarnom grobu tumula mary grave of the tumulus of Matakova glavi-
fotografija / photographs Matakova glavica. Meutim, za razliku od pret- ca. However, as opposed to the previous two
by D. Vujevi
hodna dva, u kojima na razini primarnih poko- tumuli, in which there were no constructional
pa nije ustanovljeno postojanje nikakvog kon- interventions at the level of primary burials,
strukcijskog zahvata, u ovom je tumulu posto- in this tumulus was a construction in form of
jala konstrukcija u obliku dosta pravilne kru- a quite regular round platform, encircled with
ne platforme, obrubljena krupnijim amorfnim
large amorphous stones arranged in drystone
kamenjem sloenim u suhozidnoj tehnici, dok
wall technique, whereas its interior was filled
joj je unutranjost bila ispunjena oblutcima. U
with pebbles. Remains of a prehistoric ceramic
sreditu platforme otkriveni su ostatci prapo-
vessel, possibly an urn, were discovered in the
vijesne keramike posude, moda are. Kako
center of the platform. As primary construc-
je kasnijim pokapanjem, koje je dovelo do sta-
tion was destroyed by later burials, and the
novitog preoblikovanja ak i izvornog korpusa
assumed urn broken, possible remains of the
tumula, oteena i primarna konstrukcija, a
buried individual were not preserved; fig. 6-7.
pretpostavljena ara razbijena, mogui spaljeni
Later burials also resulted in certain reshaping
ostatci pokopane osobe nisu sauvani; sl. 6-7.
_ Osim primarnih i mlaih prapovijesnih po- of the original corpus of the tumulus.
kapanja, u svim istraenim tumulima usta- _ In addition to primary and later prehistoric
novljeni su i sekundarni recentniji pokopi. Na burials, in all explored tumuli were also sec-
tumulu Matakova glavica pokapanje je vie- ondary, more recent burials. On the tumulus of
kratno provoeno tijekom kasnoantikog raz- Matakova glavica deceased persons were bur-
doblja i u ranom srednjem vijeku. Jedna od ied repeatedly in Late Antiquity and in the Ear-
kasnoantikih grobnica, postavljena u samom ly Middle Ages. One of the late antique graves,
sreditu tumula, dovela je do ve spomenutog placed in the very center of the tumulus, caused
oteenja primarnoga prapovijesnoga groba; mentioned damage to the prehistoric grave; fig.
Brunislav
Marijanovi sl. 6. Izuzimajui grob br. 4 s nalazom jednog 6. Except for grave 4 which yielded an atypi-
13

atipinog eljeznog noa i eljezne krike,11 u cal iron knife and an iron ring,11 there were no Sl./ Fig. 6
Matakova glavica:
kasnoantikim grobovima iz tog tumula nisu grave goods in late antique graves from this tu- prapovijesna
pronaeni nikakvi prilozi, a tom ih je vreme- mulus. They can be ascribed to Late Antiquity grobna konstrukcija
i kasnoantike
nu mogue pripisati iskljuivo prema odlikama only on the basis of the grave architecture char-
grobnice
grobne arhitekture. U tumulima Jokina glavica acteristics. In the tumuli of Jokina glavica and Matakova glavica,
i Duevia glavica svi recentniji pokopi pripa- Duevia glavica all more recent burials belong prehistoric burial
structures and late
daju iskljuivo ranom srednjem vijeku, a zbog exclusively to the Early Middle Ages, and due antique graves
viekratnog pokapanja veina je najmlaih to repeated burials most of the latest graves fotografija / photographs
grobova manje ili vie oteena. Sve otkrivene were more or less damaged. All discovered ear- by D. Vujevi

ranosrednjovjekovne grobove mogue je staviti ly medieval graves can be dated to the period Sl./ Fig. 7
u vremenski okvir 7.-9. st.12 from the seventh to ninth centuries. 12 Matakova glavica:
Iskopavanje skupine tumula u Krnezi i Pod- Excavation of the group of tumuli in Krneza prapovijesna grobna
konstrukcija
vrju zapoelo je na tumulu Jokina glavica go- and Podvrje started in 2007 on the tumulus Matakova glavica,
dine 2007., a dovreno na tumulima Duevia of Jokina glavica in 2007, and it was ended on prehistoric burial
structure
glavica i Matakova glavica 2008. the tumuli of Duevia glavica and Matakova
fotografija / photographs
Osnovno metodoloko polazite njihova glavica in 2008. by B. Marijanovi
iskopavanja podrazumijevalo je standardnu The basic methodological principle of the
podjelu korpusa tumula prema koordinatnom excavation implied standard division of the tu-
sustavu na etiri kvadranta, koji su iskopavani mulus on the basis of coordinate system into
odvojeno, uz zadravanje kontrolnih profila, a four quadrants which were excavated sepa-
sva daljnja variranja osnovnog metodolokog rately with maintaining control profiles, and all
pristupa uvjetovana su prilagodbama onim further variations of the basic methodological
zahtjevima koje su postavljale ranosrednjovje- approach were caused by adaptations to the
kovne grobne cjeline, disperzirane i sukcesivno demands of early medieval grave units which
otkrivane u razliitim kvadrantima; sl. 4-6, 8. were dispersed and discovered successively in
Posve je jasno da zbog rasporeda, razliitih po- different quadrants; fig. 4-6, 8. It is clear that
loaja i sveukupnog broja tih grobova, kontrol- control profiles could not be ideally preserved
ni profili nisu mogli biti idealno sauvani u svim from the beginning to the end of the excava-
svojim veliinama od poetka do kraja iskopa- tion due to distribution, different positions and

Tumuli iz Krneze
11 K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 342, T. III, 2. 11 K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 342, T. III, 2. i Podvrja kod Zadra
12 K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 339-356. Usporediti i poglavlja K. GUSAR D. 12 K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 339-356. CF. chapters by K. GUSAR D. VU- Tumuli from Krneza and
VUJEVI o Duevia glavici i Matakovoj glavici. JEVI on Duevia and Matakova glavica. Podvrje near Zadar
14

Sl./ Fig. 8 vanja. U svim su tumulima najprije istraeni ra- total number of these graves. In all tumuli me-
Jokina glavica:
nosrednjovjekovni grobovi, odnosno svi grobo- dieval graves were excavated first, i.e. all graves
pogled poslije
iskopavanja vi koji ne pripadaju primarnoj razini ukapanja, which did not belong to the primary level of
srednjovjekovnih a potom je provedeno istraivanje i najniih di- burials, and then the lowest parts of the corpus
grobova jela korpusa s pripadajuim grobovima. Posve with belonging graves were excavated as well.
Jokina glavica, view
je jasno da su bolje ili slabije sauvani elementi It is quite clear that the elements of funerary
after the excavation
of medieval graves grobnih konstrukcija ili konture grobnih jama structures, in better or poorer state of preser-
bili osnovni kriteriji za meusobno razluiva- vation, and contours of grave pits were basic
Sl./ Fig. 9
Jokina glavica: pogled
nje pojedinanih pokopa i definiranje sigurnih criteria for distinguishing between individual
poslije iskopavanja grobnih cjelina. Ti su kriteriji dosljedno pri- burials and for defining certain grave units.
srednjovjekovnih mjenjivani posebice pri istraivanju najmlaeg These criteria were applied consistently par-
grobova
Jokina glavica, view sloja pokopa, kako bi se na taj nain otklonila ticularly in the excavation of the latest burial
after the excavation mogunost pripisivanja zasebnim grobnim cje- layer, in order to eliminate the possibility of
of medieval graves
linama pojedinanih dijelova kostura disloci- connecting the defined grave units with sepa-
fotografija / photographs
by K. Gusar ranih zbog recentnijih oteenja povrinskog rate skeletal remains dislocated due to recent
dijela korpusa i periferije tumula. Isti kriteriji damages of the part of the tumulus corpus and
primijenjeni su i u onim sluajevima u kojima its periphery. The same criteria were applied in
su zbog izrazito kiselog tla svi dijelovi kostura those cases in which skeletons were complete-
propali, a sauvani su samo grobni prilozi koje ly destroyed due to extreme soil acidity, only
je bilo mogue povezati s konturama grobnih grave goods were preserved which could be re-
jama ili ostatcima grobnih konstrukcija. Svi su lated to the contours of grave pits or remains
grobovi oznaavani prema redu otkria. of funerary structures. All graves were marked
according to the course of discovery.

Brunislav
Marijanovi
Brunislav Marijanovi JOKINA GLAVICA
prapovijesni grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
prehistoric graveS

Kako to sam u uvodnom dijelu ve naglasio, As mentioned in the introductory part, exca-
iskopavanje skupine tumula u Krnezi i Podvrju vations of the group of tumuli in Krneza and
zapoelo je 2007. na Jokinoj glavici i to je jedini Podvrje started in 2007 on Jokina glavica
tumul koji je dao posve intaktne prapovijesne which is also the only tumulus yielding intact
grobove, pa je njegova vrijednost u tom smislu prehistoric graves, so that its significance is the
i najvea. No vrijednost otkrivenih grobova ne greatest in that sense. Furthermore, importance
zadrava se samo na toj injenici. Otkriveni gro- of the graves surpasses this fact. Discovered
bovi posebno su znaajni zbog toga to su to prvi graves are particularly important because they
pouzdani primjeri takvog naina pokapanja na represent the first reliable example of such bur-
ovome dijelu istonog Jadrana i njegova zalea, ial rite in this part of the eastern Adriatic and
koji ne pripadaju cetinskoj kulturi niti se s njom its hinterland, which do not belong to the Cetina
na bilo koji nain mogu povezati,1 s jedne strane, culture an cannot be related to it in any way, on
niti ih je mogue posve jednostavno usporedi- one hand, 1 nor can they be compared to similar
ti sa slinim primjerima iz liburnske funeralne examples from the Liburnian funerary practice,
prakse, s druge strane.2 Pritom ne mislim samo on the other hand.2 I do not refer only to burials
na pokapanje pod grobnim humkom, nego na under mounds, but the entire rite accompany-
itav ritus primijenjen pri pokapanju, a to znai ing the burial, meaning cremation ritual, depos-
obred spaljivanja, polaganje spaljenih ostataka iting cremated remains in urns and their burial
u are i njihovo pokapanje pod humkom te ti- under a mound, as well as typological character-
poloke znaajke uporabljenih ara i priloenih istics of the used urns and deposited decorative
ukrasnih predmeta. U tom kontekstu znaajno objects. In that context it is important to em-
je naglasiti da najranije poznate primjere spa- phasize that the earliest examples of cremation
ljivanja pokojnika i pokapanja u arama s ovog of the deceased persons and burying in urns
podruja, a i ireg istonojadranskog prostora, from this region, and the wider eastern Adri-
i grobove iz Jokine glavice dijeli velik vremen- atic region, and graves from Jokina glavica are
ski raspon, te da izmeu tih pojava nije mogu- separated by great chronological gap. Cultural
e uspostaviti nikakve kulturne ili druge veze. S or any other connections cannot be established
druge strane, ni poznati primjeri slinog naina between these phenomena. On the other hand,
pokapanja kod Liburna, osim malobrojnosti, ne known examples of similar burial rite in Libur-
podudaraju se s grobovima iz Jokine glavice. nia do not correspond to graves from Jokina
Prema svim svojim bitnim odrednicama, prapo- glavica, except in scarcity. According to all im-
vijesni grobovi iz Jokine glavice najblii su poja- portant characteristics, prehistoric graves from
vama karakteristinim za kulturu arnih polja, Jokina glavica were closest to the phenomena
neovisno o tomu na koji se nain mogu inter- characteristic of the Urnfield culture, regardless
pretirati i kojem razdoblju prapovijesti pripisati. of their interpretation and dating. This will be
No, to e se iz daljnjeg izlaganja jasno vidjeti. clearly presented in the further discussion.

1 I. MAROVI-B. OVI, 1983, 204-205. 1 I. MAROVI-B. OVI, 1983, 204-205.


2 S. KUKO, 2010. 2 S. KUKO, 2010.
16

U skupini istraenih tumula recentnija su In the group of explored tumuli recent dam-
oteenja, prouzroena agrikulturnim aktivno- ages, caused by agricultural activities, were
stima, najvidljivija upravo na Jokinoj glavici, most clearly visible exactly on Jokina glavica
koja je zbog toga najmanje sauvala svoju pr- whose original appearance and size were af-
votnu veliinu i oblik. Oteenjima su najvie fected the most. Peripheral parts were dam-
bili izloeni rubni dijelovi; oteenja su smanji- aged most heavily diminishing the fill mass
la masu nasipa, pa su i mekano zaobljene linije and causing somewhat sharper contours of the
korpusa, uobiajene za ovu vrstu nalazita, na corpus instead of soft, rounded lines which are
Brunislav
Marijanovi taj nain dobile neto otrije obrise. Zbog toga usual for this type of site. This definitely caused
17
je jedan dio sekundarnih grobova, onih koji pri- devastation of some of the secondary graves Sl./ Fig. 10
Jokina glavica:
padaju ranom srednjem vijeku, a ukopanih u belonging to the Early Middle Ages, dug in the
presjek tumula
rubnim dijelovima tumula, zasigurno propao.3 peripheral parts of the tumulus.3 However all Jokina glavica,
Sva ta oteenja, meutim, nisu mogla dovesti these damages could not result in dramatic dif- section of the
do dramatinih razlika izmeu idealnih i isko- ferences between the ideal and actual archaeo- tumulus
pavanjima verificiranih arheolokih potencijala logical potentials of Jokina glavica. Growth of Sl./ Fig. 11
Jokine glavice. Razvoj vegetacije, koja je u novi- vegetation which recently covered the entire Jokina glavica:
je vrijeme pokrila itavu povrinu tumula, zasi- surface of the tumulus definitely contributed to poloaj
prapovijesnih ara
gurno je pridonio djelominom oteenju povr- partial devastation of the surface part of the fill, na osnovi tumula
inskog dijelu nasipa, ali nije mogao prouzroiti but it could not be reflected in the decrease of Jokina glavica:
smanjivanje visine nasipa, nego se odrazio samo its mass but only in the damages of the latest position prehistoric
na oteenja najmlaih grobnih konstrukcija i funerary structures and the belonging human urn on the basis
of the tumulus
pripadajuih humanih ostataka. tovie, vegeta- remains. Furthermore, vegetation could have
cija je mogla samo pridonijeti sprjeavanju ero- only contributed to prevention of erosion and
zije i zadravanju kompaktnosti nasipa koja je keeping the compactness of the fill which was
naruena oteenjima njegovih rubnih dijelova. disturbed by devastation of its peripheral parts.
S obzirom na sve reeno, jasno je da visina Considering all the aforementioned it is clear
tumula od oko 3,00 metra i njegov promjer od that the height of the tumulus of about 3,00 m
18,00 m, kako je izmjereno na poetku iskopava- and its diameter of 1,80 m at the beginning of
nja, ne odgovaraju stvarnim vrijednostima pra- the excavations, do not correspond to the ac-
povijesnog nasipa, ali sam miljenja da nijedna tual dimensions of the prehistoric fill, but in my
od navedenih veliina ne moe dramatino od- opinion none of the mentioned sizes can differ
stupati od onih izvornih. Gotovo sam siguran da dramatically from the original ones. I am almost
su u tom smislu minimalna ak i odstupanja u sure that even deviations in the fill diameter are
promjeru nasipa, a da su najvea ona u korpusu minimal, and that they are greatest in the fill
nasipa poevi od ruba prema njegovu sreditu. corpus starting from the edge towards its center.
Korpus tumula je ujednaen i vrlo kompak- The tumulus corpus is uniform and very
tan, a formiran je od zemlje iz neposrednog compact, made of soil from the immediate sur-
okruenja. U nasipu nije bilo nikakvih konstruk- rounding. There were no constructions of any
cija, ni na perifernom ni u sredinjem dijelu. kind in the fill, neither in the peripheral part,
tovie, mjestimice pronaeni amorfni komadi nor in the center. Furthermore, amorphous
kamena pripadaju iskljuivo dislociranim dije- stones which were found at places belong ex-
lovima srednjovjekovnih grobnih konstrukcija. clusively to the dislocated parts of medieval fu-
U kontrolnim profilima vidljivi su proslo- nerary structures.
ji zemlje razliite konzistencije i kvalitete, no Interlayers of soil of different consistency
oni nemaju nikakva stratigrafskog znaenja and quality are visible in the control profiles.
jer nisu pokazatelj i izraz nikakvih sukcesivnih However they have no stratigraphic importance
aktivnosti provoenih na tom mjestu, nego su because they are not an indicator or expression
iskljuivo posljedica pedoloke neujednaeno- of some successive activities happening at this
sti u okruenju iz kojeg je donoen materijal za place but a consequence of pedological uneven-
formiranje nasipa; sl. 10. Tumul je podignut u ness in the area from which soil for the fill was
jednom mahu, bez veih vremenskih zastoja i brought; fig. 10. The tumulus was raised at
kasnijih dogradnji. Iskopavanje tumula, kako once, without greater chronological delays and
je to naglaeno u uvodnom dijelu, provedeno je later additions. Excavation of the tumulus, as
prema metodolokim standardima koji vrijede mentioned in the introduction, was carried out
za ovu vrstu arheolokih nalazita. on the basis of methodological standards valid
Prapovijesni su grobovi otkriveni na osnovi for this type of archaeological sites.
tumula, odnosno na razini s koje je provedeno Prehistoric graves were discovered at the
nasipanje i formiranje njegova korpusa. Svi pr- basis of the tumulus, i.e. at the level from which jOKINA GLAVICA
prapovijesni grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
3 Usporediti poglavlje K. GUSAR o srednjovjekovnim grobovima s Jokine glavice. 3 Cf. chapter by K. Gusar on medieval graves from Jokina glavica. prehistoric graves
18

Sl./ Fig. 12
Poloaj
prapovijesnih ara
na osnovi tumula
Position of the
prehistoric urns
on the basis of
the tumulus

Sl./ Fig. 13
Poloaj
prapovijesnih ara
na osnovi tumula
Position of the
prehistoric urns
on the basis of
the tumulus
fotografije / photographs
by B. Marijanovi

votni grobovi u tom tumulu, kako je ve istaknu- the tumulus was raised. All primary graves in
to, sadre spaljene humane ostatke pohranjene the tumulus, as previously stated, contain cre-
u etiri are. Premda zbog recentnijih oteenja mated human remains deposited in four urns.
nije mogue sa sigurnou odrediti izvorni pro- Although the original diameter of the tumulus
mjer tumula, pa prema tome ni utvrditi njegovo could not be determined due to recent dam-
priblino sredite, ipak je posve vjerojatna pret- ages, or its approximate center, it is more than
postavka da su are bile poloene i grupirane likely that the urns were laid and grouped ex-
upravo u tom dijelu osnove tumula; sl. 11. actly in this part of the tumulus basis; fig. 11.
Sve su are poloene u plitku zajedniku jamu All urns were laid in a common shallow pit
nepravilna oblika, ukopanu na samoj osnovi tu- of irregular form, dug into the basis of the tu-
mula. Dno jame pokriveno je tanjim slojem vrlo mulus. The bottom of the pit was covered with a
sitnog ala, koje je upotrijebljeno i za zatrpava- thin layer of small pebbles which were used for
nje ara sve do njihova otvora, pa je tako i grob- covering the urns all the way to their openings
na jama u cijelosti ispunjena alom. are nisu so that the grave pit was filled with small peb-
imale nikakve poklopce, nego je na njihov otvor bles. Urns did not have lids, but a large amor-
poloena ovea amorfna kamena ploa, ime su phous stone slab was placed over their open-
are zatvorene i osnovni in pokapanja dovren. ings, which closed the urns and ended the basic
Jedino su na aru br. 3 umjesto jedne vee polo- burial ritual. Two smaller slabs were put on the
ene dvije manje ploe; sl. 12-22. Ni oko grobne urn no. 3 instead of one larger; fig. 12-22. There
jame, ni u nasipu tumula nisu ustanovljeni ni- were no traces of rituals or some other proce-
kakvi tragovi obreda ili nekih drugih postupaka dures related to the act of interment around the
povezanih s inom pokapanja. Po svemu sudei, grave pit or in the tumulus fill. It seems that
nasipanje tumula provedeno je odjednom ili ba- the tumulus was raised at once, or at least with-
rem bez duih prekida u tom postupku. out longer interruptions in the procedure.
Osim ostataka spaljenih osoba u svim su a- Besides cremated burnt remains, various
rama pronaene razliite vrste bronanog na- types of bronze jewelry were found in all urns
Brunislav
Marijanovi kita, koji je oito priloen nakon provedenog which were evidently deposited after the cre-
19

spaljivanja, jer nijedan priloeni predmet nije mation since they do not exhibit deformations
deformiran ni na bilo koji nain oteen zbog or any damages caused by exposure to high
izlaganja visokoj temperaturi. temperature.
Polaganje ara na osnovi tumula, njihova Depositing urns at the basis of the tumulus,
oita prostorna homogenost, odnosno naglae- their evident spatial homogeneity, i.e. empha-
no grupiranje na maloj povrini, ujednaenost sized grouping in a small area, uniformity of
pogrebnog rituala te odsutnost bilo kakvih tra- the funerary ritual, and absence of any traces
gova kasnijih zahvata u korpusu tumula, pogo- of later interventions in the tumulus corpus,
tovo u onome njegovu dijelu koji bi bio relevan- especially in the part relevant for determining
tan za utvrivanje stratigrafskih odnosa meu stratigraphic relations between the urns, which
arama - to bi doputalo barem teorijsku mo- would enable at least theoretical possibility of
gunost njegova sukcesivnog nasipanja, a sa- its successive raising, and thereby possibility of
mim time i mogunost naknadnih pokapanja subsequent burials, point to conclusion that all
- nedvojbeno nameu zakljuak da su sve are urns in this tumulus were deposited simulta-
u ovome tumulu poloene istodobno, odnosno neously, i.e. that in this case we have a typical
da je u ovome sluaju rije o tipinom primjeru example of a collective grave with four simulta-
skupnoga groba s etiri istodobno provedena neous burials. General typological uniformity
pokopa. Na isti zakljuak upuuje i opa tipolo- of the urns, regardless of the small differences
ka ujednaenost upotrijebljenih ara, neovisno in some details such as certain particularities
o manjim razlikama u nekim pojedinostima, in the modeling of the handles or an ornament
kao to su stanovite specifinosti u oblikovanju executed on only one specimen point to the
drki ili pak ukras izveden samo na jednoj od same conclusion. Furhermore, considering the
njih. Osim toga, s obzirom na istovrsnost ritusa identical rite and simultaneous burials, I am
i istodobnost pokapanja, sklon sam vjerovati inclined to believe that in this case we have a
kako je u ovome sluaju rije o skupini vrlo bli- group of closely related persons. Various hy- jOKINA GLAVICA
sko povezanih osoba. O prirodi tih veza mogu- potheses and speculations can be proposed prapovijesni grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
e je iznijeti razliite pretpostavke i spekulaci- on the nature of these relations, including the prehistoric graves
20
je, ukljuujui i onu o uoj ili daljoj rodbinskoj one about more or less close kinship ties of the
povezanosti pokopanih. Premda mi ta mogu- deceased persons. Although this possibility
nost djeluje vrlo privlano, treba naglasiti da je seems very appealing it is necessary to men-
takva povezanost u ovome trenutku upitna,4 te tion that such relations are questionable at the
da je problematian i broj pokopanih osoba, o moment,4 and that even the number of buried
emu e biti govoreno u daljem izlaganju, jer persons is problematic, which will be discussed
rezultati antropoloko-forenzinih istraivanja in the continuation, as the results of anthropo-
sugeriraju drukije interpretacije.5 logical-forensic analysis suggest different in-
terpretations. 5

Tipoloke znaajke nalaza


Typological characteristics of the finds
Homogenost pokopa u Jokinoj glavici, kako
sam to ve naglasio, odreena je u prvom redu Homogeneity of burials in Jokina glavica, as
prostornom povezanou i naglaenim grupi- emphasized before, is determined primarily by
ranjem ara na maloj povrini, ujednaenou spatial relations and pronounced grouping of
pogrebnog rituala te odsutnou bilo kakvih in- the urns in a small area, uniformity of funerary
dicija o sukcesivnom pokapanju, ali u jednakoj ritual, and absence of any indications of suc-
mjeri tipolokim odlikama ara i s njima pove- cessive burials, but also by typological charac-
zanih priloga. S obzirom na to, ini mi se da je teristics of the urns and related finds. There-
tipoloke i stilske odlike grae i njihovu ana- fore it seems to me that typological and stylistic
lizu, ukljuujui i komparativne pokazatelje, characteristics of the material and their analy-
najbolje prikazati u cjelini, jer e na taj nain sis, including comparative indicators, should
biti najlake vidljivi svi elementi bitni za vre- be presented as a whole because in that way
mensku i kulturnu determinaciju nalaza, kao i all elements important for chronological and
oni koji su povezani s prostorno irim i povije- cultural determination of the finds will be most
sno vanijim kulturolokim pitanjima. easily visible, as well as the ones related to spa-
_ ara broj 1 krukolikog je oblika s ljevkasto tially wider and historically more important
suenim vratom i razgrnutim obodom, te nagla- questions.
eno profiliranim prijelazom iz vratnog segmenta _ Urn number 1 is pear-shaped with funnel-
u rameni. Par okomitih trakastih drki pravokut- shaped narrowed neck and everted rim. Tran-
na presjeka postavljen je na ramenu are; T. I, 1. sition from the neck to the shoulder segment
Osim humanih ostataka u ari je pronaena is emphasized. A pair of vertical strap-handles
jedna masivna bronana igla, poloena na sa- with rectangular cross-section is on the shoul-
mom vrhu. Premda je u sredinjem dijelu tijela der of the urn; Pl. I, 1.
blago svijena, a pri vrhu posve iskrivljena, na In addition to human remains, a massive
igli nema nikakvih deformacija prouzroenih bronze pin was found in the urn, at its top. Al-
izlaganjem visokoj temperaturi, to posve ja- though it is slightly bent in the middle part of the
sno ukazuje na njezino prilaganje nakon pro- body, and completely crooked at the top, there
vedenog obreda spaljivanja. U istom pravcu are no deformations on the pin caused by expo-
govori i njezin poloaj na vrhu are. sure to high temperature which clearly points to
Igla je izraena od masivne ice okrugla pre- its deposition after the cremation ritual. Its posi-
sjeka i ujednaene debljine u itavoj svojoj dui- tion at the top of the urn supports this thesis.
ni, osim neposredno uza sam vrh. Vrat i gornji The pin was made of massive wire with
dio tijela su pseudotordirani, a donji je dio po- round cross-section, of uniform thickness
sve gladak; T. I, 2a-b. Masivna glava lukoviasta throughout its length, except immediately near
oblika u donjem je i gornjem dijelu ukraena s its tip. Neck and the upper part of the body

4 Pokuaj utvrivanje rodbinske povezanosti pokopanih osoba preko DNK 4 An attempt to determine kinship ties of the buried persons over the DNA
analiza, proveden na Klinikom zavodu za patologiju, sudsku medicinu i analyses conducted at the Department of Pathology, Court Medicine and
citologiju KBC-a Split, zbog slabe sauvanosti humanih ostataka nije dao Cytology, within Clinical Hospital Split, yielded no results due to poor pre-
Brunislav nikakav rezultat. servation of the human remains.
Marijanovi 5 Usporediti poglavlje I. Anteri et al. o Jokinoj glavici. 5 Cf. anthropological analysis.
21

Sl./ Fig. 14
ara br. 1
Urn no. 1

Sl./ Fig. 15
ara br. 1
Urn no. 1
fotografije / photographs
by B. Marijanovi

jOKINA GLAVICA
prapovijesni grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
prehistoric graves
22
were pseudo-twisted, and the lower part is
very smooth; Pl. I, 2a-b. Massive bulbous head
is decorated in the lower and upper part with
two narrow incised strips, filled by using the
technique of sticking, which border the central
decorative field with a motif of running spiral
strip; Pl. I, 2c-d. To be precise, motif of the run-
ning spiral strip was formed by four symmetri-
cally distributed concentrical circles connected
with slanted strip-like tangents. In the middle
of the narrowest circle is a clearly visible dotted
concavity; Pl. I, 2c-d.
_ Urn number 2 is larger than the aforemen-
tioned, it has a well-proportioned spindle-like
form with an emphasized belly and widely
everted rim which, surprisingly, was not placed
horizontally; Pl. II, 1a-b. A pair of vertical,
massive strap handles with rectangular cross-
section was placed on the shoulder of the urn
which was decorated with a wide incised strip
filled with a row of hanging and a row of stand-
ing triangles. Triangles were distributed in such
a manner as to form a narrow zig-zag strip. In-
terior of each triangle was filled with parallel
slanted lines laid in the same directions in all
triangles. Remains of white incrustation were
preserved in the incised lines; Pl. II, 1a-b. Or-
nament is very harmonious, executed precisely
and neatly without significant deformations
in the individual motifs and composition as a
whole. Since motifs, and the entire composi-
tion were fashioned minutely, and partially
preserved white incrustation indicates rich
coloristic and artistic achievement, this urn
might be interpreted as a luxurious funerary
product. All the more so because true decora-
tion appears only on this urn, except for certain
decorative phenomena on the urn number 3.
Only one object was found alongside hu-
man remains, laid on the top: a luxuriously
fashioned bronze fibula. Although it was found
disassembled in the urn, and its pin is slightly
Sl./ Fig. 16 dvije uske urezane vrpce, ispunjene ubodima, bent, due to exceptionally good state of pres-
ara br. 2 ervation and absence of any deformations, we
Urn no. 2 koje omeuju sredinje ukrasno polje s moti-
can state with certainty that fibula was not ex-
vom tekue spiralne vrpce; T. I, 2c-d. Tonije,
Sl./ Fig. 17 posed to high temperature i.e. that it was re-
motiv tekue spiralne vrpce postignut je s etiri
ara br. 2 moved prior to the cremation ritual, and it was
Urn no. 2 simetrino rasporeene koncentrine krunice put back in the urn in the ritual of depositing
fotografije / photographs
by B. Marijanovi
povezane ukoso poloenim tangentama izvede- cremated remains of the person it belonged to.
nim u obliku vrpce. U sredini najue krunice The fibula is massive, made of thick wire
jasno je vidljivo tokasto udubljenje; T. I, 2c-d. with oval cross-section, of uniform thickness
23
_ ara broj 2 veih je dimenzija od prethod- throughout its length except the loop of the fib-
ne, ima vrlo skladan vretenasti oblik, s nagla- ula where a wire was thinned into a rectangular
enim trbuhom i iroko razgrnutim obodom, cross-section; Pl. II, 2a-b. The loop was formed
koji, meutim, nije vodoravno postavljen; T. by multiple twists, and it ends in a small, hori-
II, 1a-b. Par okomitih, masivnih trakastih drki zontal spiral disk; Pl. II, 2a-b; Pl. III, 2-3. Sad-
pravokutna presjeka postavljen je na ramenu dle-shaped part of the bow ends in two differ-
are, a rame je ukraeno irokom urezanom ent loops, the one close to the head-end of the
vrpcom ispunjenom redom viseih i redom sto- bow was formed by regular twisting, whereas
jeih trokuta. Trokuti su komponirani tako da the one close to the foot was hidden by a spe-
u praznom meuprostoru formiraju usku cik- cial thickening modeled in the finishing proc-
cak vrpcu. Unutranjost svih trokuta ispunjena ess, Pl. II, 2a-b; Pl. III, 2-3. Two equally mas-
je paralelnim kosim crtama poloenim u istim sive pseudo bows, identical to the main bow
smjerovima u svim trokutima, a u urezanim cr- in appearance and modeling, were added to the
tama sauvani su ostatci bijele inkrustacije; T. lateral sides of the bow. These bows make an
II, 1a-b. Ukras je vrlo skladan, izveden precizno illusion of triply articulated bow of the fibula;
i uredno, bez znaajnijih deformacija u pojedi- Pl. II, 2b; Pl. III, 1. Ends of fake bows were cut
nanim motivima i kompoziciji u cjelini. Kako obliquely, thinned and modeled minutely so
su motivi, a i kompozicija u cijelosti pomno that they fit very well on the oval corpus of the
izvedeni, a mjestimice sauvana bijela inkru- main bow making it only slightly thicker. They
stacija ukazuje na bogato koloristiko i likovno are fastened to it by bronze rivets; Pl. III, 1, 3-5.
rjeenje, ovoj bi se ari mogao pripisati karak- All elements of the threefold bow of the fibula
ter luksuznoga pogrebnog produkta. To prije were pseudo-twisted except for a loop close to
to je, izuzimajui stanovite dekorativne poja- the head of the fibula and the zone of mutual
ve na ari broj 3, ukraavanje u punom smislu fastening of the main and lateral parts; Pl. III, 1.
rijei provedeno samo na ovoj ari. Thickening on the loop close to the foot of the
Uz humane ostatke pronaen je samo jedan fibula was decorated with bundles of shallowly
predmet, poloen na samom vrhu: luksuzno izra- incised motifs, oriented in different directions
ena bronana fibula. Premda je u urni prona- on the opposite sides of the loop; Pl. III, 3, 5.
ena rastavljena, a i igla joj je neznatno svijena, Bow segments towards the foot and the pin
zbog iznimno dobre sauvanosti i odsutnosti bilo of the fibula were decorated with horizontal,
parallel shallow incisions which successfully
kakvih deformacija, sa sigurnou se moe tvrditi
imitate pseudo-twisting of the saddle-shaped
da fibula nije bila izloena visokoj temperaturi,
parts of the bow; Pl. IV, 1-2.
odnosno da je uklonjena prije obreda spaljivanja,
Massive pin of the fibula has an oval, almost
te da je u urnu poloena pri obredu polaganja
circular cross-section. It tapers evenly from the
spaljenih ostataka osobe kojoj je pripadala.
head to the tip, and the body is rhomboidally
Fibula je masivna, izraena od debele ice
widened only in the part in which it connects
ovalna presjeka i ujednaene debljine itavom
with the bow of the fibula; Pl. II, 2a; Pl. IV, 4.
svojom duinom osim na petlji kope gdje je
Two identical disks were fixed on the neck of
ica raskucana i stanjena u pravokutni presjek;
the pin, with four round perforations on each,
T. II, 2a-b. Petlja je formirana viestrukim uvi-
executed in cross-shaped disposition. Disks
janjem, a zavrava malim vodoravnim spiralnim
were fastened to the pin symmetrically so that
diskom; T. II, 2a-b; T. III, 2-3. Sedlasti dio luka perforations on disks overlap; Pl. II, 2a-b; Pl.
zavrava s dvije nejednake petlje, od kojih je ona IV, 4. The third and largest disk, visible only in
prema glavi fibule formirana uobiajenim zavi- the form of a ring, makes a round basis for at-
janjem, dok je ona prema nozi posve prikrivena taching two symmetrical calottes which make a
posebnim zadebljanjem izvedenim pri kasnijoj hollow head of the pin. Such technical solution
doradi fibule; T. II, 2a-b; T. III, 2-3. Na bone resulted in an illusion of a spherical head with
strane luka dodana su jo dva, jednako masivna central annular reinforcement, Pl. II, 2a-b; Pl. jOKINA GLAVICA
lana luka, izgledom i izradom posve podu- IV, 3-4. Both calottes were decorated with four prapovijesni grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
darna osnovnom, te zajedno s njim stvaraju ilu- rows of nub-like protrusions which develop on prehistoric graves
24
their rounded surfaces in a regular rhythm and
precise crafting making round motifs similar
to the motif of concentrical circles. The highest
and lowest row were made separately from the
others, whereas the central two were mutually
connected. The biggest nubs are in the lowest
row, near the base of the calottes, and the small-
est, quite discreet, are on their tops. Nubs in two
central rows have uniform size; Pl. IV, 3-6.
_ Urn number 3, is of approximately same
size as the aforementioned, and it is also typo-
logically very similar to it. However due to em-
phasized belly, the spindle-shaped form char-
acteristic of urn no. 2 is not as pronounced; Pl.
V, 1. On the other hand, shallowly incised line
at the transition from the neck to shoulder seg-
ment makes it similar to urn no. 1, though the
transition from the neck to shoulder segment is
not defined and emphasized but gradual. How-
ever typological peculiarity of this urn in rela-
tion to the aforementioned urn and all others is
expressed mostly in a pair of exceptionally mas-
sive, vertical handles placed at the transition
from the shoulder to belly. Practically these are
double strap handles with round cross-section,
completely apart in the lower root, connected in
the upper root and joined into an organic whole
by a horizontally placed discoid ending. The
handles were decorated with wide, shallow hori-
zontal channels; Pl. V, 2a-b Only one find was
found in this urn alongside human remains: a
massive bronze pin.
Although it is slightly deformed like a wave
throughout its length, the pin does not exhibit
Sl./ Fig. 18 ziju trostruko ralanjenog luka fibule; T. II, 2b; any damages caused by exposure to high tem-
ara br. 3 perature, which in this case also clearly indicates
Urn no. 3 T. III, 1. Krajevi lanih lukova odrezani su uko-
that it was deposited after the cremation ritual.
so, istanjeni i pomno oblikovani pa vrlo dobro
Sl./ Fig. 19 The pin was made of massive wire with
ara br. 3
nalijeu na ovalni korpus osnovnog luka i samo
round cross-section, of uniform thickness
Urn no. 3 ga neznatno zadebljaju, a za njega su privreni
throughout its length, except in the upper part
fotografije / photographs bronanim zakovicama; T. III, 1, 3-5.
by B. Marijanovi which is strongly thickened and twisted. The
Izuzimajui petlju prema glavi fibule i zonu neck is very short, discreetly annularly shaped.
meusobnog uvrivanja osnovnog dijela s Its thickness corresponds to thickness of the
bonim dijelovima, svi su elementi trodijelnog larger part of the body and it effectively empha-
luka fibule pseudotordirani; T. III, 1. sizes small biconical head; Pl. V, 3a-b. It seems
Zadebljanje na petlji prema nozi fibule ukra- that modeling of the upper part of the pin was
eno je snopovima plitko urezanih motiva, ori- carefully planned in order to emphasize the
jentiranih u razliitim pravcima na suprotnim head and reduce certain disproportion in rela-
stranama petlje; T. III, 3, 5. tion to the body.
Krakovi luka prema nozi i igli fibule ukrae- _ Urn number 4, corresponds to urn no. 1 in
Brunislav
Marijanovi ni su vodoravnim, paralelno izvedenim plitkim terms of size, but typologically it is much closer
25
urezima koji uspjeno oponaaju pseudotordi-
ranje sedlastih dijelova luka; T. IV, 1-2.
Masivna igla fibule ovalna je, gotovo kru-
nog presjeka i ravnomjerno se stanjuje od gla-
ve prema vrhu, a tijelo je romboidno proireno
samo na dijelu na kojem se povezuje s lukom
fibule; T. II, 2a; T. IV, 4. Na vratu igle uvrena
su dva jednaka diska, s etiri krune perforacije
na svakom, izvedene u krinoj dispoziciji. Dis-
kovi su na iglu uvreni simetrino pa se per-
foracije na diskovima poklapaju; T. II, 2a-b; T.
IV, 4. Trei i najvei disk, vidljiv samo u obliku
prstena, ini krunu osnovu za koju su privr-
ivane dvije simetrine kalote koje formiraju
uplju glavu igle. Takvim tehnikim rjeenjem
postignuta je iluzija kuglaste glave sa sredi-
njim prstenastim ojaanjem; T. II, 2a-b; T. IV,
3-4. Obje kalote ukraene su s etiri niza brada-
viastih ispupenja koja se u pravilnom ritmu i
preciznom izvoenju razvijaju po njihovim zao-
bljenim povrinama i niu u krune motive sli-
ne motivu koncentrinih krunica. Najvii i naj-
nii niz izvedeni su odvojeno od ostalih, dok su
dva sredinja meusobno povezana. U svakom
pojedinanom nizu ispupenja su ujednaenih
veliina, ali se njihova veliina po pravilnom ri-
tmu mijenja iz jednog u drugi niz. Najkrupnije
su bradavice u najniem nizu, odnosno uz baze
kalota, a najsitnije, posve diskretne, one na nji-
hovim vrhovima. Bradavice u dva sredinja niza
imaju ujednaenu veliinu; T. IV, 3-6.
_ ara broj 3 priblino je iste veliine kao i
prethodna, a i tipoloki je s njom vrlo bliska.
Ipak, zbog izrazito naglaenog trbuha vretena-
sta forma karakteristina za aru br. 2 slabije je
uoljiva; T. V, 1. S druge strane, plitko urezana
linija na prijelazu vratnog u rameni segment u
odreenom je smislu povezuje i sa arom br. 1,
premda prijelaz iz vratnog segmenta u rameni
nije profiliran i naglaen nego postupan. Me-
utim, tipoloka posebnost ove are, ne samo
u odnosu na prethodnu nego i na sve ostale,
najvie se oituje u paru izrazito masivnih, oko-

Sl./ Fig. 20 Sl./ Fig.21 Sl./ Fig. 22


ara br. 4 ara br. 4 ara br. 4
Urn no. 4 Urn no. 4 Urn no. 4 Tumuli iz Krneze
i Podvrja kod Zadra
Tumuli from Krneza and
fotografije / photographs by B. Marijanovi Podvrje near Zadar
26

Sl./ Fig. 23 mitih drki postavljenih na prijelazu ramena u to urns number 2 and 3. The rim is distinctly
are poslije
konzervacije trbuh. Praktiki se radi o dvojnim trakastim everted, and massive horizontal handles with
Urns after conservation drkama okruglog presjeka, posve razdvojenim cross-section which is more rounded than oval
fotografije / photographs
by B. Marijanovi
u donjem korijenu, a u gornjem spojenim i u were placed on the belly; Pl. VI, 1.
organsku cjelinu povezanim vodoravno polo- A fragment of a bronze object made of
enim diskoidnim zavretkom. Drke su ukra- smooth massive wire with round cross-section
ene irokim, plitko izvedenim vodoravnim was deposited in the urn with cremated human
kanelurama; T. V, 2a-b. I u ovoj je ari, uz hu- remains. There are no deformations caused by
mane ostatke, pronaen samo jedan predmet: exposure to high temperature on the preserved
masivna bronana igla. part. The object which might correspond to a
Premda blago valovito iskrivljena itavom svo- fragment of a simple bronze bracelet was dam-
jom duinom, igla ne pokazuje nikakve posljedice aged intentionally before it was deposited in
prouzroene izlaganjem visokoj temperaturi, to the urn in the ritual of burying the person it
i u ovome sluaju posve jasno ukazuje na prilaga- belonged to; Pl. VI, 2. Considering the condi-
nje nakon provedenog obreda spaljivanja. tion of the find, nothing can be said about its
Igla je izraena od masivne ice okrugla pre- typological characteristics.
sjeka i ujednaene debljine u itavoj svojoj du- Besides the mentioned finds, another ob-
ini, osim na gornjem dijelu, koji je naglaeno ject was found in the tumulus fill which cannot
zadebljan i tordiran. Vrat je izrazito kratak, dis- be directly related to the urns considering its
kretno prstenasto profiliran, a debljinom po- stratigraphical position high above them. The
dudaran debljini veeg dijela tijela, pa efektno find was out of context and completely isolated,
naglaava malu glavicu bikonina oblika; T. V, and it was found when medieval graves were
Brunislav
Marijanovi 3a-b. Stjee se dojam da je profilacija gornjeg excavated. It was a massive bronze pin which
27
dijela igle pomno promiljena upravo zbog isti- is almost completely corresponding in terms of
canja glave i ublaavanja stanovitog nerazmje- size and stylistic-typological characteristics to
ra u odnosu na tijelo. the bronze pin from urn number 1. Only two
_ ara broj 4 veliinom se podudara sa arom ornamental elements reflect smaller differenc-
br. 1, ali je tipoloki znatno blia arama broj 2 es in relation to it. Firstly, the central ornamen-
i 3. Obod je izrazito razgrnut, a masivne vodo- tal motif consists of a true running spiral strip,
ravne drke vie krunog negoli ovalnog presje- not its imitation as on the pin from urn no. 1.
ka postavljene su na trbuhu; T. VI, 1. Secondly, running spiral strip is filled with a
Uz spaljene humane ostatke u aru je po- row of short, slanted notches; Pl. VI, 3a-c. Cor-
loen dio bronanog predmeta izraenog od respondence with the pin from urn no. 1 is re-
glatke masivne ice okruglog presjeka. Na sa- flected also in slight bending of its middle part
uvanom dijelu nisu vidljive nikakve deforma- and complete bending of its tip. As there are
cije prouzroene izlaganjem visokoj tempera- no other deformations on this pin, it is evident
turi, a predmet, koji bi mogao odgovarati dijelu that it was not exposed to high temperatures.
jednostavne bronane narukvice, oteen je Both mentioned circumstances seem very
namjerno prije prilaganja u aru, u obredu po- important in an attempt of clarifying posi-
kapanja osobe kojoj je pripadao; T. VI, 2. S ob- tion and meaning of this find in the tumulus
zirom na stanje nalaza, o njegovim tipolokim fill. Namely complete isolation and absence of
znaajkama nije mogue iznijeti nikakav sud. any significant traces which would point to a
Osim navedenih nalaza u nasipu tumula pro- ritual performed during the raising of tumu-
naen je jo jedan predmet koji se, s obzirom na lus, clearly indicate that its presence in the
stratigrafsku poziciju visoko iznad pokopanih fill was not related to some special activities,
ara, s njima ne moe dovesti u izravnu vezu. but it got there for some other reason. On the
Nalaz je bez ikakvog konteksta i posve izoliran, other hand, since typological and stylistic cor-
a pronaen je prilikom istraivanja srednjovje- respondence of this pin and the one from the
kovnih grobova. Rije je o masivnoj bronanoj urn no. 1 is so emphasized that handwriting
igli koja se veliinom i stilsko-tipolokim odlika- of the same workshop center can be recognized
ma gotovo posve podudara s bronanom iglom in them, and I would even add a signature of
iz are br. 1. Manje razlike u odnosu na nju po- the same caster, it is very likely that these two
stoji samo u dva elementa ukrasa. Prvo, sre- examples actually make a pair of pins. If that
dinji ukrasni motiv ini prava tekua spiralna is correct, then it is possible that one specimen
vrpca, a ne njezina imitacija, kao na igli iz are was accidentally forgotten in the burial proce-
br. 1. I drugo, tekua spiralna vrpca ispunjena je dure, and therefore it was deposited later when
nizom kratkih, koso poloenih zareza; T. VI, 3a- the tumulus was raised.
c. Podudarnost s iglom iz are br. 1 oituje se i u Although there are certain typological dif-
blagom svijanju njezina sredinjeg dijela i pot- ferences and variations in details between the
punom svijanju vrha. Kako ni na ovoj igli nema urns, and the deposited jewelry in the urns is
nikakvih drugih deformacija, oito je da ni ona of different types, entire material as a whole
nije bila izlagana visokoj temperaturi. makes a homogenous stylistic-typological, and
Obje navedene okolnosti ine mi se iznimno as it seems, chronological unit, which corre-
znaajnima za pokuaj razjanjavanja pozicije sponds to general circumstances of the finds,
i smisla ovog nalaza u nasipu tumula. Naime, i.e. simultaneous cremation ritual and ritual of
posvemanja izoliranost i odsutnost bilo ka- burying the cremated remains.
kvih signifikantnih tragova koji bi upuivali na Namely regardless of the mentioned smaller
obred proveden tijekom nasipanja tumula, ja- differences, it is evident that all urns from Joki-
sno ukazuju da prisutnost ovog nalaza u nasipu na glavica are very similar, and urns 2, 3 and
nije povezana s nekim specijalnim radnjama, 4 are typologically almost identical. The great-
nego je igla ovamo dospjela iz nekih drugih ra- est differences are exhibited in the shaping of
zloga. S druge strane, kako su tipoloka i stilska handles and variations in their positions on the jOKINA GLAVICA
podudarnost te igle i primjerka iz are br. 1 do te urn. Besides, urn no. 1 has a sharply modeled prapovijesni grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
mjere naglaene da se u njima moe prepozna- transition from the neck to shoulder segment prehistoric graves
28
ti rukopis istog radionikog sredita, a rekao which is very immediate and mild on the re-
bih i potpis istog ljevaa, vrlo je mogue da mainig three urns. Finally shoulder segment of
ta dva primjerka zapravo ine jedan par igala. urn no. 2 is decorated with rich coloristic and
Ako je to tono, onda je mogua i pretpostav- stylistic composition. However I believe that
ka da je jedan od dva primjerka posve sluajno all mentioned differences are neither great nor
izostavljen u postupku pokapanja, pa je zbog important for disputing statement about their
toga priloen kasnije pri nasipanju tumula. typological coherence.
Premda meu pojedinim arama postoje Starting from the general typological char-
stanovite tipoloke razlike i variranja u poje- acteristics of urns, and taking into considera-
dinostima, a i nakit priloen u are razliitih tion scarcity of identical finds in the Zadar and
je vrsta, gledano u cjelini, cjelokupan fundus eastern Adriatic region to which finds from
grae ini homogenu stilsko-tipoloku, a rekao Jokina glavica may be related, as well as gener-
bih i vremensku cjelinu, koja je posve primjere- ally modest repertory of ceramic finds from ac-
na opim uvjetima nalaza, odnosno istodobno ceptable chronological framework in the same
provedenom obredu spaljivanja i obredu poka- region, it is clear that possibilities of typological
panja spaljenih ostataka. comparisons of finds from this tumulus with
Naime, neovisno o naznaenim manjim ra- other corresponding finds are very limited.
zlikama, iz navedenih tipolokih odlika vidljivo A vesel with decoration almost identical to
je da su sve are iz Jokine glavice tipoloki vrlo the one on urn no. 2 was found in Nin (near the
bliske, a are 2, 3 i 4 tipoloki gotovo podudar- Church of Holy Cross), but it was not an urn or
ne. Gledano u cjelini, najvee se razlike oituju vessel used for such purposes. 6 Discoid ending
u oblikovanju drki i variranja njihove pozicije on the handles of urn no. 3 might be compared
na ari. Osim toga, ara br. 1 ima otro profili- to similar ending of a handle which was found
ran prijelaz vratnog segmenta u rameni, koji je at the same site.7 In wider typological sense
kod ostale tri neposredan i vrlo blag. Napokon, comparison is possible with two vessels from
rameni segment are br. 2. ukraen je bogatim the necropolis drijac, marked as graves 2 and
likovnim i koloristikim rjeenjem. Ipak, sve 7, one of which had a ceramic lid. However ac-
navedene razlike ne drim ni velikima ni po- cording to information by . Batovi none of
sebno znaajnima za osporavanje konstatacije them contained human remains which is why
o njihovoj tipolokoj koherentnosti. the author interpreted them as cenotaphs.8
Polazei od opih tipolokih odlika ara, a Similar form with pronounced belly and nar-
uzimajui u obzir posvemanju skromnost isto- rowed neck appears on urns from graves 4 and
vrsnih nalaza na zadarskom i istonom jadran- 13 in Nadin.9 Finally, a vessel, perhaps function-
skom podruju s kojima bi se nalazi iz Jokine ing as an urn from the primary grave in the tu-
glavice mogli vrsto povezati, te openito skro- mulus of Matakova glavica might be compared
man fundus keramikih nalaza iz prihvatljivih to general typological characteristics of the
vremenskih okvira na istom podruju, posve je urns from Jokina glavica.10 These are almost all
jasno da su mogunosti tipolokih usporedbi possibilities of comparison of typological char-
nalaza iz ovoga tumula s drugim odgovaraju- acteristics of the urns from Jokina glavica with
im nalazima na ovome podruju vrlo skromne. known ceramic finds in the northern Dalmatia
Jedna posuda s ukrasom gotovo istovjetnim region. However, in opinion of some scholars,
s onome na ari br. 2 potjee iz Nina (oko crkve typological characteristics of known urns from
sv. Kria), ali se ne radi o ari niti o posudi upo- this region have analogies in the Liburnian
rabljenoj za te potrebe.6 Diskoidni zavretak na pottery, primarily in large funerary pots, with
drkama are br. 3 mogao bi se, moda, uspo- tubular or conical neck and covering vessel
rediti sa slinim zavretkom jedne drke koja
potjee s istoga nalazita.7 U irem tipolokom 6 . BATOVI, 1970, fig. 20.
7 Ibid. fig. 38.
smislu usporedba je mogue i s dvije posude s 8 Ibid. 42. The author refers to situation from the area of Solana (salt works)
where identical vessels were used for burying newborns.
9 S. KUKO, 2009; S. KUKO, 2010, fig. 15-16. Three ceramic urns (gr. 4, 13) in
mound 13 from Nadin with 19 graves (9-6 centuries BC) are the first example
of cremation in the Liburnian funerary context from the Early Iron Age.
Brunislav 6 . BATOVI, 1970, sl. 20. 10 K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 3, fig. 8. T. 6/1. CF. chapters by K. GUSAR D.
Marijanovi 7 Ibid. sl. 38. VUJEVI on Duevia and Matakova glavica.
29
nekropole drijac, oznaene kao grobovi 2 i 7, for burials of newborns.11 In my opinion, de-
od kojih je jedna imala keramiki poklopac. Me- spite that fact typological similarity with corre-
utim, prema podatcima koje donosi . Batovi, sponding examples outside Liburnian cultural
nijedna nije sadravala humane ostatke, zbog ambiance is very important.
ega ih je autor interpretirao kao kenotafe.8 Namely despite modest possibilities of ty-
Slian trbuasti oblik sa suenim vratom imaju pological comparisons in the limited region
i are iz grobova 4 i 13 u Nadinu.9 Napokon, s to which the urns from Jokina glavica belong,
opim tipolokim odlikama ara iz Jokine gla- what is evident at first sight is their typologi-
vice mogla bi se usporediti jo i posuda, moda cal similarity with pottery forms of identical or
u funkciji are, iz primarnoga groba u tumulu similar character (in any case with finds from
Matakova glavica.10 Time su gotovo posve iscr- various funerary contexts) from a very wide re-
pljene mogunosti usporedbe tipolokih zna- gion in different culural circles (Rue, V.Gorica,
ajka ara iz Jokine glavice s poznatim kerami- Dalj/Vukovar, Terni II, Este II, Bologna I-II,
kim nalazima na podruju sjeverne Dalmacije. Rim II, Cumae I, Pontecagnano IA) belonging
Dodue, prema nekim miljenjima, tipoloke to the chronological range from the 10th/9th to
znaajke poznatih ara s ovoga podruja ima- 8th centuries BC. 12
ju analogije u liburnskoj keramici, u prvom In other words general typological charac-
redu u velikim grobnim loncima, s cjevastim teristics of the urns from Jokina glavica exhibit
ili stoastim vratom i s poklopnom zdjelom evident similarities with urns of the Urnfield
za sahranu novoroenadi.11 Meutim, una- culture, particularly its groups from the region
to tomu, ini mi se da je ovdje vrlo znaajna of north-western Croatia nad eastern Alpine
tipoloka srodnost s odgovarajuim primjerima region. Discoid endings similar to those from
izvan liburnskoga kulturnog ambijenta. urn no. 3 are present e.g. on urn with three
Naime, nasuprot ovako skromnim moguno- handles in grave IV/1 from Nesactium,13 but it
stima tipolokog povezivanja na uem podruju is a phenomenon which is related to consider-
kojem pripadaju are iz Jokine glavice, ve je able chronological span and wide spatial scope,
na prvi pogled veoma uoljiva njihova manja ili as emphasized by K. Mihovili. 14
vea tipoloka slinost s keramikim oblicima Of course we should sustain from linear con-
istovrsnog ili slinog karaktera (u svakom slu- clusions and direct relating of the urns from
aju s nalazima iz razliitih grobnih konteksta) Jokina glavica with the Urnfield culture as a
na vrlo irokom prostoru i u razliitim kultur- whole or some of its territorial manifestations,
nim krugovima (Rue, V. Gorica, Dalj/Vukovar, primarily because at present there are no other
Terni II, Este II, Bologna I-II, Rim II, Cumae I, finds which would support possible stronger
Pontecagnano IA) koji pripadaju vremenskom connections of these cultural circles with the
rasponu 10./9.- 8. st. pr. Kr.12 area where finds from Jokina glavica belong.
Drugim rijeima, ope tipoloke znaajke When discussing other finds, i.e. finds from
ara iz Jokine glavice pokazuju vidljive dodir- the urns, there is no doubt that the fibula from
ne toke sa arama kulture polja sa arama, i to urn no. 2 is particularly interesting. Fibula be-
poglavito njezinim skupinama s podruja sjeve- longs to a group of two-part serpentine fibulae.
In basic typological sense it can be compared
8 Ibid. 42. Autor se referira i na situaciju s iskopavanja na podruju Solane,
to several examples of such fibulae known
gdje su istovrsne posude sluile za pokapanje novoroenadi.
9 S. KUKO, 2009; S. KUKO, 2010, sl. 15-16. Tri keramike are (gr. 4, 13) u
humku 13 iz Nadina, s 19 grobova (9-6. st. pr. Kr.), prvi su primjer incineracije
u liburnskom funerarnom kontekstu iz starijeg eljeznog doba. 11 K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 342, T. III, 2.
10 K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 3, sl. 8. T. 6/1. Usporediti poglavlje K. GUSAR 12 H. MLLER-KARPE, 1959., T. 16 A/8; T. 18 A; T. 24 A/9, B/8, C/7; T. 43 A; T.
D. VUJEVI o Matakovoj glavici. 45 A, B; T. 62 S; T. 71 E/gr.361; T. 78 O; T. 81 D/9; T. 108 H; T. 112 D/6; 94 C;
11 S. KUKO, 2011. (u tisku). S. GABROVEC, 1983, 59. fig. 6/27; B. DAGOSTINO - P. GASTALDI, 1988, 101-
12 H. MLLER-KARPE, 1959., T. 16 A/8; T. 18 A; T. 24 A/9, B/8, C/7; T. 43 A; T. 103, l. I; K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1983, T. LXXXIX/14; T. XCI/1,2,10,15-16; etc.
45 A, B; T. 62 S; T. 71 E/gr. 361; T. 78 O; T. 81 D/9; T. 108 H; T. 112 D/6; 94 C; According to the opinion of S. Kuko Undecorated urns from Nadin are si-
S. GABROVEC, 1983, 59. sl. 6/27; B. DAGOSTINO - P. GASTALDI, 1988., 101- milar by their form to Histrian funerary ceramics, water jugs, from the 9th-8th
103, l. I; K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1983, T. LXXXIX/14; T. XCI/1, 2, 10, 15-16; itd. cent. BC, with meander-spiral motifs in white incrustation and everted rim,
Prema miljenju S. Kuko Nadinske neukraene are oblikom su srodne i hi- but with considerably lower conical neck. Histrian type of urn was a part of
starskoj grobnoj keramici, vrevima za vodu, iz 9-8.st. pr. Kr., s meandro-spiral- widely distributed typology of vessels from the late (10/9-8 cent. BC) Urnfi-
nim motivima u bijeloj inkrustaciji, s razvraenim obodom, ali sa znatno niim eld world of the Danubian region (Dalj, Vukovar) over the Balkans to central
koninim vratom. Histarski oblik are dio je spomenute iroko rasprostranjene and southern Italy (Sala Consilina) in 9-8 cent. BC and contemporary western jOKINA GLAVICA
tipologije posuda od kasnog (10/9.-8.st. pr. Kr.) urnefelder svijeta Podunavlja Adriatic circle. S. KUKO, 2010 (in press). prapovijesni grobovi
(Dalj,Vukovar), preko Balkana do srednje i june Italije (Sala Consilina) u 9-8.st. 13 K. MIHOVILI, 2001, fig. 55. JOKINA GLAVICA
pr. Kr., te istovremenog zapadnojadranskog kruga. S. KUKO, 2010. (u tisku). 14 IBID. 74. prehistoric graves
30
rozapadne Hrvatske i istonoalpskog prostora. from various socio-cultural communities from
Dodue, diskoidni zavretci slini onima sa are the central and northern Adriatic, and also
br. 3 postoje npr. na ari s tri drke u grobu IV/1 with specimens from the Iapodean cultural
iz Nezakcija,13 ali se radi o pojavi koja, kako to area, including western Bosnia. In the eastern
naglaava i K. Mihovili, zauzima znaajan vre- Adriatic region such fibulae were found in gr.
menski raspon i iroki prostorni opseg.14 7 from Nin15, Benkovac,16 Novalja,17 Jablanac,18
Razumije se, ovdje treba zadrati odreene re- Klaenica,19 Grian near Vinodol,20 Garica,21
zerve prema linearnom zakljuivanju i izravnijem and also in Kompolje22 and Drvar23 concerning
povezivanju ara iz Jokine glavice s kulturom ar- the regions out of the Adriatic. There are also
nih polja u cijelosti ili s nekom od njezinih terito- some similar examples from the Apennine re-
rijalnih manifestacija, u prvom redu zbog toga to gion24 and Slovenia.25
u ovome trenutku ne postoje drugi nalazi koji bi I will leave aside comprehensive discus-
dodatno podupirali eventualno vre poveziva- sion about the origin of two-part serpentine
nje podruja tih kulturnih krugova s podrujem fibulae in which scholars like H. Mller-Karpe,
kojemu pripadaju nalazi iz Jokine glavice. G. Merhart, K. Kilian, R. Bii-Drechsler,26 D.
Kada je rije o drugim nalazima, odnosno Glogovi and B. Teran27 participated since the
prilozima iz ara, nema nikakve dvojbe da iz- example from urn 2 does not offer any new
dvojeno mjesto meu njima zauzima fibula iz possibilities in that sense. On the other hand,
are br. 2. Fibula pripada skupini dvodijelnih my aim was not to address this problem but to
zmijastih fibula i u osnovnom se tipolokom try to determine the position of the fibula from
smislu moe usporeivati s vie primjeraka ta- Jokina glavica.
kvih fibula poznatih iz razliitih sociokulturnih . Batovi took a very firm view about the
sredina srednjega i sjevernog Jadrana, a potom origin of two-part serpentine fibulae in the Li-
i s primjercima koji potjeu s japodskoga kul- burnian cultural area considering them to be
turnog prostora, ukljuujui i zapadnu Bosnu. undoubted products of the Liburnian cultural
Kao to je dobro poznato, na istonojadran- area.28 He dated their formation and develop-
skom podruju nalazi takvih fibula potjeu iz ment to the chronological range from the 10th
gr. 7 iz Nina15, Benkovca,16 Novalje,17 Jablanca,18
Klaenice,19 Griana kod Vinodola,20 Garice,21
a s izvanjadranskog prostora iz Kompolja22 i
Drvara,23 kojima treba dodati i srodne primjer-
ke s apeninskog podruja24 i Slovenije.25
Ovdje ostavljam po strani iru raspravu o 15 . BATOVI, 1976, fig. 8, no. 2; D. GLOGOVI, 1988, T. I, 4; D. GLOGOVI,
2003, Tafel 47, 359.
podrijetlu dvodijelnih zmijastih fibula, o emu 16 . BATOVI, 1981, T. 2, no. 2; D. GLOGOVI, 1988, T. II, 2; D. GLOGOVI, 2003,
Tafel 47, 360.
su ve izreena brojna miljenja poevi od H. 17 D. GLOGOVI, 1988, T. II, 3;
18 . BATOVI, 1976, fig. 6, no. 1; . BATOVI, 1980, 32, T. V, 20; . BATOVI,
Mller-Karpea, G. Merharta, K. Kiliana, R. Bi- 1981, fig. 8, no. 35.
i-Dreksler26 do D. Glogovi i B. Teran,27 budu- 19 D. GLOGOVI, 1988, T. II, 5; fig. 1, no. 1; D. GLOGOVI, 2003, Tafel 47, 355.
20 . BATOVI, 1980, 32, T. VII, 2; . BATOVI, 1981., fig. 2, no. 3; . BATOVI,
1983, 310, fig. 20, no. 17; T. XLV, 3; D. GLOGOVI, 1988., T. II, 6; fig. 1, no. 2;
GLOGOVI, 2003., Tafel 47, 357.
13 K. MIHOVILI, 2001, sl. 55. 21 R. DRECHSLER-BII, 1962, T. II, 3; D. GLOGOVI, 2003, Tafel 47, 356.
14 IBID. 74. 22 . BATOVI, 1980, 32, T. X, 5; . BATOVI, 1983, T. LV, 9; R. DRECHSLER-BII,
15 . BATOVI, 1976, sl. 8, br. 2; D. GLOGOVI, 1988, T. I, 4; D. GLOGOVI, 2003, 1983, 385, T. LV, 9; D. GLOGOVI, 1988, T. II, 2.
Tafel 47, 359. 23 B. OVI, 1976, 127, fig. 58; . BATOVI, 1980, T. X, 4;
16 . BATOVI, 1981, T. 2, br. 2; D. GLOGOVI, 1988, T. II, 2; D. GLOGOVI, 2003, 24 Cf. . BATOVI, 1976, map 2; D. GLOGOVI, 1988, 8-11 with cited biblio-
Tafel 47, 360. graphy; D. GLOGOVI, 2003., Tafel 65.
17 D. GLOGOVI, 1988, T. II, 3. 25 S. GABROVEC, 1983, fig. 9, no. 23; B. TERAN, 2009. fig. 2, no. 1.
18 . BATOVI, 1976, sl. 6, br. 1; . BATOVI, 1980, 32, T. V, 20; . BATOVI, 1981, 26 H. MLLER-KARPE 1959; G. v. MERHART, 1969; K. KILIAN, 1973; R. DRE-
sl. 8, br. 35. CHSLER-BII, 1962.
19 D. GLOGOVI, 1988, T. II, 5; sl. 1, br 1; D. GLOGOVI, 2003, Tafel 47, 355. 27 D. GLOGOVI, 1988; D. GLOGOVI, 2003; B. TERAN, 2009. Cf. cited aut-
20 . BATOVI, 1980, 32, T. VII, 2; . BATOVI, 1981, sl. 2, br. 3; . BATOVI, 1983, hors for an overview of the remaining bibliography.
310, sl. 20, br. 17; T. XLV, 3; D. GLOGOVI, 1988, T. II, 6; sl. 1, br. 2; GLOGOVI, 28 Da questo periodo sono anche le fibule serpeggianti a due pezzi con disco
2003, Tafel 47, 357. a spirale alla fine della staffa, che sono le pi spesse e che, senza dubbio, si
21 R. DRECHSLER-BII, 1962, T. II, 3; D. GLOGOVI, 2003, Tafel 47, 356. sono sviluppate nella cultura liburniaca prime della terza migrazione, e da
22 . BATOVI, 1980, 32, T. X, 5; . BATOVI, 1983, T. LV, 9; R. DRECHSLER-BII, qui, durante o dopo di questa migrazione, si sono estese sporadicamente nel-
1983, 385, T. LV, 9; D. GLOGOVI, 1988, T. II, 2. la cultura japodica e picene, poi nel Italia meridionale. . BATOVI, 1976,
23 B. OVI, 1976, 127, sl. 58; . BATOVI, 1980, T. X, 4. 34. Serpentine two-part fibulae with two loops and foot extension into a
24 Usporediti: . BATOVI, 1976, karta 2; D. GLOGOVI, 1988., 8-11 s citiranom spiral disk continue their existence from the Late Bronze Age and last in the
literaturom; D. GLOGOVI, 2003, Tafel 65. first phase of the Iron Age, when they spread from the Liburnian region into
25 S. GABROVEC, 1983, sl. 9, br. 23; B. TERAN, 2009, sl. 2. br 1. the Iapodean culture and across the Adriatic to Italy where they lasted until
26 H. MLLER-KARPE 1959; G. v. MERHART, 1969; K. KILIAN, 1973. the 8th century getting flat instead of spiral disk. . BATOVI, 1981, 20. He
Brunislav 27 D. GLOGOVI, 1988; D. GLOGOVI, 2003; B. TERAN, 2009. Za pregled expressed the same opinion in other works as well; . BATOVI, 1980, 32,
Marijanovi ostale literature usporediti citirane autore. 44 ff.; . BATOVI, 1983, 310-311.
31
i da primjerak iz are 2 u tom smislu ne prua to 9th centuries BC.29 B. ovi had similar
nikakve nove mogunosti. S druge strane, moj opinion as he related the only western Bosnian
cilj i nije baviti se tim problemom, nego samo find of this type, and finds from the Iapodean
pokuati odrediti mjesto fibule iz Jokine glavice. cultural area to the Adriatic models.30
O porijeklu dvodijelnih zmijastih fibula na Discussing subject-matter of serpentine
liburnskom kulturnom podruju vrlo je deci- fibulae, regarding works by K. Kilian and G. v.
dirano miljenje iznio ve . Batovi smatraju- Merhart and the usual division in which some
i ih nedvojbenim produktom liburnskog kul- of them are defined as the Adriatic type (fib-
turnog prostora,28 a njihov nastanak i razvoj ulae with rhombic center of the bow and disk
stavio u vremenski raspon 10.-9. st. pr. Kr.29 on the foot), D. Glogovi rightfully emphasized
Slinog je miljenja i B. ovi, koji jedini za- differences in many details on known examples
padnobosanski nalaz ovoga tipa, ali i nalaze s of two-part serpentine fibulae from the Libur-
japodskoga kulturnog prostora dovodi u vezu nian cultural region and other cultural areas in
s jadranskim uzorima.30 which they appear. In that context, she studied
Bavei se problematikom zmijastih fibula, typological characteristics of their pins as one
a na tragu njihove uobiajene podjele u ko- of the important elements of the division. First
joj se jedan njihov dio definira kao jadran- she paid attention to fibulae pin of which has a
ski tip (fibule s rombinom sredinom luka globular head with a point, stating that pins
i diskom na nozi), te radova K. Kiliana i G. with globular heads and points together with
v. Merharta, D. Glogovi s pravom upozorava the ornament were accepted from the Urnfield
na razliitosti u nizu pojedinosti kod pozna- culture of northern Croatia and Slovenia and
tih primjeraka dvodijelnih zmijastih fibula through mediation of the Iapodean region
s liburnskoga kulturnog prostora i drugih they were used on two-part serpentine fibu-
kulturnih podruja na kojima se javljaju. U lae. 31 However as for the two-part serpentine
tom kontekstu, kao jedan od vanih eleme- fibulae with a pin ending in a globular head and
nata razdiobe uzima i tipoloke odlike njiho- short cork-shaped extension (Klaenica) she
vih igala. Slijedom tog pristupa ponajprije believes, as well as for the example from Osor,
se zadrava na fibulama ija igla ima kugla- that it might be import from the circle of proto-
stu glavicu sa iljkom, navodei da su igle s Villanovan culture or the Veneto region.32 As
kuglastom glavicom i iljkom zajedno s or- for the two-part serpentine fibulae pin of which
namentom preuzete iz kulture arnih polja ends in a bulbous head (Garica, Griana, No-
sjeverne Hrvatske i Slovenije i posredstvom valja) she emphasizes that the pins are charac-
japodskog podruja primijenjene kod dvo-
29 These fibulae developed from the 10th to 8th centuries from the violin bow fi-
bulae, at first in the Liburnian region in the 10th and 9th centuries and thence
they spread subsequently to the Iapodean region, and central and southern
Italy. . BATOVI, 1976, 34. Cf. also: . BATOVI, 1980, 32, 44 ff.; . BATOVI,
1983, 310-311. In that context the author dated fibulae from Griana and
Klaenica to the Late Bronze Age, and fibulae from Jablanac and Nin to the
Early Iron Age.
30 Most of the earlier examples of these fibulae (judging from construction and
28 Da questo periodo sono anche le fibule serpeggianti a due pezzi con disco technical characteristics) were found in the Liburnian territory and only cer-
a spirale alla fine della staffa, che sono le pi spesse e che, senza dubbio, si tain examples in their immediate vicinity in present-day Lika and western
sono sviluppate nella cultura liburniaca prime della terza migrazione, e da Bosnia... After it had been taken from the Liburnian territory to its hinterland
qui, durante o dopo di questa migrazione, si sono estese sporadicamente nel- it soon became very popular in the neighbouring Iapodean region. Iapodean
la cultura japodica e picene, poi nel Italia meridionale. . BATOVI, 1976., masters developed it definitely in order to indulge local affinities into more
34. Zmijolike dvodijelne spone sedlastog luka s dvije petlje i s produetkom complex and decorative variants of jewelry and produced it in great number
noge u spiralni disk nastavljaju se iz kasno bronanog doba i traju u I fazi e- of examples;B. OVI, 1976, 126-127.
ljeznog doba, kada su s liburnskog podruja proirene u japodsku kulturu i 31 Observations of D. Glogovi refer to specimens from Drvar, Nin, Benkovac and
preko Jadrana u Italiju gdje traju do u 8. st. poprimajui tada umjesto spiral- Kompolje for which she assumes origin from the same workshop center whi-
nog ploasti disk. . BATOVI, 1981, 20. To je miljenje autor zastupao i u ch may have been located in the Liburnian region or the immediate hinter-
drugim radovima; . BATOVI, 1980, 32, 44 i d.; . BATOVI, 1983, 310-311. land. Most likely this workshop connected various earlier jewelry forms from the
29 Te fibule razvijale su se od 10. do 8. st. iz fibula u obliku violinskog gudala, Urnfield culture of northern Croatia and Slovenia (pin form, foot spiral, rhombic
najprije na liburnskom podruju, u 10. i 9. st. i odatle se, naknadno, u 9. st. or foliate bow) and applied them in the manufacture of serpentine forms which
rairile na japodsko podruje, u srednju i junu Italiju. . BATOVI, 1976, 34. became popular in the northern Adriatic regions.; D. GLOGOVI, 1988, 10.
Usporediti i: . BATOVI, 1980, 32, 44 i d.; . BATOVI, 1983, 310-311. U 32 Most likely fibula from Klaenica is of the same origin which is the only one of
tom kontekstu autor je npr. fibule iz Griane i Klaenice datirao u kasno our fibulae with a globular head and short cork-shaped extension. This type
bronano, a fibule iz Jablanca i Nina u starije eljezno doba. of pin is represented on some serpentine fibulae from central Italy: e.g. pin
30 Veina, po konstrukciji i tehnikim odlikama, starijih primjeraka ovih fibula from grave 148 in Terni, fibula from Cuma (grave no. 6) and fibulae from gra-
naena je na teritoriju Liburna, a samo pojedini primjerci u njihovom nepo- ves 116 and 130 from Terni have round incisions on the bow as well as fibulae
srednom susjedstvu u dananjoj Lici i u zapadnoj Bosni Prenijet sa liburn- from Klaenica. Mentioned graves from Umbria belong to phase Terni II (9th
skog teritorija u njegovu je zaleu, postao je ubrzo veoma omiljen kod susjed- century BC). Fibula from Klaenica might be somewhat older, considering the jOKINA GLAVICA
nih Japoda. Japodski majstori napravili su od njega povodei se svakako spiral disk at the foot which reflects, according to Merharts theory, as well prapovijesni grobovi
za lokalnim ukusom jo komplikovanije i dekorativnije varijante nakita i as on the fibula from Grian, tradition of the Urnfield culture jewelry of the JOKINA GLAVICA
izraivali ga u velikom broju primjeraka. B. OVI, 1976, 126-127. Danubian region and the north western Balkans. D. GLOGOVI, 1988, 14. prehistoric graves
32
dijelnih zmijastih fibula.31 Meutim, to se teristic of the third phase of the Urnfield cul-
tie dvodijelnih zmijastih fibula s iglom koja ture of northern Croatia.33
zavrava kuglastom glavicom i kratkim epa- After emphasizing that exact dating of ser-
stim nastavkom (Klaenica), miljenja je da pentine fibulae in Primorje and Kvarner was
bi, kao i primjerak iz Osora, mogla biti im- complicated due to deficient information about
port iz kruga protovilanovske kulture ili iz the circumstances of the find, D. Glogovi con-
bliskoga venetskog podruja,32 dok za dvodi- cludes: Serpentine two-part fibulae which
jelne zmijaste fibule ija igla zavrava lukovi- appear in the culture of the Early Iron Age in
astom glavicom (Garica, Griana, Novalja), Liburnia are a result of intensive contacts of
naglaava da je rije o iglama karakteristi- the eastern and western Adriatic coast, and the
nim za trei stupanj kulture arnih polja sje- form itself was created on the Apennine Penin-
verne Hrvatske.33 sula, which is testified by the development con-
Naglaavajui da je tono datiranje zmi- tinuity of the Italian serpentine fibulae. Prod-
jastih fibula na Primorju i Kvarneru oteano ucts of the assumed local workshop are fibulae
zbog manjkavih podataka o okolnostima na- of the so-called Adriatic type from Nin, Drvar
laza, D. Glogovi zakljuuje: Zmijaste dvo- and Benkovac, probably also fibulae from
dijelne fibule koje dolaze u kulturi starijeg Garica, Bilaj and Kompolje. Initial impulse for
eljeznog doba u Liburniji rezultat su inten- more massive use might have come from the
zivnih kontakata istone i zapadne jadranske Italic import which is recorded in Klaenica
obale, a sam je oblik nastao na Apeninskom and Osor. In Picenum serpentine fibulae with
poluotoku, o emu svjedoi kontinuitet razvo- rhombic bow and disk on the foot belong to the
ja talijanskih zmijastih fibula. Proizvodi pret- first phase of the Picenian culture (9th cent. BC)
postavljene domae radionice su fibule tzv. so that per analogiam our fibulae of the Adriat-
jadranskog tipa iz Nina, Drvara i Benkovca, ic type might be dated to the same period. Spi-
vjerojatno fibule iz Garice, Bilaja i Kompolja. ral at the foot should be observed as an expres-
Poetni impuls za masovniju upotrebu dao je sion of conservativism which continues, con-
moda, italski import koji je zabiljeen u Kla- sidering that the fibula from Drvar was dated
nici i Osoru. U Picenumu su zmijaste fibule s to the eighth century BC. There are no adequate
rombinim lukom i diskom na noici tip prvog analogies for the fibula from Grian, so that it
stupnja picenske kulture, a to je 9. st. p. n. e., might be somewhat earlier local product made
te bi se tako po analogiji mogle datirati i nae after Italic models.34
fibule jadranskog tipa, a spiralu na noici It is quite clear that fibula from urn no. 2 on
ocijeniti kao izraz konzervativizma koji traje Jokina glavica can be compared to the men-
i dalje, s obzirom da je fibula iz Drvara dati- tioned examples of two-part serpentine fibu-
rana u 8. st. p. n. e. Fibula iz Griana nema lae only regarding basic typological elements.
potpuno adekvatnih analogija, tako da bi ona Due to its design, construction and techni-
mogla biti neto raniji domai proizvod raen cal characteristics it is quite lonely example of
prema italskim predlocima.34 technically much more complex and decora-
tively more imaginative solution whose manu-
facture must have demanded exceptional skill.
31 Zapaanja D. Glogovi odnose se na primjerke iz Drvara, Nina, Benkovca
We might say that it represents an example of
i Kompolja, za koje pretpostavlja podrijetlo iz istog radionikog sredita luxurious decorative object, not only within
koje se moglo nalaziti na podruju Liburnije ili neposrednog zalea. Ta
je radionica, po svemu sudei, povezala razne starije forme nakita iz kulture finds assemblage from Jokina glavica, possi-
arnih polja sjeverne Hrvatske i Slovenije (oblik igle, spirala na noici, rombi-
ni ili listasti luk) i primijenila ih kod izrade zmijastih oblika, oblika koji dolazi u bly tailored to the demands of the orderer.
modu u krajevima uz sjeverni Jadran.; D. GLOGOVI, 1988, 10.
32 Vjerojatno je iste provenijencije i fibula iz Klaenice koja jedina od na- Considering that possibility, it would be unjus-
ih fibula ima iglu s kuglastom glavicom i kratkim epastim nastavkom.
Taj tip igle imaju neke zmijaste fibule iz srednje Italije: tako npr. fibula iz
tified to expect closer correspondence with any
groba br. 148 u Terniju, fibula iz Cume (grob br. 6) i fibule iz grobova 116 i of the known finds of serpentine fibulae. This
130 Ternija imaju krune ureze po luku kao i fibule iz Klaenice. Spomenuti
grobovi iz Umbrije pripadaju stupnju Terni II (9. st. p. n. e.). Fibula iz Klae- definitely complicates the question of its prove-
nice mogla bi biti neto starija, s obzirom na spiralni disk na noici, to po
Merhartovoj teoriji odraava, jednako kao i kod fibule iz Griana tradiciju
nakita kulture arnih polja Podunavlja i sjeverozapadnog Balkana. D.
GLOGOVI, 1988, 14.
Brunislav 33 IBID., 10. 33 IBID., 10.
Marijanovi 34 IBID., 16-17. 34 IBID., 16-17.
33
Fibula iz are br. 2. na Jokinoj glavici, po- nance, and then also its chronological position,
sve je jasno, samo se u osnovnim tipolokim particularly in relation to quite wide chrono-
elementima moe usporediti s navedenim logical range to which other finds of two-part
primjercima dvodijelnih zmijastih fibula. Po serpentine fibulae were dated. Therefore at
svojem dizajnu, konstrukciji i tehnikim od- present it seems pointless to try to determine
likama ona je posve usamljen primjer tehniki cultural or workshop center in which this ob-
znatno sloenijeg i dekorativno matovitijeg ject was made. In my opinion one thing is for
rjeenja, za iju je izradbu zasigurno bilo po- sure. Due to technical complexity, innovation
trebno vrhunsko umijee. Moglo bi se rei i da in design, quality of manufacture and rich
je primjer luksuznog ukrasnog predmeta, ne ornament, it was definitely produced in the
samo u cjelini nalaza iz Jokine glavice, izrae- center with long tradition in the production of
nog moda i prema posebnim zahtjevima na- bronze jewelry.
ruitelja. S obzirom na tu mogunost, bilo bi, Situation with its chronological position is
ini mi se, posve neopravdano oekivati bliu quite similar. Molding of the bow and its deco-
podudarnost s bilo kojim od poznatih nalaza ration, as usual comparative starting points in
zmijastih fibula. To, dakako, uvelike oteava that sense, are not helpful in this case. Among
odgovor na pitanje njezine provenijencije, a the mentioned examples of two-part serpen-
potom i pitanje kronolokog poloaja, posebi- tine fibulae there are only minor possibilities of
ce s obzirom na dosta irok vremenski raspon comparison with examples from Klaenica and
unutar kojega se stavljaju drugi nalazi dvodi- Benkovac, only because of round cross-section
jelnih zmijastih fibula. Stoga mi se u ovom tre- of the wire and spirally cut saddle-shaped parts
nutku ini i bespredmetnim traiti precizniji of the bow which resemble pseudo-twisted bow
odgovor na pitanje uega kulturnog ili radio- of the fibula from urn no. 2. Incised ornament
nikog sredita za koji ovaj nalaz treba vezati. on fibula from Kompolje is quite differently
Jedno je, ini mi se, sigurno. Zbog tehnike composed, and incisions on the extension to-
sloenosti, inovativnosti u dizajniranju, ka- wards the head of the fibula from Bilaj are quite
kvoe izradbe i bogatog ukrasa, ne moe se ra- negligible comparative element. Even if we
unati sa sreditem bez due tradicije u izrad- would consider these utterly modest elements,
bi bronanog nakita. the fact is that the mentioned specimens take
Slina je situacije i s njezinom kronolokim different chronological positions in the range
pozicijom. Profilacija luka i njegovo ukraava- from the Late Bronze Age to the end of the Iron
nje, kao uobiajena komparativna polazita u Age. On the other hand, incised ornament imi-
tom smislu, ovdje nisu od velike pomoi. Meu tating twisting is not sensitive neither chrono-
navedenim primjercima dvodijelnih zmijastih logically nor spatially, so it is irrelevant regard-
fibula posve neznatne mogunosti usporedbe ing this question.
postoje s primjercima iz Klaenice i Benkovca, Other element which might be considered
i to samo zbog krunog presjeka ice i spiralno in an attempt to determine precise chronologi-
narezanih sedlastih dijelova luka koji podsje- cal position of the fibula from urn no. 2 spiral
aju na pseudotordirani luk fibule iz are br. extension of its foot is not satisfying. A disk
2. Urezani ukras na fibuli iz Kompolja posve shaped in that way might be a reflection of still
je drukije koncipiran, a urezi na kraku pre- strong influence of the Urnfield culture jewelry of
ma glavi fibule iz Bilaja posve su zanemariv the north-western Balkans and the Danubian re-
komparativni element. No, ak i kada bi se u gion which would indirectly support dating of the
obzir uzeli i ti krajnje oskudni elementi, ostaje fibulae from Griana and Klaenica to the Late
injenica da navedeni primjerci zauzimaju ra- Bronze Age. 35 Dating of the fibulae from Jablanac
zliite vremenske pozicije u rasponu od kasno- and Nin to the Early Iron Age36 leaves the same
ga bronanog do kraja eljeznog doba. S druge possibility for the fibula from Jokina glavica.
strane, urezani ukras koji oponaa tordiranje
nije osjetljiva pojava ni na vremenskoj ni na
jOKINA GLAVICA
prostornoj razini, pa sam po sebi ne pridonosi prapovijesni grobovi
rjeavanju ovog pitanja. 35 Cf. note no. 41. JOKINA GLAVICA
36 Ibid. prehistoric graves
34
Ni drugi element koji bi se mogao uzeti u ob- The problem is even more complicated re-
zir pri pokuaju utvrivanja preciznije kronolo- garding the pin which is a separate constructive
ke pozicije fibule iz are br 2 spiralni produe- element so that it can be observed separately.
tak njezine noge ne daje posve zadovoljavajui Pins with globular heads in different vari-
oslonac. Naime, iako bi tako oblikovan disk mo- ants represent quite common and widespread
gao biti izraz jo uvijek jakog utjecaja nakita kul- phenomenon in different cultural circles of the
ture arnih polja sjeverozapadnog balkana i Po- Late Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron
dunavlja, to bi posredno podupiralo i datiranje Age.37 However this pin cannot be compared
fibula iz Griane i Klaenice u kasno bronano,35 to these types of pins for at least two reasons.
stavljanje fibula iz Jablanca i Nina u starije elje- Firstly, its globular head was not cast together
zno doba36 ostavlja takvu mogunost i za fibulu with the body but it was formed by subsequent
iz Jokine glavice. adding of two calottes fastened to the discoid
to se tie igle koja u tehnikom smislu ini head. Secondly, two smaller disks on its neck
poseban konstruktivni element pa se moe were not made simultaneously with the pin, but
promatrati i kao odvojeni tipoloki indikator, they were fastened subsequently. 38 According-
problem je jo sloeniji. ly this is actually not a pin with globular head
Igle s kuglastom glavom u razliitim su ina- and disks on the neck but a pin with discoid
icama prilino esta i rairena pojava u razli- head. It is difficult to say to what extent it could
itim kulturnim krugovima kasnoga bronanog be compared with certain examples known in
i poetka eljeznog doba.37Ovu iglu meutim different variants and from different contexts
nije mogue nikako usporeivati s tim tipovi- in some groups of the Urnfield culture: Susek39,
ma igala, i to zbog najmanje dva razloga. Prvo, Orolik40, Sarva41; Krupae42.
njezina kuglasta glava nije izlivena zajedno s In that sense perhaps it would be better to
tijelom, nego je nastala kasnijim dodavanjem refer to two almost identical pins, one from urn
dviju kalota privrenih za diskoidnu glavu. no. 1, and the other from the tumulus fill, which
Drugo, ni dva manja diska na njezinu vratu belong to the type of pins with bulbous head
nisu izraena istodobno s iglom, nego su kasni- and pseudo-twisted neck, and both have char-
je privrena.38 Prema tome, u osnovi se i ne acteristic ornament: incised running spiral.
radi o igli s kuglastom glavom i diskovima na Good analogy for these pins might be an exam-
vratu, nego o igli s diskoidnom glavom. Teko ple from Krk dated to the Late Bronze Age, 43
je, meutim, rei u kojoj bi se mjeri ona mogla but they could also be compared to the pin from
usporeivati s pojedinim primjercima pozna- grave 9 in Dobova which belongs to its second
tim u razliitim varijetetima i iz razliitih kon- phase (Ha A2) according to S. Gabrovec, which
teksta u pojedinim skupinama kulture polja sa is best defined by the pins with bulbous heads
arama: Susek,39 Orolik,40 Sarva,41 Krupae.42 and thickened necks.44 Pin from grave 77 in Do-
Moda bi u tom smislu bolje mogle poslu- bova45 might be considered in the same context
iti dvije gotovo istovjetne igle, jedna iz are primarily because of the decoration consisting
br. 1, a druga iz nasipa tumula, koje pripa- of a double wavy line resembling ornaments on
daju tipu igala s lukoviastom glavom i pse- the pins from Jokina glavica, as well as a pin
udotordiranim vratom, a za obje je posebno from grave 68 in Pobreje,46 which are, accord-
karakteristian ukras: urezana tekua spi- ing to S. Gabroves distinct representatives of
rala. Dobra analogija tim iglama mogao bi
37 . BATOVI, 1981, fig. 2 no. 9, 12; fig. 10 no. 43; R. DRECHSLER-BII, 1983,
T. LV, 11, 15; K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1973, fig. 4, no. 7, 12; fig. 5 no. 6-7; fig. 12
35 Usporediti biljeku br. 41. no. 1-4; K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1983, fig. 35, no. 5; fig. 36, no. 7; T. LXXXIX, 8;
36 Ibid. K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1983a, T. XCII, 8; S. GABROVEC, 1983, 57, T. IX, 8; etc.
37 . BATOVI, 1981, sl. 2 br. 9, 12; sl. 10 br. 43; R. DRECHSLER-BII, 1983, T. LV, 38 Among pins from the Liburnian region I know only of a specimen from
11, 15; K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1973, sl. 4, br. 7, 12; sl. 5 br. 6-7; sl. 12 br. 1-4; Dragali with subsequently added perforated head but it belongs to the
K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1983, sl. 35, br. 5; sl. 36, br. 7; T. LXXXIX, 8; K. VINSKI- phase Vb of the Liburnian cultural group, therefore it cannot be taken into
GASPARINI, 1983a, T. XCII, 8; S. GABROVEC, 1983, 57, T. IX, 8; itd. consideration, and also due to technical reasons.
38 Meu iglama s liburnskog podruja poznat mi je samo primjerak iz Draga- 39 K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1973, T. 1 no. 10.
lia s naknadno dodanom probuenom glavom, ali ona pripada tek fazi Vb 40 IBID., T. 6 no. 14.
liburnske kulturne skupine, pa se ve zbog toga, a posebice zbog tehni- 41 IBID., T. 26, no. 12.
kih razloga ne moe uzeti u obzir. 42 IBID., T. 100, no. 11; K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1983a, T, XC, 4.
39 K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1973, T. 1 br. 10. 43 . BATOVI, 1983, T. XLV, 6.
40 IBID., T. 6 br. 14. 44 S. GABROVEC, 1983, 57, T. VIII, 11.
Brunislav 41 IBID., T. 26, br. 12. 45 IBID. 57, T. IX, 8.
Marijanovi 42 IBID., T. 100 br. 11; K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1983a, T, XC, 4. 46 IBID. 57, T. XI, 7.
35

Sl./ Fig. 24
Rezultati
radiokarbonske
analize antropolokih
ostataka iz are br. 1
The results of
radiocarbon analysis
of anthropological
remains from urn no. 1

biti jedan primjerak s Krka datiran u kasno the Dobova-Rue group of the Ha B1 period, 47
bronano doba,43 ali bi se jednako tako mogle and identically decorated specimen from grave
usporediti i s iglom iz groba br. 9 iz Dobove I/1910 of Velika Gorica. 48 We must not for-
koji pripada njezinom drugom stupnju (Ha get the pin from the hoard of kocjan (Muja
A2) prema S. Gabrovecu, koji najbolje defini- jama) which belongs to the later horizon of the
raju igle s lukoviastom glavicom i zadeblja- hoards of the Urnfield culture.49 Possibility of
nim vratom.44 U taj bi se kontekst, ponajprije relating pins with bulbous heads from Jokina
zbog ukrasa u obliku dvostruke valovite linije glavica with examples of the Dobova-Rue and
koji podsjea na ukrase na iglama iz Jokine Gorica groups seems important because in
glavice, moda mogla staviti i igla iz groba 77 the kocjan hoard there is a good analogy for

47 IBID. 57. jOKINA GLAVICA


48 K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1973, T. 102 no. 16; K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1983, fig. prapovijesni grobovi
43 . BATOVI, 1983, T. XLV, 6. 36, no. 8. JOKINA GLAVICA
44 S. GABROVEC, 1983, 57, T. VIII, 11. 49 IBID. 82, fig. 9, no. 14. prehistoric graves
36
u Dobovi,45 igla iz groba 68 iz Pobreja,46 koje the pin from urn no. 3 from Jokina glavica.50
su, prema S. Gabrovecu, izraziti predstavnici In that context it is important to mention that
Dobovsko-ruke skupine Ha B1 stupnja,47 te another two-part serpentine fibula was found
jednako ukraeni primjerak iz groba I/1910 in the same hoard which was interpreted, to-
iz Velike Gorice.48 Ovdje ne treba zaboravi- gether with some other finds, in the context of
ti ni iglu iz kocjanske ostave (Muja jama), wider Adriatic connections.51 Fibula from the
koja pripada mlaem horizontu ostava kultu- urn grave from Prena dated to the Ha B1-2
re polja sa arama.49 Mogunost povezivanja period probably belongs to the same context. 52
igala s lukoviastom glavom iz Jokine glavi- A very close analogy for the same pin can
ce s primjercima Dobovsko-ruke skupine i be found in two pins from grave V-25 in Nes-
skupine Gorica, ini mi se znaajnom i zbog actium 53 which are classified by K. Mihovili,
toga to u kocjanskoj ostavi postoji vrlo do- on the basis of analogies from north Italic and
bra analogija i za iglu iz are br. 3 na Jokinoj Slovenian region, into the later stage of the first
glavici.50 U tom kontekstu nije bez znaenja phase (Ha B1) of that region, still related to the
ni injenica da iz iste ostave potjee i jedna Central European Urnfield culture. 54
dvodijelna zmijasta fibula koju S. Gabrovec, Typological characteristics of all finds from
zajedno s jo nekim nalazima, stavlja u kon- Jokina glavica, particularly urns, pins with bul-
tekst irih jadranskih veza,51 a tu e vjerojat- bous heads and a pin with biconical head, togeth-
no pripadati i fibula iz arnoga groba iz Pre- er with mentioned possibilities of comparisons
ne opredijeljenog u stupanj Ha B 1-2.52 with identical finds from different circles of the
Vrlo blisku analogiju za istu iglu pred- Urnfield culture, with somewhat more promi-
stavljaju dva primjerka igala iz groba V-25 nent elements of similarity with finds in the re-
u Nezakciju53 koje K. Mihovili, na temelju gion of north-western Croatia and eastern Alpine
analogija sa sjevernoitalskog i slovenskog area, suggest certain relations of burials in this
podruja, svrstava u tamonju mlau fazu I. tumulus and communities from that part of the
stupnja (Ha B1), jo vezanu za srednjoeurop- Urnfield culture distribution. However nature
sku kulturu arnih polja.54 of these relations is difficult to comprehend at
Tipoloke odlike svih nalaza iz Jokine glavi- present. It is equally difficult to determine precise
ce, posebice ara, igala s lukoviastom glavom i dating of the finds, i.e. to ascribe them to the Late
igle s bikoninom glavom, zajedno s navedenim Bronze Age or the beginning of the Iron Age.
mogunostima usporeivanja s istovrsnim na- Doubts in dating the graves from Jokina
laza u razliitim kulturnim krugovima kulture glavica are not completely resolved by the date
polja sa arama, uz neto naglaenije elemente acquired by using the method of exact dating.
slinosti s nalazima na podruju sjeverozapad- Namely sample for radiocarbon dating taken
ne Hrvatske i istonoalpskom prostoru, suge- from urn no. 1 gave, in my opinion, somewhat
riraju stanovitu povezanost pokopa u tom tu- lower 14C date than the one suggested by com-
mulu i zajednica s tog dijela rasprostranjenosti parisons and conventional chronology; fig. 24.
kulture polja sa arama. Meutim, o naravi te Instead of chronological range of 820-760 BC a
povezanosti u ovome je trenutku teko iznije- date closer to the beginning of the 9th century
ti odreen sud. Jednako je tako teko iznijeti i than its end seems more plausible. Namely al-
decidirano miljenje o vremenskoj pripadnosti though cremation ritual in the Liburnian cul-
nalaza, odnosno pripisati ih kasnom brona- tural area might be observed as a certain con-
nom dobu ili poetku eljeznog doba. tinuation, or even a consequence, or a direct
extension of late urnenfelder circle so that cre-
45 IBID. 57, T. IX, 8. mation ritual would illustrate its acceptance by
46
47
IBID. 57, T. XI, 7.
IBID. 57.
parts of the communities in the wider northern
48 K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1973, T. 102 br. 16; K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1983, sl. 36,
br. 8.
49 IBID. 82, sl. 9, br. 14.
50 IBID. sl. 9, br. 16. Moda bi se u taj kontekst mogla staviti i igla iz groba 6 50 IBID. fig. 9, no. 16. Pin from grave 6 from Dobova might belong to the
Dobove; S. GABROVEC, 1983, T. IX, 15. same context; S. GABROVEC, 1983, T. IX, 15.
51 IBID. sl. 9, br. 23. 51 IBID. fig. 9, no. 23.
52 B. TERAN, 2009, sl .2/1. 52 B. TERAN, 2009, fig. 2/1.
Brunislav 53 S. GABROVEC - K. MIHOVILI, 1987., T. XXX, 18-19; K. MIHOVILI, 2001, 61, T. 43. 53 S. GABROVEC - K. MIHOVILI, 1987, T. XXX, 18-19; K. MIHOVILI, 2001, 61, T. 43.
Marijanovi 54 K. MIHOVILI, 2001, 12-13. 54 K. MIHOVILI, 2001, 12-13.
37
Dvojbe u datiranju grobova iz Jokine gla- Adriatic region and its hinterland, the unity of
vice ne razrjeava posve ni datum dobiven the ritual context, typological charcteristics of
metodom egzaktnog datiranja. Naime, uzo- the urns and deposited jewelry suggest possi-
rak za radiokarbonsko datiranje uzet iz are bility of somewhat different solution. Of course
br. 1 daje, po mome miljenju, neto nii 14C there are no strong arguments indicating actual
datum od onoga koji sugeriraju komparacije presence of the representatives of the Urnfield
i konvencionalna kronologija; sl. 24. Umjesto culture, but there are also no certain support-
vremenskog raspona 820-760 BC realnijim ing points for complete elimination of that pos-
mi se ini datum koji bi se vie pribliavao sibility, at least in minimal and socio-culturally
poetku 9. st. nego njegovu kraju. Naime, quite insignificant scope.
premda se ritual spaljivanja na liburnskom Finally I have to discuss the number of bur-
kulturnom podruju moe promatrati i kao ied persons and their mutual relations.
stanovit nastavak, pa i posljedica, ili ak i Anthropological analysis which was con-
izravan produetak kasnog urnenfelder kru- ducted in the Department of Pathology, Court
ga prihvaenog u dijelovima zajednica na i- Medicine and Cytology, within Clinical Hospi-
rem sjevernojadranskom prostoru i njegovu tal Split indicated that at least eight persons of
zaleu, cjelina ritualnog konteksta, tipolo- different ages and genders were buried in the
kih znaajka ara i priloenog nakita sugerira tumulus: two adult female persons, four in-
mogunost i neto drukijeg rjeenja. Razu- fants, and two adults whose gender could not
mije se, nema nikakvih vrstih argumenata
be determined. If we observe each urn individ-
koji bi ukazivali na faktiku prisutnost no-
ually we get the following picture:
sitelja urnenfelder kulture, ali jednako tako
_ Urn no. 1: at least three persons including
nema ni posve sigurnih uporita za posve-
one adult of undetermined gender and two in-
manje iskljuivanje te mogunosti, barem u
fants (a child up to one year old, and the other
posve minimalnom i u sociokulturnom smi-
child under the age of ten);
slu krajnje beznaajnom opsegu.
_ Urn no. 2: a female person, at the age of 25-
Na kraju, moram se zadrati i na pitanju
35;
broja pokopanih osoba i njihovih meusobnih
_ Urn no. 3: at least two persons including
odnosa.
one adult of undetermined gender and a child
Antropoloka analiza provedena u Zavo-
under the age of ten;
du za patologiju, sudsku medicinu i citologiju
_ Urn no. 4: at least two persons including
KBC-a u Splitu ponudila je zakljuak o ostat-
cima najmanje 8 osoba razliita spola i uzra- one adult of undetermined gender and a child
sta: dvije odrasle ene, etvero djece, te dvije at the age of 5-15.
odrasle osobe kojima nije bilo mogue odrediti This simple and mechanic adding up of the
spol. Promatrana pojedinano po arama, ana- mentioned results shows that the remains of
liza daje sljedeu sliku: eight persons of different ages and genders
_ ara br. 1: najmanje tri osobe, i to: jedna were deposited in four urns, without any evi-
odrasla osoba neodreena spola i dobi te dvoje dent pattern of their grouping. I have to em-
djece (jedno dijete do godine dana, a drugo di- phasize that the results of the anthropological
jete mlae od deset godina); analysis observed in that way might seem not
_ ara br. 2: osoba enskog spola, starosti 25- only unexpected and surprising, but also hard-
35 godina; ly understandable. Of course, as I do not intend
_ ara br. 3: najmanje dvije osobe, i to: jedna to question the exactness of identification pro-
odrasla ena i jedno dijete mlae od 10 godina; cedure of the cremated remains and their dis-
_ ara br. 4: najmanje dvije osobe, i to: jedna tribution in the urns, the only remaining pos-
odrasla osoba neodreena spola i dobi te jedno sibility is to try to resolve in some other way
dijete starosti 5-15 godina. the evident discordance between the number
Moram odmah naglasiti da su ovakvi rezul- of buried persons and number of urns as the
jOKINA GLAVICA
tati antropoloke analize ne samo neoekivani main and most important indicator of the ac- prapovijesni grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
nego i posve iznenaujui. Kako meutim i ne tual number of cremated and buried individu- prehistoric graves
38
pomiljam dovesti u pitanje egzaktnost prove- als. It may be possible to speculate about this
denog postupka identificiranja spaljenih ostata- problem in the following way.
ka i njihove zastupljenosti u arama, ostaje mi Since simultaneity of the burials is suggested
da oigledan nesklad izmeu ovako utvrenog by depositing urns on the tumulus basis, their
broja pokopanih osoba i broja ara kao osnov- evident spatial homogeneity, i.e. pronounced
nog i najvanijeg indikatora stvarnog broja spa- grouping in a small area and uniformity of the
ljenih i sahranjenih osoba, pokuam razrijeiti funerary ritual, which was mentioned before, it
na neki drugi nain. U vezi s tim, ini mi se da bi seem reasonable to assume that the first part of
bilo mogue spekulirati na sljedei nain. the ritual was carried out in the same way i. e.
Budui da polaganje ara na osnovi tumu- by simultaneous cremation of all deceased per-
la, njihova oita prostorna homogenost, od- sons. If this hypothesis is correct, it seems logi-
nosno naglaeno grupiranje na maloj povr- cal that all persons were cremated at a common
ini i ujednaenost pogrebnog rituala suge- pyre, not partial or separated pyres. This possi-
riraju istodobnost pokapanja, o emu je ve bility is important because it, per se, does not al-
bilo govora, posve je racionalno pretpostavi- low definite separation of cremated remains and
ti da je na isti nain proveden i prvi dio ri- their separate depositing into individual urns.
tuala, odnosno istodobnim spaljivanjem svih In that case the number of buried persons need
pokopanih osoba. Ako je ta pretpostavka to- not be so high as it comes out from simplified
na, loginom se ini i vjerojatnost da su sve interpretation of the results of anthropological
osobe spaljene na jednom zajednikom spa- analysis, and determined age and gender struc-
litu, a ne na parcijalnim i posve razdvoje- ture would allow mutual connections between
nim spalitima. Ta je mogunost vana zbog the remains from the individual urns. In that
toga to, sama po sebi, ne ostavlja gotovo ni- context the fact that infant remains were identi-
kakva prostora posve sigurnom razdvajanju fied in urns number 1, 3 and 4 may be indicative.
spaljenih ostataka i njihovom odvojenom As the presented data indicate, remains in urns
pohranjivanju u zasebne are. Pri takvoj mo- no. 1 and no. 3 belong to children under the age
gunosti ukupan broj pokopanih osoba ne bi of ten leaving a possibility of their mutual con-
morao biti tako visok kako to proizlazi iz an- nections and ascribing them to the same child.
tropoloke analize, a utvrena spolna i dob- Considering quite broad age range (5 15 years)
na struktura doputale bi meusobno pove- of the infant remains from urn no. 4 it is not
zivanje ostataka iz pojedinih ara. U tom bi impossible that they also belonged to the same
kontekstu mogla biti indikativna injenica da child. Remains from urn no. 1 would belong to
su djeji ostatci identificirani u arama broj the second child (up to one year old). If this cal-
1, 3 i 4. Kao to je to iz izloenih podataka culation is correct, this would mean that only
vidljivo, ostatci u arama br. 1 i br. 3 pripa- two children were buried in the tumulus, not
daju djejem uzrastu ispod deset godina, to four. In that case there is also the need to mutu-
bi ostavljalo mogunost njihova meusob- ally relate remains of female persons identified
nog povezivanja i pripisivanja istom djetetu. in urns no. 2 and no. 3, and remains of unidenti-
S obzirom na dosta irok dobni raspon (5- fied persons regarding gender and age in urns
15 godina) u koji su stavljeni djeji ostatci iz no. 1 and no. 4. In that way we have the total
are br. 4, nije nemogue da i oni pripadaju of four persons two of which were children (one
istom djetetu. Drugom djetetu (do jedne go- less than a year old, and the other under the
dine starosti) pripadali bi ostatci iz are br. age of ten), and the remaining two were adult
1. Ako je ta kalkulacija tona, to bi znailo da persons one of which was a female whose age
u tumulu nije pokopano etvero djece, nego was estimated at between 25 and 35 whereas
samo dvoje. Pri takvoj mogunosti namee the other person may have been male. In other
se potreba meusobnog povezivanja i ostata- words, in the case of burial in Jokina glavica we
ka enskih osoba identificiranih u arama br. might have a family tomb with four buried fam-
2 i br. 3, te meusobnog povezivanja spolno ily members: parents with two children. This is
i dobno neidentificiranih osoba u arama br. suggested by the total number of urns, depos-
Brunislav
Marijanovi 1 i br. 4. Na taj nain dobivamo ostatke uku- ited jewelry which corresponds to the number
39
pno 4 osobe, od kojih su dvoje djeca (jedno of adults regarding number, types and size, and
starosti do jedne godine, a drugo mlae od most of all regarding the urns distribution in a
10 godina), a druge dvije odrasle osobe od common grave pit.
kojih je jedna enska starosti 25-35 godina, Namely although there are certain typo-
dok bi druga bi mogla biti mukog spola. logical differences between the urns, in this
Drugim rijeima, u sluaju pokopa na Jo- context I do not consider them neither big
kinoj glavici moglo bi se raditi o obiteljskoj nor particularly important. Differences in size
grobnici s etiri pokopana lana: roditelji- of the urns seem more important as they are
ma s dvoje djece. To sugerira i ukupan broj not accidental, in my opinion. Furthermore, I
ara, priloeni nakit, koji brojem, vrstama i would even state that there is a certain sym-
veliinom odgovara pretpostavljenom broju metry in that sense, particularly if observed in
odraslih osoba, a nadasve raspored ara u the context of their distribution in the tumu-
zajednikoj grobnoj jami. lus. Four recovered urns make two pairs of al-
Naime, premda meu arama postoje most identical vessels in size: urns no. 2 and 3
odreene tipoloke razlike, u ovome kontek- make a pair of larger urns and urns no. 1 and 4
stu te razlike ne drim ni velikima ni poseb- a pair of visibly smaller urns; fig. 24. Observed
no znaajnima. Puno znaajnijima ine mi se separately, differences in sizes need not have
razlike u veliinama ara, koje po mojem mi- some special meaning and they may be a con-
ljenju nisu sluajne. tovie, rekao bih da u sequence of pure coincidence. However as I
tom pogledu postoji i odreena simetrija, po- emphasized before, I believe that in this case
gotovo ako se promatra u kontekstu njihova they should be observed in the context of their
rasporeda u tumulu. Naime, etiri pronaene distribution in the tumulus which also exhibits
are ine dva para, veliinom gotovo podu- certain symmetry, which might imply certain
darnih ara, i to: are br. 2 i 3 ine par veih, intention in their distribution and emphasiz-
a are br. 1 i 4 par vidljivo manjih; sl. 24. Pro- ing difference in sizes. Namely urns were not
matrane same za sebe, razlike u veliinama distributed completely regularly, but it cannot
ne moraju imati neko posebno znaenje i do- be said that they were arranged freely, with-
ista mogu biti i posljedica iste sluajnosti. out a plan or chaotically. Alongside evident
Meutim, kao sam ve naglasio, drim da ih intention of their grouping into a homogenous
u ovome sluaju treba promatrati i u kontek- whole, an attempt to achieve certain regularity
stu njihova rasporeda u tumulu koji takoer suggesting quadrangular scheme is also rec-
pokazuje odreenu simetrinost, to bi moglo ognizable. In such scheme urns take position
podrazumijevati i odreenu smislenost u nji- of angles of an irregular quadrangle. Besides,
hovu rasporeivanju i naglaavanju razlike in that position two larger urns determine one
u veliinama. Naime, are nisu rasporeene side, and two smaller urns the other, opposite
posve pravilno, ali se ne moe tvrditi ni da su side of the quadrangle; fig. 11-13. This distribu-
poloene slobodno, bez ikakva reda ili kaoti- tion and mutual spatial relations suggest an
no. Uz oigledu namjeru njihova grupiranja idea and intention in their basic distribution.
u homogenu cjelinu vidljiva je i elja za sta- There is also the question of their interrela-
novitom pravilnou koja sugerira etvero- tions and deeper mutual relations at the time
kutnu shemu. U takvoj shemi are zauzimaju when they were deposited in the grave pit. This
pozicije vrhova nepravilna etverokuta. Osim interrelation might be observed in relation to
toga, u toj poziciji dvije vee are odreuju axes placed in the directions of main spatial de-
jednu, a dvije manje are drugu, i to suprot- terminants. If that interrelation was observed
nu stranu etverokuta; sl. 11-13. Ve taj ras- on the basis of axis North South, then one
pored i meusobni prostorni odnos sugerira whole would comprise urns no. 1 and 2, and the
neku ideju i smislenost u njihovu osnovnom other urns no. 3 and 4, meaning that each pair
rasporeivanju. Posebno je pitanje njihova would contain one larger and one smaller urn.
suodnosa jedne prema drugoj i dublje me- On the other hand, if mutual relations of urns jOKINA GLAVICA
usobne povezanosti pri polaganju u grobnu would be observed on the basis of axis East- prapovijesni grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
jamu. Taj je suodnos mogue promatrati i pre- West, then one whole would comprise urns no. prehistoric graves
40

ma osima postavljenim u pravcima glavnih pro- 2 and 4, and the other urns no. 1 and 3, mean-
stornih odrednica. Ako bi se taj suodnos proma- ing that each pair would contain two larger and
trao prema osi Sjever-Jug, onda bi jednu cjelinu two smaller urns; fig. 12-13. Regardless of the
tvorile are br. 1 i 2, a drugu are br. 3 i 4, to zna- principle of forming mutual ties between the
i da bi svaki par tvorila jedna vea i jedna manja urns, there is the question of mutual relations
ara. S druge strane, ako bi se meusobni odnosi between the persons whose cremated remains
ara promatrali prema osi istok-zapad, onda bi were deposited into larger urns with the persons
jednu cjelinu tvorile are br. 2 i 4, a drugu are br. whose remains were placed in smaller urns. In
1 i 3, to bi znailo da jedan par ine dvije vee, my opinion, previously mentioned possibility of
a drugi par dvije manje are; sl. 12-13. Razumije the total number of buried persons, gender and
se, neovisno o naelu prema kojem bi se provelo age structure as well as possible kinship ties sug-
finije meusobno povezivanje ara, odmah se po- gest answer to the question. In relation to that,
stavlja pitanje meusobnih odnosa izmeu osoba I will mention once more that urn no. 2 stands
iji su spaljeni ostatci pohranjeni u vee prema out by its delicate and quite rich decoration, and
osobama za ije su ostatke odreene manje are. that artisanal and other characteristics of the
ini mi se da prethodno iznesena mogunost o deposited jewelry significantly surpass similar
ukupnom broju pokopanih, spolna i doba struk- characteristics of the offerings from other urns.
tura te mogua rodbinska povezanost sugeriraju At this level of factual situation and permissible
i odgovor na to pitanje. U vezi s tim, ovdje u jo speculations this is all that can be done in an at-
jednom spomenuti da se ara br. 2 istie svojim tempt of understanding symmetry in sizes and
finim i dosta bogatim ukrasom, te da zanatske i spatial distribution of urns from Jokina glavica.
druge znaajke priloenog nakita znatno nadilaze Unfortunately preserved human remains did
sline vrijednosti priloga iz ostalih ara. Na ovoj not offer any possibilities of quality and more
razini injeninog stanja i dopustivih spekulacija, complete analyses which would definitely con-
to bi bili krajnji dosezi u pokuaju razumijevanja tribute to better understanding of mentioned
simetrinosti u veliinama i prostornom raspo- questions by determining exact or approximate-
redu ara iz Jokine glavice. Razumije se, prava ly correct age, gender and genetic relations of
je teta to sauvani humani ostatci nisu prui- all buried persons. However with all limitations
li nikakve mogunosti kvalitetnih i potpunijih which presently cannot be overcome, I consider
analiza koje bi s utvrivanjem tone ili priblino differences in sizes and distribution of the urns a
tone dobi, spola i genetske veze svih pokopanih consequence of reasonable and meaningful pro-
osoba zasigurno pridonijele i boljem razumije- cedures based on a certain differing principle.
vanju ovdje samo naznaenih pitanja. Ipak, uza I have to emphasize once more that possi-
sva ogranienja koja u ovom trenutku nije mo- bility of burying a group of very closely related
gue prevladati, postojee razlike u veliinama i persons seems more than likely at present, and
sam raspored ara drim posljedicom razlonoga their more or less close kinship ties seem quite
i smislenog postupanja utemeljenog prema ne- possible. Depositing urns on the tumulus ba-
kom razlikovnom naelu. sis, their evident spatial homogeneity, i.e. pro-
Isto tako, moram ponovno naglasiti kako nounced grouping in a small area, uniformity
mi se vjerojatnost pokapanja skupine vrlo of the funerary ritual, general typological uni-
blisko povezanih osoba u ovome sluaju ini formity of used urns and typological uniform-
vrlo visokom, a njihova ua ili dalja rodbinska ity of offerings simply suggest such possibility.
veza vrlo moguom. Polaganje ara na osnovi
tumula, njihova oita prostorna homogenost,
odnosno naglaeno grupiranje na maloj povr-
ini, ujednaenost pogrebnog ritusa, opa ti-
poloka ujednaenost upotrijebljenih ara, te
tipoloka ujednaenost priloga takvu vjerojat-
nost jednostavno sugeriraju.

Brunislav
Marijanovi
41

Literatura / Bibliography

. BATOVI K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI


1970 Istraivanje liburnskog naselja u Ninu 1969, Diadora, Vol. 5, 2009 Istraivanja tumula Matakova glavica u Podvrju,Vjesnik ar-
Zadar, 1970. heolokog muzeja u Zagrebu, 3. s. XLII, Zagreb, 2009.

. BATOVI K. KILIAN
1976 Le relazioni culturali tra le sponde adriatiche nel et del 1973 Zum italischen und griechischen Fibelhandwerk des 8. und
ferro, Jadranska obala u protohistoriji, Zagreb, 1976. 7. Jahrehunderts, Hamburger Beitrge zur Archologie 3,
Hamburg, 1973.
. BATOVI
1980 et del bronzo recente sulla costa orientale dell Adriatico, S. KUKO
Godinjak Centra za balkanoloka ispitivanja; XVIII, Saraje- 2009 Nadin, liburnski kult mrtvih, Istraivanja 2004.-2005., Asse-
vo, 1980. ria 7, Zadar, 2009.

. BATOVI S. KUKO
1981 Nakit u prapovijesti sjeverne Dalmacije, Nakit na tlu sje- 2011 Obred spaljivanja pokojnika u prapovijesti sjeverne Dalma-
verne Dalmacije od prapovijesti do danas, Katalog izlobe, cije, Archaeologia Adriatica, Vol. 3. (u tisku).
Zadar, 1981.
B. MARIJANOVI
. BATOVI 2009 Prapovijesni tumuli s kasnoantikim i srednjovjekovnim
1983 Kasno bronzano doba, Liburnska kulturna skupina, Praisto- grobovima iz Krneze i Podvrja kod Zadra, Hrvatski arheo-
rija jugoslavenskih zemalja IV, Sarajevo, 1983. loki godinjak, Zagreb, (u tisku)

. BATOVI I. MAROVI B. OVI


1987 Jadransko-zapadnobalkanska regija, Liburnska grupa, Prai- 1983 Cetinska kultura, Praistorija jugoslavenskih zemalja IV, Sara-
storija jugoslavenskih zemalja V, Sarajevo, 1987. jevo, 1983.

J. BELOEVI G. v. MERHART
1972 Stanje istraivanja slavenske keramike na podruju Dalma- 1969 Donaulndische Beziehungen der frheisnzeitlichen Kultu-
cije, Materijali, IX, Beograd, 1972. ren Mittelitaliens, Bj, Mainz, 1969.

J. BELOEVI K. MIHOVILI
1980 Materijalna kultura Hrvata od 7-9. stoljea, Zagreb, 1980. 2001 Nesactium, Monografije i katalozi, Arheoloki muzej Istre,
Pula, 2001.
B. OVI
1976 Od Butmira do Ilira, Sarajevo, 1976. H. MLLER-KARPE
1959 Beitrge zur Chronologie der Urnenfelderzeit nrdlich und
R. DRECHSLER-BII sdlich der Alpen, Rm Germ. Forsch. 22, 1959.
1962 Japodske dvodjelne fibule tipa Prozor; Arheoloki radovi i
rasprave, II, Zagreb, 1962. B. TERAN
2009 Japodska nevesta iz okolice Novog Mesta, Vjesnik arheolo-
R. DRECHSLER-BII kog muzeja u Zagrebu, 3. s. XLII, Zagreb, 2009.
1983 Kasno bronzano doba, Japodska kulturna skupina, Praisto-
rija jugoslavenskih zemalja V, Sarajevo, 1983. A. UGLEI
2004 Dvojne ranokranske crkve u Podvrju, Sveuilite u Za-
S. GABROVEC dru, Odjel za arheologiju - Arheoloki muzej u Zadru, Zadar,
1983 Jugoistonoalpska regija, Kasno bronano doba (kultura 2004.
polja sa arama, PJZ IV, Bronzano doba, Sarajevo, 1983.
A. UGLEI
S. GABROVEC K. MIHOVILI 2004a Dvojne ranokranske crkve u Podvrju, Muzej grada ibe-
1987 Istarska grupa, PJZ V, Sarajevo, 1987. nika - Sveuilite u Zadru, Odjel za arheologiju Arheoloki
muzej u Zadru, ibenik 2004.
D. GLOGOVI
K. VINSKI-GASPARINI
1988 Dvodijelne zmijaste fibule iz Jugoslavije, Diadora, Vol. 10,
1973 Kultura polja sa arama u sjevernoj Hrvatskoj, Zadar, 1973.
Zadar, 1988.
K. VINSKI-GASPARINI
D. GLOGOVI 1983 Kultura polja sa arama sa svojim grupama, PJZ IV, Bronzano
2003 Fibeln im kroatischen Kstengebiet, Prhistorische Bronze- doba, Sarajevo, 1983.
funde, Abteilung XIV, 13. Band, Mainz 2003.
K. VINSKI-GASPARINI
K. GUSAR 1983a Ostave s podruja kulture polja sa arama, PJZ IV, Bronzano
2008 Ranosrednovjekovna keramika iz Krneze, Srednji vek Ar- doba, Sarajevo, 1983.
heoloke raziskave med Jadranskim morjem in Panonsko
niino, Ljubljana, 2008.

K. GUSAR
2009 Ranosrednjovjekovni grobovi iz humka Jokina glavica u
selu Krneza, Zbornik o Luji Marunu, 2009.

jOKINA GLAVICA
prapovijesni grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
prehistoric graves
42

tabla I

ara br. 1 / Urn No. 1

a b

c d

fotografija / photographs by B. Marijanovi


43

tabla II

ara br. 2 / Urn No. 2

1a 1b

2a

2b

fotografija / photographs by B. Marijanovi


44

tabla III

2 3

4 5

fotografija / photographs by B. Marijanovi


45

tabla IV

1 2

3 4

5 6

fotografija / photographs by B. Marijanovi


46

tabla V

ara br. 3 / Urn No. 3

a
2
b

a b
47

tabla VI

ara br. 4 / Urn No. 4

c d

fotografija / photographs by B. Marijanovi


Karla Gusar JOKINA GLAVICA
ranosrednjovjekovni grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
Early Medieval graves

Zasebnu sepulkralnu cjelinu Jokine glavice, A group of medieval graves which were dug in
znatno brojniju od prapovijesne, ini skupina the surface layer of a prehistoric mound as sec-
srednjovjekovnih grobova sekundarno uko- ondary burials represents a separate sepulchral
panih u povrinski sloj prapovijesnog humka. unit of the site of Jokina glavica. Their excava-
Njihovo iskopavanje provedeno je u dvije istra- tion was conducted within two research cam-
ivake kampanje, 2007. i 2008., pri emu je paigns, in 2007 and 2008, when 18 grave units
otkriveno 18 grobnih cjelina, to sa 4 prapovi- were discovered, making the total of 22 grave
jesne are koje ine primarne grobove, daje 22 units in this mound together with 4 prehistoric
grobne cjeline u ovom humku.1 urns as primary graves.1
Srednjovjekovni grobovi otkriveni su u naj- Medieval graves were discovered in the high-
viem dijelu nasipa, a prvi ukopi zamijeeni su est part of the fill, and the first burials were
ve pri raiavanju raslinja i skidanju humu- noticed as soon as vegetation was cleared and
snog sloja formiranog tijekom duljeg razdoblja. humus layer which was formed over a longer
Grobne jame ukopane su sloj svjetlije zemlje, period was removed. Grave pits were dug in a
a njihove je obrise najee definiralo amorfno layer of light-colored soil, and their contours
kamenje poredano uz rubove ukopa (T. I.,1). were most often delineated by amorphous rocks
Kako je tijekom minulog vremena korpus placed near the edges of the burial (Pl. I,1).
tumula pretrpio stanovita oteenja, vrlo je Since over the course of time the tumulus suf-
vjerojatno da otkriveni grobovi ne odraavaju fered considerable damage, it is more than likely
i njihov stvarni broj, nego je realno pretposta- that the discovered graves do not reflect their ac-
viti da je ukupan broj srednjovjekovnih poko- tual number. It is reasonable to suppose that the
pa mogao biti i neto vei. Meutim, malo je total number of medieval burials could have been
vjerojatno da je mogua destrukcija bila veeg greater. However it is less likely that possible de-
opsega i da je bitno promijenila odnos izmeu struction was of greater scope and that it could
otkrivenoga i mogueg broja pokopa. have significantly changed relation between the
Ukupno je otkriveno 18 ranosrednjovjekov- discovered and possible number of burials.
nih grobova.2 Prema konstrukciji moemo ih Total number of discovered early medieval
podijeliti na grobove u obinoj zemljanoj raci graves is eighteen.2 On the criterion of con-
(grob 15) i u drvenom lijesu (grob 18) (sl. 1), struction we can classify them into graves in a
dok su najbrojnije zastupljeni grobovi s kame- common earthen pit (grave 15) and wooden cof-

1 Istraivanja su provedena u sklopu terenske nastave iz kolegija Metodo- 1 Excavations were conducted within field practice in the course Metho-
dologija arheolokih istraivanja pod vodstvom B. Marijanovia, a dijelom dology of the archaeological research under the leadership of B. Marija-
u sklopu znanstvenog projekta Srednjovjekovno arheoloko nasljee june novi, and also partly within a scientific project Medieval archaeological
Hrvatske, voditelja A. Ugleia. Prva kampanja istraivanja provedena je heritage of southern Croatia under the leadership of A. Uglei. The first
u razdoblju od 9. svibnja do 11. lipnja 2007., a druga od 8. svibnja do 15. research campaign was conducted from May 9 to June 11, 2007, and the
svibnja 2008. lanove strune ekipe inili su J. Baraka, D. Vujevi i K. Gusar second one from May 8 to May 15, 2008. Professional team consisted
s Odjela za arheologiju, diplomirani arheolozi S. Mara, . Vrki i apsolvent of the following participants: J. Baraka, D. Vujevi and K. Gusar from the
arheologije J. Popovi. Department of Archaeology, archaeologists S. Mara, . Vrki and an ABD
student J. Popovi.
2 K. GUSAR, 2008; 2009. Premda se u poetku smatralo da se radi o 19 grobova, 2 K. GUSAR, 2008; 2009. Although in the beginning it seemed there were 19
zbog slabe sauvanosti grobne arhitekture i osteolokih ostataka naknadno graves, due to poorly preserved grave architecture and osteological re-
je ustanovljeno da kosti iz groba 12 zapravo pripadaju grobu 9, odnosno da je mains it was determined subsequently that bones from grave 12 actually
rije o jednom te istom ukopu, te da je do sada na ovom lokalitetu pronaeno belong to grave 9, i.e. that it is one and the same burial, and that 18, not
18, a ne 19 grobova (kako je naznaeno u numeraciji na planu groblja). 19 graves were found at this site (as marked on the cemetery plan).
50

Sl./ Fig. 1
Grob 18 u
drvenom lijesu
Grave 18 in a
wooden coffin

Sl./ Fig. 2
Grob 2 s kamenom
grobnom
arhitekturom
Grave 2 with stone
grave architecture

nom grobnom arhitekturom (grobovi 1-14, 16- fin (grave 18) (fig. 1) whereas graves with stone
17, 19) (sl. 2). Jedini grob u obinoj zemljanoj grave architecture were the most numerous
raci najveim je dijelom uniten te ne moemo (graves 1-14, 16-17, 19) (fig. 2). The only grave
govoriti o njegovu obliku (grob 15) (T. IV.,1). in a common earthen pit was devastated for the
Jedinstveni primjer ukopa na ovom humku most part so that its form cannot be discussed
predstavlja grob 18, kod kojeg je pokojnik bio (grave 15) (Pl. IV,1). A unique example of burial
poloen u drveni lijes, koji se na alost nije ou- in this mound is represented by grave 18 in which
vao, ali su se prilikom istraivanja jasno ocrta- the corpse was laid in a wooden coffin which was
vali njegovi obrisi nastali truljenjem drveta (sl. unfortunately not preserved, but its contours re-
1, T. IV., 3). Kako uz lijes nisu pronaeni e- sulting from wood decay were clearly visible (fig.
ljezni avli, vjerojatno je bio povezan drvenim 1, Pl. IV,3). Since there were no iron nails next
klinovima. Meu grobovima s kamenom kon- to the coffin it was probably fixed with wooden
strukcijom razlikujemo grobove s djelomi- pegs. Among the graves with stone construction
nom i one s potpunom upotrebom kamena za we can distinguish the ones with partial and full
izradu grobne arhitekture. Kod grobova s dje- use of stone in grave construction. Regarding the
lominom upotrebom kamena u dva je sluaja graves with partial use of stone in two cases there
rije o samo jednom kamenu, koji se nalazio uz was just one stone located near the head (grave
glavu (grob 16) (T. IV.,2) ili uz rame pokojnika 16) (Pl. IV,2) or the shoulder of the deceased
(grob 19) (T. IV., 4), dok se vie neobraenog (grave 19) (Pl. IV,4) whereas several undressed
kamenja nalazio uz gornji dio tijela (grob 14) stones were located next to the upper part of the
(T. III., 3), ili nepravilno poslagano oko veeg body (grave 14) (Pl. III,3), or they were arranged
dijela pokojnika (grob 13) (T. III., 2). Grobovi s irregularly around the bigger part of the corpse
potpunom kamenom arhitekturom su brojniji, (grave 13) (Pl. III,2). Graves with full stone archi-
ovalnog su ili paetvorinastog oblika, a graeni tecture are more numerous, they are oval or rec-
su od dva ili tri reda uslojenoga neobraenog tangular, built in two or three rows of arranged
karla
gusar kamenja. Kod tri groba pronaene su kame- undressed stones. Stone spolia were found next
51

Sl./ Fig. 3
Grob 17 s ulomcima
kamenih rvnjeva
Grave 17 with
fragments of stone
grindstones

Sl./ Fig. 4
Grob 8 s klesancem
iz ranokranskog
kompleksa
Podvrje-Glavine
Grave 8 with dressed
stone from an early
Christian complex
in Podvrje

ni spoliji. U dva groba kao spoliji su ugraeni to three graves. Fragments of stone grindstones
ulomci kamenih rvnjeva (grobovi 9 i 17) (sl. 3, (grave 9 and 17) (fig. 3, Pl. II, 1,3) were built in
T. II., 1, 3), a u jednom (grob 8) (sl. 4, T. II., 1) two graves as spolia, and in grave 8 (fig. 4, Pl.
kameni klesanac koji je izvorno pripadao leze- II,1) there was a dressed stone which originally
ni sjeverne crkve ranokranskoga kompleksa belonged to a lesene of the northern church of
u Podvrju, udaljenog od ovog humka nekoliko an early Christian complex in Podvrje, several
stotina metara zrane linije.3 Grobovi su ori- hundreds of meters distant from this mound in a
jentirani SZ-JI, s manjim ili veim otklonima, straight line.3 Graves lie in the NW-SE direction,
ovisno o poloajima grobova, odnosno o tome with smaller or greater deviations, depending
jesu li se nalazili u sreditu humka ili na njego- on the positions of the graves, i.e. whether they
voj periferiji. Kod svih grobova zamijeeno je were located in the center of the mound or its pe-
da se radi o pojedinanim ukopima kod kojih riphery. In all graves were individual burials in
su pokojnici u grobove polagani na lea, s ru- which the deceased person was laid on the back
kama ispruenim uz tijelo. with extended arms.
Zanimljiv primjer ukopa nalazimo kod gro- Grave 13 represents an interesting example
ba 13, gdje su na kostur bila poloena dva vea of a burial in which two large undressed stones
neobraena kamena, jedan na prsa, a drugi na were placed on the skeleton, one of them on
trbuh (T. III., 2). Ova pojava zabiljeena je i na the chest, and the other on the belly (Pl. III,2).
nekropolama Nin-drijac i Kai-Maklinovo This phenomenon was noticed at the necropo-
brdo.4 Na ranim slavenskim grobljima te se po- les Nin-drijac and Kai-Maklinovo brdo.4
java obino dovodi s vezu s vampirizom.5 Iako Mentioned phenomenon is usually related to
je rije o tragovima ranih slavenskih vjerovanja vampirism at early Slavic cemeteries.5 Though
kojima nije uvijek mogue utvrditi toan smi- these are traces of early Slavic beliefs which are
sao, obiaj poklapanja pokojnika veim kame- difficult to interpret correctly, custom of bury-
njem (naroito u predjelu glave, prsiju, bedara ing the deceased under a large stone (particu-
i koljena) tumai se vjerovanjem da je umrla larly in the area of head, chest, thighs or knees)
osoba bila vampir, te je se na taj nain poku- is explained by a belief that the deceased per-
JOKINA GLAVICA
ranosrednjovjekovni
3 K. GUSAR, 2009, 171. 3 K. GUSAR, 2009, 171. grobovi
4 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 79; 2007, 31. 4 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 79; 2007, 31. JOKINA GLAVICA
5 Z. KRUMPHANZLOV, 1961, 544-547. 5 Z. KRUMPHANZLOV, 1961, 544-547. Early Medieval graves
52
ava onemoguiti da ponovno ustane iz groba.6 son was a vampire, and that it is an attempt
No budui da je ovaj obiaj na starohrvatskim to prevent him/her from returning from the
grobljima relativno rijedak, objanjenje ove grave.6 However, since this custom is rather
pojave za sada treba ostaviti otvorenim. rare at early Croatian cemeteries, question of
Skeleti unutar svih grobova izuzetno su loe this phenomenon remains open.
ouvani te za vei dio pokojnika nije bilo mogu- Skeletons in all graves are poorly preserved
e utvrditi spol; na osnovi ouvanih ostataka, so that gender could not be determined for most
pak, antropolokom je analizom utvreno da je of the deceased. Anthropological analysis of the
rije o tri enske i dvije muke osobe te o jed- preserved remains revealed that there were three
nom djetetu.7 female skeletons, two males and an infant.7
Vano je istaknuti da su na humku Jokina It is important to emphasize that two layers
glavica pronaena dva sloja ranosrednjovje- of early medieval graves (Pl. I; Pl. II,1; Pl. III,1)
kovnih grobova (T. I.; T. II.,1; T. III.,1). Oito were found at the Jokina glavica mound. Exist-
postojanje ovih slojeva vidljivo je u smjetaju ence of these layers is reflected in the distribution
grobova, odnosno u preklapanju njihovih polo- of graves, i.e. in overlapping of their positions.
aja. Gornjem sloju pripadaju grobovi 2, 4, 5, 6, Graves 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 17 belong to the upper
9, 10 i 17, ispod kojih su se nalazili 13, 14, 18 i 19. layer, and graves 13, 14, 18 and19 were beneath
Neki od grobova donjeg sloja bili su presloje- them. Some of the graves from the lower layer
ni jednim novim ukopom8 ili dvamaukopima,9 of graves were superposed by one8 or even two
a u sluaju groba 14 uoeno je da su se iznad burials,9 and there were as much as three graves
njega nalazila ak tri groba.10 Gornjem sloju, above grave 14.10 Twelve graves (graves 1-11, 17)
bliem povrini, pripada 12 grobova (grobovi belong to the upper layer, closer to surface, with
1-11, 17) u kojima su osteoloki ostatci iznimno extremely poorly preserved osteological remains.
loe sauvani, a u potpunosti nedostaju u ak In seven graves bones are completely lacking (Pl.
7 grobova (T. II., 1). Grobovi ovog sloja ima- II,1). Graves of this layer have stone grave archi-
ju kamenu grobnu arhitekturu, a istom sloju tecture, and the mentioned graves with stone
pripadaju i ve spomenuti grobovi s kamenim spolia belong to the same layer. Finds were rare
spolijima. Unutar tog sloja nalazi su rijetki, te in this layer, they were recovered from only two
su pronaeni u samo dva groba (grobovi 10 i graves (graves 10 and 17). Six graves belong to the
17). Donjem sloju pripada 6 grobova (grobovi lower layer (graves 13-16, 18 and 19) comprising
13-16, 18 i 19), a meu njima nalazimo ukope u burials in a common earthen pit, in a wooden cof-
obinoj zemljanoj raci, u drvenom sanduku, te fin, and with stone grave architecture (Pl. III,1).
s kamenom grobnom arhitekturom (T. III., 1). Grave goods were found next to skeletons in four
U etiri groba uz pokojnike su pronaeni grob- graves (graves 13, 14, 16, and 18).
ni prilozi (grobovi 13, 14, 16, i 18). Finds were recovered from only two graves
Unutar grobova gornjeg, odnosno prvog from the upper i.e. first layer. A simple undeco-
sloja, nalazi su zabiljeeni u samo dva groba. rated finger ring and a pair of single-beaded ear-
U grobu 10 uz loe ouvane osteoloke ostat- rings (Pl. III,1) were found in grave 10 together
ke enske osobe djelomino ograene s tri reda with poorly preserved osteological remains of
neuslojenog kamena, pronaeni su neukraeni a female person partially enclosed with three
prsten-vitica i par jednojagodnih naunica (T. rows of unarranged stones. The finger ring was
III., 1). Prsten je izraen od bronce, ima presjek made of bronze, with a D-shaped cross-section
u obliku slova D, a krajevi mu prelaze jedan and overlapping ends (Pl. V,3). The earrings
preko drugog (T. V., 3). Naunice su srebrne, are silver, with a smooth ring which is round
imaju glatku kariku krunog presjeka, a na do- in cross-section, and at the lower part is a bi-
njem je dijelu uplja bikonina jagoda u koju conical bead into which the ring was inserted

6 Z. KRUMPHANZLOV, 1961, 546-547. 6 Z. KRUMPHANZLOV, 1961, 546-547.


7 Antropoloku analizu osteolokih ostataka iz ranosrednjovjekovnih gro- 7 M. laus from the Department of Archaeology of the Croatian Academy
bova proveo je M. laus s Odsjeka za arheologiju Hrvatske akademije zna- of Sciences and Arts conducted anthropological analysis of osteological
nosti i umjetnosti (M. LAUS, 2008). remains from the early medieval graves (LAUS, 2008).
8 Iznad groba 18 nalazio se grob 10, a iznad groba 19 grob 17. 8 Grave 10 was above grave 18, and grave 17 above grave 19.
karla 9 Iznad groba 13 pronaeni su grobovi 6 i 9. 9 Graves 6 and 9 were found above grave 13.
gusar 10 Grobovi 2, 4 i 5. 10 Graves 2, 4 and 5.
53
se uticala karika (T. V., 1-2). Po sredini jago- (Pl. V,1-2). A vertical relief rib is in the middle
de nalazi se okomito reljefno rebro, a isti ukras of the bead, and the same ornament appears at
ponavlja se i na krajevima jagoda. the bead ends.
Grob 17 ima djelomino sauvanu arhitek- Grave 17 has partially preserved architec-
turu, koja se sastoji od dva reda uslojenoga ne- ture consisting of two rows of arranged un-
obraenog kamenja i tri ulomka kamenih rv- dressed stones and three fragments of stone
njeva (sl. 3, T. II., 3). Unutar groba pronaene grindstones (fig. 3, Pl. II,3). In the grave were
su kosti lubanje osobe neutvrenog spola, a po skull bones of a person of undetermined gen-
sredini groba nalazili su se bronani prsten- der, and in the middle of the grave was a simple
vitica te dva mala ulomka neidentificiranoga undecorated bronze finger ring, and two small
eljeznog predmeta koji se zbog djelovanja fragments of an unidentified iron object which
korozije razlomio. Prsten je jednostavan, neu- was broken due to corrosion. The finger ring is
kraen, zatvorenog koluta i polukrunog pre- simple, undecorated, with a full ring and semi-
sjeka (T. V., 4). circular cross-section (Pl. V,4).
Drugom, donjem, sloju pripadaju etiri gro- Four graves belong to the second, lower
ba u kojima su uz pokojnike pronaeni nalazi i layer. Grave goods and accessories from these
prilozi kakvi se pojavljuju i u drugim starohr- graves correspond to finds from other early
vatskim nekropolama poganskog horizonta na Croatian necropoles of pagan horizon in the
podruju Dalmacije. Dalmatia region.
U grobu 13 pronaen je skelet enske Skeleton of a female person which was par-
osobe djelomino ograen jednim redom tially enclosed with a row of irregular rocks
nepravilnog kamenja (T. III., 2). Jedan vei was found in grave 13 (Pl. III,2). One large
kamen bio je postavljen na prsa, a drugi stone was placed on the chest of the deceased,
na trbuh pokojnice. U grobu su pronaeni and the other on the stomach. A pair of silver
par srebrnih kariica, ogrlica od staklenih circlets, necklace made of glass beads, bronze
perli, fragmenti bronane ice i jedna ke- wire fragments and a ceramic pot were found
ramika posuda (T. VI). Gotovo na samoj in the grave (Pl. VI). Several fragments of
povrini groba iznad lijevog ramena ske- bronze wire (only two fairly well preserved)
leta pronaeno je nekoliko ulomaka bron- were found above the left shoulder of the skele-
ane ice, od kojih su bolje sauvana samo ton, almost at the surface of the grave (Pl. VI,1-
dva (T. VI., 1-2). Raeni su od tanke ice, 2). They were made of thin wire, and they re-
a izgledom najvie podsjeaju na bronane semble bronze earrings which have a ring with
naunice s karikom povijenom u petlje iz loops and hanging chains. This type of earring
kojih vise lanii. Kod ovog tipa naunica usually has the lower part of a ring twisted into
donji dio karike svijen je u tri do pet pet- three or five loops with small hanging chains
lji iz kojih vise lanii od spiralno uvijene made of spirally twisted wire. Silver circlets
ice. Srebrne kariice naene uz lubanju found next to the skull of the deceased are oval
pokojnice ovalnog su oblika, jedan im kraj in shape, one terminal ends with a hook and
zavrava kukicom, a drugi uicom (T. VI., the other with a loop (Pl. VI, 3-4). Necklace
3-4). Ogrlicu pronaenu u predjelu vrata found at the neck area consists of a row of tiny
pokojnice ini niz sitnih plavih perli od sta- blue beads made of glass paste in shape of rings
klene paste u obliku kolutia i jedna vea and a great ovoid yellow bead which was prob-
jajolika perla ute boje, koja se vjerojatno ably in the middle of the necklace (Pl. VI,5).
nalazila na sredini ogrlice (T. VI., 5). Iznad Above the pelvis was a small ceramic pot made
zdjelice pokojnice nalazio se grobni prilog on a slow-rotating potters wheel (Pl. VI, 6).
u vidu keramike posude malih dimenzija The pot is undecorated, with a short neck, pro-
izraene na spororotirajuem lonarskom filed everted rim and body expanding towards
kolu (T. VI., 6). Posuda je neukraena, ima belly. At the base it has a double impression of
kratki vrat, profilirani obod koji se izvija a potters wheel axle. It is important to mention JOKINA GLAVICA
ranosrednjovjekovni
prema van i tijelo koje se lagano iri prema that this is the only pot found within a grave in grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
trbuhu. Na dnu ima dvostruki otisak oso- this mound, and that it differs from all other Early Medieval graves
54

vine lonarskog kola. Vano je napomenuti ceramic finds from this site by its shape and
da je to jedina posuda naena unutar groba dimensions. Besides the mentioned finds and
na ovom humku, te da se oblikom i dimen- grave goods, an additional chronological deter-
zijama izdvaja od ostalog keramikog ma- mination of this grave is confirmed by radio-
terijala s ovog lokaliteta. Osim spomenutih carbon analysis of osteological remains dating
nalaza i priloga dodatnu kronoloku deter- the mentioned burial to the period from 770 to
minaciju ovog groba potvruje radiokar- 900 (fig. 5).11
bonska analiza osteolokih ostataka koja A skeleton of an adult with some grave
navedeni ukop smjeta u razdoblje od 770. goods was found in grave 14 which is partial-
do 900. godine (sl. 5).11 ly enclosed with a row of irregular rocks (Pl.

Sl./ Fig. 5
Rezultati
radiokarbonske
analize osteolokih
ostataka iz groba 13
Results of the
radiocarbon analysis
of osteological
remains from
grave 13

U grobu 14 djelomino ograenim jednim III,3). A lyre-shaped firesteel with four flints
redom nepravilnog kamenja pronaen je ske- was found on the right side of the deceased per-
let odrasle osobe, a uz njega i nekoliko grobnih sons waist (Pl. VII,1-5). It is most likely that
priloga (T. III., 3). S desne strane pokojnikova they were carried in a belt purse. A well pre-
struka pronaeno je kresivo u obliku lire za- served iron knife was found near the right hip of
jedno s etiri kremenia (T. VII., 1-5), a sva je the skeleton, lower than the firesteel (Pl.VII,7).
vjerojatnost da su se nosili u torbici ovjeenoj o It has a straight back, a cutting edge bending
pojasu. Nie od kresiva, uz desni kuk pokojni- towards the top and a tang for attaching a han-
ka, naen je dobro ouvan eljezni no (T. VII., dle. An iron awl with square cross-section and
7). Ima ravni hrbat, otricu koja se svija prema a hook in the upper part was found next to the
vrhu i trn na koji se naticao drak. Uz no je knife (Pl. VII,6). Though anthropological anal-
pronaeno eljezno ilo kvadratnog presjeka s ysis could not determine the deceased persons
uicom u gornjem dijelu (T. VII., 6). Iako an- gender, it seems that a male person was buried

11 Analiza kostiju iz groba 13 provedena u Radiocarbon Laboratory Pozna 11 Analysis of bones from grave 13 was conducted in Radiocarbon Laboratory
karla u Poljskoj (Poz-21016) pokazala je starost uzorka 118530BP, a kalibrirana Pozna u Poljskoj (Poz-21016) indicating the age of the sample of 118530BP,
gusar datacija sa 87,7 % vjerojatnosti iznosi 770-900 AD (OxCal 3.10). and calibrated dating with 87,7% probability was 770-900 AD (OxCal 3.10).
55
tropolokom analizom nije bilo mogue usta- in this grave judging from the grave goods, par-
noviti spol pokojnika, prema grobnim prilozi- ticularly firesteel.12
ma, a osobito kresivu, moe se zakljuiti da je u A skeleton of a female person was found in
ovom grobu bio pokopan mukarac.12 grave 16. A rock was found next to the right side
U grobu 16 naen je skelet enske osobe ko- of the skull (Pl. IV, 2). The only grave good was
joj se uz desnu stranu lubanje nalazio jedan ka- an iron object found next to the left femoral
men (T. IV., 2). Jedini prilog je eljezni predmet bone of the skeleton. It is quite difficult to dis-
naen uz lijevu bedrenu kost, za koji je teko sa cern whether it is an iron knife or some other
sigurnou odrediti radi li se o nalazu eljeznog iron tool. The object is elongated, tapering to-
noa ili nekoj drugoj eljeznoj alatki. Predmet wards one end, with rectangular cross-section
je izduenog oblika, na jednom se kraju znatno (Pl. VIII,1).
suava, a presjek mu je pravokutan (T. VIII., 1). In grave 18 were the remains of a male skel-
U grobu 18 pronaeni su ostatci mukog eton which was buried in a wooden coffin whose
skeleta koji je bio pokopan u drvenom lijesu outline were preserved (Pl. IV, 3). This type of
od kojeg se sauvao obris (T. IV., 3). Ovaj tip grave appears at several early medieval Dalma-
groba pojavljuje se na nekoliko ranosrednjo- tian necropoles.13 An iron object about 30 cm
vjekovnih dalmatinskih nekropola.13 Uz desnu long, preserved only in traces, was found next
nogu skeleta nalazio se eljezni predmet duine to the right leg of the skeleton. Since a bronze
oko 30 cm, sauvan samo u tragovima. Kako je rivet (Pl. VIII,2) was found next to this object, it
uz njega pronaena i jedna bronana zakovica is possible that these were the remains of a knife
(T. VIII., 2), mogue je da se radi o ostatcima and of a fitting of a sheath, common finds at oth-
noa i okova korica, kakve nalazimo i na dru- er early Croatian necropoles in Dalmatia in the
gim starohrvatskim nekropolama Dalmacije u 8th and 9th centuries.14 Radiocarbon analysis of
8. i 9. stoljeu.14 Radiokarbonska analiza oste- osteological remains did not give any valid re-
olokih ostataka nije dala znaajan rezultat, jer sults since there was not enough collagen in the
se u kostima nije sauvalo dovoljno kolagena da bones in order to determine the age of the sam-
bi se mogla odrediti starost uzorka.15 Takoer ple.15 It is necessary to emphasize that a ceramic
treba istaknuti da je neposredno uz ovaj grob, s pot was found next to this grave, by its southern
njegove june strane, pronaena keramika po- side. It is a squat pot with an everted rim, made
suda. Trbuastog je oblika s razvraenim obo- on a slow-rotating potters wheel (Pl. VIII,3). It
dom, a raena je na spororotirajuem runom is poorly fired, ochre-reddish with grey spots,
lonarskom kolu (T. VIII., 3). Loe je peena, and at the base it has a round impression of a
oker-crvenkaste boje sa sivim mrljama, a na potters wheel axle. Though it was found outside
dnu joj je kruni otisak osovine kola. Iako je po- the grave, it should be related to funerary cus-
suda pronaena neposredno izvan groba, treba toms since a similar phenomenon was noticed
je dovesti u vezu s pogrebnim obiajima, jer je at the early Croatian cemetery near the Materiza
slina pojava do sada ustanovljena i u starohr- mound near Nin.16
vatskom groblju uz humak Materiza kod Nina.16 Grave goods and accessories discovered at
Grobni nalazi i prilozi otkriveni na ovom loka- this site correspond well to the general pic-
litetu uklapaju se u openitu sliku dalmatinskih ture of the Dalmatian cemeteries of the early
grobalja starohrvatskog razdoblja. Zastupljeni su Croatian period. Among them there are jewelry
nalazi nakita meu kojima se pojavljuju kariice, finds such as circlets, single-beaded earrings,
jednojagodne naunice, jednostavno neukraeno simple undecorated rings and a necklace made
prstenje i jedna ogrlica od staklenih perli. Zatim of glass beads. There are also grave goods be-
su tu prilozi utilitarnih predmeta poput noeva, longing to utilitarian objects such as knives,
ila, kresiva s kremenjem i kultne keramike. awls, firesteel with flints and cult pottery.

12 D. JELOVINA, 1968, 27-28; J. BELOEVI, 1980, 119; M. PETRINEC, 2009,


12 D. JELOVINA, 1968, 27-28; J. BELOEVI, 1980, 119; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 184.
184. 13 J. BELOEVI, 1980; 75; 2007, 26-27; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 108. JOKINA GLAVICA
13 J. BELOEVI, 1980; 75; 2007, 26-27; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 108. 14 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 118; 2007, 285; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 178. ranosrednjovjekovni
14 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 118; 2007, 285; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 178. 15 Bones from grave 18 were analyzed in the Beta Analytic Laboratory in Mi- grobovi
15 Kosti iz groba 18 analizirane su u laboratoriju Beta Analytic u Miamiju. ami. JOKINA GLAVICA
16 J. BELOEVI, 1973, 238. 16 J. BELOEVI, 1973, 238. Early Medieval graves
56
Unutar grobova gornjega, prvog sloja zabi- Within graves of the upper, first layer there
ljeeni su malobrojni predmeti koji pripadaju were few objects belonging exclusively to jew-
iskljuivo nakitu, a to su par jednojagodnih elry such as a pair of single-beaded earrings
naunica (gr. 10) i dva jednostavna bronana (grave 10) and two simple bronze finger rings
prstena-vitice (gr. 10, 17). Primjerke jednoja- (graves 10, 17). Examples of single-beaded ear-
godnih naunica u raznim varijantama nalazi- rings in different variants can be found at many
mo na nizu starohrvatskih grobalja Dalmacije, early Croatian cemeteries in Dalmatia, Lika, Pri-
Like, Primorja i Istre.17 Naunice sline ovima morje and Istria.17 Earrings similar to the ones
iz groba 17 na podruju sjeverne Dalmacije re- from grave 17 were found at the necropoles Sv.
gistrirane su na nekropolama Sv. Kri i drijac Kri (St. Cross) and drijac in Nin, Mastirine in
u Ninu, Mastirinama u Kaiu te na Crkvini u Kaiu, and Crkvina in Galovac.18 Single-beaded
Galovcu.18 O jednojagodnim naunicama dosta earrings were often discussed in the archaeolog-
se raspravljalo u arheolokoj literaturi, te se ical literature and they were usually interpreted
uglavnom tumae kao tipian starohrvatski na- as typical early Croatian jewelry represented at
kit prisutan u veini starohrvatskih nekropola. most early Croatian necropoles. Lj. Karaman
Njihovom datacijom prvi se pozabavio Lj. Ka- was the first one to consider the dating of these
raman, koji smatra da se te naunice javljaju u earrings. He believed that they appeared in the
9. i 10. stoljeu, s mogunou trajanja i tijekom 9th and 10th centuries, with possible duration
11. stoljea.19 Usprkos tome to veina autora during the 11th century.19 Despite the fact that
koji su se bavili tom problematikom smjeta most authors who dealt with this subject-matter
ove naunice u razdoblje od 9. do 11. stoljea,20 dated these earrings to the period from the 9th
ue datiranje poetka njihove pojave i dalje je to 11th centuries,20 a more precise dating of their
predmet znanstvenih rasprava. Kao poetna appearance is still subject of discussions. Late
toka smatra se kraj 8. stoljea21 ili poetak 9. 8th21 or early 9th22 centuries are considered to be
st.,22 dok je veina ipak miljenja da je rije o starting points but most authors agree that they
drugoj polovini 9. stoljea.23 Problem datacije appeared in the second half of the 9th century.23
javlja se takoer i kod prstenja, jer su u ovom Problem of dating is also present with the finger
sloju naena samo dva jednostavna bronana rings, since only two simple bronze examples of
primjerka kakvi se takoer javljaju u dalmatin- the common type were found in this layer which
skim nekropolama prvoga i drugog horizonta.24 appear in the Dalmatian necropoles of the first
U grobu 10 pronaen je prsten preklopljenih i and second horizon.24 A fingerrring with over-
zalemljenih krajeva, dok prsten iz groba 17 ima lapping and soldered ends was found in grave
zatvoren kolut. Najranije datirano je slino pr- 10, whereas the finger ring from grave 17 has a
stenje iz nekropole Nin drijac poganskog closed ring. The earliest dating of similar finger
horizonta 8. i 9. stoljea, dok su ovakvi nalazi u rings is from the Nin drijac necropolis of
nekropolama drugog horizonta puno brojniji.25 the pagan horizon of the 8th and 9th centuries
U grobovima donjeg, drugog sloja pojavlju- whereas similar finds are far more numerous in
ju se raznoliki prilozi i nalazi, te meu njima the necropoles of the second horizon.25
osim nakita nalazimo predmete svakodnevne Various grave goods and jewelry appear in
upotrebe i keramiku. Naunice su zastupljene the graves of the lower, second layer. In addition

17 Dalmacija: D. JELOVINA, 1976, 97-99; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 208-212; Lika: Z. 17 Dalmatia: D. JELOVINA, 1976, 97-99; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 208-212; Lika: Z.
VINSKI, 1949, 25-26, 33-35; S. ERCEGOVI, 1960; D. JELOVINA, 1963, 114, VINSKI, 1949, 25-26, 33-35; S. ERCEGOVI, 1960; D. JELOVINA, 1963, 114,
118; Primorje: D. JELOVINA, 1963, 114-115, 118; . CETINI, 1998, 62-64; 118; Primorje: D. JELOVINA, 1963, 114-115, 118; . CETINI, 1998, 62-64;
Istra: B. MARUI, 1987, 77, 79. Istria: B. MARUI, 1987, 77, 79.
18 J. BELOEVI, 1999, T. XX/3-4; 2007, T. LXVI/11-12; D. JELOVINA, 1982, gr. 7, 18 J. BELOEVI, 1999, T. XX/3-4; 2007, T. LXVI/11-12; D. JELOVINA, 1982, gr. 7,
37; J. BELOEVI, 1993, T. XXI/3-4; T. XXII/1-2, 4-5, 7-9. 37; J. BELOEVI, 1993, T. XXI/3-4; T. XXII/1-2, 4-5, 7-9.
19 LJ. KARAMAN, 1940, 78; 1956, 130. 19 LJ. KARAMAN, 1940, 78; 1956, 130.
20 D. VRSALOVI, 1968, 86; J. BELOEVI, 1968, 236; 1987, 159; D. JELOVINA, 20 D. VRSALOVI, 1968, 86; J. BELOEVI, 1968, 236; 1987, 159; D. JELOVINA,
1976, 98, 99; D. JELOVINA - D. VRSALOVI, 1981, 113; . KRNEVI, 2000, 1976, 98, 99; D. JELOVINA - D. VRSALOVI, 1981, 113; . KRNEVI, 2000,
282; V. SOKOL, 2006, 233, 243, 246-247, 251; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 210-212. 282; V. SOKOL, 2006, 233, 243, 246-247, 251; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 210-212.
21 M. ZEKAN, 1996, 46-47. 21 M. ZEKAN, 1996, 46-47.
22 D. JELOVINA, 1976, 99; D. JELOVINA - D. VRSALOVI, 1981, 113. 22 D. JELOVINA, 1976, 99; D. JELOVINA - D. VRSALOVI, 1981, 113.
23 J. BELOEVI, 1987, 159; 1999, 142; R. JURI, 1987, 270; . KRNEVI, 2000, 23 J. BELOEVI, 1987, 159; 1999, 142; R. JURI, 1987, 270; . KRNEVI, 2000,
282; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 211. 282; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 211.
24 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 94; D. JELOVINA, 1976, 107-108. 24 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 94; D. JELOVINA, 1976, 107-108.
karla 25 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 94, T. XXXVI/5; 2007, Sl. 5/1, T. LIII/7, T. LVIII/19; D. JELO- 25 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 94, T. XXXVI/5; 2007, fig. 5/1, T. LIII/7, T. LVIII/19; D. JELO-
gusar VINA, 1976, 107. VINA, 1976, 107.
57
parom jednostavnih kariica iz groba 13 koji- to jewelry there are also objects for everyday use
ma srodne primjerke nalazimo na nekropola- and pottery. Earrings are represented by a pair
ma drijac i Sv. Kri u Ninu te Razbojine i Ma- of simple circlets from grave 13 similar to finds
klinovo brdo u Kaiu, koje se smjetaju u 8. i from the necropoles drijac and Sv. Kri in Nin,
prvu polovinu 9. stoljea.26 Zatim su tu ulomci and Razbojine and Maklinovo brdo in Kai
koji najvjerojatnije pripadaju naunici s kari- which are dated to the 8th and the first half
kom povijenom u petlje iz kojih vise lanii. Taj of the 9th century.26 Then there are also frag-
tip naunica u Dalmaciji je zabiljeen na neko- ments probably belonging to an earring with
liko lokaliteta, a najslinije primjerke nalazimo a ring twisted into loops with hanging chains.
na grobljima Biljane Donje-Trljuge, Nin-dri- This earring type was recorded at several sites in
jac i Biskupija-Crkvina.27 Naunice s petljama i Dalmatia, and the most similar examples were
laniima javljaju se u grobljima oba horizonta found at cemeteries Biljane Donje-Trljuge, Nin-
dalmatinsko-hrvatske materijalne kulture, a u drijac and Biskupija-Crkvina.27 Earrings with
poganskim nekropolama smjetaju se oko sre- loops and chains appear at cemeteries of both
dine 9. stoljea.28 U istome grobu naena je i horizons of the Dalmatian-Croatian material
ogrlica od staklenih perli kojoj komparacije culture, and at pagan necropoles they are dat-
nalazimo na nekropolama Nin-drijac, Kai- ed to the mid-9th century.28 A necklace made
Maklinovo brdo i Biljane Donje-Trljuge, koje of glass beads was found in the same grave.
takoer pripadaju ranom horizontu starohr- Similar finds were discovered at the necropoles
vatske materijalne kulture.29 Nin-drijac, Kai-Maklinovo brdo and Biljane
Meu predmetima svakodnevne upotrebe Donje-Trljuge which also belong to the early
pojavljuju se noevi, koji su uistinu uobiajen horizon of the early Croatian material culture.29
prilog grobova poganskog horizonta. Najbolje Among the objects for everday use knives
je ouvan no pronaen u grobu 14 iz kojeg po- represent quite common grave goods of the
tjee i kresivo oblika lire s kremeniima. Kra- pagan horizon. The best preserved knife was
jevi kresiva su stanjeni te se svijaju prema van. found in grave 14 as well as a lyre-shaped fires-
Ovaj tip kresiva est je nalaz u mukim staro- teel with flints. Ends of the firesteel are taper-
hrvatskim grobovima ranog horizonta, a na ing and bending outwards. This type of firesteel
podruju Dalmacije nalazimo ih u nekropola- is a common find in early Croatian male graves
ma Materiza i drijac u Ninu, Maklinovo brdo of the early horizon, and in Dalmatia they were
i Razbojine u Kaiu, te u Stankovcima kod found in the necropoles Materiza and drijac
Benkovca.30 Navedeni tip pojavljuje se u broj- in Nin, Maklinovo brdo and Razbojine in Kai,
nim slavenskim grobljima diljem Europe.31 Iz and Stankovci near Benkovac.30 The men-
istoga groba potjee i ilo kojem najblii kom- tioned type appears in many Slavic cemeteries
parativni materijal nalazimo na nekropolama across Europe.31 An awl which was found in the
Kai-Maklinovo brdo, Stankovci-Klaria kue same grave can be compared to finds from the
i Nin-drijac,32 te na sinjskome podruju.33 Na- necropoles Kai-Maklinovo brdo, Stankovci-
lazi eljeznih ila otkriveni su u kasnoantikim Klaria kue and Nin-drijac,32 as well as from
grobovima autohtonog stanovnitva na irem the necropoles in the Sinj region.33 Finds of iron
jadranskom podruju i njegovom zaleu, te se awls were discovered in late antique graves of
autochtonous population in the wider Adriatic

26 J. BELOEVI, 1980, T. XLIII/1-2, 5-6, 17-18; 2000, 129, 132, T. XXI/1, T. XX/15, 26 J. BELOEVI, 1980, T. XLIII/1-2, 5-6, 17-18; 2000, 129, 132, T. XXI/1, T. XX/15,
16; D. JELOVINA, 1968, 39, T. IX/3; J. BELOEVI, 1980, T. XLIII/9-10. 16; D. JELOVINA, 1968, 39, T. IX/3; J. BELOEVI, 1980, T. XLIII/9-10.
27 J. BELOEVI, 1986, 143-144, T. XII/5-6; 2007, 204, T. XCVIII/2; M. PETRINEC, 27 J. BELOEVI, 1986, 143-144, T. XII/5-6; 2007, 204, T. XCVIII/2; M. PETRINEC,
2009, 202, T. 236/3. 2009, 202, T. 236/3.
28 J. BELOEVI, 1986, 144; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 202-203. 28 J. BELOEVI, 1986, 144; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 202-203.
29 J. BELOEVI, 2007, T. LIII/8, T. LXI/11, T. LXXXI/7, T. XCI/9; 1980: T. XXXV/3, 29 J. BELOEVI, 2007, T. LIII/8, T. LXI/11, T. LXXXI/7, T. XCI/9; 1980: T. XXXV/3,
12, T. XXXVI/2, 6; T. XLIV/1. 12, T. XXXVI/2, 6; T. XLIV/1.
30 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 119. 30 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 119.
31 J. EISNER, 1952, Obr. 41/12, Obr. 50/7, Obr. 66/5, Obr. 73/15, Obr. 93/5; 31 J. EISNER, 1952, Obr. 41/12, Obr. 50/7, Obr. 66/5, Obr. 73/15, Obr. 93/5;
B. DOSTAL, 1966, 88, T. IX87, T. XXIV/6; Z. ILINSK, 1966, 183-184, T. B. DOSTAL, 1966, 88, T. IX87, T. XXIV/6; Z. ILINSK, 1966, 183-184, T.
LXVI/439-1; D. BIALEKOV, 1981, 34; V. TOVORNIK, 1985, 197, T. I/13, T. LXVI/439-1; D. BIALEKOV, 1981, 34; V. TOVORNIK, 1985, 197, T. I/13, T. JOKINA GLAVICA
XIII/4, T. XVII/123-2, T. XXVI/155-3, T. XXXIV/185-3; 1986, 431, T. XIII/88-2, T. XIII/4, T. XVII/123-2, T. XXVI/155-3, T. XXXIV/185-3; 1986, 431, T. XIII/88-2, T. ranosrednjovjekovni
XX/118-2. XX/118-2. grobovi
32 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 121; 2007, 290-291. 32 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 121; 2007, 290-291. JOKINA GLAVICA
33 M. PETRINEC, 2009, 183. 33 M. PETRINEC, 2009, 183. Early Medieval graves
58
smatra da neposredno nakon doseljenja ovaj region and its hinterland. General belief is that
tip grobnih priloga preuzimaju i Hrvati.34 this type of grave goods was accepted by Croats
Posljednju vrstu grobnih priloga predstav- immediately after their arrival.34
lja kultna keramika. Jedini primjer pronaen Cult pottery represents the last type of grave
unutar groba je posuda iz groba 13. Ovoj zani- goods. The only example found within a grave
mljivoj posudi malih dimenzija komparacije is a vessel from grave 13. We can find com-
nalazimo u dalmatinskim grobljima poganskog parisons for this interesting small vessel at the
horizonta Dubravice kod Skradina, drijac u Dalmatian cemeteries of the pagan horizon
Ninu, te Biteli kod Sinja, dok ire usporedbe Dubravice near Skradin, drijac in Nin, and
nalazimo i na slavensko-avarskoj nekropoli Biteli near Sinj whereas wider comparisons
Devinska Nova Ves u Slovakoj.35 can be found at the Avaro-Slavic necropolis
Dio arheolokih nalaza pronaen je izvan Devinska Nova Ves in Slovakia.35
grobova, pa ih izdvajamo kao posebnu skupi- Some of the archaeological finds were found
nu. To su nalazi koji pripadaju zasipu, a meu outside graves so they will be treated as a sepa-
njima nalazimo predmete iz razliitih povije- rate group. These finds belong to the fill, and they
snih razdoblja. include objects from different historical periods.
Unutar sjevernog kontrolnog profila pro- A worn out Roman provincial coin with a
naen je izlizani rimski provincijalni novi s round depression on one side was found in the
krunim udubljenjem na jednoj strani. Ovakvi northern transverse section. These coins are
novci karakteristini su za kovnice istonog characteristic of the mints of the eastern part
dijela Rimskog Carstva od 1. do sredine 3. sto- of the Roman Empire from the 1st to mid-3rd
ljea (T. IX., 1). centuries (Pl. IX,1).
Nekoliko metalnih predmeta i ulomak obra- Several metal objects and a fragment of a
ene ivotinjske kosti pronaeni su zajedno worked animal bone were found together in
u kvadrantu II., a mogu se okvirno smjestiti quadrant II, and they can be broadly dated to
u razdoblje od antike do srednjega vijeka. Od the period from antiquity to the Middle Ages.
metalnih predmeta to su bronana prstenasta Out of metal objects those are a bronze an-
kopa, odnosno fibula, zatim bronana preica nular clasp i.e. fibula, then bronze D-shaped
oblika slova D, mali fragment eljezne preice buckle, small fragment of an iron buckle and
i eljezni noi (T. IX., 2-5). Prstenasta kopa, a small iron knife (Pl. IX, 2-5). Annular clasp
odnosno fibula ima rabrast obru i otvorene i.e. fibula has a ribbed ring and open ends bent
krajeve svijene unatrag , a svijena joj je i igla backward. Its pin is also bent (Pl. IX, 2). This
(T. IX., 2). Ovakav tip kopa, odnosno fibula type of clasps i.e. fibulae which is known from
koji se javlja jo od prapovijesti, najei je ti- prehistory, is most frequent during antiquity
jekom antikoga i kasnoantikog razdoblja.36 and Late Antiquity.36 Rendering of the pin on
Kod naeg primjerka upravo oblikovanje igle, our example for which we could not find analo-
kojoj ne nalazimo usporedbe u spomenutim gies in the mentioned periods indicates that it
razdobljima, odaje mogunost njezina kasnijeg might have been used during the Middle Ages.
koritenja tijekom srednjega vijeka. Zanimlji- An interesting parallel can be found in Austria
vu paralelu nalazimo u Austriji na slavenskoj at the Slavic necropolis Gusen from the 9th
nekropoli Gusen iz 9. stoljea, gdje se unutar century where an annular fibula appears alng-
mukoga groba 162 uz tipine slavenske nalaze side typical Slavic finds inside male grave 162.37
pojavljuje i jedna prstenasta fibula.37 Buckles which appear over a long period are
Kronoloki neosjetljive su i preice koje se also chronologically insensitive. Comparisons
javljaju tijekom dueg vremenskog razdoblja. for a D-shaped bronze buckle (Pl. IX., 3) can

34 J. BELOEVI, 2007, 290-291. 34 J. BELOEVI, 2007, 290-291.


35 . KRNEVI, 2008, kat. 161; J. BELOEVI, 2007, T. XCII/5, T. CXLV/234; A. 35 . KRNEVI, 2008, kat. 161; J. BELOEVI, 2007, T. XCII/5, T. CXLV/234; A.
MILOEVI, 1985, 230, crte 2/2, T. III/2); J. EISNER, 1952, 166, 332-333, Obr. MILOEVI, 1985, 230, drawing 2/2, T. III/2); J. EISNER, 1952, 166, 332-333,
93/3. Obr. 93/3
36 . BATOVI, 1981, 18, Sl. 11/15; M. SAGADIN, 1979, 305-306; D. BOJOVI, 36 . BATOVI, 1981, 18, fig. 11/15; M. SAGADIN, 1979, 305-306; D. BOJOVI,
1983, 70-71, T. XXXI/309-310; B. NEDVED, 1981, kat. 243-244; R. KOEVI, 1983, 70-71, T. XXXI/309-310; B. NEDVED, 1981, kat. 243-244; R. KOEVI,
karla 1991, 65; Z. WIEWEGH, 2003, 75. 1991, 65; Z. WIEWEGH, 2003, 75.
gusar 37 V. TOVORNIK, 1985, gr. 162, T. XXVIII/162-4. 37 V. TOVORNIK, 1985, gr. 162, T. XXVIII/162-4.
59
Bronanoj preici D oblika (T. IX., 3) uspo- be found on the necropolis of autochtonous
redbe nalazimo na nekropoli autohtonog ka- late Antique population Knin-Greblje from the
snoantikog stanovnitva Knin-Greblje iz 6. 6th century.38 Parallels can also be found at
stoljea.38 Paralele istovremeno nalazimo i na Slavic cemeteries of the pagan horizon Kai-
slavenskim grobljima poganskog horizonta Ka- Maklinovo brdo and Nin-drijac among the
i-Maklinovo brdo, te Nin-drijac meu pri- examples which belong to belt buckles and sets
mjercima koji su inili dio pojasnih kopa i gar- for fastening spurs.39 Problem of dating appears
nitura za zakopavanje ostruga.39 Problem da- with the small iron knife with preserved large
tacije pojavljuje se i kod eljeznog noia kojem part of the cutting edge which bends towards
je sauvan vei dio otrice koja se na donjem top in its lower part (Pl. IX., 4). A fragmentary
dijelu svija prema vrhu (T. IX., 4). Vrlo zani- bone artifact with a small hole in its upper part
mljiv nalaz je fragmentaran kotani predmet s is a very interesting find. Slanted lines are in-
rupicom u gornjem dijelu, ispod kojeg se nala- cised under its upper part, and a fragmentary
ze urezane kose linije, a na desnom rubu je fra- fishbone motif flanked with a vertical line is
gmentaran motiv riblje kosti obrubljen jednom on the right edge (Pl. IX., 5). Among bone ob-
okomitom linijom (T. IX., 5). Meu kotanim jects characteristic of the longer period from
predmetima karakteristinim za dulje razdo- antiquity to the Middle Ages there are differ-
blje, od antike do srednjeg vijeka, pojavljuju ent artifacts, including covers of knife handles,
se razliiti artefakti, pa tako meu njima na- needle cases, various recipients and combs.40
lazimo oplate drke noeva, iglenike, razliite This fragment is the closest by its dimensions
recipijente i eljeve.40 Dimenzijama i oblikom and form to early medieval cylindrical recipi-
ulomak najvie podsjea na ranosrednjovje- ents which were used for carrying various ob-
kovne cilindrine recipijente koji su koriteni jects such as toiletries and salt,41 though it is
za noenje razliitih predmeta poput toaletnog possible that it was any of the mentioned bone
pribora i soli,41 iako ne iskljuujemo mogunost objects. The most similar decorative motif of
da je rije o bilo kojem od navedenih kotanih slanted lines i.e. fishbone within rectangular
predmeta. Najsliniji dekorativni motiv kosih fields appears on a needle case from grave 227
crtica, odnosno riblje kosti unutar pravokut- from drijac in Nin.42 Anyhow small hole in the
nih polja javlja se na igleniku iz groba 227 na upper part of the object indicates that it could
drijacu u Ninu.42 U svakom sluaju rupica na have been worn on a belt. This thesis is sup-
gornjem dijelu predmeta upuuje na zakljuak ported by other finds belonging to parts of a
da se on mogao nositi ovjeen o pojasu, to pot- belt set and to a small knife.
krjepljuju i ostali nalazi koji pripadaju dijelovi- Question of dating is relevant to several
ma pojasne garniture i manjem nou. other objects belonging to jewelry, objects for
Pitanje pripadnosti pojedinom razdoblju everyday use and weapons (Pl. X). Jewelry was
javlja se jo kod nekoliko predmeta koji pri- made of bronze, and it is represented by a cir-
padaju nakitu, predmetima svakodnevne upo- clet with a rhomboid cross-section from quad-
trebe i oruju (T. X). Nakit je raen od bronce, rant I (Pl. X, 1) and fragments of twisted wire
a zastupljen je kariicom rombina presjeka from quadrant II (Pl. X, 2). Then there are three
naenom u kvadrantu I. (T. X., 1) i ulomcima iron knives recovered from quadrants I and II
tordirane ice iz kvadranta II. (T. X., 2). Zatim (Pl. X, 3-5), an iron arrow from quadrant II (Pl.
su tu tri eljezna noa otkrivena u kvadrantima X, 6) and extremely poorly preserved iron ob-
I. i II. (T. X., 3-5), eljezna strelica iz kvadran- ject found in quadrant III which was probably
ta II. (T. X., 6) i iznimno loe ouvan eljezni used as a razor. The arrow has a shaft hole in its
predmet naen u kvadrantu III. koji vjerojat- lower part, and in the upper part it has a four-
no predstavljao britvu. Strelica u donjem dije- edged point (Pl. X,6). Shaping of a point with

38 Z. VINSKI, 1989, 11, 33, T. XIX/6. 38 Z. VINSKI, 1989, 11, 33, T. XIX/6.
39 J. BELOEVI, 1982, Gr. 39/6; 2007, gr. 167, T. LXXVI/3, 6, gr. 168, T. LXXVII/4. 39 J. BELOEVI, 1982, Gr. 39/6; 2007, gr. 167, T. LXXVI/3, 6, gr. 168, T. LXXVII/4.
40 V. TOVORNIK, 1986, T. T. XX/117-1; R. CUNJA, 1996, 83-91, T. 6/86-93, T. 40 V. TOVORNIK, 1986, T. T. XX/117-1; R. CUNJA, 1996, 83-91, T. 6/86-93, T. JOKINA GLAVICA
7/106 ; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 259-260; IMAGINARNI SVIJET, 2008. 7/106 ; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 259-260; IMAGINARNI SVIJET, 2008. ranosrednjovjekovni
41 IMAGINARNI SVIJET, 2008, 71-89; J. BELOEVI, 1980, 125-128; 2007, 417- 41 IMAGINARNI SVIJET, 2008, 71-89; J. BELOEVI, 1980, 125-128; 2007, 417- grobovi
424. 424. JOKINA GLAVICA
42 J. BELOEVI, 2007, 296, Sl. 11/6, T. XCI/5. 42 J. BELOEVI, 2007, 296, fig. 11/6, T. XCI/5. Early Medieval graves
60
lu ima tuljac za nasad, a u gornjem dijelu ima four edges is quite unusual, but since it is not
etverobridni vrh (T. X., 6). Oblikovanje vrha preserved completely, it is difficult to ascribe it
s etiri brida prilino je neobino, no kako on to any typological group.
nije u potpunosti ouvan, teko ju je tipoloki Pottery finds (Pl. XI-XIII) definitely belong
pripisati odreenoj skupini. to medieval period.43 Out of pottery finds dis-
Ranosrednjovjekovnom razdoblju zasigur- covered outside grave units there were eight
no pripadaju nalazi keramike (T. XI-XIII).43 vessels which could be reconstructed. One of
Meu keramikim materijalom pronaenim them is previously described vessel found next
izvan grobnih cjelina ukupno je osam posuda to grave 18 (Pl. VIII,3). Two vessels were found
koje je bilo mogue rekonstruirati. Jedna od within northern transverse section between
njih je ve opisana posuda pronaena nepo- quadrants I and IV. One of them is a taller
sredno uz grob 18 (T. VIII., 3). Dvije posude ovoid vessel with a short neck and rounded
pronaene su unutar sjevernoga kontrolnog everted rim (height 13,3; opening 10,4; base
profila izmeu kvadranta I. i IV. Jedna je via 7,7 cm) (fig. 6; Pl. XI, 1). It is dark grey with
posuda jajolikog oblika s kratkim vratom i za- light brown spots. At the base it has a round
obljenim obodom koji se izvija prema van (vis: impression of a potters wheel axle. Traces of
13,3 ; otv. 10,4; dna 7,7 cm) (sl. 6; T. XI., working on a hand potters wheel are visible on
1), tamnosive boje sa svjetlijim smeim mrlja- the entire outer surface of the vessel as hori-
ma. Na dnu posude nalazi se kruni otisak lon- zontal traces resulting from the rotation of the
arskog kola. Tragovi oblikovanja na runom wheel and hand movements.
lonarskom kolu vidljivi su na itavoj vanjtini The other vessel is somewhat smaller (height
posude u vidu vodoravnih tragova nastalih ro- 9,6; opening 8,8; base 6,6 cm) (Pl. XI, 2). It
tacijom na kolu i povlaenja rukom. has a squat form with somewhat more distinct
Druga posuda neto je manjih dimenzija neck and quite outfolded rounded rim which ta-
(vis: 9,6; otv. 8,8; dna 6,6 cm) (T. XI., 2). pers towards top. It is grey-brown, and at the base
Ima trbuast oblik s neto izraenijim vratom i it has a round impression of a potters wheel axle.
prilino razvraenim zaobljenim obodom koji Vessel found in quadrant IV has a tall, wide
je pri vrhu stanjuje. Sivosmee je boje, a na neck ending in a tapering rim which is slightly
dnu takoer ima kruni otisak osovine lonar- everted (height 11,5; opening 10; base 7,5
skog kola. cm) (Pl. XII, 1). Opening of the vessel has a dis-
Posuda pronaena u kv. IV ima visok, iri tinct inner rim, similar to vessel from grave 13.
vrat koji zavrava stanjenim obodom lagano Body of the vessel is the widest in the middle of
izvijenim prema van (vis: 11,5; otv. 10; dna the belly, and traces of working are visible on
7,5 cm) (T. XII., 1). Otvor posude ima nagla- the neck as horizontal hand movements. The
en unutranji rub, slino kao i posuda iz groba vessel is dark grey-brown.
13. Tijelo posude najire je po sredini trbuha, a Somewhat larger vessel with distinctly squat
tragovi oblikovanja vidljivi su na vratu u vidu form which narrows significantly in the neck
vodoravnih poteza rukom. Posuda je tamne si- area, and widens again into a very everted rim
vosmee boje. was found in quadrant I (height 11,5; opening
U kv. I pronaena je neto vea posuda izni- 11; base 8,5 cm) (Pl. XII, 2). Its rim is rounded,
mno naglaenoga trbuastog oblika koja se and the vessel is the widest in its upper section. It
znatno suava u predjelu vrata, da bi se ponov- is dark grey with somewhat lighter brown spots.
no proirila u jako razvraen otvor (vis: 11,5 ; Opening of the vessel is slightly deformed.
otv. 11; dna 8,5 cm) (T. XII., 2). Obod joj The next vessel was found in quadrant IV.
je zaobljen, a posuda je najira u gornjoj trei- It has an exceptionally wide opening and squat
ni. Tamnosive je boje s neto svjetlijim smeim body which is the widest in its upper section
mrljama. Otvor posude lagano je deformiran. (height 10; opening 10,7 ; base 7,1 cm) (Pl.
Sljedea posuda naena je u kv. IV, ima XII,3). The opening ends in a straightly cut rim
iznimno irok otvor, te trbuasto tijelo koje je which is everted. The vessel is brown with dark

karla
gusar 43 K. GUSAR, 2008; 2009. 43 K. GUSAR, 2008; 2009.
61

najire u gornjoj treini posude (vis: 10; otv.


10,7; dna 7,1 cm) (T. XII., 3). Otvor zavrava
ravno odrezanim obodom razvraenim prema
van. Posuda je smee boje s tamnosivim mr-
ljama, a faktura joj je dosta zrnata. Obod joj je
neravan, a debljina stijenke varira.
Posuda pronaena u kv. II jajolikog je obli-
ka, ima kratki vrat i zaobljen obod razvraen
prema van (vis: 12; otv. 9; dna 7 cm) (T.
XIII.,1). Smee je boje sa tamnosivim mrljama,
a kao kod prethodne posude faktura joj je dosta
zrnata. Jedna strana tijela posude relativno je
pravilno oblikovana, dok joj je suprotna strana
dosta deformirana.
Od posljednje posude sauvao se samo do-
nji dio tijela, pa ne moemo govoriti o njezinu
obliku (najv. vis: 9; dna 7,2 cm) (T. XIII.,2).
Tamne je sivosmee boje, a, za razliku od svih grey spots, its fabric is quite granular. The rim Sl./ Fig. 6

do sada navedenih posuda, jedina je ukraena. Dno posude naene


is uneven, and wall thickness varies.
unutar sjevernog
Dekoracija joj se sastoji od dva reda nepravil- The vessel which was found in quadrant II is kontrolnog profila
nih dvostrukih valovnica smjetenih na prijela- ovoid, with a short neck and rounded everted Bottom of the
zu iz trbuha u donji dio tijela. rim (height 12; opening 9 ; base 7 cm) (Pl. vessel found
Navedene posude pronaene izvan grobo- within northern
XIII,1). It is brown with dark grey spots hav-
transverse section
va po itavoj povrini humka, kao i posuda iz ing quite granular fabric as was the case with
groba 13 u tehnoloko-tipolokom smislu pri- the previously mentioned vessel. One side of
padaju jednoj cjelini. Sve su izraene od manje the vessels body is relatively neatly shaped,
ili vie proiene gline pomijeane s pijeskom whereas the opposite side is quite deformed.
i zrncima kalcita. Unutar njih zastupljena je Only the lower part of the body was pre-
samo jedna forma, a to je lonac. Veina ih je served of the last vessel which is why its form
dobro i ujednaeno peena na otvorenoj vatri. cannot be discussed (Pl. XIII,2). It is dark grey-
Boja im varira od okercrvenkaste do tamne si- brown. As opposed to all previously mentioned
vosmee zavisno o boji gline i postupku pee- vessels it is the only decorated example. Its
nja. Sve su raene na primitivnom lonarskom decoration consists of two rows of irregular
kolu s malim brojem okretaja, a kod nekih pri- double wavy lines positioned at the transition
mjeraka na dnu nalazimo kruni otisak njegove from the belly to the lower segment of the body.
osovine. Vanjska povrina kod veine posuda Mentioned vessels which were found outside
prilino je zaglaena (T. VI., 6; T. VIII., 3; T. graves across the entire surface of the mound
XI., 2; T. XII., 1-2, T. XIII., 2), dok kod manjeg as well as the vessel from grave 13 belong to
broja nalazimo neravnu, zrnatu fakturu (T. XI., the same technological-typological group. They
1; T. XII., 3; T. XIII., 1). U unutranjosti posu- were all made of more or less purified clay
da nailazimo na tragove prstiju lonara koji su tempered with sand and calcite grains. Pot is
nastali kao posljedica njihove dorade rukom, the only form represented among them. Most
a tragovi ruke lonara vidljivi su i na vanjtini of them are well and evenly fired on open fire.
posuda u vidu vodoravnih linija. Sve navede- Their color varies from ochre-reddish to dark
ne posude dosta su nepravilnog oblika upravo grey-brown depending on the clay color and
zbog primitivnog postupka njihove izrade. Di- firing process. They were all made on a primi-
menzije su im razliite, pa im tako visina varira tive potters wheel with small number of turns,
od 9 to 13,5 cm, irina otvora od 8 do 11 cm, a and on some examples there is a round impres-
promjer dna od 6,6 do 8,5 cm. Zajedniko im je sion of its axle at the base. Outer surface is quite JOKINA GLAVICA
ranosrednjovjekovni
i to da se uglavnom radi o manjim posudama, smooth on most examples (Pl. VI, 6; Pl. VIII, grobovi
JOKINA GLAVICA
to je posve uobiajeno kod keramike kultne 3; Pl. XI, 2; Pl. XII, 1-2, Pl. XIII, 2), whereas Early Medieval graves
62
namjene. Oblici posuda uglavnom su jajoliko- rough, granular fabric can be found on small-
trbuasti. Imaju irok otvor koji zavrava ma- er number of vessels (Pl. XI,1; Pl. XII,3; Pl.
nje ili vie razvraenim obodom, dok se tijelo XIII,1). In the interior of the vessels we found
posuda znatno suava prema dnu. Osobitog traces of potters fingers resulting from their
je oblika upravo posuda iz groba 13, s kratkim finishing touches by hand, and traces of pot-
vratom, profiliranim obodom koji se tek blago ters hands are also visible on the outer surface
izvija prema van i tijelom koje se blago iri na of the vessels as horizontal lines. All mentioned
trbuhu. Ostale posude imaju uglavnom izraen vessels have quite irregular shape due to primi-
vrat i jako razvraen obod. Specifinost u boji tive making procedure. Their dimensions vary,
nalazimo kod posude naene uz grob 18, koja so that their height varies from 9 to 13.5 cm,
je okercrvenkasta sa sivim mrljama, to je za- width of opening from 8 to 11 cm, and the base
pravo posljedica loeg, neujednaenog peenja, diameter from 6,6 to 8,5 cm. Another thing
dok su sve ostale posude dobro peene i tamne they have in common is that they are smaller
sivosmee boje. vessels, which is quite common for pottery for
to se tie dekoracije posuda, veina ih nije cult use. Vessel shapes are mostly ovoid-squat.
bila ukraena, pa u cjelokupnom keramikom They have a wide opening ending in a more or
fundusu s Jokine glavice koji broji ukupno de- less everted rim, whereas the body of the vessel
vet posuda, nalazimo samo jednu ukraenu po- tapers towards base. Vessel from grave 13 has
sudu. Za slavensku keramiku ranoga srednjeg a special form, with a short neck, profiled rim
vijeka pronaenu u Dalmaciji karakteristino which is slightly everted and body slightly wid-
je upravo to da veim dijelom nije bila orna- ening at the belly. The remaining vessels mostly
mentirana, to dodatno potvruju i ovi nala- have a distinct neck and very everted rim. Ves-
zi.44 Na dnu etiriju posuda nalazimo tragove sel found near grave 18 has a particular color
osovine lonarskog kola. U tri sluaja kruni ochre-reddish with grey spots, which is a result
trag je pravilan i smjeten po sredini dna, dok of poor, uneven firing, whereas all other vessels
je na posudi iz groba 13 nepravilan i dvostruko are well fired and their color is dark grey-brown.
otisnut, a nastao je zbog pomicanja posude s As for the decoration of the vessels, most of
osovine tijekom procesa njezine izrade. them were not decorated, so that out of entire
Takoer treba istaknuti da iako je samo ceramic assemblage from Jokina glavica con-
jedna od ukupno osam rekonstruiranih kera- sisting of nine vessels only one vessel was deco-
mikih posuda pronaena u grobu 13, a druga rated. One of the characteristics of the Slavic
neposredno uz grob 18, sve ostale posude ta- pottery from the Early Middle Ages found in
koer treba dovesti u vezu s pogrebnim obi- Dalmatia is lack of ornamentation for the most
ajima vezanim uz pokapanje pokojnika na part which is additionally confirmed by these
ovom humku, odnosno pripisati ih nalazima finds.44 At the base of four vessels we can see
starohrvatske kultne keramike koja je na tlu traces of potters wheel axle. In three cases
Dalmacije daleko bolje istraena od one nase- round trace is regular and located in the middle
obinske.45 Navedene posude dovodimo u vezu of the base, whereas on the vessel from grave 13
s grobovima drugog sloja, jer je tijekom istra- it is irregular and impressed twice since it was
ivanja zamijeen njihov raspored izmeu formed due to slipping of the vessel from the
ovih grobova, odnosno u vie sluajeva posu- axle during the making process.
de su se nalazile ispod bonih stranica grobo- It is important to emphasize that though only
va gornjeg sloja (T. III., 1). one of eight reconstructed ceramic vessels was
Najvie izravnih paralela za posude s Jokine found in grave 13, and the other next to grave
glavice nalazimo meu keramikim materija- 18, all other vessels should be related to funer-
lom iz starohrvatskih nekropola ranog hori- ary customs associated to burying the deceased
zonta kao to su Materiza kod Nina i Dubravice in this mound. In other words they should be
ascribed to finds of early Croatian cult pottery
which is much better known than the pottery

karla 44 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 111.


gusar 45 J. BELOEVI, 2000, 117; K. GUSAR, 2009, 117. 44 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 111.
63
kod Skradina.46 Komparativne primjerke nala- from settlements in Dalmatia.45 Mentioned ves-
zimo i na grobljima Nin-drijac, zatim Razbo- sels can be related to the graves from the second
jinama, Glavurku i Maklinovu brdu u Kaiu, layer since during the research we noticed their
Trljugama u Biljanima Donjim, te Stankovcima distribution between these graves, i.e. in several
koje sve pripadaju ranom horizontu i vremenu cases vessels were found under the lateral sides
druge polovine 8. i prve polovine 9. stoljea.47 of the graves from the upper layer (Pl. III,1).
Navedene znaajke posuda s Jokine glavice Most direct parallels with vessels from Joki-
uvrtavaju ih u skupinu tipine slavenske ke- na glavica can be found among ceramic mate-
ramike ranoga srednjeg vijeka koju nalazimo rial from the early Croatian necropoles of the
u starohrvatskim grobljima s poganskim na- early horizon such as Materiza near Nin and
inom pokapanja na tlu Dalmacije48 Zanimljiv Dubravice near Skradin.46 Comparative exam-
podatak predstavlja i injenica da je, osim to ples were found at the cemeteries Nin-drijac,
najvie paralela nalazimo meu keramikim Razbojine, Glavurak and Maklinovo brdo in
posudama pronaenima na lokalitetu Materi- Kai, Trljuge in Biljane Donje, and Stankovci
za, jedan dio posuda s toga humka takoer pro- which all belong to the early horizon and the
naen izvan grobova.49 time of the second half of the 8th and the first
Zakljuno dolazimo do pitanja vremenske half of the 9th century.47
determinacije ranosrednjovjekovnoga groblja. Mentioned characteristics of the vessels
Kako je ve navedeno, na Jokinoj glavici evi- from Jokina glavica indicate that they belong to
dentirana su dva sloja grobova. Unutar grobo- a group of typical Slavic pottery from the Early
va donjeg sloja dominiraju nalazi nakita te pri- Middle Ages which can be found at the early
lozi zastupljeni predmetima utilitarne namjene Croatian cemeteries with pagan burial rite in
i keramike kakvi se javljaju i na drugim staro- Dalmatia.48 It is worth mentioning that not
hrvatskim nekropolama poganskog horizonta only there are most parallels with the ceramic
na tlu sjeverne Dalmacije, a okvirno se datiraju vessels from the site of Materiza, but some of
u 8. st. i prvu polovinu 9. stoljea. Osim tipo- the mentioned vessels from this mound were
logije materijala, dodatnu potvrdu nalazimo i also found outside graves.49
u obiaju prilaganja ovakve vrste predmeta u Finally we need to discuss the question of
grob uz pokojnika, koji povezujemo s najrani- chronological determination of the early medi-
jim tragovima slavenske prisutnosti na tlu Dal- eval cemetery. As mentioned before, two layers
macije, a meu kojima posebno treba izdvojiti of graves were recorded at Jokina glavica. Jew-
prilaganje keramikih posuda. Takoer treba elry finds are dominant within graves from the
spomenuti da je na ovom humku evidentira- lower layer, as well as grave goods represented
na i pojava polaganja oveeg kamenja na tijelo with utilitarian objects and pottery which also
pokojnika, to takoer treba dovesti u vezu s appear at other early Croatian necropoles of the
poganskim pogrebnim obiajima. No posebno pagan horizon in northern Dalmatia broadly
treba istaknuti i 14C analizu groba 13 koji pripa- dated to the 8th and the first half of the 9th cen-
da upravo ovom sloju i koja ga datira u razdo- tury. Besides the typology of the finds, an addi-
blje izmeu 770. i 900. godine. tional confirmation can be found in the custom
to se tie vremenskog odreenja grobo- of depositing this type of objects in graves next
va gornjeg sloja, veliki problem je slaba sau- to the deceased. This custom is usually related
vanost grobne arhitekture, pokojnika i nalaza to the earliest traces of Slavic presence in Dal-
unutar njih. matia, especially when ceramic vessels are used
Posebna zanimljivost ovog groblja jest i- as grave goods. It is also important to mention
njenica da se ovdje ne radi o klasinom staro- that the phenomenon of putting large stones
hrvatskom groblju na ravnom, ve o groblju na on the corpse was also recorded at this mound
humku. Usprkos tome to su humci tipian na-

45 J. BELOEVI, 2000, 117; K. GUSAR, 2009, 117.


46 J. BELOEVI, 1962; 1973, 240-241; Z. GUNJAA, 1995; 2000; . KRNEVI, 46 J. BELOEVI, 1962; 1973, 240-241; Z. GUNJAA, 1995; 2000; . KRNEVI, JOKINA GLAVICA
2008. 2008. ranosrednjovjekovni
47 J. BELOEVI, 2007; D. JELOVINA, J. BELOEVI, 1968; 1982; 1975; 1975a. 47 J. BELOEVI, 2007; D. JELOVINA, J. BELOEVI, 1968; 1982; 1975; 1975a. grobovi
48 Z. VINSKI, 1973, 67; J. BELOEVI, 1980, 80; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 192-194. 48 Z. VINSKI, 1973, 67; J. BELOEVI, 1980, 80; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 192-194. JOKINA GLAVICA
49 J. BELOEVI, 1973, 238. 49 J. BELOEVI, 1973, 238. Early Medieval graves
64
in ukapanja tijekom prapovijesti, na tlu sjever- which should be related to pagan funerary cus-
ne Dalmacije javljaju se i pojedini sluajevi kod toms. Another important fact is 14C analysis of
kojih su oni u upotrebi tijekom srednjeg vijeka. grave 13 which belongs to this layer dating it to
Vei broj ovakvih humaka zabiljeen je na i- the period between 770 and 900.
rem podruju Nina, a u ovu geografsku skupinu As for the dating of the graves from the up-
ubrajamo i Jokinu glavicu te Duevia glavicu i per layer, poor preservation of grave architec-
Matakovu glavicu u njezinoj neposrednoj blizi- ture, skeletons and grave goods poses a great
ni.50 Do sada je od humaka s ranosrednjovjekov- problem.
nim grobovima na ninskom podruju istraena This necropolis is particularly interesting
jedino Materiza, a upravo meu materijalom s because this is not a classical flat grave early
ovog lokaliteta nalazimo i najvie usporedba. Croatian cemetery, but a cemetery on a mound.
Meutim, treba istaknuti da su starohrvatski Despite the fact that mounds represent a typi-
grobovi u Materizi naeni uokolo humka, dok cal burial custom during prehistory, in northern
je na Jokinoj glavici ukapanje obavljano u sam Dalmatia there are individual cases of their use
humak. Ukapanje unutar humaka u ranom during the Middle Ages. Greater number of such
srednjem vijeku pojava je koja je zabiljeena i u mounds was recorded in the wider Nin region,
ostalim dijelovima Dalmacije, kao i na podruju and we can also include Jokina glavica, and
Bosne i Hercegovine.51 Na osnovi ovih istrai- Duevia and Matakova glavica in its immedi-
vanja mogue je utvrditi da slavenska pleme- ate vicinity, into the same geographical group.50
na nakon doseljenja na ove prostore u ranom So far only Materiza has been excavated out of
srednjem vijeku nisu podizala nove humke, ve mounds with early medieval graves. It is exactly
su se ukapali u postojea starija predslavenska material from this site that offers most possi-
kultna mjesta. S obzirom na ukupan broj ra- bilites for comparisons. However it is necessary
nosrednjovjekovnih grobova na Jokinoj glavi- to emphasize that early Croatian graves in Ma-
ci, vrlo je vjerojatno da se radi o groblju jedne teriza were found around the mound whereas
manje rodovske zajednice nastanjene negdje u at Jokina glavica graves were dug in the mound.
blizini. Koritenje groblja tijekom ranoga sred- Burying in the mound in the early Middle Ages
njeg vijeka zapoinje u drugoj polovini 8. st. i is a phenomenon recorded in other parts of Dal-
nastavlja se tijekom 9. stoljea. Problem je me- matia as well as in Bosnia and Herzegovina.51
utim odreivanje prestanka njegove upotre- On the basis of this research it is reasonable to
be. S obzirom na ukupno mali broj grobova te conclude that Slavic tribes after the arrival in
nalaze iz grobova gornjeg sloja meu kojima ne these regions in the early Middle Ages did not
nalazimo izriite dokaze kasnijeg vremena, ras- raise new mounds but they used existing older
pon trajanja groblja vjerojatno nije dug, te bi- pre-Slavic cult places for burials. Considering
smo prestanak njezine upotrebe mogli smjestiti the total number of early medieval graves at
u 9. stoljee ili nedugo nakon toga. Jokina glavica it is more than likely that it was
a cemetery of a smaller community which was
living somewhere nearby. Use of the cemetery
during the early Middle Ages started in the sec-
ond half of the 8th century and it continued dur-
ing the 9th century. However, determining the
end of its use is more complicated. Considering
the small number of graves and finds from the
graves from the upper layer among which there
is no distinct evidence of the later period, the ne-
cropolis was probably not used for long so that
the end of its use could be dated to the 9th cen-
tury or shortly thereafter.

karla 50 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 59, 60, Sl. 4. 50 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 59, 60, fig. 4.
gusar 51 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 70-71; 2007, 20; M. PETRINEC, 2005, 25-26. 51 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 70-71; 2007, 20; M. PETRINEC, 2005, 25-26.
65
Katalog grobova: Grave catalogue:

Grob 1 Grobna raka paetvorinasta oblika, obzidana Grave 1 Rectangular grave pit, lined with larger un-
veim neobraenim kamenjem uslojenim u dva reda, koja dressed stones arranged in two rows, lying in the NW-SE
se pruala u smjeru sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Jugoistoni direction. South-eastern part of the grave is completely
dio groba potpuno je uniten. Ostataka skeleta nema. devastated. There are no skeletal remains.

Grob 2 Orijentacija: sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Grobna Grave 2 Orientation: NW SE. Oval grave pit lined
raka ovalnog oblika obzidana veim i manjim neobrae- with large and small undressed stones arranged in two
nim kamenjem uslojenim u dva reda. U grobu su prona- rows. Remains of a skeleton whose gender could not be
eni ostatci skeleta kojem spol nije mogue utvrditi, a sta- determined were found in the grave, and the age of the
rost pokojnika procijenjena je na vie od 40 godina. deceased was estimated at over 40.

Grob 3 Grobna raka paetvorinasta oblika, obzidana Grave 3 Rectangular grave pit, lined with large un-
veim neobraenim kamenjem uslojenim u dva reda, koja dressed stones arranged in two rows lying in the SW-NE
se pruala u smjeru jugozapad-sjeveroistok. Jugoistoni direction. South-eastern part of the grave is completely
dio groba potpuno je uniten. Ostataka skeleta nema. devastated. There are no skeletal remains.

Grob 4 Unitena grobna raka neodreenog oblika, ob- Grave 4 Destroyed grave pit of irregular form, lined
zidana neobraenim kamenjem, koja se ini se pruala u with undressed stones which seemed to have lay in the
smjeru sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Ostataka skeleta nema. NW-SE direction. There are no skeletal remains.

Grob 5 Unitena grobna raka neodreenog oblika, ob- Grave 5 Destroyed grave pit of irregular form, lined
zidana neobraenim kamenjem, koja se ini se pruala u with undressed stones which seemed to have lay in the
smjeru sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Ostataka skeleta nema. NW-SE direction. There are no skeletal remains.

Grob 6 Unitena grobna raka neodreenog oblika, ob- Grave 6 Destroyed grave pit of irregular form, lined
zidana neobraenim kamenjem koja se pruala u smjeru with undressed stones which lay in the NW-SE direc-
sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Sjeverni dio groba u potpunosti tion. Northern part of the grave is completely destroyed.
je uniten. Od skeleta su sauvani fragmenti kostiju na te- Only fragments of bones were preserved of the skeleton
melju kojih nije mogue utvrditi spol i starost. so that gender and age could not be determined.

Grob 7 Grobna raka ovalna oblika, obzidana neobra- Grave 7 Oval grave pit lined with undressed stones ar-
enim kamenjem uslojenim u dva reda, koja se pruala ranged in two rows, lying in the NW-SE direction. There
u smjeru sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Ostataka skeleta nema. are no skeletal remains.

Grob 8 Unitena grobna raka neodreena oblika, ob- Grave 8 Destroyed grave pit of irregular form, lined
zidana veim neobraenim kamenjem uslojenim u dva with undressed stones which lay in the NW-SE direction.
reda, koja se pruala u smjeru sjeverozapad-jugoistok. North-western part of the grave is completely destroyed,
Sjeverozapadni dio groba je uniten, a na sjeveroisto- and in north-eastern part a dressed stone was built in the
nom dijelu u stranicu groba je kao spolij ugraen kameni side of the grave as spolia. There are no skeletal remains.
klesanac. Ostataka skeleta nema.
Grave 9 Orientation: NW SE. Oval grave pit lined
Grob 9 Orijentacija: sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Grobna with large and small undressed stones arranged in two
raka ovalna oblika, obzidana veim i manjim neobrae- rows. A fragment of a stone grindstone was built in the
nim kamenjem uslojenim u dva reda. Na sjeveroistonom side of the grave in north-eastern part as spolia. Remains
dijelu u stranicu groba je kao spolij ugraen ulomak ka- of a skeleton whose gender could not be determined were
menog rvnja. U grobu su pronaeni ostatci skeleta ko- found in the grave, and the age of the deceased was esti-
jem spol nije mogue utvrditi, a starost pokojnika procije- mated at between 35 and 45.52
njena je izmeu 35 i 45 godina.52
Grave 10 Orientation: NW SE. Oval grave pit lined
Grob 10 Orijentacija: sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Grobna with large and small undressed stones arranged in three
raka ovalna oblika, obzidana veim i manjim neobrae- rows whose western part is destroyed. Remains of a fe-
nim kamenjem uslojenim u tri reda iji je zapadni dio uni- male skeleton were found in the grave, and the age of the
ten. U grobu su pronaeni ostatci enskog skeleta ija je deceased was estimated at between 18 and 25.
starost procijenjena izmeu 18 i 25 godina. 1) A pair of silver single-beaded earrings found next to
1. Par srebrnih jednojagodnih naunica pronaenih the skull (1. 3,5; 2. 3 cm).
uz lubanju (1. 3,5; 2. 3 cm) 2) A simple bronze finger ring found on the right hand
2. Bronani prsten vitica pronaen na desnoj ruci ( ( 2,2; width 0,3 cm).
2,2; ir. 0,3 cm).

52 Zbog loe sauvanosti grobova tijekom istraivanja arhitektura ovog gro- 52 Due to poor preservation of graves during the research, architecture of JOKINA GLAVICA
ba numerirana je kao grob 9, dok su ostatci skeleta numerirani kao grob this grave was marked as grave 9 whereas skeletal remains were marked ranosrednjovjekovni
12. Naknadno je ustanovljeno da nije rije o dva groba, ve da grobovi as grave 12. It was determined subsequently that there were no two gra- grobovi
9 i 12 predstavljaju jedan te isti ukop zbog ega grob 12 ne navodimo ves but graves 9 and 12 represented one and the same burial. Therefore JOKINA GLAVICA
posebno u ovom katalogu. grave 12 will not be presented separately in this catalogue. Early Medieval graves
66
Grob 11 Unitena grobna raka neodreena oblika, ob- Grave 11 Destroyed grave pit of irregular form, lined
zidana nepravilnim kamenjem uslojenim u tri reda, koja with irregular stones arranged in three rows lying in the
se pruala u smjeru sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Istoni dio NW-SE direction. Eastern part of the grave is completely
groba potpuno je uniten. Ostataka skeleta nema. destroyed. There are no skeletal remains.

Grob 12 Vidi grob 9 i biljeku. Grave 12 See grave 9 and the accompanying footnote.

Grob 13 Orijentacija sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Grobna Grave 13 Orientation: NW SE. Oval grave pit, par-
raka ovalna oblika, djelomino obzidana jednim redom tially lined with large and small undressed stones. One
nepravilnog kamenja. Jedan vei kamen bio je postavljen large stone was placed on the chest, and the other on the
na prsa, a drugi na trbuh pokojnika. U grobu su prona- stomach of the deceased person. Remains of a female
eni ostatci enskog skeleta ija je starost procijenjena skeleton were found in the grave, and the age of the de-
izmeu 20 i 30 godina. ceased was estimated at between 20 and 30 years.
1. Dva fragmenta bronane ice pronaena pri vrhu 1) Two fragments of bronze wire found at the top of
groba (1. du. 1,2; 2. du. 1,1 cm) the grave (1. length 1,2; 2. length 1,1 cm).
2. Par srebrnih kariica pronaenih uz lubanju (1. du. 2) A pair of silver circlets found next to the skull (1,
2,2; ir. 1,5; deb. 0,1 cm; 2. du. 2,2; deb. 0,1 cm) length 2,2; width 1,5 cm; thickness 0,1 cm; 2. length 2,2;
3. Ogrlica od staklenih perli ute i tamnoplave boje thickness 0,1 cm).
pronaena na predjelu vrata (najv. du. 7,1; 0,5-0,9 cm) 3) A necklace made of yellow and dark blue glass beads
4. Keramika posuda tamnosive boje pronaena iznad found at the neck area (max. length 7,1; 0,5-0,9 cm)
zdjelice skeleta (vis. 8,7; otv. 8,5; dna 7,3 cm). 4) Dark grey ceramic vessel found above the pelvis of
the skeleton (height 8,7; opening 8,5; base 7,3 cm).
Grob 14 Orijentacija: zapad-istok. Unitena grobna
Grave 14 Orientation W-E. Destroyed grave pit of
raka neodreena oblika, djelomino obzidana jednim re-
irregular form, partially lined with a row of irregular
dom nepravilnog kamenja, a jedan vei kamen nalazio se
stones. One large stone was found under the left shank of
ispod lijeve potkoljenice pokojnika. Istoni dio groba u
the skeleton. Eastern segment of the grave was destroyed
potpunosti je uniten. U grobu su pronaeni ostatci ske-
completely. Remains of a skeleton whose gender could
leta na osnovi kojih nije bilo mogue odrediti, a starost
not be determined were found in the grave, and the age of
pokojnika procijenjena je na vie od 35 godina.
the deceased was estimated at more than 35 years.
1. eljezno kresivo oblika lire (du. 6,5, ir. 3 cm) i
1) An iron lyre-shaped firesteel (length 6,5; width 3
etiri kremenia (du. 2-2,5; ir. 1-2; deb. 0,3-0,9 cm)
cm) and four flints (length 2-2,5; width 1-2; thickness 0,3-
pronaeni uz desnu ruku.
0,9 cm) found next to the right arm
2. eljezni no pronaen uz desni kuk skeleta (du.
2) An iron knife found next to the right hip of the skel-
14,2; ir. otr. 2,5 cm).
eton (length 14,2; cutting edge width 2,5 cm)
3. eljezno ilo pronaeno uz desni kuk skeleta (du.
3) An iron awl found next to the right hip of the skel-
8,5, deb. 0,5 cm).
eton (length 8,5, thickness 0,5 cm).

Grob 15 Orijentacija: sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Unite- Grave 15 Orientation NW-SE. Destroyed grave pit of
na grobna zemljana raka neodreena oblika. U grobu su irregular form. Remains of an infant skeleton were found
pronaeni ostatci djejeg skeleta ija je starost procijenje- in the grave, and the age of the deceased was estimated at
na izmeu 8 i 12 godina. between 8 and 12 years.

Grob 16 Orijentacija: sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Unite- Grave 16 Orientation NW-SE. Destroyed grave pit of
na grobna zemljana raka neodreena oblika. Uz desnu irregular form. An undressed stone was found next to the
stranu lubanje nalazio se jedan neobraeni kamen. U right side of the skull. Remains of probably female skel-
grobu su pronaeni ostatci najvjerojatnije enskog skele- eton were found in the grave, and the age of the deceased
ta ija je starost procijenjena na vie od 45 godina. was estimated at more than 45 years.
1. Fragment eljeznog predmeta (noa?) pronaen uz 1) Fragment of an iron object (knife?) found next to the
lijevu bedrenu kost skeleta (du. 10,2; ir. 0,3-1,2 cm). left femur of the skeleton (length 10,2; width 0,3-1,2 cm).

Grob 17 Orijentacija: sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Grobna Grave 17 Orientation NW-SE. Grave pit of irregular
raka neodreena oblika, obzidana neobraenim kame- form, lined with a row of undressed stones in two rows,
njem u dva reda, koja se protezala u smjeru SZ-JI. e- lying in the NW-SE direction. Four fragments of stone
tiri ulomka kamenih rvnjeva bili su uzidani kao spoliji grindstones were built in the sides of the grave as spolia
u stranice groba (dva na sjevernoj i dva na junoj). Ju- (two at northern and two at southern side). South-eastern
goistoni dio groba potpuno je uniten. U grobu su pro- segment of the grave is completely destroyed. Remains
naeni ostatci skeleta iji spol nije bilo mogue odrediti, of a skeleton whose gender could not be determined were
a starost pokojnika procijenjena je na vie od 45 godina. found in the grave, and the age of the deceased was esti-
1. Bronani prsten vitica pronaen po sredini groba mated at more than 45 years.
( 2,2; deb. 0,4 cm). 1) A bronze finger ring found in the middle of the
grave ( 2,2; thickness 0,4 cm).
Grob 18 Orijentacija: sjeverozapad-jugoistok.
Grobna raka paetvorinastog oblika unutar koje se nala- Grave 18 Orientation NW-SE. Rectangular grave pit
karla
gusar zio drveni lijes ouvan u tragovima. U grobu su pronaeni within which there was a wooden coffin preserved in trac-
67
ostatci mukog skeleta ija je starost procijenjena izmeu es. Remains of a male skeleton were found in the grave,
40 i 50 godina. and the age of the deceased was estimated at between 40
1. eljezni predmet ouvan u tragovima (no?) (du. and 50 years.
oko 30 cm) pronaen uz desnu nogu skeleta. 1) An iron object preserved in traces (knife?) (length
2. Bronana zakovica pronaena uz eljezni predmet about 30 cm) found next to the right leg of the skeleton.
(vis. 0,5; 0,7 cm). 2) A bronze rivet found next to the iron object (height
3. Keramika posuda oker-crvenkaste boje pronaena 0,5; 0,7 cm).
s vanjske strane groba neposredno uz junu stranicu (vis. 3) Ochre-reddish ceramic vessel found on the outer
12,3; otv. 10,9; dna 8,1 cm). side of the grave immediately next to the southern side
(height 12,3; opening 10,9; base 8,1 cm).
Grob 19 Orijentacija: sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Grobna
zemljana raka neodreena oblika. Uz lijevu nadlakticu Grave 19 Orientation NW-SE. Grave pit of irregular
skeleta nalazio se vei neobraeni kamen. U grobu su pro- form. A large undressed stone was found next to the left
naeni ostatci mukog skeleta ija je starost procijenjena upper arm of the skeleton. Remains of a male skeleton
na vie od 40 godina. were found in the grave, and the age of the deceased was
estimated at more than 40 years.

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sjeverne Dalmacije od prapovijesti do danas, Zadar, 1981, 7-39. ko izkopavanje na bivem Kapucinskom vrtu v letih 1986-
1987 v lui drobnih najdb 5. do 9. stoletja, Koper, 1996.
J. BELOEVI 1962 Slavenska keramika iz ranosrednjovjekovne ne-
kropole Materiza kod Nina, Diadora, 2, Zadar, 1962, 237-249. Z. ILINSKA 1966 Slawisch Awarisches Grberfeld in Nov Zmky,
Bratislava, 1966.
J. BELOEVI 1968 Ranosrednjovjekovna nekropola u selu Kaiu
kod Zadra, Diadora, 4, Zadar, 1986, 221-246. B. DOSTL 1966 Slovansk pohebit ze stedn doby hraditn na
Morav, Praha, 1966.
J. BELOEVI 1972 Stanje istraivanja slavenske keramike na podru-
ju Dalmacije, Materijali, IX, Beograd, 1972, 125-138. J. EISNER 1952 Devnska Nov Ves. Slovansk pohebit, Bratislava,
1952.
J. BELOEVI 1973 Starohrvatska nekropola uz humak Materiza
kod Nina, Diadora, 8, Zadar, 1973, 221-244. S. ERCEGOVI 1960 Istraivanja u Gackom polju i rasprostranjenost
starohrvatskih naunica izvan Dalmatinske Hrvatske, Staro-
J. BELOEVI 1975 Starohrvatska nekropola u selu Biljanima Donjim hrvatska prosvjeta, III. serija, 7, Zagreb, 1960, 243-254.
kod Zadra, Diadora, 8, Zadar, 1975, 103-110.
Z. GUNJAA 1995 Groblje u Dubravicama kod Skradina i druga gro-
J. BELOEVI 1975a La ncropole palocroate Stankovci, Inventaria blja 8-9. stoljea u Dalmaciji, Etnogeneza Hrvata, Zagreb,
archaeologica, fasc. 20/2, Beograd, 1975. 1995, 159-168.

J. BELOEVI 1980 Materijalna kultura Hrvata od 7-9. stoljea, Za- Z. GUNJAA 2000 Ranosrednjovjekovno groblje u Dubravicama, upa
greb, 1980. Dubravice u prostoru i vremenu, Dubravice, 2000, 41-55.

J. BELOEVI 1982 La ncropole paloroate Kai Maklinovo brdo, K. GUSAR 2008 Ranosrednjovjekovna keramika iz Krneze, Srednji
Invetaria archaeologica, Fasc. 28 (Y269-Y278), Beograd, 1982. vek: arheoloke raziskave med Jadranskim morjem in Pa-
nonsko niino = Mittelalter: archologische Forschungen
J. BELOEVI 1987 Nekoliko neobjelodanjenih ranosrednjovjekov- zwischen der Adria und der Pannonischen Tiefbene (ur. Gu-
nih arheolokih nalaza s podruja sjeverne Dalmacije, Rado- tin M.), Ljubljana, 2008, 197-202.
vi Filozofskog fakulteta u Zadru, Razdio povijesnih znanosti,
26(13), Zadar, 1987, 141-163. K. GUSAR 2009 Ranosrednjovjekovni grobovi iz humka Jokina gla-
vica u selu Krneza, Zbornik o Luji Marunu. Zbornik radova
J. BELOEVI 1999 Ranosrednjovjekovno groblje u okoliu crkve Sv. sa Znanstvenog skupa o fra Luji Marunu u povodu 150.
Kria u Ninu, Radovi Filozofskog fakulteta u Zadru, Razdio obljetnice roenja (1857.-2007.) (ur. Tomii ., Uglei A.),
povijesnih znanosti, 37(24), Zadar, 1999, 105-154. ibenik Zadar Zagreb, 2009, 169-181.

J. BELOEVI 2000 Slavenska naseobinska keramika otkrivena u okoliu IMAGINARNI SVIJET 2008 Imaginarni svijet zagonetnih predmeta od
crkve Sv. Kria u Ninu, Radovi Filozofskog fakulteta u Zadru, bjelokosti, kosti i roina, Zagreb, 2008.
Razdio povijesnih znanosti, 38(25), Zadar, 2000, 113-120.
LJ. KARAMAN 1940 Starohrvatsko groblje na Majdanu kod Solina,
J. BELOEVI 2007 Starohrvatsko groblje na drijacu u Ninu, Zadar, 2007. Vjesnik za arheologiju i historiju dalmatinsku, 51, 1930-
1934., Split, 1940, 67-100.
D. BIALEKOV 1981 Dvne slovansk kovstvo, Bratislava, 1981.
LJ. KARAMAN 1956 Dva hronoloka pitanja starohrvatske arheologije,
D. BOJOVI 1983 Rimske fibule Singidunuma, Beograd, 1983. Starohrvatska prosvjeta, III. serija, 5, Zagreb, 1956, 129-134. JOKINA GLAVICA
ranosrednjovjekovni
grobovi
. CETINI 1998 Strane Gorica, starohrvatsko groblje, katalog R. KOEVI 1991 Antika bronca iz Siska: umjetniko-obrtna me-
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izlobe, Rijeka, 1998. talna produkcija iz razdoblja Rimskog carstva, Zagreb, 1991. Early Medieval graves
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otocima, Diadora, 20, Zadar, 2000, 271-296. srednjovjekovne hrvatske drave, Split, 2009.

. KRNEVI 2008 Ranokransko i starohrvatsko razdoblje, Arheo- M. SAGADIN 1979 Antine pasne spone in garniture v Sloveniji, Ar-
loki tragovi kultova i religija na ibenskom podruju, ibe- heoloki vestnik, XXX, Ljubljana, 1979, 294-338.
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V SOKOL 2006 Hrvatska srednjovjekovna arheoloka batina od Ja-
Z. KRUMPHANZLOV 1961 K otzce vapmyrismu na slovanskch po- drana do Save, Zagreb, 2006.
hebitch, Pamtky archeologick, 2, Praha, 1961, 544-549.
M. LAUS 2008 Rezultati antropoloke analize ljudskog osteolokog
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vatska prosvjeta, III. serija, 8-9, Zagreb, 1963, 101-120. kina glavica, Struni izvjetaj EP 137 01/08, Zagreb, 2008.

D. JELOVINA 1968 Ranosrednjovjekovna nekropola na Razbojina- V. TOVORNIK 1985 Die frhmittelaterlichen Grberfelder von Gusen
ma u selu Kaiu kod Zadra, Starohrvatska prosvjeta, III. und Auhof bei Perg in Obersterreich, Teil 1: Gusen, Arche-
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D. JELOVINA 1976 Starohrvatske nekropole, Split, 1976. V. TOVORNIK 1986 Die frhmittelaterlichen Grberfelder von Gusen
und Auhof bei Perg in Obersterreich, Teil 2: Auhof bei Perg,
D. JELOVINA 1982 Starohrvatsko groblje na Mastirinama u selu Ka- Archeologia Austriaca, 70, Wien, 1986, 413-483.
iu kod Zadra, Starohrvatska prosvjeta, III. serija, 12, Split,
1982, 35-66. Z. VINSKI 1949 Starohrvatske naunice u Arheolokom muzeju u
Zagrebu, Starohrvatska prosvjeta, III. serija, 1, Zagreb, 1949,
D. JELOVINA D. VRSALOVI 1981 Srednjovjekovno groblje na Be- 22-37.Z. VINSKI 1973 Rani srednji vijek u Jugoslaviji od 400.
govai u selu Biljanima Donjim kod Zadra, Starohrvatska do 800. godine, Vjesnik Arheolokog muzeja u Zagrebu, 5,
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B. MARUI 1987 Starohrvatska nekropola u minju, Histria archae- Z. VINSKI 1991 Razmatranja o iskopavanjima u Kninu na nalazitu
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A. MILOEVI 1985 Ranosrednjovjekovni grob iz Bitelia, Starohrvat- D. VRSALOVI 1968. - Srednjovjekovno groblje na Gredama u selu
ska prosvjeta, III. serija, 15, Split, 1985, 227-236. Kai kod Zadra, Starohrvatska prosvjeta, III. serija, 10, Za-
greb, 1968, 69-92.
B. NEDVED 1981 Nakit rimskog razdoblja, Nakit na tlu sjeverne Dal-
macije od prapovijesti do danas, Zadar, 1981, 151-182. Z. WIEWEGH 2003. - Rimske prstenaste fibule iz antike zbirke Grad-
skog muzeja Sisak, Godinjak Gradskog muzeja Sisak, III-IV,
M. PETRINEC 2005 Ranosrednjovjekovno groblje na poloaju Liva- Sisak, 2003, 75-90.
de u Konjskom polju, Starohrvatska prosvjeta, III. serija, 32,
Split, 2005, 21-52. M. ZEKAN 1996. - Pet srednjovjekovnih nekropola Bribira, Bribir u
srednjem vijeku, Split, 1996, 41-54.

karla
gusar
69

tabla I
70

tabla II
1

2 3
71

tabla III
1

2 3
72
tabla IV

1 2

3 4
73
tabla V

1 1a

2 2a

3 3a

4 4a

0 6 cm
74

tabla VI

1-2

3-4

0 1 2 3 cm

0 6 cm
75

tabla VII

1 2-5

6 6a-b

0 6 cm
76

tabla VIII

0 6 cm

3b

3a

0 6 cm
77

tabla IX

1 1a

2a 2b

4 4a

5a

0 6 cm
78

tabla X
1 2

3-5

0 6 cm

6a

0 6 cm
79

tabla XI
1

1b

1a 1c

0 6 cm

2b

2a 2c

0 6 cm
80

tabla XII

1 1a

2 2a

3 3a

0 6 cm
81

tabla XIII

1 1a

2 2a

0 6 cm
Ivana Anteri, eljana Bai, REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE ANALIZE
Ela kori, imun Anelinovi
OSTEOLOKOG MATERIJALA S TUMULA
JOKINA GLAVICA
RESULTS OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS OF THE OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
FROM THE TUMULUS OF JOKINA GLAVICA

Uvod Introduction

Antropoloki su obraene kosti s iz etiri arna Osteological material from the tumulus of
groba s tumula Jokina glavica. Osteoloki ma- Jokina glavica was analyzed by two anthropo-
terijal su na Klinikom zavodu za patologiju, logical teams from the Clinical Department of
sudsku medicinu i citologiju KBC-a Split ana- Pathology, Court Medicine and Cytology with-
lizirala dva neovisna tima. Ouvanost kostur- in Clinical Hospital Split. Preservation of the
nih ostataka stupnjevana je u pet kategorija, od skeletal remains was classified into five catego-
vrlo loe do odline. ries, from very poor to excellent.
Pri odreivanju spola odraslih osoba pre- All visible morphological characteristic were
gledane su sve dostupne morfoloke znaajke taken in consideration for gender determination1,
kostiju,1 dok spol kod djece nije odreivan, whereas the gender was not determined for sub-
zbog loije ouvanosti djejih kostura te zbog adults, mainly because of the doubtful sex deter-
nemogunosti sigurnog odreivanja spola.2 mination for subadults2, but also because of the
Odreivanje dobi osoba kod kojih je zavr- poorly preserved subadult skeletal remains.
en rast, provedeno je na temelju nekoliko po- Age determination for persons whose growth
kazatelja: stupnja srastanja avova lubanje,3 ended was conducted by designating following
prisutnosti degenerativnih promjena na parameters: suture accretion,3 stage of degen-
zglobnim plohama dugih kostiju i kraljeaka, erative changes on joint surfaces of long bones
te promjena u zubnom statusu;4 starost dje- and vertebrae, if present, and changes in den-
jih kostura procijenjena na temelju duljine di- tal status4, whereas the age of subadults at the
jafiza dugih kostiju.5 time of death was estimated on the basis of
measurements of diaphyses of long bones.5

Rezultati Results

Analizirane kosti veinom su bijele, poneke Analyzed bones were mostly white, some of them
sive, crne ili svijetloplave; iznimno su loe ou- were gray, black or light blue. They were poorly
vane (1), s velikim postmortalnim oteenjem preserved (1), wit excessive postmortal damage
korteksa; imaju karakteristian izgled riblje of the cortex, and characteristic fish bone ap-
kosti, a pojedine su kosti deformirane zbog pa- pearance. Some of the fragments were deformed
ljenja. Na nekim se kostima nalazila zemlja i due to exposure to high temperature. Bones were
mahovina. Na dodir i pranjem se mrve, te su u covered with soil and moss. Cleaning process was

1 W. M. Bass, 1995, 200-206; D. H. Ubelaker, 1999, 52-60; W. M. Krog- 1 W. M. Bass, 1995, 200-206.; D. H. Ubelaker, 1999, 52-60.; W. M. Kro-
man, M. Y. Iscan, 1986, 200-259; T. W. Phenice, 1969, 297-301; D. gman, M. Y. Iscan, 1986, 200-259.; T. W. Phenice, 1969, 297-301.; D.
Zeevi, 2004, 194-202. Zeevi, 2004, 194-202.
2 E. E. Hunt I. Gleiser, 1955, 479. 2 E. E. Hunt I. Gleiser, 1955, 479.
3 Z. Zupani-Slavec, 2004, 39-41. 3 Z. Zupani-Slavec, 2004, 39-41.
4 W. M. Bass, 1995, 12-25. 4 W. M. Bass, 1995, 12-25.
5 M. M. Maresh, 1970, 157-200; D. H. Ubelaker, 1999, 75-84; W. M. Krog- 5 M. M. Maresh, 1970, 157-200; D. H. Ubelaker, 1999, 75-84.; W. M. Kro-
man, M. Y. Iscan 1986, 103-179; D. Zeevi, 2004, 202-205. gman, M. Y. Iscan 1986, 103-179; D. Zeevi, 2004, 202-205.
84

svrhu antropoloke analize oiene finom et- performed by using fine brush, because almost
kicom. Nijedna kost nije sauvana u cijelosti. all bones were crumbling when exposed to wa-
_ ara br. 1 ter. None of the bones was preserved completely.
U ari su pronaeni fragmenti lubanje, fragmen- Four urns were anthropologically analyzed:
ti dugih kostiju, fragment radijusa te ramus _ Urn no. 1
mandibule, koji pripadaju djeci. Ramus mandi- Skull fragments, long bone fragments with a
bule pripada djetetu starosti do godine dana, a radius fragment and a mandible ramus were
ostale kosti djetetu mlaem od deset godina. found. All of these fragments belonged to sub-
Pronaeni su i fragmenti kostiju odrasle adults. Mandible ramus belongs to a child who
osobe, i to fragmenti cjevastih kostiju i fra- was less than 12 months old, and the rest of the
gment humerusa. Na nekim fragmentima du- bones belong to a child under the age of 10.
gih kostiju vidljiva su blae izvuena hvatita There were also fragments of bones of an
miia. Zbog prevelike fragmentiranosti i deva- adult: fragments of long bones and a humerus
stiranosti, ne moe se sa sigurnou utvrditi ni fragment. On some fragments there are less
spol ni dob ove osobe. pronounced muscular attachments. Due to
Sl./ Fig. 1
Analizom je utvreno da su se u ovoj ari devastation and fragmentation of bones, age
Ramus mandibule
djeteta mlaeg nalazile kosti najmanje triju osoba, i to: dvoje and gender could not be determined.
od 1 god. djece i jedne odrasle osobe. Anthropologic anaylsis revealed that the
Ramus of the
mandible belonging
_ ara br. 2 minimal number of individuals in this grave
to a child less than Pronaeni su fragmenti: lubanje, temporalne was three: two children and one adult.
12 months old. kosti s mastoidnim nastavkom, desnog dijela _ Urn no. 2
maksile s fragmentom onjaka; sedam pos- In this jar were the fragments of the following
tmortalno ekstrahiranih zuba, fragmenti dugih bones: skull, temporal bone with mastoid proc-
kostiju, bez izraenih miinih hvatita, fra- ess, right part of maxilla with a canine in situ,
gmenti rebara, falange, fragmenti kraljeaka. seven teeth extracted postmortem, fragments of
Na kraljecima su vidljivi rubni osteofiti. long bones with poorly pronounced muscular at-
Detaljnim pregledom pronaenih kostiju tachments, rib fragments, phalanges, vertebrae
mogue je zakljuiti da se radi o osobi enskog fragments. On the vertebrae fragments are the
spola, starosti 25-34 godine. osteophytes on the edges of the vertebrae body.

Sl./ Fig. 2
Postmortalno
estrahirani zubi
iz are br 2.
Teeth extracted
postmortem from
urn no. 2.

_ ara br. 3 On the basis of examination of the morpho-


U ari su pronaeni fragmenti lubanje tanjeg logical characteristic of bones, it was possible
promjera, fragment humerusa bez distalnih i to determine the age and gender of a person.
proksimalnih dijelova te nekoliko fragmenata It was most likely a female, with the estimated
cjevastih kostiju. Na temelju dimenzija prisut- age at the time of death of 25 to 34.
nih fragmenata procijenjeno je da se vjerojatno _ Urn no. 3
radi o djetetu mlaem od 10 godina. Thick skull fragments, fragment of a humerus
Takoer su pronaeni fragmenti femura, ra- without distal and proximal parts, and smaller
dijusa i ulne, te dva zuba, koji pripadaju odrasloj fragments of long bones were found in the grave.
Ivana Anteri
eljana Bai osobi. Detaljnim pregledom kostiju zakljueno Measurements of these fragments indicate that
Ela kori
imun Anelinovi je kako se najvjerojatnije radi o enskoj osobi. they belong to a child under the age of 10.
85

Sl./ Fig. 3
Kotani ostaci
djeteta iz are br. 3
Skeletal remains of a
child from the urn no. 3.

Analizom je utvreno da su se u ovoj ari na- Femur, radius, ulna fragments and two teeth
lazile kosti najmanje dvije osobe, i to: jednog were also found. Morphological characteristics
djeteta i jedne enske osobe. suggest they belong to a female. Minimal
_ ara br. 4 number of individuals in this grave is two: a
Sauvani su fragmenti lubanje, jedan fragment child and a female.
zuba te humerus koji pripada odrasloj osobi, _ Urn no. 4
nepoznatog spola i dobi. Skull fragments, a tooth fragment and a hu-
Pronaen je i distalni dio humerusa koji merus, all belonging to an adult of unknown
prema dimenzijama pripada djetetu starosti gender and age, were preserved.
5-15 godina. Distal part of a humerus was also found, di-
Prisutni su i fragmenti drugih kostiju, naj- mensions of which suggest the age at the time
veim dijelom cjevastih, pribline veliine 5 of death of 5 to 15.
cm, koji se ne mogu sa sigurnou pripojiti ni- Some smaller long bone fragments of maxi-
jednoj od ovih osoba. mum length of 5 cm have been found, which
Analizom je utvreno da su se u ovoj ari na- can not be attributed to the listed persons in
lazile ostatci najmanje dviju osoba, i to: jednog this grave.
djeteta i jedne odrasle osobe. Analysis indicated that minimal number of
individuals in this grave was two: a child and
an adult. REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE
ANALIZE OSTEOLOKOG
MATERIJALA S TUMULA
JOKINA GLAVICA
RESULTS OF THE
ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS OF THE
OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
FROM THE TUMULUS OF
JOKINA GLAVICA
86

Sl./ Fig. 4 Osvrt na rezultate antropoloke analize Results overview


Kotani ostaci
iz are br. 4
Skeletal remains Analizirane su kosti iz etiri urne, u kojima se Results of the analysis of these four urns
from urn no. 4 nalaze etiri osobe, dvoje djece i dvije odrasle suggest that minimal number of individuals in
osobe. Naime, arheolokim istraivanjem usta- them is four - two subadults and two adults.
novljeno je da su urne pokopane istovremeno, In fact, archaeologists determined that these
odnosno da je spaljivanje pokojnika bilo za- four urns were buried at the same time, therefore
jedniko. Najvjerojatnije je da su njihove kosti the cremation happened simultaneously. The
potom ravnomjerno rasporeene u etiri urne. most probable scenario is that the remains
Ovoj pretpostavci u prilog idu i rezultati antro- were divided into four urns subsequently.
poloke analize iz kojih je vidljivo kako se isto- These conclusions are supported by the results
znane morfoloke znaajke kostiju pojavljuju of the anthropological analysis, which indicate
u svim urnama te odgovaraju etirima, odno- that same morphological characteristics occur
sno trima osobama. in all urns, and they correspond to four, that is
Jedno je dijete mlae od godine dana, dok three buried persons.
je drugo starosti 10 3 godina. Utvreno je In these four urns were two children: one less
kako ostale kosti pripadaju enskoj osobi sta- than 12 months old, and the other aged 10 3
rosti 25-34 godine te odrasloj osobi nepozna- years. For one adult it was possible to determine
tog spola i dobi. age and gender - these remains belong to a
Ivana Anteri
eljana Bai Djeca su umrla u ranom djetinjstvu (sred- female in the age of 25 to 34, for the other adult
Ela kori
imun Anelinovi nja dob u trenutku smrti 5,25 godina), to it was not possible to determine age and gender.
87
govori u prilog zakljuku o slabijoj kvaliteti The children died in early childhood (average
ivota, podlonosti bolestima (vjerojatno in- age at the time of death was 5,25 years), which
fekcijama) te loijoj zdravstvenoj skrbi. Tome can indicate more pronounced submissivenes
u prilog govori i injenica da je ena umrla u to illness (particularly infections), and poor
mlaoj ivotnoj dobi. health care. It is indicative that the female also
Kod ene su vidljivi osteofiti na rubovima ti- died as a young individual.
jela kraljeaka, koji mogu biti posljedica ili te- On the osteological remains belonging
eg fizikog rada kojem je osoba bila izloena to a female, the osteophytes were visible on
tijekom ivota ili starije ivotne dobi. Kako je vertebrae which in general indicate intense
procijenjena dob u trenutku smrti za ovu enu activity or older age. As this woman was 25-
iznosila 25-34 godine, promjene na kraljecima 34 years old at the time of death, the findings
najvjerojatnije su posljedica fizikog rada kojem on vertebrae suggest harder labor during her
je ova mlada osoba bila izloena tijekom ivota. lifetime.
S obzirom na to da su kosti spaljene te izni- Since the bone material was cremated,
mno devastirane i fragmentirane, nije mogue devastated and fragmented the cause of death
utvrditi uzrok smrti. Istodobno sahranjivanje could not be determined. Simultaneous burying
kao i rezultati antropoloke analize mogli bi and results of the anthropological analysis
upuivati na zajedniki uzrok smrti. Naalost, could suggest the joint cause of the death. But,
zbog injenice da su kosti spaljene i iznimno the condition of material does not allow us to
fragmentirane, nismo u mogunosti vidjeti po- see the traces of possible illness (like infection),
sljedice mogue bolesti (poput zaraze), odno- or traumas on the skeletal remains.
sno traume na kotanome materijalu.

Literatura / Bibliography

W. M. Bass 1995 Human Osteology, Fourth edition, Missoury Archa- M. M. Maresh 1970 Measurments from Roentgenograms, u: Human
eological Society, 1995. Growth and Development, Illinois, 1970.

E. E. HunT I. Gleiser 1955 The Estimation of Age and Sex of Preado- T. W. Phenice 1969 A newly developed visual method of sexing the
lescent Children from Bones and Teeth, u: American Journal os pubis, u: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 30,
of Physical Anthropology, 13, 1955., 479-487 Hoboken, 1969., 297-301

W. M Krogman M.Y. Iscan 1986 W.M.Krogman, M.Y. Iscan, The D. H. Ubelaker 1999 Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis,
Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine, Second Edition, by Interpretation, 1999.
Charles C. Thomas, 1986.
D. Zeevi et al. 2004 Sudska medicina i deontologija, Medicinska
R.W. Mann D. R. Hunt 2005 Photographic Regional Atlas of Bone naklada, 2004.
Disease, A Guide to Pathologic and Normal Variation in the
Human Skeleton, Second Edition, Springfied, Illinois, 2005. Z. Zupani-Slavec 2004 New Method in Identifying Family Related
Skulls, Springer Wien New York, 2004.

REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE
ANALIZE OSTEOLOKOG
MATERIJALA S TUMULA
JOKINA GLAVICA
RESULTS OF THE
ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS OF THE
OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
FROM THE TUMULUS OF
JOKINA GLAVICA
Mario laus, Mario Novak, Antropoloka analiza
eljka Bedi, Vlasta Vyroubal
starohrvatskogA kotanog uzorka
s nalazita Krneza-Jokina glavica
Anthropological analysis of the early
Croatian skeletal sample from
the Krneza-Jokina glavica site

Uvod Introduction

Bioarheologija je znanstvena disciplina koja Bioarchaeology is a science that studies hu-


prouava ljudske osteoloke i dentalne ostat- man skeletal and dental remains in the con-
ke u kontekstu arheolokih istraivanja. Ona text of archaeological research. It gives in-
daje uvid u uvjete i nain ivota arheolokih sight to way of life of past populations, and
populacija te slui kao potvrda i nadopuna ar- complements archaeological and historic
heolokim i povijesnim podatcima. S obzirom data. Considering that written sources on ru-
na to da pisani izvori o ruralnim starohrvat- ral early Croatian populations are practically
skim populacijama gotovo uope ne postoje, a non-existent, information such as average
podatci o svakodnevnom ivotu kao to su to life span, occurrence of contagious diseases,
prosjena starost, pojava zaraznih bolesti i pri- or frequency of interpersonal violence are
sutnost meuljudskog nasilja nisu dostupni iz indispensable in reconstructing lives of our
povijesnih izvora i arheolokih artefakata, ova ancestors.
vrsta istraivanja pokazala se nezamjenjivom u So far, several papers and one book dealing
pokuaju rekonstrukcije ivota naih predaka. with bioarchaeological characteristics of early
Do danas je objavljeno nekoliko radova i Croatian populations have been published.
jedna knjiga koji se bave bioarheolokim ka- Miki described craniometric characteristics
rakteristikama starohrvatskih populacija. . of an archaeological population from Mrav-
Miki je opisao kraniometrijske osobine popu- inci near Split,1 M. tefani presented results
lacije iz Mravinaca kod Splita,1 M. tefani je of the anthropological analysis carried out on
predoila rezultate antropoloke analize kota- the skeletal sample from the Nin-drijac site,2
nog uzorka s nalazita Nin-drijac,2 dok je M. while M. laus published three papers deal-
laus objavio tri rada koji se bave kraniometrij- ing with craniometric relations between early
skim odnosima izmeu starohrvatskih i drugih Croatian and other early Mediaeval European
ranosrednjovjekovnih europskih populacija.3 populations.3 Bedi described paleodemo-
Nadalje, . Bedi i sur. opisali su paleodemo- graphic and paleopathological characteristics
grafske i paleopatoloke karakteristike popula- of the archaeological population that inhabited
cije s nalazita Strane-Gorica,4 dok su M. No- the Strane-Gorica site,4 while Novak et al pub-
vak i sur. objavili rezultate svojeg istraivanja lished their results of the anthropological anal-
starohrvatske populacije s nalazita Konjsko yses carried out on the skeletal remains recov-
polje-Livade.5 M. laus je u svojoj knjizi dao ered in the Konjsko polje-Livade site.5 M. laus
prikaz rezultata bioarheolokih analiza etiriju presented results of anthropological analyses
starohrvatskih grobalja (Donje polje kod ibe- of four early Croatian cemeteries (Donje polje
nika, Glavice kod Sinja, Radainovci i Velim) near ibenik, Glavice near Sinj, Radainovci

1 . Miki, 1990. 1 . Miki, 1990.


2 M. tefani, 1995. 2 M. tefani, 1995.
3 M. laus 1998, 2000; M. laus et al., 2004. 3 M. laus 1998., 2000.; M. laus et al., 2004.
4 . Bedi et al., 2007. 4 . Bedi et al., 2007
5 M. Novak. et al., 2008. 5 M. Novak. et al., 2008.
90
koja predstavljaju najraniji horizont ranosred- and Velim near Zadar).6 Analyses of these cem-
njovjekovne hrvatske populacije6 Analiza tih eteries gave a relevant and objective image on
grobalja dala je relevantnu i objektivnu sliku o way and quality of life of the first Croats that
uvjetima i kvaliteti ivota prvih Hrvata koji su have inhabited the eastern Adriatic coast.
naselili istonojadransku obalu.

Materials and methods


Materijal i metode
Human skeletal remains described in this pa-
Ljudski kotani ostatci opisani u ovom lan- per have been unearthed during the 2007 ar-
ku otkopani su tijekom 2007. u sklopu arheo- chaeological research of the Jokina glavica site.
lokih istraivanja na poloaju Jokina glavica The site is located 15 km northeast of Zadar.
smjetenom 15 km sjeveroistono od Zadra. The research was conducted by Prof. Brunislav
Iskopavanja je vodio prof. dr. Brunislav Ma- Marjanovi of the Departement of Archaeol-
rijanovi s Odjela za arheologiju Sveuilita u ogy, University of Zadar. Analysed bones come
Zadru. Analizirane kosti potjeu iz grobova 2, from graves: 2, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,
6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 i 19. and 19.
Kosti su nakon iskopavanja prevezene u la- The bones have been transported to the
boratorij Odsjeka za arheologiju Hrvatske aka- laboratory of Department of Archaeology,
demije znanosti i umjetnosti u Zagrebu, gdje Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The
su oprane, osuene i (gdje je to bilo mogue) bones were cleaned and, where possible, re-
rekonstruirane. Za svaki uzorak prikupljeni su constructed. Data on taphonomic characteris-
podatci o tafonomskim karakteristikama te, tics, as well as sex, age-at-death, and possible
ako je to bilo mogue, podatci o spolu, starosti pathological changes have been gathered for
u trenutku smrti i eventualnoj prisutnosti pato- each individual.
lokih promjena. Since the skeletal material was extremely
Budui da je kotani materijal iznimno fra- fragmented and poorly preserved, in order to
gmentiran i loe sauvan, prilikom odreivanja determine sex of an individual with the high-
spola i starosti u trenutku smrti koriten je ve- est possible accuracy, several different criteria
lik broj razliitih kriterija. U osteolokom uzor- were used. These criteria included differences
ku iz Krneze spol je odreivan na temelju mor- in the morphology of skull and pelvic bones
fologije lubanje i zdjelice,7 a u sluajevima kada between males and females.7 In cases were
te metode nisu bile primjenjive, spol je odreen those methods were not applicable due to the
na temelju robusnosti/gracilnosti kostiju. Do- fragmentation and poor preservationn of the
ivljena starost odreena je na temelju srasta- remains, sex was determent based on the ro-
nja kranijalnih i maksilarnih avova,8 promje- busticity or the gracility of bones. Age-at-death
na na aurikularnoj plohi zdjelice9 i istroenosti was determined based on the union of cranial
griznih ploha zuba.10 Starost djejih kostura and maxillary sutures,8 age related changes in
procijenjena je na temelju kronologije razvoja i the auricular surface of the pelvis9 and dental
rasta mlijenih i stalnih zuba, stupnja osifikaci- wear.10 Age-at-death in subadults was deter-
je kostiju i duine dijafiza dugih kostiju.11 mined based on the chronology of formation
S obzirom na fragmentiranost i lou uuva- and growth of deciduous and permanent teeth,
nost kotanog materijala, antropoloka analiza epiphyseal union, and diaphyseal length.11
fokusirala se na zube i patoloke promjene koje As the material was so fragmented and
se pojavljuju na zubima: alveolarne bolesti, ka- poorly preserved the anthropological analysis
rijes i hipoplazija zubne cakline. focused on the dental material and pathologi-

6 M. laus, 2006. 6 M. laus, 2006.


7 W. M. Bass, 1995; W. M. Krogman M. Y.Ican, 1986. 7 W. M. Bass, 1995.; W. M. Krogman M. Y.Ican, 1986.
Mario laus 8 R. W. Mann R. L. Jantz, 1988; R. S. Meindl - C. O. Lovejoy, 1985. 8 R. W. Mann R. L. Jantz, 1988.; R. S. Meindl - C. O. Lovejoy, 1985.
Mario Novak 9 C. O. Lovejoy et al., 1985. 9 C. O. Lovejoy et al., 1985
eljka Bedi 10 C. O. Lovejoy et al., 1985. 10 C. O. Lovejoy et al., 1985
Vlasta Vyroubal 11 W. M. Bass, 1995; L. Scheuer S. Black, 2000. 11 W. M. Bass, 1995.; L. Scheuer S. Black, 2000.
91
Alveolarne bolesti definiraju se kao prisut- cal changes that can be seen on teeth: alveolar
nost periodontalnog ili periapikalnog apscesa disease, caries, and linear enamel hypoplasia.
i/ili zaivotni gubitak zuba. Alveolarni apsces Alveolar disease is defined as the pres-
se pojavljuje kada se bakterije iz kariozne lezije ence of periodontal or periapical abscess and/
na zubu proire u alveolu, a morfoloki se pre- or antemortem tooth loss. Alveolar abscess is
poznaje po defektu na kosti koji nastaje kada caused by the bacteria from the carious cavity
gnojna tekuina iz apscesa napravi otvor za spreading into the alveolus. Morphologically, it
otjecanje u kost. Zahvaeni zub obino odumire is recognised as a bone defect which is formed
ili biva izvaen - prirodnim putem ili kirurki, when pus from the abscess creates cloacae for
dok se alveola s vremenom remodelira.12 Zai- drainage. The affected tooth usually rots away
votni gubitak zuba dijagnosticiran je u sluaju and falls out or is surgically removed, while the
progresivnog resorpcijskog unitenja alveole13 i alveolus remodels with time.12 Antemortem
Sl./ Fig. 1
remodeliranja alveolarne kosti. tooth loss was diagnosed in case of progressive Karijes na treem
Zubni karijes zarazna je bolest koju karak- resorption alveolar destruction and remod- kutnjaku gornje
eljusti, grob 14
terizira demineralizacija anorganskog dijela i eling of the alveolar bone.
Carious lesion on
unitenje organskog dijela zuba. Oboljenje je Tooth caries is an infectious disease charac- the third maxillary
zarazno i prenosivo, a po svojoj je prirodi pro- terised by demineralisation of the organic and molar, Grave 14
gresivno jer odravanje istih uvjeta koji su do- the destruction of the inorganic part of the tooth. fotografija / photo: V. Vyroubal

veli do pojave karijesa u konanici dovodi do The disease is contagious and progressive, and
potpunog unitenja zuba.14 Karijes se na arheo- eventually results in complete tooth destruction.
lokom materijalu prepoznaje po karakteristi- Caries is detected by typical defects on the tooth
nim defektima koje stvara na kruni ili korijenu crown or the tooth root.13 The presence of car-
zuba. Prisutnost karijesa dijagnosticirana je ies was diagnosed macroscopically, under bright
makroskopski, pod jakim svjetlom, uz pomo light, with the help of a dental probe.
dentalne probe. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) is defined
Hipoplazija zubne cakline (HZC) prepoznaje as a macroscopic defect on the surface of the
se kao makroskopski defekt na povrini zubne tooth enamel,14 most often in the form of sev-
cakline,15 i to najee kao niz tankih paralelnih eral thin parallel lines on the labial side of the
linija s labijalne strane zuba. Rije je o subadul- tooth. It is a subadult disorder which is a re-
tnom poremeaju koji nastaje zbog akutnih, vre- sult of acute, temporally limited stressful pe-
menski ogranienih stresova i najee se pove- riods that are most commonly related to star-
Sl./ Fig. 2
zuje s gladovanjem, nedostatkom vitamina A, C i vation, insufficient intake of vitamins A, C and
Linearna hipoplazija
D, prisutnou anemije i psihikom i/ili fizikom D, anaemia, and physiological and/or physical zubne cakline na
traumom.16 HZC je pouzdan pokazatelj nespeci- trauma.15 Linear enamel hypoplasia is a reliable prvom sjekutiu
finog stresa tijekom djetinjstva (od roenja do indicator of non-specific stress during child- gornje eljusti
Linear enamel
po prilici 13. godine ivota, tj. u razdoblju stva- hood (birth to approximately 13 years of age, hypoplasia on the
ranja zubne cakline). Podatci o uestalosti HZC i.e. period of dental enamel formation). Data fist maxillary incisor
prikupljani su samo kod odraslih osoba. on LEH was collected only in adult skeletons. fotografija / photo: V. Vyroubal

Antropoloka analiza
starohrvatskogA
kotanog uzorka
s nalazita Krneza-
12 M. laus, 2006. Jokina glavica
13 J. R. Lukacs, 1989. 12 M. laus, 2006. Anthropological analysis
14 J. J. Pindborg, 1970. 13 J. J. Pindborg, 1970. of the early Croatian
15 Ibid. 14 Ibid. skeletal sample from
16 A. H. Goodman G. J. Armelagos, 1985.; A. H. Goodman J. C. Rose, 15 A. H. Goodman G. J. Armelagos, 1985.; A. H. Goodman J. C. Rose, the Krneza-Jokina
1991; A. H. Goodman et al., 1980. 1991.; A. H. Goodman et al.., 1980. glavica site
92

Grob 2
Uuvanost korteksa: vrlo loa.
Spol: nije mogue odrediti.
Starost u trenutku smrti:
vie od 40 godina.
Patoloke promjene: nisu prisutne.

Grave 2
Cortex preservation: very poor.
Sex: undeterminable.
Age-at-death: over 40 years.
Pathological changes: not detected.

Grob 6
Uuvanost korteksa: vrlo loa.
Spol: nije mogue odrediti.
Starost u trenutku smrti:
nije mogue odrediti.
Patoloke promjene: nisu prisutne.

Grave 6
Cortex preservation: very poor.
Sex: undeterminable.
Age-at-death: undeterminable.
Pathological changes: not detected.

Grob 8
Uuvanost korteksa: loa.
Spol: ena.
Starost u trenutku smrti:
vie od 25 godina.
Patoloke promjene: nisu prisutne.

Grave 8
Cortex preservation: poor.
Sex: female.
Age-at-death: over 25 years.
Pathological changes: not detected.
93

Grob 10
Uuvanost korteksa: vrlo loa.
Spol: ena.
Starost u trenutku smrti:
18 do 25 godina.
Patoloke promjene: nisu prisutne.

Grave 10
Cortex preservation: very poor.
Sex: female.
Age-at-death: 18 to 25 years.
Pathological changes: not detected.

Grob 12
Uuvanost korteksa: vrlo loa.
Spol: nije mogue odrediti.
Starost u trenutku smrti:
35 do 45 godina.
Patoloke promjene: nisu prisutne.

Grave 12
Cortex preservation: very poor.
Sex: undeterminable.
Age-at-death: 35 to 45 years.
Pathological changes: not detected.

Grob 13
Uuvanost korteksa: vrlo loa.
Spol: ena.
Starost u trenutku smrti:
20 do 30 godina.
Patoloke promjene: nisu prisutne.

Grave 13
Cortex preservation: very poor.
Sex: female.
Age-at-death: 20 to 30 years.
Pathological changes: not detected.
94

Grob 14
Uuvanost korteksa: vrlo loa.
Spol: nije mogue odrediti.
Starost u trenutku smrti:
vie od 35 godina.
Patoloke promjene: nisu prisutne.

Grave 14
Cortex preservation: very poor.
Sex: undeterminable.
Age-at-death: over 35 years.
Pathological changes: not detected.

Grob 15
Uuvanost korteksa: vrlo loa.
Spol: dijete.
Starost u trenutku smrti:
8 do 12 godina.
Patoloke promjene: nisu prisutne.

Grave 15
Cortex preservation: very poor.
Sex: subadult.
Age-at-death: 8 to 12 years.
Pathological changes: not detected.

Grob 16
Uuvanost korteksa: vrlo loa.
Spol: najvjerojatnije ena.
Starost u trenutku smrti: vie od 45 godina.
Patoloke promjene: nisu prisutne.

Grave 16
Cortex preservation: very poor.
Sex: most probably female.
Age-at-death: over 45 years.
Pathological changes: not detected.
95

Grob 17
Uuvanost korteksa: loa.
Spol: nije mogue odrediti.
Starost u trenutku smrti:
vie od 45 godina.
Patoloke promjene: nisu prisutne.

Grave 17
Cortex preservation: poor.
Sex: undeterminable.
Age-at-death: over 45 years.
Pathological changes: not detected.

Grob 18
Uuvanost korteksa: loa.
Spol: mukarac.
Starost u trenutku smrti: 40 do 50 godina.
Patoloke promjene: antemortalna depresijska
fraktura, veliine 2014 mm, prisutna je na desnoj
strani eone kosti; trauma nije probila svod lubanje, no
na endokranijalnoj je strani kost naglaeno izboena.

Grave 18
Cortex preservation: poor.
Sex: male.
Age-at-death: 40 to 50 years.
Pathological changes: antemortem depressed frac-
ture (2014 mm in dimension) on the right side of the
frontal bone; the impact had not penetrated the cranium
but there is some protrusion on the endocranial side.

Grob 19
Uuvanost korteksa: loa.
Spol: mukarac.
Starost u trenutku smrti:
vie od 40 godina.
Patoloke promjene: nisu prisutne.

Grave 19
Cortex preservation: poor.
Sex: male.
Age-at-death: over 40 years.
Pathological changes: not detected.
96
* * * * * *

Skeletni uzorak s nalazita Krneza-Jokina gla- Skeletal sample from the Krneza-Jokina glavi-
vica sastoji se od 12 kostura, ali kod samo pet ca site consist of the total of 12 skeletons. Un-
kostura bilo je mogue tono odrediti spol (jed- fortunately, due to the poor preservation of the
no dijete, tri ene i dva mukarca; tablica 1). remains, it was possible to determine sex with
Kod ostalih kostura to naalost nije bilo mogu- certainty in only 5 individuals. For the same
e uiniti zbog fragmentiranosti i iznimno loe reason, it was not possible in most cases to de-
sauvanosti. Zbog istog razloga veini kostura termine age-at-death more accurately (age-at-
nije se mogla precizno odrediti starost u tre- death was ascertained in a wider range e.g. 35
nutku smrti, tako da je u veini sluajeva dan to 45 years, or over 45 years). Average age-at-
vrlo irok vremenski interval (npr. 35-45 ili death is shown in Table1.
45+). Prosjene doivljene starosti u trenutku Most common pathology noted in the Krn-
smrti takoer su prikazane u tablici 1. eza sample is alveolar disease (antemortem
Od uoenih patologija u uzorku iz Krneze tooth loss). The total frequency of this patho-
najee su alveolarne bolesti (zaivotni gubi- logical change in the Krneza sample is 5.2%
tak zuba). Ukupna uestalost te patoloke pro- (5/96). All of the alveolar pathological changes
mjene u Krnezi iznosi 5,2 % (5/96). Sve alveo- have been noted in a male skeleton older than
larne bolesti zabiljeene su na kosturu mukar- 40 years at time of death from grave 9.
ca starijeg od 40 godina iz groba 19. A total frequency of caries is 3.2% (5/150).
Ukupna uestalost karijesa iznosi 3,3 % Carious lesions have been noted in males as
(5/150), a karijesi su zamijeeni i kod muka- well as females, and occur in different tooth
raca i kod ena (tablica 2). Kariozne promjene locations: two occlusal, one lingual, one inter-
pojavljuju se na razliitim mjestima na zubu: proximal, and one root caries.
dva su prisutna na okluzalnoj, jedan na lingval- Linear enamel hypoplasia is present in
noj, jedan na interproksimalnoj plohi zuba te 55.5% of analysed teeth (5/9), and occurs most
jedan na korijenu zuba. commonly on maxillary incisors and canines
Hipoplazija zubne cakline prisutna je na (66.7%).
55,5 % analiziranih zuba (5/9), a hipoplastini Apart from dental pathologies, one antemor-
defekti najee se pojavljuju na sjekutiima i tem trauma was noted in the Krneza-Jokina
onjacima gornje eljusti (66,7 %). glavica skeletal sample. It is a relatively shallow
Osim dentalnih patologija u uzorku s nala- depressed fracture, oval in shape (2014 mm
zita Krneza-Jokina glavica prisutna je i jedna in dimension) on the right side of the frontal
fraktura. Rije je o plitkoj antemortalnoj de- bone. The trauma was noted on a male skeleton
presijskoj frakturi ovalnog oblika, veliine 20 from grave 18.
14 mm, koja se nalazi na desnoj strani eone
kosti starijeg mukarca iz groba 18.
Discussion and Conclusion

Rasprava i zakljuak As mentioned above, the main feature of the


skeletal material from the Krneza-Jokina
Kao to je ve nekoliko puta istaknuto, glavna glavica site was the poor preservation and ex-
odlika ljudskog kotanog materijala s nalazita treme fragmentation of the remains. For this
Krneza-Jokina glavica jest vrlo loa uuvanost reason it was not possible to include some of
i iznimna fragmentiranost, to je onemoguilo the standard anthropological analyses. It is not
provedbu veine antropolokih analiza koje se certain why the bones are so poorly preserved,
inae u ovakvim sluajevima standardno pro- but the most probable reasons are the acidity
vode. Koji su razlozi loe uuvanosti kostiju u of the soil, animal activity, and one cannot ex-
ovom uzorku, nije mogue sa sigurnou utvr- clude human devastation of the terrain.
Mario laus
Mario Novak
diti, no najvjerojatnije je rije o nekoliko im- A small number of skeletons with accu-
eljka Bedi benika, kao to su kemijski sastav tla (izraena rately determined sex and age-at-death made
Vlasta Vyroubal
97
kiselost), djelovanje atmosferskih prilika, ero- it impossible to make relevant hypothesis on
zija i ivotinjska aktivnost, a ne moe se isklju- demographic trends of the Krneza archaeologi-
iti ni devastacija izazvana ljudskom rukom. cal population. Even though the sample is so
Iznimno malen broj kostura kojima je bilo small, data on the average age-at-death (most
mogue precizno odrediti spol i starost one- individuals lived between 30 and 45 years,
moguuje donoenje realnih pretpostavki o de- while no individuals lived to be 60) does cor-
mografskim kretanjima u Krnezi. No, premda respond to average age-at-death noted in oth-
manjkavi, podatci o prosjenom ivotnom vije- er early Croatian archaeological sites, such as
ku odraslih osoba u Krnezi (veina osoba ivjela Konjsko polje-Livade (41.2 years for males;
je izmeu 30 i 45 godina, a ni jedna osoba nije 38.9 for females),16 Strane-Gorica (35.9
pokazivala znakove starosti iznad 60 godina) ne males; 38.1 females)17, as well with the com-
odudaraju bitno od prosjenih vrijednosti koje posite sample consisting of Donje polje near
su zabiljeene na drugim starohrvatskim nalazi- ibenik, Glavice, Radainovci, and Velim (40
tima, kao to su Konjsko polje-Livade (mukar- males; 39.7 females)18.
ci 41,2 godine, ene 38,9 godina),17 Strane-Gori- Even though the Krneza dental sample is
ca18 (mukarci 35,9 godina, ene 38,1 godina) te small (96 alveoli; 150 teeth) it still gives par-
u kompozitnom uzorku koji ine nalazita Donje tial understanding of the dietary habits of the
polje kod ibenika, Glavice, Radainovci i Ve- early mediaeval population from Krneza. To-
lim (mukarci 40,0 godina, ene 39,7 godina).19 tal frequencies of alveolar disease and carious
Iako je analizirani dentalni uzorak s nala- lesions are considerably lower than in other
zita Krneza-Jokina glavica po svojem opsegu early Croatian samples, whose values range
malen (samo 96 alveola i 150 zuba), ipak nam between 9.1% and 17.6% for the alveolar dis-
omoguuje djelomian uvid u prehrambene na- ease, and between 7.1% and 13.3% for carious
vike ranosrednjovjekovnih stanovnika Krneze. lesions. These differences could be the result
Ukupne uestalosti alveolarnih bolesti (5,2 %) i of the small Krneza sample which is (due to its
karijesa (3,3 %) znatno su nie od uestalosti tih size) susceptible to statistical variations, but
patologija u drugim starohrvatskim uzorcima also it could be a consequence of dietary and
koje se kreu izmeu 9,1 % i 17,6 % za alveolarne nutritional differences between early mediae-
bolesti te izmeu 7,1 % i 13,3 % za karijese. Te val populations which inhabited this region.
razlike mogle bi biti posljedica malog analizira- Several researches indicated that low frequen-
nog uzorka iz Krneze koji je podloan sluaj- cies or caries and alveolar disease are charac-
nim statistikim varijacijama, ali i razlikama u teristic to populations whose diet was based on
prehrani izmeu zajednica koje su obitavale na hunting and meat consumption,19 while high
ovom podruju tijekom ranoga srednjeg vijeka. frequencies of the mentioned pathologies are
Naime, brojna su istraivanja pokazala da su characteristic to populations whose diet was
niske uestalosti karijesa i alveolarnih bolesti based primarily on cereals. Nutrition based
karakteristine za skupine ija se prehrana te- on hunting contains fewer sugars and a lot
meljila na lovu i konzumiranju mesa,20 dok su more proteins, which reduces the risk of car-
visoke uestalosti tih patologija karakteristine ies because nutrition based on meat contains
za skupine koje u prehrani primarno ovise o considerably less carbohydrates and regulates
razliitim itaricama. Prehrana koja je temelje- PH value of the saliva. In this context, one can
na na lovu, sadri mnogo manje eera i mno- presume that at least one part of the population
go vie bjelanevina od prehrane temeljene na from Krneza based their diet on hunting, which
itaricama, to smanjuje uestalost karijesa jer would explain considerably lower frequencies
sadri bitno manje ugljikohidrata, povisuje pH of alveolar disease and carious lesions com-
vrijednost sline i krae se vrijeme zadrava u pared to other early Croatian skeletal samples. Antropoloka analiza
ustima. U tom je kontekstu mogue da se ba- starohrvatskogA
kotanog uzorka
s nalazita Krneza-
Jokina glavica
Anthropological analysis
17 M. Novak et al., 2008. 16 M. Novak et al., 2008. of the early Croatian
18 . Bedi et al., 2007. 17 . Bedi et al., 2007. skeletal sample from
19 M. laus, 2006. 18 M. laus, 2006. the Krneza-Jokina
20 D. W. Frayer, 1984; C. S. Larsen et al., 1991. 19 D. W. Frayer, 1984.; C. S. Larsen et al., 1991. glavica site
98
rem dio prehrane populacije iz Krneze temeljio Frequency of linear enamel hypoplasia in the
na lovu, to bi objasnilo znatno niu uestalost Krneza sample was observed in more than half
alveolarnih bolesti i karijesa u odnosu na dru- of analysed teeth, which is substantially high-
ge starohrvatske kotane uzorke. No, u sada- er than in other early corresponding Croatian
njem stanju istraenosti takve interpretacije ne skeletal samples, such as Konjsko polje-Livade;
mogu se sa sigurnou potvrditi. 20.1%20 and the early Croatian composite sam-
Hipoplazija zubne cakline u Krnezi zabiljee- ple; 40.2%21. High frequency of LEH in the
na je na vie od polovice analiziranih zuba, to je Krneza site suggests that majority of the people
znatno vie od uestalosti te patoloke promjene experienced some sort of metabolic stress dur-
koje su zabiljeene u drugim starohrvatskim ko- ing infancy, most probably during the weaning
tanim uzorcima kao to su to Konjsko polje-Li- period. In sedentary populations most of LEH
vade 20,1 %21 i starohrvatski kompozitni uzorak is formed between 1st and 3rd year of life, i.e.
40,2 %.22 Visoka uestalost HZC u Krnezi suge- the period of weaning when the infants nutri-
rira da je vei udjel osoba koje su ivjele u toj za- tion is switched from sterile mothers milk to
jednici doivio snaan metaboliki stres tijekom nutrition rich with microorganisms .22 The high
djetinjstva, moda tijekom razdoblja dojenja. Na- frequency of LEH could as well be the result of
ime, neki autori uoili su da se u sjedilakim po- poor hygienic and sanitary conditions of in that
pulacijama najvie hipoplastinih defekata stvara area during the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, it is
izmeu prve i tree godine ivota, tj. u razdoblju necessary to emphasize that the sample includ-
prelaska s prehrane sterilnim majinim mlijekom ed in this research is rather small and therefore
na prehranu bogatu mikroorganizmima.23 Uz to, susceptible to statistical variations.
visoka uestalost HZC mogla bi takoer biti po- In the entire analysed sample only one an-
sljedica loih higijenskih i sanitarnih uvjeta u tom temortem trauma (located on the frontal bone
podruju tijekom ranoga srednjeg vijeka. No, i of an adult male) had been noted. According to
ovdje je potrebno naglasiti da je rije o malom Wells this type of trauma can be the result of
analiziranom uzorku koji je podloan statistikim an accidental blow to the head by a blunt ob-
varijacijama, pa je sve zakljuke izvedene iz ove ject (e.g. a fall resulting in the subject hitting
analize potrebno uzeti s dozom opreza. their head on the edge of the table or any hard
U analiziranom uzorku od patolokih je pro- surface). Also, such injury could be caused by
mjena zabiljeena i jedna antemortalna trauma a projectile weapon, such as a slingshot, used
ovalnog oblika na eonoj kosti odraslog mu- in armed conflict.23 Unfortunately, considering
karca. Prema Wellsu takav tip traume moe the extent of our knowledge of early Croatian
prouzroiti nenamjeran udarac u glavu tupim population from Krneza, one can not be certain
predmetom, pad i udarac glavom u rub stola i/ which of these scenarios is most probable.
ili ozljeda u oruanom sukobu uzrokovana tono Instead of making such assumptions, it is
usmjerenim projektilom iz prake.24 Naalost, s necessary to emphasize that despite the poor
obzirom na stupanj naeg znanja o starohrvat- standard of preservation of the human skeletal
skoj populaciji iz Krneze, u ovom se trenutku ne remains from the Krneza site, detailed anthro-
moe rei koji je od ovih scenarija izgledniji. pological analyses have shed light on some, so
Umjesto zakljuka moglo bi se napomenuti far unknown aspects of life in this Early Medi-
da je unato vrlo looj uuvanosti ljudskoga aeval community.
kotanog materijala s nalazita Krneza-Jokina
glavica provedba detaljne antropoloke analize
rasvijetlila neke do danas nepoznate aspekte o
ivotu te ranosrednjovjekovne zajednice i pro-
irila nae ukupno znanje o nainu i uvjetima
ivota starohrvatskih populacija.

Mario laus 21 M. Novak et al., 2007. 20 M. Novak et al., 2007.


Mario Novak 22 M. laus, 2006. 21 M. laus, 2006.
eljka Bedi 23 A. H. Goodman, 1988; K. M. Lanphear, 1990. 22 A. H. Goodman, 1988; K. M. Lanphear, 1990.
Vlasta Vyroubal 24 C. Wells, 1982. 23 C. Wells, 1982.
99
tablica/ table 1
Distribucija spola i starosti po grobovima
Distribution of sex and age-at-death

Grob Spol Starost


2 neodrediv 40+
6 neodrediv neodrediva
8 ena 25+
10 ena 18-25
12 neodrediv 35-45
13 ena 20-30
14 neodrediv 35+
15 dijete 8-12
16 najvjerojatnije ena 45+
17 neodrediv 45+
18 mukarac 40-50
19 mukarac 40+

tablica/ table 2
Uestalost alveolarnih bolesti i karijesa na nalazitu Krneza-Jokina glavica
Frequency of alveolar disease and carious lesions

Djeca ene Mukarci Neodredivo Ukupno

n/N % n/N % n/N % n/N % n/N %

Alveolarne
0/0 0,0 0/34 0,0 5/59 8,5 0/3 0,0 5/96 5,2
bolesti

Karijesi 0/0 0,0 1/41 2,4 2/46 4,3 2/63 3,2 5/150 3,3

n=broj alveola zahvaenih alveolarnim oboljenjem ili broj zuba zahvaenih karijesom; N=broj pregledanih
alveola ili zuba; %= postotak od alveola zahvaenih alveolarnim oboljenjem ili od zuba zahvaenih karijesom

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D. W. Frayer 1984 Tooth size, oral pathology and class distinctions:
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. Miki 1990 Antropoloki profil srednjovekovne nekropole u Mra- C. Wells 1982 The Human Burials. U: Romano-British Cemeteries at
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Mario laus
Mario Novak
eljka Bedi
Vlasta Vyroubal
Karla Gusar, Dario Vujevi DUEVIA GLAVICA
DUEVIA GLAVICA

Tumul Duevia glavica nalazi se na istaknu- The tumulus of Duevia glavica is situated on
tom poloaju 250 metara sjeveroistono od cr- a prominent position 250 m north-east of the
kve Gospe od Sniga u Krnezi. Arheoloka istra- church of Gospe od Sniga (Our Lady of Snow)
ivanja provedena su u svibnju 2008. godine in Krneza. Archaeological research was con-
(sl. 1).1 Na prvi pogled inilo se da je tumul ve- ducted in May 2008 (Fig. 1).1 At first sight it
likih dimenzija, jer je okolni prostor u prolosti seemed that this was quite large tumulus be-
poprilino erodiran, pa je zbog toga zapadna i cause the surrounding area was heavily eroded
sjeverna periferija tumula za oko 2 metra iznad in the past making the western and northern
Sl./ Fig. 1
prvotne povrine prostora na kojemu je tumul periphery of the tumulus about 2 m higher than
Duevia glavica prije
podignut. To je posve jasno vidljivo na junom the original surface of the area on which the tu- i poslije iskopavanja
dijelu tumula. mulus was raised. This situation is clearly vis- Duevia glavica
before and after
Sam humak bio je obrastao u nisko grmlje i ible on the southern segment of the tumulus. the excavation
nekoliko manjih stabala, to je utjecalo na ou- The tumulus was covered with low bushes and
vanost povrinskih slojeva nasipa. K tome je na several smaller trees which affected the state of
njegovom sreditu postavljena geodetska to- preservation of the surface layers of the fill. In ad-
ka, ukopana u jamu promjera 100 cm i dubine dition, a geodetic point was put in its center, dug
100 cm. Pritom je uniten dio srednjovjekov- into a hole 100 cm deep with diameter of 100 cm.
noga groba 6. Thereby a part of medieval grave 6 was destroyed.

Korpus tumula u cijelosti je zemljani, a na- The tumulus consists solely of earth, and it
sut je na podlozi od nabijenoga sitnog kamenja. was raised on the basis of hard-packed small
Kao kod ostalih tumula na ovom podruju i ov- stones. Remains of medieval graves were dis-
dje su, nakon skidanja povrinskog sloja, otkri- covered after the surface layer was removed as

1 The research was conducted in the period from the 7th to 31st May 2008
1 Istraivanja su provedena u razdoblju od 7. do 31. svibnja 2008. pod vod- under the leadership of B. Marijanovi, and the professional team consi-
stvom B. Marijanovia, a lanove strune ekipe inili su K. Gusar i D. Vuje- sted of K. Gusar and D. Vujevi as well as the students of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd
vi, te studenti arheologije I., II., III. i IV. godine Sveuilita u Zadru. and 4th year of the University of Zadar.
102
veni ostatci srednjovjekovnih grobova. No, s was the case with other tumuli in this region.
obzirom na njihov poloaj i injenicu da su se However considering their position and the fact
nalazili na samoj povrini, od jednog dijela sa- that they were located on the surface, the only
uvana je tek poneka kost ili dio arhitekture. preserved remains of some of them were few
Uokolo grobova, na ovoj razini nasipa tumula bones or parts of architecture. Remains of medi-
pronaeni su ostatci srednjovjekovne kerami- eval pottery and fragments of metal objects were
ke i fragmenti metalnih predmeta. Bolja situa- found on this level of the tumulus fill around the
cija bila je u kvadrantima II. i III., gdje je neto graves. Somewhat better situation was found in
vei nasip ouvao ostatke tri srednjovjekovna quadrants II and III where thicker fill preserved
i jednoga prapovijesnoga groba. Na humku je remains of one prehistoric and three medieval
pronaeno ukupno jedanaest grobova, od ko- graves. Total of eleven graves was found in the
jih dva pripadaju prapovijesnom (grobovi 6a i tumulus, two of which belong to the prehistoric
10), a devet ranosrednjovjekovnom razdoblju period (graves 6a and 10), and nine to the early
(gr. 1-9). medieval period (graves 1-9).
Prapovijesni grob (grob 6a) ve se svojom Prehistoric grave (grave 6a) was different
arhitekturom razlikovao od ostalih, iako se than the others by its architecture although it
nalazio u istoj razini s dva srednjovjekovna was at the same level with two medieval buri-
ukopa. Rije je o kamenoj krinji koja se sa- als. It was a stone cist consisting of two greater
stoji od dvije vee ploe na bonim i dvije ma- slabs at the sides and two smaller slabs on the
nje na poprenim stranicama (sl. 2, T. III, 1). ends (Fig. 2, Pl. III, 1). Dimensions of the grave
Dimenzije groba iznose 120 x 96 cm, a dubina measure 120 x 96 cm, with the depth of 80 cm.
Sl./ Fig. 2 80 cm. Dno kamene krinje obrubljeno je ve- Bottom of the stone cist was lined with larger
Prapovijesni grob 6a u im kamenjem i ispunjeno nabojem od sitnog stones and filled with small stones. Slabs form-
obliku kamene krinje
Prehistoric grave 6a in kamenja. Na vee, rubno kamenje poloene su ing a framework of the grave construction were
the form of a stone cist ploe koje tvore okvir grobne konstrukcije. laid onto larger, peripheral stones.

Na samom dnu pronaeni su ostatci pokoj- Remains of the deceased were found at
nika (sl. 3). Na prvi pogled kosti su odavale the very bottom (Fig. 3). At first sight bones
dojam da je ukop djelomino dislociran, prije seemed to indicate that the burial was par-
svega zbog dijelova lubanje koji su se nalazili tially dislocated, first and foremost due to the
na razliitim mjestima. Antropoloka analiza skull fragments which were found at different
meutim potvrdila je da se zapravo u grobu places. However anthropological analysis con-
nalaze kosti dvaju pokojnika.2 Sauvaniji ukop firmed that there were bones of two deceased
pripada mukarcu robusnijeg izgleda starom persons in the grave.2 The burial which was

2 Antropoloke analize izvrene su na Zavodu za patologiju, sudsku medici- 2 Anthropological analyses were conducted at the Department of Patholo-
Karla Gusar nu i citologiju, KBC-a Split. Usporediti poglavlje I. Anteri et al. o Due- gy, Court Medicine and Cytology, within Clinical Hospital Split. Cf. chapter
Dario Vujevi via glavici. I. Anteri et al. on anthropological analysis of human remains.
103

Sl./ Fig. 3
Prapovijesni grob
u kamenoj krinji
Prehistoric grave
in a stone cist

od 50 do 64 godine. Pokojnik je postavljen u preserved better belonged to a sturdy looking


zgreni poloaj na desnom boku. Od drugoga man whose age was between 50 and 64. He was
ukopa pronaen je tek fragment radijusa ili in a crouched position on the right side. Only a
ulne i deset zuba. Kosti pripadaju enskoj osobi fragment of a radius or ulna and ten teeth were
mlae ivotne dobi (20 do 34 godine). preserved of the other burial. The bones belong
to se tie pomaka pojedinih kostiju, nije is- to a younger female person (20 to 34 years).
kljueno - tovie, budui da ovaj grob okruu- As for the relocation of some bones, it is very
ju dva srednjovjekovna ukopa, vrlo je vjerojat- likely that the medieval burial destroyed a seg-
no - da je prilikom ukapanja u srednjem vijeku ment of the prehistoric burial particularly hav-
uniten dio prapovijesnog ukopa. Nije iskljue- ing in mind that two medieval burials surround
no ni da je tada iz groba izbaena bronana igla this grave. It is also possible that a bronze pin
sa zadebljanim vratom i bikoninom glavom, with a thickened neck and biconical head was
pronaena u blizini groba. thrown out of the grave on the same occasion.
Pokapanje dvaju pokojnika u istom grobu This pin was found near the grave.
moe ukazivati na dvije situacije. Kod prve su Burial of two persons in the same grave can
oba pokojnika bila pokopana u isto vrijeme, a be related to two situations. In the first case
kod druge su pokopi sukcesivni, pri emu se both deceased persons were buried at the same
kosti starijeg ukopa obino pomaknu ustranu time, and in the other case burials were succes-
da bi se napravilo mjesta za novi ukop. Tek ne- sive, usually meaning that bones of the earlier
koliko sauvanih kostiju jednog od pokojnika burial were moved aside to make room for the
moglo bi ukazivati na sukcesivno pokapanje, new burial. Few preserved bones of one skel-
ali na osnovi zateenog stanja teko je donositi eton might point to successive burials, but it
bilo kakve konane zakljuke. Za obje situacije is quite difficult to make any final conclusions
postoji niz primjera na ovom podruju, a naj- on the basis of the existing situation. There are
bolji dolaze s nedavnog istraivanja liburnske many examples for both options in this region,
nekropole ispred gradine Venac.3 the best illustrations being from the recent ex-
DUEVIA GLAVICA
3 Podatci poznati autorima s istraivanja. DUEVIA GLAVICA
104
Od mukog pokojnika uzeti su uzorci za ana- cavations of the Liburnian necropolis in front
lizu 14C. Datiranje, koje je provedeno u Radicar- of the Venac hill-fort.3
bon Laboratory Poznan u Poljskoj ukazuje na Samples for the 14C analysis were taken
vremenski raspon od 1630. do 1450. g. pr. Kr. from the male skeleton. Dating which was con-
(sl. 4).4 Pokazalo se, meutim, da ukop u kame- ducted in the Radicarbon Laboratory Poznan
noj krinji nije primarni ukop u ovom tumulu. in Poland yielded the time span from 1630 to
Daljnjim iskopavanjem pronaen je jo jedan 1450 BC (Fig. 4).4 However it turned out that
sloj na kojem su, u sredini tumula, pronaeni the burial in the stone cist does not represent a
sitni ostatci spaljenih kostiju. primary burial in this tumulus. Further excava-
tions unearthed another layer in which small
remains of burnt bones were found in the mid-
dle of the tumulus.
This initial layer of raising the tumulus
which consists of the fill of small rocks covers
the surface of 10 x 8 m, approximately at the
level of the surrounding surface at the southern
side of the tumulus, about 1 m below the level
in which the stone cist grave was dug (Pl. III, 1).
Although its edges are somewhat irregular and
partially damaged at the eroded sides, it is evi-
dent that it was oval in shape. The tumulus was
Sl./ Fig. 4 Taj poetni sloj nasipanja tumula, koji tvori erected on the bedrock which was confirmed by
Rezultati
radiokarbonske
naboj od sitnog kamenja, zauzima povrinu od excavation of several trenches under it. There
analize osteolokih 10 x 8 m priblino u razini okolne povrine na are no signs of constructions on the fill, though
ostataka iz groba 6a junoj strani tumula, i priblino 1 m ispod ra- a stone slab placed vertically by its longer side
Results of the
radiocarbon analysis of zine na kojoj je ukopan grob u obliku kamene was found. Excavations around it did not yield
osteological remains krinje (T. III, 1). Iako su mu rubovi poneto any traces of funerary or any other construc-
from grave 6a
nepravilni i djelomino oteeni na erodira- tion. In its neighbourhood were tiny remains of
nim stranama, primjeuje se da je imao oval- hardly recognizable bones whose white colour
ni oblik. Nasip je podignut na zdravici, to je and fragmentary state indicated that these were
potvreno iskopavanjem nekoliko sondi ispod the burnt remains of a deceased person which
njega. Na samom nasipu nema naznaka kon- was subsequently confirmed by the anthropo-
strukcija, iako je pronaena jedna kamena plo- logical analysis (grave 10, Pl. III,1). There were
a postavljena okomito po svojoj dunoj strani, no traces of an urn in the vicinity. It seems that
ali istraivanjem oko nje nisu pronaene nika- they were simply put on the fill made of small
kve naznake koje bi ukazivale na grobnu ili bilo rocks which was followed by raising the tumu-
kakvu drugu konstrukciju. U njezinoj blizini lus. Greater concentration of small prehistoric
pronaeni su sitni ostatci teko prepoznatljivih pottery sherds was found only in the northern
kostiju, ija je bijela boja i usitnjenost ukazivala part of the fill which can be explained by ritual
da je rije o spaljenim ostatcima pokojnika, to breaking of pottery but since this was a periph-
je poslije potvrdila antropoloka analiza (grob eral part of the fill, this interpretation remains
10, T. III, 1). Uokolo njih nije bilo naznaka are. on the level of hypothesis.
ini se da su jednostavno postavljeni na nasip There are no definite 14C dates for the discov-
od sitnog kamenja, nakon ega je slijedilo nasi- ered bones, but considering the dating of the
pavanje tumula. Takoer nema jasnih tragova stone cist grave with inhumation to the 17-15th
obrednih radnji. Jedino je na sjevernom dijelu centuries BC, this primary grave i.e. the remains
nasipa pronaena vea koncentracija sitne pra- of burnt bones should be dated to an earlier pe-
povijesne keramike, to se moe protumaiti

3 Information known to the authors from the excavations.


4 Radiokarbonska analiza groba 6a (Poz-26317) pokazala je starost uzorka 4 Radiocarbon analysis of the sample from grave 6a (Poz-26317) yielded
Karla Gusar 372035BP, a kalibrirana datacija iznosi 1630-1450 BC sa 95,4 % vjerojat- an age of 372035BP, with calibrated dating of 1630-1450 BC with 95,4 %
Dario Vujevi nosti. Za kalibraciju je koriten OxCal 3.10. probability. OxCal 3.10 was used for calibration.
105
ritualnim razbijanjem posua, ali kako je rije riod, most probably to the Early Bronze Age.
o rubnom dijelu nasipa, to tumaenje moramo Two pottery sherds were found near the bones.
uzeti s rezervom. The first fragment belonged to a vessel with an
Za pronaene kosti nema sigurnih 14C datu- everted funnel-shaped rim on which transition
ma, ali s obzirom na datiranje groba od kamenih to neck was emphasized by a groove. This frag-
ploa s inhumacijskim ukopom u razdoblje 17.- ment is similar to vessels of the Cetina culture by
15. st. pr. Kr., ovaj bi primarni grob, tj. ostat- its fabric and characteristics. Dating to the Early
ke spaljenih kostiju, trebalo datirati ranije, po Bronze Age seems adequate knowing that a sim-
svemu sudei u rano bronano doba. U blizini ilar situation appears in the neighbourhood, in
kostiju pronaena su dva fragmenta keramike. the tumulus of Mala glavica in Podvrje where .
Prvi je fragment posude s ukoso razgrnutim Batovi found the remains of burnt corpses laid
obodom kod kojega je prijelaz prema vratu na- on the ground without any vessel functioning as
glaen lijebom. Taj fragment svojom fakturom an urn and dated them to the Early Bronze Age.5
i znaajkama podsjea na profile posuda cetin- The other pottery fragment is similar to finds
ske kulture. Datiranje u rano bronano doba from the Early Bronze Age in Istria by its fabric,
ini se dosta realnim kada znamo da se slina profile and x-shaped handle.
situacija javlja u blizini, na tumulu Mala glavica Out of nine early medieval burials five
u Podvrju, gdje je . Batovi pronaao ostatke graves were clearly visible (graves 1, 6, 7, 8, 9),
spaljenih pokojnika poloenih na tlo bez kori- whereas four more graves with only small frag-
tenja bilo kakve posude kao urne i datirao ih u ments of human bones were found at the periph-
rano bronano doba.5 Drugi fragment keramike ery of the fill (graves 2, 3, 4, 5) (Pl. I). Skeletal
fakturom, profilom i x-drkom podsjea na izra- remains were preserved in eight of them (graves
evine ranoga bronanog doba u Istri. 1-5, 7-9), and some of them contained grave
Od devet ranosrednjovjekovnih ukopa jasno goods (graves 1, 9). In one of the graves were only
se uoavalo pet grobova (grobovi 1, 6, 7, 8, 9), grave goods without skeletal remains (grave 6).
dok su se na periferiji nasipa nalazila jo eti- Earthen pit of four graves is partially (graves 1,
ri groba, od kojih su sauvani samo mali fra- 6) or for the most part enclosed with undressed
gmenti ljudskih kostiju (grobovi 2, 3, 4, 5) (T. stones (graves 7, 9) arranged in one or more rows
I). U osam su se sauvali ostatci skeleta (gro- whereas only one stone was found with the re-
bovi 1-5, 7-9), u nekima od njih i grobni prilozi mains of a skeleton in two graves (graves 5, 9). It
(gr. 1, 9), dok su se jednom grobu nalazili samo is not possible to determine the characteristics of
prilozi, a ostatci skeleta nisu sauvani (grob 6). the remaining three burials due to poor state of
Kod etiri groba zemljana raka je djelomino their preservation (graves 2-4). In graves which
(grobovi 1, 6) ili veim dijelom ograena neo- were preserved better it is evident that these were
braenim kamenjem (grobovi 7, 9) uslojenim individual burials in which the deceased persons
u jednom ili vie redova, dok je kod dva groba were laid on their back with arms extended along
uz ostatke skeleta pronaen samo jedan kamen the body. Orientation of the graves depended
(grobovi 5, 9). Za ostala tri ukopa izgled gro- on their position in the tumulus. Anthropologi-
bova nije mogue utvrditi zbog loeg stupnja cal analysis of osteological remains revealed that
njihove sauvanosti (grobovi 2-4). Kod bolje during the Early Middle Ages three female per-
ouvanih grobova vidljivo je da se radi o po- sons, one male and one infant were buried in this
jedinanim ukopima kod kojih su pokojnici u tumulus whereas it was impossible to determine
rake bili poloeni na lea s rukama ispruenim the gender of the others.
uz tijelo, dok je sama orijentacija grobova ovi- Bigger part of the skeleton of a female per-
sila o njihovu poloaju na humku. Antropolo- son was preserved in grave 1. Two large un-
kom analizom osteolokih ostataka utvreno je dressed stones were placed next to her legs
da su tijekom ranog srednjeg vijeka na ovom (one stone on each side). A ceramic vessel was
humku bili sahranjeni: tri enska, jedan muki found next to the left femur of the deceased (Pl.
II, 1). Out of grave 6 only a part of architecture

DUEVIA GLAVICA
5 . BATOVI, 2002. 5 . BATOVI, 2002. DUEVIA GLAVICA
106

i jedan djeji pokojnik, dok ostalima spol nije consisting of a row of irregular stones was recov-
bilo mogue utvrditi. ered with grave goods in it (Pl. II, 2). Remains of
U grobu 1 sauvao se vei dio skeleta enske the skeleton were not preserved. Since this grave
osobe kojem su uz noge bila postavljena dva was very close to the geodetic point, it was prob-
vea neobraena kamena (sa svake strane po ably destroyed by its digging. Grave goods consist
jedan), a uz lijevu bedrenu kost pokojnice nala- of a ceramic vessel, a small knife and a belt set
zila se keramika posuda (T. II, 1). Od groba 6 consisting of two bronze pendants and an iron
preostao je samo dio arhitekture raen od jed- ring. Grave 7 was lined with smaller and larger
nog reda nepravilnog kamenja i prilozi unutar undressed stones arranged in three rows. It con-
njega (T. II, 2). Ostatci skeleta nisu sauvani, a tained the remains of a male person (Pl. II, 3). An
kako je grob bio u neposrednoj blizini geodet- iron knife was found west of this grave. In grave
ske toke, vjerojatno je uniten njezinim uko- 8 the only preserved part of the skeleton is the
pavanjem. U grobu su pronaeni keramika skull on whose left side was a larger undressed
posuda, noi i pojasna garnitura koja se sastoji stone (Pl. I). In grave 9 a female skeleton was en-
od dva bronana privjeska i eljezne alke. Grob closed with a row of larger stones on all sides (Pl.
7 bio je obzidan veim i manjim neobraenim II, 4). A ceramic vessel was found next to her legs,
kamenjem uslojenim u tri reda, a unutar njega and on the left side near the waist were traces of
naeni su ostatci muke osobe (T. II, 3). Zapad- completely corroded iron object which was not
no od ovoga groba pronaen je eljezni no. U preserved but we can assume that it was an iron
grobu 8 jedini sauvani dio skeleta predstavlja knife on the basis of its contours and position in
lubanja kojoj se s lijeve strane nalazio vei ne- the grave. Only small bone fragments (Pl. I) were
obraeni kamen (T. I). Kod groba 9 skelet je sa preserved of the remaining graves (2, 3, 4 and 5).
svih strana bio okruen jednim redom veeg Identical course of burials can be noticed in
kamenja (T. II, 4). Rije je o enskoj osobi kojoj the profiles of the tumulus where we can distin-
je uz noge pronaena keramika posuda, a uz guish three phases of the fill formation (Fig. 5,
lijevu stranu u visini pojasa bili su vidljivi tra- Pl. III, 2). The first or the earliest phase from the
govi potpuno korodiranoga eljeznog predme- Early Bronze Age, actually the original tumulus,
ta. Kako sam predmet nije sauvan, prema tra- consists of three layers. The lower layer refers
govima njegovih obrisa i poloaju unutar groba to the fill of small rocks placed on the bedrock
mogue je pretpostaviti da je rije o eljeznom on which the burnt remains of the deceased per-
nou. Od ostalih grobova (2, 3, 4 i 5) sauvani son were laid. A thinner layer of light, pure soil
su samo sitni ulomci kostiju (T. I). is above it, covering the burnt remains. A thin,
Ovakav slijed ukapanja jasno se zamjeu- almost white interlayer separates this layer from
je i na profilima tumula, gdje se razlikuju tri a layer of dark soil falling towards the periphery
faze formiranja nasipa (sl. 5, T. III, 2). Prvu of the tumulus. This layer might represent the
ili najraniju fazu iz ranog bronanog doba, za- last layer of the original tumulus fill. Its darker
pravo prvotni tumul tvorila bi tri sloja. Donji color could be related to exposure to atmospher-
sloj bi predstavljao nasip od sitnog kamenja ic agents and organic material for a while which
postavljen na zdravicu na kojega su poloeni is logical if it really was the surface of the origi-
spaljeni ostatci pokojnika. Iznad njega slije- nal tumulus.
di tanji sloj svijetle, iste zemlje, nasut nepo- The next phase of the tumulus fill is marked
sredno iznad spaljenih ostataka. On je tankim by a layer of pure and compact soil, somewhat
proslojem gotovo bijele boje odijeljen od sloja darker than the layer of the first fill, which is
tamnije zemlje, koji pada prema periferiji tu- actually the fill of the tumulus after the stone
mula, a mogao bi predstavljati posljednji sloj cist grave was built, which elevated the tumu-
nasipanja prvotnog tumula. Njegova tamnija lus for ca. 1,50 m.
boja ukazivala bi na izloenost atmosferilijama Finally there is the third layer which is not
i organskom materijalu neko vrijeme, to je lo- so much different regarding its color, but in its
gino pod pretpostavkom da je tvorio povrinu compactness, representing a part of the former
prvotnoga tumula. fill which was disturbed by medieval burials.
Karla Gusar Depth of the fill portion which was disturbed
Dario Vujevi
107

Sljedeu fazu nasipavanja oznaava sloj i- by medieval burials is best illustrated by the Sl./ Fig. 5
Sjeverni i zapadni
ste i kompaktne zemlje, neto tamnije boje find of a knife at the depth of 1 m, i.e. some profil u kvadrantu I
od sloja prvog nasipanja, to je zapravo nasip twenty centimeters below the level of the near- Northern and western
tumula nakon to je podignut grob u kamenoj by medieval grave at the level of the bottom of profile in quadrant I

krinji, ime je visina humka podignuta za ot- the prehistoric burial in the stone cist.
prilike 1,50 m. As far as prehistoric finds are concerned, 89
Na kraju slijedi trei sloj, koji se ne razliku- pottery sherds exhibiting characteristics of the
je toliko po boji koliko po kompaktnosti, a koji Bronze Age were found at the tumulus. Most
predstavlja dio prethodnog nasipa koji je po- sherds could not be conjoined due to their frag-
remeen srednjovjekovnim ukopima. O dubini mentary state, but it is clear that there was a
dijela nasipa koji je bio zahvaen srednjovjekov- small number of vessels. The finds were not
nim ukopima najbolje govori i pronalazak noa distributed regularly, but their position in the
na dubini od 1 m, tj. dvadesetak cm ispod razine fill indicates that they did not function as grave
oblinjega srednjovjekovnoga groba i u razini goods. Only an accumulation of pottery on the
dna prapovijesnog ukopa u kamenoj krinji. northern edge od the fill consisting of small
to se tie nalaza koji pripadaju prapovi- stones stands out. Though sherds are scarce,
jesnim razdobljima, na tumulu je sakupljeno these finds are regularly associated with break-
89 ulomaka keramike koji pokazuju znaaj- ing of pottery in the funerary rituals.
ke bronanog doba. Veinu ulomaka nije bilo Out of recognizable sherds, there were frag-
mogue spojiti, prije svega zbog usitnjenosti, ments of strap handles with elongated oval
no jasno je da se radi o manjem broju posuda. cross-section and one with round cross-sec-
Nema ni nekih pravila u rasporedu nalaza, ali tion, and two fragments of the vessels rim (one
njihov poloaj u nasipu ukazuje da nisu bile u is concavely everted and the other belongs to a
funkciji grobnih priloga. Izdvaja se tek naku- more closed vessel; Pl. IV, 1-4).
pina keramike na sjevernom rubu nasipa od In the fill which is related to the first phase of
sitnog kamenja. Iako fragmenti nisu brojni, burial i.e. the layer related to the burnt remains
ovakvi nalazi se redovito vezuju uz razbijanje of the deceased, there were fragments of two ves-
posua prilikom pogrebnih obreda. sels which might belong to the Early Bronze Age
DUEVIA GLAVICA
judging from their characteristics. Fabric of both DUEVIA GLAVICA
108
Od prepoznatljivih dijelova posuda prona- vessels is archaic, with small calcite inclusions
eni su fragmenti trakastih drki izduenog which were not added subsequently but they
ovalnog presjeka i jedne okruglog presjeka, te were a component of the natural raw material.
dva fragmenta oboda posude (jedan je konkav- On the first vessel the rim is slanted with
no izvijen, a drugi pripada posudi zatvorenije sharp transition to the shoulder, and the recipi-
forme; T. IV, 1-4). ent has slightly biconical form. Strap x-shaped
U nasipu vezanom uz I. fazu ukapanja, tj. handle connects the rim with the shoulder of
sloj koji se vee uz spaljene ostatke pokojni- the vessel (Pl. IV, 5, Fig. 6). Form and x-shaped
ka pronaeni su fragmenti dviju posude koje handle make the fragment from Duevia glavi-
svojim znaajkama mogu pripadati ranom ca similar to artifacts from the Early Bronze
bronanom dobu. Faktura obje posude je ar- Age in Istria or the Cetina culture. On the tu-
haina, sa sitnim zrncima vapnenca koja nisu mulus in amnjak a vessel was found with a
naknadno dodavana, nego su sastavni dio pri- pronounced rim and a slanted neck with four
rodne sirovine. stap x-shaped handles which are characteris-
Kod prve obod posude je koso poloen s tic of the 2nd phase of the Early Bronze Age in
otrim prijelazom prema ramenu, a recipijent Istria. Its profile is most similar to the vessel
ima blagu bikoninu formu. Trakasta X-drka from Krneza. It is interesting to notice that for
postavljena je od oboda do ramena posude (T. now in Istria there are no indications that these
IV, 5, sl. 6). Svojom formom i X-drkom fra- vessels were used in everyday life but they were
gment iz Duevia glavice podsjea na sline related to burials.6 X-shaped handles also ap-
izraevine ranoga bronanog doba Istre ili ce- pear in the Cetina culture from the 1st phase,
tinske kulture. Na tumulu u amnjaku prona- but they are more frequent in the 2nd phase.7
ena je zdjela izvuenog oboda i kosog vrata sa Of the other vessel only a slanted rim was pre-
4 trakaste X-drke, koje su inae karakteristi- served. It was found near the burnt bones (Pl.
ne za II. fazu ranoga bronanog doba Istre, koja IV, 6). At the bottom of the fragment is a groove
svojim profilom najvie podsjea na posudu iz which divided the rim from the neck of the ves-
Krneze. Zanimljivo je da za sada u Istri nema sel. It also corresponds to the artifacts from the
Sl./ Fig. 6
nikakvih naznaka koritenja ovakvih posuda u
Idealna rekonstrukcija svakodnevnom ivotu, nego su one vezane uz
posude s x-drkom pokope.6 X-drke javljaju se takoer i u cetin-
Ideal reconstruction
of vessel with skoj kulturi jo od I. stupnja, ali su puno ee
X-shaped handles zastupljene u II. stupnju.7
Od druge posude sauvan je samo koso izvi-
jen obod pronaen u blizini spaljenih kostiju Sl./ Fig. 7
(T. IV, 6). Na dnu fragmenta primjeuje se li- Bronana igla
Bronze pin
jeb kojim je obod bio odvojen od vrata posude.
Znaajkama takoer odgovara izraevinama

Karla Gusar 6 B. OVI, 1983, 126. 6 B. OVI, 1983, 126.


Dario Vujevi 7 I. MAROVI B. OVI, 1983, 213. 7 I. MAROVI B. OVI, 1983, 213.
109
ranog bronanog doba Istre i izraevinama Early Bronze Age in Istria, and artifacts of the
II. faze cetinske kulture, kada cetinski pehari 2nd phase of the Cetina culture when the Cetina
i posude poprimaju klasian oblik s iskoenim beakers and vessels take their classical form with
obodom koji je od vrata uvijek odijeljen udu- a slanted rim which is always separated from the
bljenom linijom i ima jednu trakastu X-drku neck by a groove and has one strap x-shaped han-
koja poinje ispod te linije.8 dle which starts under that groove.8
Od metalnih predmeta u gornjem dijelu na- Metal objects in the upper part of the tumu-
sipa tumula pronaena je igla s punolijevanom lus fill are represented with a pin with solid cast
bikoninom glavom i proirenim vratom (sl. 7, biconical head and a widened neck (Fig. 7, Pl.
T. V, 1). Po vratu je ukraena nizom paralelnih V, 1). Its neck is decorated by a row of paral-
ravnih i cik-cak linija. Igle slinih znaajka pro- lel straight and zig-zag lines. Pins with similar
naene su u Varvari i Biljanima Donjim i dati- characteristics were found in Varvara and Bil-
raju se u razliite faze bronanog doba.9 B. o- jane Donje and they are dated to different phas-
vi je pretpostavio da je, kod nalaza s Varvare, es of the Bronze Age.9 B. ovi assumed that
rije o jednom lokalnom proizvodu kod kojeg the find from Varvara was a local product with
je vidljiva starija tradicija igala s perforiranim evident earlier tradition of pins with perforated
zadebljanim vratom i utjecaji igala s velikom thickened neck and influences of pins with big
bikoninom glavom iz rane faze kulture polja biconical head from the early phase of the Urn-
sa arama.10 Slini predmeti pronaeni su i u field culture.10 Similar objects were found in the
ostavama kulture polja sa arama (npr. Kal- hoards of the Urnfield culture (e.g. Kalnik) from
nik) iz III. faze.11 S obzirom na poloaj igle u the 3rd phase.11 Considering the position of the
nasipu, injenice da nasip prvotnog ukopa sa pin in the fill, the facts that the fill of the origi-
spaljenim kostima nije uniten, te djelomino nal burial with burnt bones was not destroyed
dislociranih kostiju iz prapovijesnoga groba u and that bones from the prehistoric grave in the
kamenoj krinji, moe se pretpostaviti da ova stone cist were partially dislocated, it is reason-
igla potjee upravo iz tog groba, samo je dislo- able to assume that this pin was found in that
cirana kasnijim radovima u srednjem vijeku i grave, but later works in the Middle Ages and
ukopavanjem geodetske toke. digging of geodetic point dislocated it.
Pronaen je i fragment tordiranog predme- A fragment of a twisted object was also found
ta (T. V, 5). Prema sauvanom dijelu nije mo- (Pl. V, 5). It is difficult to say what kind of ob-
gue sa sigurnou govoriti o vrsti predmeta, ject it was judging from the preserved part, al-
premda po debljini i nainu ukrasa moe biti though it might be a fragment of a fibulas pin
rije o fragmentu igle ili luku fibule. Obje vrste or a bow on the basis of thickness and decora-
predmeta imaju svoju analogiju u predmetima tion. Both kinds of objects have their analogies
iz kulture polja sa arama ve od II. faze.12 in the objects from the Urnfield culture from
Na rubnim dijelovima pronaeni su fra- the 2nd phase onwards.12
gmenti bronanih narebrenih predmeta (T. V, Fragments of bronze ribbed objects were
2-4). Po oblikovanju mogla bi biti rije o dijelo- found at peripheral parts (T. V, 2-4). By their
vima iroko otvorenih narukvica od bronanog fashioning these might be parts of wide open
lima izvana narebrenih i izbrazdanih. Do sada bracelets made of bronze sheet which are
je sa ireg podruja poznato 11 primjeraka sa 6 ribbed and grooved on the outside. Eleven ex-
nalazita, od kojih su dvije pronaene u Vrsi- amples of such bracelets have been found so far
ma, a jedna u Privlaci.13 Ovakav tip narukvica in the neighbouring region at six sites of which
javlja se na glasinakom podruju od vremena two in Vrsi and one in Privlaka.13 This type of
bracelet is represented in the Glasinac region
from the period of the Middle Bronze Age.14 In

8 I. MAROVI B. OVI, 1983, 213.


8 I. MAROVI B. OVI, 1983, 213. 9 R. DRESCHLER-BII, 1983; . BATOVI, 1981, 96.
9 R. DRESCHLER-BII, 1983; . BATOVI, 1981, 96. 10 B. OVI, 1978, 75-76.
10 B. OVI, 1978, 75-76. 11 K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1973, 180, T.93, 16.
11 K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1973, 180, T. 93, 16 12 K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1973.
12 K. VINSKI-GASPARINI, 1973. 13 . BATOVI, 1983a, 311. DUEVIA GLAVICA
13 . BATOVI, 1983a, 311. 14 R. DRESCHLER-BII, 1983, 263. DUEVIA GLAVICA
110
srednje bronce,14 a na podruju Liburnije vei- the Liburnia region they are usually dated to
nom se datiraju u kasno bronano doba.15 the Late Bronze Age.15
Nalazi ranosrednjovjekovnoga razdoblja ugla Finds of the early medieval period mostly
vnom se odnose na grobne priloge, dok je ma- refer to grave goods whereas less finds were
nji dio nalaza pronaen izmeu grobova (T. I). discovered between the graves (Pl. I). In both
U oba sluaja rije je o keramikim posudama cases these were ceramic vessels and metal ob-
i metalnim predmetima poput noeva, dijelova jects such as knives, parts of a belt set and frag-
pojasne garniture i ulomaka bronane ice. ments of bronze wire.
Prilozima najbogatiji je grob 6, u kojem su Grave 6 is the richest in finds containing
pronaeni keramika posuda, dio noia i po- a ceramic vessel, a part of a small knife and a
jasna garnitura (sl. 8-9, T. II, 2, T. VI.). Kera- belt set (Fig. 8-9, Pl. II, 2, Pl. VI.). The ceramic
mika posuda ima jajolik oblik i kratak ljevkast vessel has an ovoid form and a short, funnel-
vrat koji zavrava zaobljenim obodom izvije- shaped neck ending in a rounded everted rim
nim prema van (T. VI, 5). Posuda je najira u (Pl. VI, 5). The vessel is the widest in the upper
gornjoj polovini trbuha. Nije ukraena, tamno- half of the belly. It is dark grey, undecorated and
sive je boje i ujednaeno je peena. Na vratu evenly fired. Horizontal traces of the potters
posude vide se vodoravni tragovi nastali povla- hand are visible on the neck of the vessel re-
enjem ruke lonara prilikom oblikovanja vra- sulting from the hand movements while he was
ta i oboda. Posuda vjerojatno pripada vremenu shaping the neck and the rim. The vessel prob-
8. stoljea, a sline joj forme nalazimo na dal- ably belongs to the 8th century period. Similar
matinskim nekropolama poganskog horizonta forms were found at the Dalmatian necropoles
Materiza i drijac u Ninu.16 Od eljeznog noia of the pagan horizon Materiza and drijac in
ouvale su se otrica i dio baze drke (T. VI, 4). Nin.16 A blade and a part of the bases handle
Posebnu zanimljivost predstavlja pojasna gar- were preserved of the small iron knife (Pl. VI,
nitura, koja se sastoji od eljezne alke, te dva 4). The belt set is particularly interesting con-
bronana privjeska raena lijevanjem. elje- sisting of an iron ring and two bronze pendants
zna alka ima kvadratian oblik sa zaobljenim made by casting. Iron ring has a square form
kutovima (T. VI, 3). Jedan bronani privjesak with rounded edges (Pl. VI, 3). One bronze
sastoji se od donjeg krunog dijela koji je radi- pendant consists of a lower round part which is
jalno narebren i gornjeg dijela u obliku slova T ribbed radially and a T-shaped upper part with
s dva kraka izvijena prema van (T. VI, 2). Kra- two outstretched arms (Pl. VI, 2). Arms resem-
kovi podsjeaju na ivotinjske figure okrenute ble animal figures touching with their backs,
leima jedna drugoj, a njihovi zavretci na sti- and their ends are similar to stylized animal
lizirane ivotinjske glave. Izmeu ta dva kraka, heads. Between these two arms i.e. figures is a
tj. figura nalazi se kruna rupica koja je vjero- round hole which was probably used for sus-
jatno sluila za vjeanje. Drugi privjesak je po- pension. The other pendant is semicircular,
lukrunog oblika, a na dnu su mu aplicirana tri with three circles applied at the bottom (Pl.
kruga (T. VI, 1). Unutranjost privjeska je per- VI, 1). The interior of the pendant is perforat-
forirana i ukraena stiliziranim motivima tri ed and decorated with stylized motifs of three
riblje ljuske kojima se sa svake strane nalazi po fish scales which have a kidney-shaped perfo-
jedna bubreasta perforacija. Na gornjem luku ration on each side. Remains of a row of tiny
privjeska vidljiv je ostatak niza sitnih kruia. circlets are visible on the upper arch of the pen-
Iznad ovog dijela nalaze se dva zavretka izme- dant. Above this part are two endings between
u kojih je kruni otvor. Danas je nejasno je li which is a round opening. The ends look like
ovakvo oblikovanje zavretaka, koji izgledaju antithetically placed birds heads which almost
poput stiliziranih antitetino postavljenih pti- touch with their beaks and the opening does
jih glava koje se gotovo dodiruju kljunovima i not make a complete circle. At present it is not
otvora koji ne ini puni krug, posljedica izvor- clear whether such shaping is a consequence

14 R. DRESCHLER-BII, 1983, 263.


Karla Gusar 15 . BATOVI, 1983a, 311. 15 . BATOVI, 1983a, 311.
Dario Vujevi 16 J. BELOEVI, 1962, T. II/2-2a, T. V/2-2a; 2007, T. LXIV/2. 16 J. BELOEVI, 1962, T. II/2-2a, T. V/2-2a; 2007, T. LXIV/2.
111
nog oblikovanja ili istroenosti zbog upotrebe. of the original fashioning or of being worn out.
Tragovi koritenja, odnosno izlizanosti prisut- Traces of use, i.e. of being worn out are visible
ni su i na tri kruga na donjem dijelu privjeska. on three circles on the lower part of the pen-
Privjesak je lijevan, a dekoracija sitnih kruia dant. The pendant was cast, and the decoration
na luku zapravo imitira tehniku granulacije. U of the tiny circlets on the arch is actually imi- Sl./ Fig. 8
Keramika posuda
literaturi se osim kao privjesci, ovakvi nalazi tating granulation technique. Such pendants iz groba 6
tumae i kao okovi pojasa, s kojih je najvjero- are also interpreted as belt fittings which could Ceramicvesselfrom
grave 6
jatnije visio jo niz predmeta koji su mogli biti have suspended other objects, probably organ-
organskog porijekla, pa kao takvi nisu sauvani ic which is why they were not preserved or they Sl./ Fig. 9
Pojasna garnitura
ili su otpali.17 S obzirom na istroenost donjeg had fallen off.17 This seems plausible consider-
iz groba 6
dijela naeg primjerka ovo bismo mogli uzeti ing the fact that the lower part of our example Belt set from grave 6
kao vjerojatnu mogunost. Oba privjeska (ili is quite worn out. Both pendants (or fittings)
okova) ine stilsku cjelinu, koja je vidljiva u na- make a stylistic unity which is recognizable in
inu njihova oblikovanja. the way of their fashioning.

Prvi privjesak pripada tipu do sada nezabi- The first pendant belongs to the type which
ljeenom meu hrvatskim materijalom. Kom- has not been recorded among Croatian mate-
parativne primjerke nalazimo u Maarskoj,18 rial. Comparative examples can be found in
Slovakoj19 i Albaniji meu nalazima kulture Hungary,18 Slovakia,19 and Albania among the
Koman-Kruje (Kalaja Dalmaces), koji se da- finds of the Komani-Kruje culture (Kalaja Dal-
tiraju u 7. i 8. stoljee20. Primjerak s Duevia maces) dated to the 7th and 8th centuries.20
glavice najvie slinosti pokazuje s maarskim The example from Duevia glavica exhibits
nalazom s lokaliteta Keszthely koji, za razliku most similarities with the Hungarian find from
od naeg, ima gladak obru, a zavretci gornjeg the site of Keszthely which has a smooth ring
dijela neto su krai i nepravilniji od naeg, as opposed to our specimen, and the ends of
te ne podsjeaju toliko na ivotinjske figure.21 the upper part are somewhat shorter and less
Ostali maarski kao i slovaki primjerci sastoje regular than our example, and they do not re-
se uglavnom od trapezaste uice na gornjem di- semble animal figures.21 The remaining Hun-
jelu, te krune karike na donjem dijelu na koju garian and Slovakian examples mostly consist
mogu biti aplicirane i dvije stilizirane ptije fi- of a trapezoidal loopin the upper part and a
gure.22 Slinu ideju oblikovanja nalazimo kod round ring in the lower part to which two styl-

17 E. GARAM, 1980, 1980; . JANKOVI, 2007, 199, sl. 197.


18 J. HAMPEL, 1905, 340, Fig. 868, Fig. 873-874. 17 E. GARAM, 1980, 1980; . JANKOVI, 2007, 199, Fig. 197.
19 . JANKOVI, 2007, 201, sl. 199/7. 18 J. HAMPEL, 1905, 340, Fig. 868, Fig. 873-874.
20 S. ANAMALI, 1971, T. XIV; H. SPAHIU, 1971, T. VIII/1-3, F. PRENDI, 1980, T. 19 . JANKOVI, 2007, 201, fig. 199/7.
XXII/1-2. 20 S. ANAMALI, 1971, T. XIV; H. SPAHIU, 1971, T. VIII/1-3, F. PRENDI, 1980, T.
21 J. HAMPEL, 1905, Fig. 873. XXII/1-2. DUEVIA GLAVICA
22 J. HAMPEL, 1905, Fig. 868, Fig. 874; . JANKOVI, 2007, sl. 199/7. 21 J. HAMPEL, 1905, Fig. 873. DUEVIA GLAVICA
112
albanskih primjera pronaenih u nekropolama ized bird figures can be applied.22 A similar idea
u Bukelu,23 Kalaji Dalmaces24 i Ljeu.25 Uglav- of shaping an object can be found in Albanian
nom se sastoje od krune karike i trapezaste examples from the necropoles in Bukel, 23 Kala-
uice, a na karici se pojavljuju dva izdanka ili ja Dalmaces24 and Lezh.25 They mostly consist
nekoliko njih u obliku stiliziranih ptica,26 dok of a round ring and a trapezoidal hook. On the
se kod nekih primjeraka unutar karike pojav- ring are two or more extensions in the form of
ljuje etveronona ivotinja.27 stylized birds, 26 whereas on some examples a
to se tie drugog privjeska, na tlu Dalma- four-legged animal appears within a ring.27
cije do sada je pronaeno pet primjeraka ovog As for the other pendant, five pendants
tipa,28 dok se izvan Hrvatske ovi nalazi pojav- of this type have been found in Dalmatia,28
ljuju na nalazitima Koman kulture u Albaniji,29 whereas outside Croatia these pendants appear
Makedoniji30 i Crnoj Gori.31 on the sites of the Koman culture in Albania,29
U Dalmaciji su slina dva primjerka pro- Macedonia30 and Montenegro.31
naena na grobljima Kai-Maklinovo brdo32 In Dalmatia two similar examples were
i Stankovci-Velim,33 jedan je otkriven u gro- found at the necropoles Kai-Maklinovo
bu u Stonu,34 jedan potjee iz Drvenika kod brdo32 and Stankovci-Velim,33 one was found in
Makarske,35 dok je primjerku koji se uva u Ar- a grave in Ston,34 one originates from Drvenik
heolokome muzeju u Splitu mjesto nalaza ne- near Makarska,35 whereas the findspot for the
poznato.36 Na primjerak najvee slinosti po- example kept in the Archaeological Museum
kazuje sa stonskim, koji je poneto nepravilnije in Split is unknown.36 Our example exhibits
izrade i iji se sredinji dio takoer sastoji od most similarities with the find from Ston which
tri ljuskaste i dvije bubreaste perforacije, no is fashioned less regularly, but its middle part
za razliku od njega ovaj na vanjskom luku ima also has three scaly and two kidney-shaped
niz radijalnih ureza, a ne kruia.37 Kod ovog perforations. As opposed to our example this
primjerka gornji dio privjeska ili okova obliko- one has a row of radial cuts instead of circlets
van je poput nasuprotno postavljenih ptijih on the outer arch.37 On this example the upper
glava koje se ne dodiruju, tj. ne formiraju uicu part of the pendant or fitting was formed as
za vjeanje. Daljnje paralele nalazimo u Albani- antithetically placed birds heads which do not
ji na nalazitu Kalaja Dalmaces s kojeg potjee touch each other, i.e. they do not form a sus-
nekoliko privjesaka ovog tipa. Jedan od njih pension loop. Further parallels can be found in
ima gotovo istovjetno oblikovan sredinji dio s Albania at the site of Kalaja Dalmaces where
lukom s pseudogranuliranim tokicama, no na several pendants of this type were found. One
luku se javlja jo est manjih perforiranih kru- of them has almost identically shaped middle
gova, a na donjem dijelu umjesto tri vea kruga part with an arch with pseudogranulated dots,
ima dva reda manjih.38 Nain oblikovanja gor- but there are six smaller perforated circles on

23 S. ANAMALI, 1971, T. XIV. 22 J. HAMPEL, 1905, Fig. 868, Fig. 874; . JANKOVI, 2007, Fig. 199/7.
24 H. SPAHIU, 1971, T. VIII/1-3. 23 S. ANAMALI, 1971, T. XIV.
25 F. PRENDI, 1980, T. XXII/1-2. 24 H. SPAHIU, 1971, T. VIII/1-3.
26 S. ANAMALI, 1971, T. XIV; H. SPAHIU, 1971, T. VIII/5; F. PRENDI, 1980, T. 25 F. PRENDI, 1980, T. XXII/1-2.
XXII/1-2. 26 S. ANAMALI, 1971, T. XIV; H. SPAHIU, 1971, T. VIII/5; F. PRENDI, 1980, T.
27 H. SPAHIU, 1971, T. VIII/1, 3. XXII/1-2.
28 J. BELOEVI 1980, 92-93, T. XXXV/10; A. MILOEVI 1989; M. PETRINEC 27 H. SPAHIU, 1971, T. VIII/1, 3.
2007; R. JURI 2007, 221, T. 3/2. 28 J. BELOEVI 1980, 92-93, T. XXXV/10; A. MILOEVI 1989; M. PETRINEC
29 T. IPPEN, 1901, 605, sl. 3/4a-b; H. SPAHIU, 1971, T. VIII/4, 6-8; F. PRENDI, 2007; R. JURI 2007, 221, T. 3/2.
1980, gr. 32, T. XII - slika gore lijevo, T. XXII/4. 29 T. IPPEN, 1901, 605, sl. 3/4a-b; H. SPAHIU, 1971, T. VIII/4, 6-8; F. PRENDI,
30 V. MALENKO, 1985, 269-308, T. XVIII/4; E. MANEVA, 1992, T. 4, 86/2; 2005, 1980, gr. 32, T. XII picture upward left T. XXII/4.
cat. 5. 30 V. MALENKO, 1985, 269-308, T. XVIII/4; E. MANEVA, 1992, T. 4, 86/2; 2005,
31 M. ZAGARANIN, 2008, 47, sl. 104/4. Crnogorski privjesak pronaen je cat. 5.
1928. kao sluajni nalaz u Mijeli kod Virpazara, te predan arheologu Pavlu 31 M. ZAGARANIN, 2008, 47, Fig. 104/4. The Montenegrin pendant was fo-
Mijoviu, koji ga je poklonio Zaviajnom muzeju u Baru u kojem je danas und in 1928 as a chance find in Mijela near Virpazar and it was given to
izloen. Ovaj vrijedan nalaz, do sada nepoznat iroj arheolokoj javnosti, the archaeologist Pavle Mijovi who donated it to the Regional Museum
publiciran je u magistarskoj radnji Ranosrednjovjekovna nekropola Mije- in Bar in which it is presently exhibited. This valuable find, which has not
la kod Virpazara Mladena Zagaranina, kojem ovom prilikom zahvaljujem been presented to the wider archaeological public, was published in the
na pomoi. masters thesis Early Medieval Necropolis Mijela near Virpazar by Mla-
32 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 92-93, T. XXXV/10; 1982, gr. 45, Y278. den Zagaranin to whom I would like to thank for his assistance.
33 R. JURI, 2007, 221, T. 3 slika dolje. 32 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 92-93, T. XXXV/10; 1982, gr. 45, Y278.
34 J. KOVAEVI, 1960, 25, sl. 43 ; A. MILOEVI, 1989, T. II/13. 33 R. JURI, 2007, 221, T. 3 picture downward.
35 A. MILOEVI, 1989, 349-350, T. I/2; S. BOEK, A. KUNAC, 1998, kat. 237. 34 J. KOVAEVI, 1960, 25, sl. 43 ; A. MILOEVI, 1989, T. II/13.
36 A. MILOEVI, 1989, 349, T. I/1. 35 A. MILOEVI, 1989, 349-350, T. I/2; S. BOEK - A. KUNAC, 1998, kat. 237.
Karla Gusar 37 J. KOVAEVI, 1960, sl. 43. 36 A. MILOEVI, 1989, 349, T. I/1.
Dario Vujevi 38 H. SPAHIU,1971, T. VIII/7. 37 J. KOVAEVI, 1960, fig. 43.
113
njeg dijela s antitetinim ptijim glavama vid- the arch, and on the lower part there are two
ljiv je na krunom privjesku s iste nekropole, rows of smaller circles instead of three larger
kojem kljunovi ptica takoer nisu spojeni i ne circles.38 The manner of fashioning the upper
tvore uicu, to je, ini se, bio sluaj i s naim part with antithetical birds heads is recog-
primjerkom.39 Sloenost i zanimljivost ukrasa nizable on the round pendant from the same
polukrunih privjesaka rezultirala je i pitanjem necropolis on which birds beaks are not con-
njihove ikonografske interpretacije. Prema nected and do not make a loop, which seemed
N. ausidisu vanjski luk simbolizirao bi nebo to be the case with our example.39 Complex-
iznad kojeg se nalazi kruni simbol solarnog ci- ity and curiosity of decorations of semicircu-
klusa okruenog dvjema ptijim glavama, dok lar pendants resulted in the question of their
se perforirani ljuskasti oblici u sreditu privje- iconographic interpretation. According to N.
ska tumae kao stilizirani prikaz kozmikog ausidis the outer arch symbolized heaven
stabla ivota sa svijenim granama.40 above which was a round symbol of solar cycle
Veina nalaza polukrunih privjesaka du surrounded with two birds heads whereas per-
istone jadranske obale povezuje se s nalazima forated scaly shapes in the middle of the pen-
Koman kulture rasprostranjene na tlu Albanije dant are interpreted as a stylized depiction of
i Makedonije od kraja 6. ili poetka 7. do poet- the cosmic tree of life with bent branches.40
ka 9. stoljea, o kojoj se dosta pisalo u arheo- Most of the finds of semicircular pendants
lokoj literaturi.41 Meutim, pitanje porijekla i along the eastern Adriatic coast were related
nastanka ove kulturne skupine jo uvijek nije to the finds of the Koman culture which was
rijeeno, kao ni etnika pripadnost njezinih represented in the regions of Albania and Mac-
nositelja. Meu brojnim teorijama o ovoj kul- edonia from the end of the 6th or beginning of
turi treba izdvojiti nekoliko osnovnih: od one the 7th to the early 9th century which was of-
o neromaniziranim antikim Ilirima kao nosi- ten discussed in the archaeological literature.41
teljima te kulture koja se formira uz odreene However the question of origin and formation
utjecaje Bizanta, preko one o bizantsko-roman- of this cultural group has not been solved suc-
skim nositeljima, odnosno kulturi rimsko-pro- cessfully as well as the question of ethnic affili-
vincijalne tradicije s bizantskim elementima ation of its members. There are many theories
do one o kulturi slavenskih znaajka.42 Jedna about this culture such as the one about non-
od novijih teza nositeljima ove kulture smatra Romanized ancient Illyrians as representatives
Crvene Hrvate, te ih usporeuje sa starohrvat- of this culture which was formed with certain
skom materijalnom kulturom, a komparacijom Byzantine influences. There is also the theory
s drugim nalazima diljem Europe pokuava se about Byzantine-Roman representatives of the
utvrditi njezino slavensko porijeklo.43 culture or the one about the culture of Roman-
Hrvatski nalazi do sada su se pripisivali Ko- provincial tradition with Byzantine elements,
man kulturi i datirali u 7. stoljee,44 tj. poetak and the theory about the culture with Slavic
8. stoljea s upitnom etnikom pripadnou po- characteristics.42 One of new theses is based on
kojnika u ijim je grobovima pronaen ovakav the consideration of Red Croats as the repre-
nalaz,45 a u novije vrijeme polukruni su pri- sentatives of this culture, comparing them with
vjesci determinirani kao proizvod bizantskih the early Croatian material culture. Compari-
radionica druge polovine 8. stoljea koji se u sons with other finds across Europe were used
starohrvatskim grobovima poganskog horizon- to try to determine its Slavic origin.43
ta pojavljuje kao i naunice istoga radionikog So far Croatian finds have been ascribed
kruga.46 Problematikom polukrunih privjesa- to the Koman culture and dated to the 7th
century,44 i.e. early 8th century with question-
39 H. SPAHIU,1971, T. VIII/3.
40 N. AUSIDIS, 2005a, 48; 2005b, A18/1-4. 38 H. SPAHIU,1971, T. VIII/7.
41 A. MILOEVI, 1989; E. MANEVA, 1996, 13. 39 H. SPAHIU,1971, T. VIII/3.
42 S. ANAMALI, 1971; H. SPAHIU, 1971; F. PRENDI, 1980; Z. VINSKI, 1971; I. 40 N. AUSIDIS, 2005a, 48; 2005b, A18/1-4.
RAJTERI SIVEC, 1976; V. POPOVI, 1988; J. KOROEC, 1953; V. MALENKO, 41 A. MILOEVI, 1989; E. MANEVA, 1996, 13.
1985; . JANKOVI, 2007; E. MANEVA, 1996. 42 S. ANAMALI, 1971; H. SPAHIU, 1971; F. PRENDI, 1980; Z. VINSKI, 1971; I.
43 . JANKOVI, 2007, 186, 195-204. RAJTERI SIVEC, 1976; V. POPOVI, 1988; J. KOROEC, 1953; V. MALENKO,
44 Z. VINSKI, 1971, 59; A. MILOEVI, 1989. 1985; . JANKOVI, 2007; E. MANEVA, 1996.
45 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 43 . JANKOVI, 2007, 186, 195-204. DUEVIA GLAVICA
46 M. PETRINEC, 2007. 44 Z. VINSKI, 1971, 59; A. MILOEVI, 1989. DUEVIA GLAVICA
114
ka u Hrvatskoj prvi se pozabavio Z. Vinski, koji able ethnic attribution of the deceased per-
ih je pripisao komanskoj kulturi za koju smatra sons who were interred with this type of find.45
da je kultura starosjedilakog stanovnitva 7. i Lately semicircular pendants were determined
8. stoljea, no ispravno postavlja pitanje udje- as the products of the Byzantine workshops of
la Slavena u njezinu formiranju.47 Nakon njega the second half of the 8th century appearing in
istom tematikom pozabavio se A. Miloevi, the early Croatian graves of the pagan horizon
koji je sve nalaze ovakvih primjeraka, prema as well as earrings from the same workshop
stonskome privjesku koji je pronaen u grobu circle.46 Z. Vinski was the first to deal with the
zajedno s bizantskom kopom tipa Balgota, da- problem of semicircular pendants in Croatia, as-
tirao u 7. stoljee, ukljuujui i onaj kaiki, a cribing them to the Koman culture. He believed
njihovim nositeljima smatra preivjelo kasno- this was the culture of the autochtonous popula-
antiko stanovnitvo.48 Takoer doputa i mo- tion of the 7th and 8th centuries but he right-
gunost kasnijeg koritenja ove kope u grobu fully questioned the contribution of Slavs in its
bez bitnog odmaka u datiranju ovih nalaza.49 formation.47 A. Miloevi dealt with the same
Meutim, posebno treba napomenuti da su od problem dating the finds of this type (including
hrvatskih nalaza do sada samo dva privjeska the example from Kai) to the 7th century on
pronaena u zatvorenim grobnim cjelinama the basis of the example from Ston which was
u sustavno istraenim starohrvatskim groblji- found in a grave together with a Byzantine belt
ma, a to su privjesci iz groblja Kai-Maklino- buckle of the Balgota type. In his opinion sur-
vo brdo te Stankovci-Velim, dok na primjerak viving late antique settlers were representatives
predstavlja trei nalaz. Okolnosti nalaza ostalih of this culture.48 He also allows the possibility of
privjesaka prilino su nejasne i veinom je ri- later use of this buckle in the grave without any
je o sluajnim nalazima iz unitenih grobova significant change in dating of these finds.49 It
ili nepoznatim mjestima pronalaska. M. Petri- is important to emphasize that out of Croatian
nec u najnovijoj analizi polukrune privjeske finds so far only two pendants were found in
smatra kulturnim dobrom kasnoantike, tj. ra- closed grave units in systematically excavated
nobizantske nonje, na osnovi prikaza jednog early Croatian cemeteries. These were pendants
privjeska na fresci u crkvi Santa Maria Antiqua from the necropoles Kai-Maklinovo brdo and
u Rimu, i smjeta ih u drugu polovinu 8. sto- Stankovci-Velim whereas our example repre-
ljea.50 Treba meutim istaknuti da je prikaz sents the third find. Circumstances of discover-
privjeska na spomenutoj fresci poprilino she- ing the remaining pendants are quite unclear as
matiziran i da vie podsjea na jedan drugaiji these were mostly chance finds from destroyed
primjerak pronaen u Makedoniji na lokalitetu graves or unknown findspots. M. Petrinec in the
Sv. Erazmo negoli na ijedan od hrvatskih nala- latest analysis of semicircular pendants states
za.51 Stoga ove nalaze treba promotriti u kon- they were cultural assets of the late antique i.e.
tekstu grobalja na kojima su naeni, barem kad early Byzantine attire on the basis of a depic-
je rije o sustavno istraenim lokalitetima. tion of the pendant on a fresco in the church of
Groblje u Kaiu datira se u 8. st. i prvu polo- Santa Maria Antiqua in Rome, dating them to
vinu 9. stoljea, a grob 54 u kojem je pronaen the second half of the 8th century.50 However
privjesak u poetak 8. stoljea, dok je groblje u it is worth mentioning that the depiction of the
Stankovcima bilo u upotrebi od kraja 7. do po- pendant on the mentioned fresco is quite sche-
etka 9. stoljea, kako je razvidno iz dosada- matized resembling more another pendant from
njih izvjetaja istraivanja lokaliteta koje je jo the site of Sv. Erazmo (St. Erasmus) in Macedo-
uvijek u tijeku.52 U oba sluaja rije je o groblji- nia than any of the Croatian finds.51 Therefore
ma poganskog horizonta starohrvatske materi- these finds need to be interpreted in context of
jalne kulture kojima moemo pridruiti i ono

45 J. BELOEVI, 1980.
47 Z. VINSKI, 1971, 59. 46 M. PETRINEC, 2007.
48 A. MILOEVI, 1989. 47 Z. VINSKI, 1971, 59.
49 A. MILOEVI, 2000, 106-107. 48 A. MILOEVI, 1989.
50 M. PETRINEC, 2007, 80-82, sl. 1, sl. 3. 49 A. MILOEVI, 2000, 106-107.
Karla Gusar 51 Usp. V. MALENKO, 1985, T. VI/5; E. MANEVA, 1992, T. 5., 55/24. 50 M. PETRINEC, 2007, 80-82, fig. 1, fig. 3.
Dario Vujevi 52 J. BELOEVI, 1982, gr. 54, Y278; 1980, 46, 93; R. JURI, 2007, 224. 51 Cf. V. MALENKO, 1985, T. VI/5; E. MANEVA, 1992, T. 5., 55/24
115
na Duevia glavici. Takoer treba istaknuti da the cemeteries they were found in, at least when
su u Kaiu i Velimu polukruni privjesci pro- considering systematically excavated sites.
naeni u enskim grobovima.53 U grobu 6 na The cemetery in Kai is dated to the 8th and
Duevia glavici ostatci skeleta na alost nisu the second half of the 9th century, and grave 54
sauvani, no na osnovi komparativnih primjera with the pendant to the early 8th century, where-
moemo pretpostaviti da je u njemu bila sahra- as the cemetery in Stankovci was used from the
njena enska osoba.54 Za determinaciju ovoga end of the 7th until the beginning of the 9th cen-
groba, kao i itavog groblja na humku Duevi- tury, judging from the reports from the ongo-
a glavica od osobitog je znaenja injenica da ing excavations of this site.52 In both cases these
je u istom grobu pronaena posuda slavenskih are graveyards of the pagan horizon of the early
znaajka izraena na spororotirajuem lonar- Croatian material culture to which we can add
skom kolu iz 8. stoljea, koja svakako nije sta- the one on Duevia glavica. It is important to
rija od tog vremena,55 te da na itavom groblju mention that semicircular pendants from Kai
nema grobova ni nalaza koji bi se mogli dovesti and Velim were found in female graves.53 Unfor-
u vezu s bilo kojim etnitetom osim ranim Sla- tunately in grave 6 on Duevia glavica skeleton
venima/Hrvatima. Stoga grob 6 s Duevia gla- remains were not preserved, but on the basis
vice na osnovi nalaza, kao i ostale grobove ta- of comparative examples we can assume that a
koer treba pripisati ranoslavenskoj, odnosno female person was buried in it.54 What is espe-
starohrvatskoj populaciji 8. stoljea. Meutim, cially important for determination of this grave,
postavlja se pitanje zbog ega se predmeti bli- as well as the entire graveyard on the Duevia
ski komanskom kulturom krugu nalaze u jed- glavica mound is the fact that a vessel with Slavic
nom ranoslavenskom/starohrvatskom grobu. characteristics made on a slow-rotating potters
Treba napomenuti da ovakvi privjesci nisu je- wheel from the 8th century was found in the
dini nalazi komanske kulture, te da se ostali na- same grave.55 It s also important that at the en-
lazi karakteristini za tu kulturu ne pojavljuju tire graveyard there are no graves or finds which
na podruju Hrvatske. Za odgovor na to pitanje could be related to any ethicity other than early
trebat e priekati daljnje razrjeenje problema Slavs/Croats. Therefore grave 6 from Duevia
tko su bili nositelji komanske kulture, tj. je li glavica, as well as other graves, should be attrib-
rije o autohtonoj, bizantskoj ili slavenskoj po- uted to early Slavic i.e. early Croatian popula-
pulaciji ili pak o kulturi nastaloj pod utjecajima tion of the 8th century. However the question
svih navedenih skupina, te u kakvom su odno- is why objects close to the Koman cultural cir-
su nositelji te kulture bili s pripadnicima staro- cle were found in an early Slavic/early Croatian
hrvatske kulture. grave. These pendants are not the only finds of
Ostali materijal iz grobova uglavnom se sa- the Koman culture, and other finds characteris-
stoji od keramikih priloga. U grobu 1 pronae- tic of this culture do not appear in the territory
na je manja posuda trbuasta oblika, a kratkim of Croatia. To answer this question we will have
ljevkastim vratom i zadebljanim, ravno odreza- to wait for further explanation of the problem
nim obodom izvijenim prema van (T. VII, 1). of representatives of this culture i.e. whether it
Posuda na dnu ima kruni otisak osovine lon- was an autochtonous, Byzantine or Slavic popu-
arskog kola, nije ukraena, dobro je peena i lation or a culture formed under influences of all
tamnosive je boje. Sline primjerke nalazimo mentioned groups, and what their relation with
na groblju drijac u Ninu.56 the members of the early Croatian culture was.
Jedna posuda pronaena je i u grobu 9, a The remaining material from the graves
nalazila se uz noge pokojnika. Posuda je oker- mostly consists of pottery. In grave 1 was a
smee boje, trbuasta oblika, a na gornjem di- smaller belly-shaped vessel, with a short fun-

52 J. BELOEVI, 1982, gr. 54, Y278; 1980, 46, 93; R. JURI, 2007, 224.
53 J. BELOEVI, 1982, gr. 54, Y278; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 143. 53 J. BELOEVI, 1982, gr. 54, Y278; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 143.
54 J. BELOEVI, 1982, gr. 54, Y278; . JANKOVI, 2007, 199, sl. 197. 54 J. BELOEVI, 1982, gr. 54, Y278; . JANKOVI, 2007, 199, fig. 197.
55 Rana slavenska keramika 7. stoljea u Dalmaciji predstavlja iznimno rije- 55 Early Slavic pottery from the 7th century in Dalmatia represents exceptio-
dak nalaz i posve je drugaijih tehnoloko-tipolokih znaajki. Rije je o nally rare find and it has completely different technological and typologi-
nalazima slavenskih urna s lokaliteta Maklinovo brdo - vinograd S. Dre u cal characteristics. These are finds of Slavic urns from the site of Maklinovo
selu Kaiu, te nalazima naseobinske keramike s oblinjeg lokaliteta Glav- brdo vineyard of S. Dre in the village of Kai, and finds of pottery from
ine u selu Podvrju. Usp. BELOEVI, 1974; GUSAR, 2011. settlement from the nearby site of Glavine in the village of Podvrje. Cf. J. DUEVIA GLAVICA
56 J. BELOEVI, 2007, T. XLVIII/1, T. CVIII/1, T. LXXXIV/13, T. CXL/196. BELOEVI, 1974; K. GUSAR, 2011. DUEVIA GLAVICA
116
jelu zavrava irokim otvorom (T. VII, 2). Obod nel-shaped neck and a thickened, straightly cut
joj je stanjen prema vrhu i lagano izvijen prema and everted rim (Pl. VII, 1). The vessel has a
van. Na vratu posude nalazi se dekoracija koja round impression of the potters wheel axle, it
se sastoji od jednostruke lagano utisnute valov- is dark grey, undecorated and well fired. Simi-
nice koja se na mjestima gubi. Slina posuda, lar examples can be found at the drijac cem-
no s neto viim vratom, pronaena je u grobu etery in Nin.56
173 na nekropoli Nin-drijac.57 Radiokarbon- One vessel was found in grave 9, next to the
ska analiza osteolokog materijala iz ovoga gro- deceased persons legs. The vessel is ochre-
ba rezultirala je datacijom od 640. do 770. go- brown, belly-shaped, ending in a wide opening
dine (sl. 10).58 Ovaj grob, meutim, vjerojatnije in the upper part (Pl. VII, 2). The rim is tapering
treba smjestiti u 8. stoljee ili najranije u kraj and slightly everted. Decoration consisting of
7. stoljea s obzirom na to da se u Hrvatskoj u a single impressed wavy line which disappears
ranom 7. stoljeu uglavnom pojavljuje ritus in- at places is on the neck. A similar vessel with
cineracije s ukopima u keramikim urnama.59 somewhat taller neck was found in grave 173 at

Sl./ Fig. 10
Rezultati
radiokarbonske
analize osteolokih
ostataka iz groba 9
Results of the
radiocarbon analysis
of osteological
remains from grave 9

S ovog humka potjeu jedan eljezni no, the Nin-drijac necropolis57 Radiocarbon analy-
dvije posude i dva ulomka bronane ice koji sis of the osteological material from this grave
nisu pronaeni unutar grobova, ve izvan njih resulted with dating to the period from the year
(T. VIII, T. IX, 1-3). No je pronaen iznad za- 640 to 770 (Fig. 10).58 However it is more likely
padne stranice groba 7. Veih je dimenzija, a that this grave should be dated to the 8th centu-
sauvana mu je otrica i baza drke (T. IX, 1). ry or at the earliest to the end of the 7th century
U kvadrantu IV. izvan grobova pronaena su considering the fact that in the early 7th century
i dva ulomka bronane ice krunog i ovalnog mostly cremation rite with burials in ceramic
presjeka koji su najvjerojatnije inili dio kari- urns is represented in Croatia.59
ica (T. IX, 2-3), to se bolje vidi na manjem An iron knife, two vessels and two frag-
ulomku, kojemu je na jednome kraju sauvan ments of bronze wire were also found in this
dio kukice za zakopavanje (T. IX, 3). Ovakve mound, outside graves (Pl. VIII, Pl. IX, 1-3).
su kariice jednostavna oblika s mehanizmom

56 J. BELOEVI, 2007, T. XLVIII/1, T. CVIII/1, T. LXXXIV/13, T. CXL/196.

57 J. BELOEVI, 2007, T. LXXVIII/1. 57 J. BELOEVI, 2007, T. LXXVIII/1.


58 Analiza 14C uzorka iz groba 9 (Beta - 246359) provedena je u laboratoriju 58 14C analysis of the sample from grave 9 (Beta - 246359) was conducted in
Beta Analytic u Miamiju u SAD-u. Starost uzorka iznosi 133040 BP, a kali- the laboratory Beta Analytic in Miami in the USA. The age of the sample
brirani datum 640-770 AD sa 95 % vjerojatnosti. Za kalibraciju je koriten is 133040 BP, with calibrated date of 640-770 AD with 95 % probability.
Karla Gusar INTCAL04. INTCAL04 was used for calibration.
Dario Vujevi 59 J. BELOEVI, 2007, 17. 59 J. BELOEVI, 2007, 17.
117
za zakopavanje koji na jednom kraju ima ku- The knife was found above the western side of
kicu, a na drugom uicu, inae posve uobia- grave 7. It is quite large, with preserved blade
jen prilog u grobljima poganskog horizonta u and handles basis (Pl. IX, 1). Two fragments of
Dalmaciji.60 to se tie posuda, jedna od njih bronze wire with round and oval cross-section
naena je sjeveroistono od groba 8 u kvadran- which were probably parts of circlets (Pl. IX,
tu III. Jajolikog je oblika, trbuh joj je najiri po 2-3) were found in quadrant IV outside graves.
sredini posude, a u gornjem dijelu se znatno The smaller fragment has an extant part of a
suava te zavrava kratkim vratom i stanjenim fastening hook at one end (T. IX, 3). Simple cir-
obodom koji se izvija prema van (T. VIII, 1). clets of this type with the fastening mechanism
Na donjem djelu nalazi se otisak krune oso- with a hook at one end and an eye on the other
vine lonarskog kola. Posuda nije ukraena i are common grave goods at the cemeteries of
svijetle je sivkasto-smee boje. Komparativne the pagan horizon in Dalmatia.60 As for the ves-
primjerke nalazimo na poganskim nekropola- sels, one of them was found north-east of grave
ma Materiza i drijac u Ninu te Bijelo brdo I. 8 in quadrant III. It has an ovoid form, its belly
kod Osijeka.61 Druga posuda pronaena sjeve- is widest in the middle of the vessel, it narrows
rozapadno od groba 6 u kvadrantu IV., slinog significantly in the upper part and ends in a
je oblika kao i prethodna, samo je neto vitkija short neck and thin everted rim (Pl. VIII, 1).
od nje i ima slabije razvijen vrat (T. VIII, 2). On the lower part is an impression of the round
Trbuh joj je najiri u gornjem dijelu posude, te potters wheel axle. The vessel is light greyish-
je primjetno iri od otvora. Oker-crvenkaste je brown, undecorated. Comparative examples
boje sa sivim mrljama, to je rezultat neujed- can be found at the pagan necropoles Materiza
naenog peenja, i takoer nije ukraena. Pa- and drijac in Nin, and Bijelo brdo I near Osi-
ralele joj nalazimo meu keramikim posuda- jek.61 The other vessel was found north-west of
ma pronaenim uz humak Materiza u Ninu, a grave 6 in quadrant IV, it has similar form as
slina forma pojavljuje se i na avaro-slavenskoj the previous one, only it is somewhat slimmer
nekropoli Devnska Nov Ves kod Bratislave iz and its neck is not as everted (Pl. VIII, 2). Its
7.-8. stoljea.62 belly is widest in the upper part of the vessel,
Sve posude s ovog humka raene su od pro- being wider even than the opening. It is ochre-
iene gline pomijeane sa zrncima kalcita, na reddish with grey stains which is the result of
runom spororotirajuem lonarskom kolu iji uneven firing. It is not decorated. Parallels can
se tragovi naroito opaaju na vanjskom platu be found among ceramic vessels found next to
posuda u vidu vodoravnih linija nastalih zbog the Materiza mound in Nin, and at the Avaro-
rotacije (T. VI, 5) ili krunim, udubljenim otis- Slavic necropolis Devnska Nov Ves near Bra-
cima osovine kola (T. VII, 1; T. VIII, 1). Vanjti- tislava from the 7th-8th centuries.62
na posuda dobro je zaglaena. Na posudama su All vessels from this mound were made of
takoer oiti tragovi oblikovanja rukom, kao na purified clay tempered with calcite grains, on
vratu posude iz groba 6, a najvie u unutranjo- slow-rotating potters wheel whose traces can
sti posuda. Od ukupno pet posuda samo jedna be noticed on the outer surface of the vessels as
je ukraena (T. VII, 2), koja je i neto primitiv- horizontal lines resulting from rotation (Pl. VI, 5)
nije izrade, to moe upuivati i na neto ranije or as round, concave impressions of the wheels
vrijeme njezina nastanka u odnosu na ostale. shaft (Pl. VII, 1; Pl. VIII, 1). Outer surface of the
Postotak ukraenih posuda na ovom humku vessels is smooth. Traces of fashioning vessels
uklapa se u opu sliku slavenskih keramikih by hand are also recognizable, as on the neck of
nalaza na grobljima poganskog horizonta u the vessel from grave 6, and mostly in the inte-
Dalmaciji. Sve posude manjih su dimenzija, rior of the vessels. Out of five vessels only one was
to je posve uobiajeno na dalmatinskim gro- decorated (Pl. VII, 2) which was also fashioned
bljima poganskog horizonta pa im visina iznosi more primitively, possibly indicating somewhat

60 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 85-86; M. PETRINEC, 2010, 119-120. 60 J. BELOEVI, 1980, 85-86; M. PETRINEC, 2010, 119-120.
61 J. BELOEVI, 1980, T. LIV/1; 2007, T. XCI/1, T. CXLV/226; TOMII, 2002, 61 J. BELOEVI, 1980, T. LIV/1; 2007, T. XCI/1, T. CXLV/226; TOMII, 2002,
135, sl. 26 135, fig. 26. DUEVIA GLAVICA
62 J. BELOEVI, 1962, T. II/1-1b, T. III71-1b; J. EISNER, 1952, Obr. 22/3. 62 J. BELOEVI, 1962, T. II/1-1b, T. III71-1b; J. EISNER, 1952, Obr. 22/3. DUEVIA GLAVICA
118
od 9,3 do 12,6 cm, promjer otvora od 7 do 10 earlier time of its production in relation to the
cm, a promjer dna od 6,5 do 7,8 cm. Tri posu- others. The percentage of decorated vessels in
de pronaene su unutar grobova, dok su dvije this mound corresponds to general picture of
naene izmeu njih. Kako su jedne i druge pro- Slavic ceramic finds at the cemeteries of the pa-
naene na grobnom humku, treba ih povezati gan horizon in Dalmatia. All vessels have small
s poganskim obiajem prilaganja keramikih dimensions which is quite common at the Dal-
posuda u grob, odnosno uz njega. Postavljanje matian cemeteries of the pagan horizon so that
posuda izmeu grobova na tlu Dalmacije prvi their height measures from 9,3 to 12,6 cm, open-
put je zabiljeeno na starohrvatskom groblju uz ings diameter is from 7 to 10 cm, and bases di-
humak Materiza kod Nina,63 a dodatnu potvrdu ameter from 6,5 to 7,8 cm. Three vessels were
nalazimo i na oblinjem humku Jokina glavica found inside the graves, and two were between
u Krnezi, gdje je ak veina posuda pronaena the graves. Since both groups were found in the
izmeu samih grobova.64 funerary mound they should be related to the pa-
Openito se moe rei da srednjovjekovni gan custom of putting ceramic vessels in or next
grobovi na Duevia glavici pripadaju pogan- to the grave as offerings. Putting vessels between
skom horizontu dalmatinsko-hrvatske mate- the graves in Dalmatia was recorded for the first
rijalne kulture. Najvei dio nalaza odnosi se time at the early Croatian cemetery next to the
na nalaze keramikih posuda, pa su tako oni Materiza mound near Nin.63 Additional confir-
zastupljeni u etiri od pet bolje sauvanih gro- mation can be found in the nearby Jokina glavica
bova, a takoer i izvan njih. Tako je ukupno mound in Krneza where most vessels were found
pronaeno pet posuda, nakon ega slijede between the graves.64
neto rjei metalni nalazi, zastupljeni s dva In general we can say that medieval graves
noa, trodijelnom pojasnom garniturom,, te from Duevia glavica belong to the pagan hori-
ulomcima bronanih kariica. Svi ovi nalazi zon of the Dalmatian-Croatian material culture.
upuuju na ranije razdoblje poganskog hori- The greatest number of finds refers to ceramic
zonta, tj. vrijeme 8. stoljea, kada uglavnom vessels which were found in four of five well
dominiraju keramiki nalazi, dok se u kasni- preserved graves, and also outside the graves.
jem razdoblju poganskih nekropola pojavlju- Total of five vessels was found. Metal finds were
ju raznolikiji nalazi nakita, orua i oruja koji somewhat rarer, they were represented with
na ovom groblju nedostaju. Slinu situaciju two knives, a tripartite belt set, and fragments of
nalazimo i na nekropoli uz humak Materiza u bronze circlets. All these finds point to the earlier
Ninu koja pokazuje dosta slinosti s ranosred- period of the pagan horizon i.e. time of the 8th
njovjekovnim grobljem na ovom humku, te u century for which ceramic finds were dominant
kojoj takoer dominiraju keramiki nalazi.65 whereas in the later period of pagan necropoles
Na isto razdoblje upuuju i rezultati radio- more diverse finds of jewelry, tools and weap-
karbonske analize iz groba 9 s datacijom od ons appear which are missing at this cemetery.
640. do 770. godine, koju je mogue korigirati A similar situation occurs at the necropolis near
inhumacijskim grobovima i nalazima kera- the Materiza mound in Nin which exhibits a lot
mikih posuda raenih na lonarskom kolu, of similarities with the early medieval cemetery
iz ega slijedi da je poetak ukapanja mogue at this mound, in which ceramic finds were also
smjestiti najranije u kraj 7. stoljea. dominant.65 Results of the radiocarbon analysis
Tumul Duevia glavica donosi nove podat- from grave 9 with dating from 640 AD to 770
ke u ionako slabo poznatom razdoblju brona- AD indicate the same period. This dating can be
nog doba sjeverne Dalmacije. Prije svega ovo corrected by inhumation graves and finds of ce-
je prvi primjer biritualnog pokapanja na istom ramic vessels made on potters wheel, meaning
tumulu na ovom podruju u bronano doba. that the beginning of burying can be dated to the
Svi do sada poznati ukopi pod tumulima bili late 7th century at the latest.

63 J. BELOEVI, 1973, 238. 63 J. BELOEVI, 1973, 238.


Karla Gusar 64 K. GUSAR, 2009, 176-177. 64 K. GUSAR, 2009, 176-177.
Dario Vujevi 65 J. BELOEVI, 1962; 1973. 65 J. BELOEVI, 1962; 1973.
119
su ili inhumacijski ili incineracijski.66 Jedini The Duevia glavica tumulus brings new in-
humak na kojem se javljaju oba ritusa pokapa- formation on poorly known period of the Bronze
nja je humak br. 13 u Nadinu, ali on je datiran Age in northern Dalmatia. First of all this is the
u eljezno doba, u razdoblje od 9. do 5. st. pr. first example of biritual burying at the same tumu-
Kr.67 Pojave u ukapanju sline su onima na ci- lus in this region in the Bronze Age. All previously
jelom zapadnom Balkanu, gdje se u tumulima known burials under tumuli were either inhuma-
pronalazi mali broj priloga i nalaza u grobovi- tion or cremation.66 The only mound with both fu-
ma. Opa je znaajka i nedostatak keramikih nerary rites is mound 13 in Nadin, but it is dated to
posuda u grobovima, ali fragmenti posuda re- the Iron Age, to the period from the 9th to the 5th
dovito se nalaze razbacani po cijelom humku, centuries BC.67 The burial phenomena are similar
to se vezuje uz razbijanje posua prilikom po- to those in the entire western Balkans where few
grebnih obreda.68 Na Duevia glavici broj fra- grave goods and accessories are found in the tu-
gmenata pronaenih u nasipu daleko je manji, muli. General characteristic is also lack of ceramic
ali nakupina pronaena na rubu nasipa moe vessels in graves, but pottery sherds are regularly
ukazivati na sline rituale. scattered across the entire mound which is related
Keramika pronaena uz spaljene ostatke to breaking pottery as a part of funerary rituals.68
kostiju, ali i pretpostavljena datacija izvornog Fragments found in the fill of Duevia glavica are
humka omoguuju usporedbu ovog nalazita s not so numerous, but the accumulation in the pe-
ostalim ranobronanim nalazitima. Na irem riphery of the fill might indicate to similar rituals.
zadarskom podruju istraeno je samo nekoliko Pottery found near the burnt bone remains, as
humaka iz ovog vremena: humak 1 na gradini well as the supposed dating of the original mound
Stanine u blizini Nadina,69 Vrsi-Kosa kod Mula70 enable comparison of this site with other Early
i Zatona,71 humak 6 kod Nadina72 te Mala glavica Bronze Age sites. In the wider Zadar region only
kod Podvrja.73 Svi navedeni sadre ostatke spa- several mounds from this period were excavated:
ljenih pokojnika. Uz njih su iz ranoga bronanog mound 1 on the Stanine hill-fort near Nadin,69
doba poznati jo humci 6 i 7 kod Nadina, ali u Vrsi-Kosa near Mulo70 and Zaton,71 mound 6 near
njima su pronaeni samo fragmenti ranobron- Nadin,72 and Mala glavica near Podvrje.73 All men-
ane keramike i razbacane ljudske kosti koje tioned mounds contain remains of burnt corpses.
ukazuju na ritus inhumacije.74 There are also mounds 6 and 7 from Nadin from
Humak 1 kod Stanina sadri tri groba s ar- the Early Bronze Age which yielded only frag-
hitekturom u obliku manje etvrtaste kame- ments of the Early Bronze Age pottery and scat-
ne krinje, u koje su poloeni spaljeni ostatci tered human bones indicating inhumation rite.74
pokojnika. Pronaen je i manji broje ulomaka Mound 1 near Stanine contains three graves
keramike.75 with architecture in shape of a small rectangular
Mala glavica u Podvrju nalazi se samo pola stone cist in which burnt remains of a deceased
kilometra sjeverno od Duevia glavice. . Ba- person were laid. A small number of pottery
tovi ju je na osnovi nalaza datirao u 3. stupanj sherds was also found.75
cetinske kulture.76 Mala glavica djelomino se Mala glavica in Podvrje is just half a kilom-
konstrukcijski razlikuje od Duevia glavice. eter north of Duevia glavica. . Batovi dated
Gradnja humka zapoela je postavljanjem niza it to the 3rd phase of the Cetina culture on the
kamenja u obliku krunog vijenca na prvot- basis of finds.76 Mala glavica exhibits certain
nu povrinu zemljita. Nakon toga prostor je differences regarding construction in compari-
omeen vijencem ispunjenim istom crvenom son with Duevia glavica. Construction of the

66 . BATOVI, 1983a; 1983b; 1984; 1989-1990; 2002. 66 . BATOVI, 1983a; 1983b; 1984; 1989-1990; 2002.
67 S. KUKO, 2004; 2009. 67 S. KUKO, 2004; 2009.
68 . BATOVI, 2002, 533. 68 . BATOVI, 2002, 533.
69 S. Kuko, 2009, 20. 69 S. Kuko, 2009, 20.
70 . BATOVI, 1973. 70 . BATOVI, 1973.
71 . BATOVI, 1983b. 71 . BATOVI, 1983b.
72 S. Kuko, 2009, 30. 72 S. Kuko, 2009, 30.
73 . BATOVI, 2002. 73 . BATOVI, 2002.
74 . Batovi N. ondi, 2005, 80. 74 . Batovi N. ondi, 2005, 80.
75 . Batovi N. ondi, 2005, 87. 75 . Batovi N. ondi, 2005, 87. DUEVIA GLAVICA
76 . BATOVI, 2002, 555. 76 . BATOVI, 2002, 555. DUEVIA GLAVICA
120
zemljom u debljini 20-30 cm. Grobovi su polo- mound started with arranging row of stones
eni na taj nasip, a gornji sloj kamenja i zemlje in the shape of a round wreath on the original
nabacan je iznad njih.77 Tumul u Duevia gla- surface of the ground. Afterwards the area was
vici nema kameni obzid, ali kao i Mala glavi- enclosed with a wreath filled with pure red soil
ca ima posebno podignut nasip, tj. podlogu za about 20-30 cm thick. Graves were laid onto
grobove. Slinost se primjeuje i u nainu po- this fill, and the upper layer consisting of stones
kopa. Kod oba tumula pokojnici su postavljeni and soil was thrown above them.77 The tumulus
na podlogu, bez stavljanja spaljenih ostataka in Duevia glavica does not have a stone enclo-
u posude.78 Dakle, kod oba tumula primjeuje sure wall, but it has an elevated fill i.e. basis for
se slinost u ritualu, a razlike u nainu gradnje the graves. There are similarities in the burial
samo su posljedica lokalne prilagodbe prostoru rite. In both tumuli the deceased persons were
i dostupnom materijalu. laid on the basis, without putting the burnt re-
Na matinom podruju cetinske kulture tu- mains in urns.78 Similarities in the ritual are evi-
muli s incineracijom redovito su manji od onih dent on both tumuli, and the differences in the
s inhumacijom. Ostatci su pohranjeni u posude construction are a consequence of local adapta-
koje su postavljene na bazu tumula ili kameni tion to the environment and available material.
nanos po sredini gomile. U pravilu ne sadre In the original region of the Cetina culture tu-
priloge.79 Ostala keramika nije poloena u grob, muli with cremation are regularly smaller than
nego se pronalazi fragmentirana i razbacana po the ones with inhumation. The remains were de-
tumulu80 Slinosti s Duevia glavicom primje- posited in a vessel which was placed on the ba-
uju se kako u konstrukciji tako i u ritualu. S sis of a tumulus or stone fill in the middle of the
druge strane, s obzirom na nedostatak naselja mound. Usually there are no grave goods.79 Re-
cetinske kulture na ovom podruju i udaljenost maining pottery was not deposited in a grave, but
od matinog teritorija, nije mogue pripisati it is found in fragmented state and scattered over
Duevia glavicu cetinskoj ili bilo kojoj drugoj a tumulus80 Similarities with Duevia glavica are
kulturnoj skupini. Slinosti doputaju tek us- evident in the construction as well as in the ritual.
poredbu na kronolokoj razini, tj. moemo rei On the other hand considering the lack of settle-
da prvotni pokop na Duevia glavici pripada ments of the Cetina culture in this region and
ranom bronanom dobu. the distance from the original territory, Duevia
to se tie ukopa u kamenoj krinji datu- glavica cannot be ascribed to the Cetina culture
mi analize 14C pokazuju vrijeme srednjega or any other cultural group. Similarities allow for
bronanog doba. Metalni nalazi pronaeni only a comparison on the chronological level, i.e.
uokolo tee su kronoloki odredivi, ali slini we can say that the original burial on Duevia
se predmeti na ovom prostoru najee stav- glavica belongs to the Early Bronze Age.
ljaju u razdoblje kasnoga bronanog doba. As for the burial in the stone cist 14C dates
Sam nain gradnje groba odgovara uzusima indicate to the period of the Middle Bronze
pokapanja u kasnom bronanom i eljeznom Age. Metal finds discovered around the cist are
dobu, a grob je podignut na isti nain kao vei- chronologically indeterminable, but similar ob-
na liburnskih grobova na okolnom podruju.81 jects in this region are usually dated to the Late
Naalost, zbog slabog poznavanja bronanog Bronze Age. The manner of the grave construc-
doba na podruju sjeverne Dalmacije teko je tion corresponds to burial customs in the Late
govoriti o preciznom kronolokom okviru za Bronze and Iron Age and it was built as most
ukope u kamenoj krinji, no s obzirom da sve Liburnian burials in the surrounding area.81 Un-
druge kronoloke odrednice ukazuju na kasno fortunately it is difficult to determine precise
chronological framework for burials in the stone

77 . BATOVI, 2002, 498-499. 77 . BATOVI, 2002, 498-499.


78 . BATOVI, 2002, 503. 78 . BATOVI, 2002, 503.
79 I. MAROVI - B. OVI, 1983, 204. 79 I. MAROVI B. OVI, 1983, 204.
80 N. MAJNARI PANDI, 2003, 44. 80 N. MAJNARI PANDI, 2003, 44.
81 . BATOVI, 1983; 1984; 1990; 2002; S. Kuko, 2009. Ukop u kamenoj 81 . BATOVI, 1983; 1984; 1990; 2002; S. Kuko, 2009. Burial in the stone
krinji datiran u kasno bronano doba poznat je i s novijih istraivanja na cist dated to the Late Bronze Age is known from the recent research on
trasi autoceste kod Nadina. U dva humka (6 i 11) pronaeni su grobovi u the motorway route near Nadin. In two mounds (6 and 11) were graves
Karla Gusar obliku krinje od neobraenog kamenja s pojedinanim pokojnicima u in shape of a cist made of undressed stones with individual burials in a
Dario Vujevi zgrenom poloaju . Batovi N. ondi, 2005, 80-82, crouched position. . Batovi N. ondi, 2005, 80-82,
121

bronano doba, datiranje dobiveno analizom cist due to poor knowledge of the Bronze Age
14
C treba uzeti s rezervom. in the northern Dalmatia region, but consider-
U ranom srednjem vijeku humak je opet u ing the fact that all other chronological deter-
upotrebi, pa se na njemu ukapa novopridolo minants point to the Late Bronze Age, 14C dates
slavensko stanovnitvo krajem 7. i tijekom 8. should be considered with caution.
stoljea, nakon ega ukapanje na njemu vjero- In the Early Middle Ages the mound was re-
jatno prestaje, budui da ne nalazimo dokaze used so that newcoming Slavic population buried
njegove kasnijeg koritenja. S obzirom na uku- their dead in it in the late 7th and during the 8th
pan broj od devet sauvanih grobova ovdje je century. It seems that burying ceased after this
rije o groblju manje rodovske zajednice Slave- period since there is no evidence of its later use.
na/Hrvata koji se na humku Duevia glavica Judging from the total number of nine preserved
tijekom ranoga srednjeg vijeka nastavljaju uka- graves this was a cemetery of a smaller commu-
pati na starijemu kultnom mjestu. nity of Slavs/Croats who continued the burial
Usprkos tome to je Duevia glavica prili- practice at an older cult place on Duevia glavica
no unitena djelovanjem vremena i atmosfer- during the Early Middle Ages.
skih prilika, te se na njoj nije ouvao veliki broj Despite the fact that Duevia glavica was
grobova, ovaj humak prua iznimno zanimljivu heavily destroyed due to negative influence of
sliku o slijedu ukapanja, nainu koritenja i ra- atmospheric agents and time, and few graves
zliitim grobnim obiajima u rasponu od bron- were preserved in it, this mound offers an ex-
anog doba pa sve do ranoga srednjeg vijeka. ceptionally interesting image of the course and
manner of its usage as well as of different bur-
ial customs in the time span from the Bronze
Age to the Early Middle Ages.

DUEVIA GLAVICA
DUEVIA GLAVICA
122
Katalog grobova: Grave catalogue:*82

Grob 1 Orijentacija sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Grobna Grave 1 Orientation: NW SE. Oval earthen grave pit.
zemljana raka ovalna oblika. Uz pokojnikovu lijevu pot- An undressed stone was found next to the deceased per-
koljenicu i desno koljeno nalazi se po jedan neobraeni sons left lower leg and right knee. Remains of a probably
kamen. U grobu su sauvani ostatci skeleta vjerojatno female skeleton were found in the grave, and the age of the
enske osobe ija je starost procijenjena izmeu 35 i 49 deceased was estimated at between 35 and 49 (Pl. II, 1).
godina (T. II, 1). 1) A dark grey ceramic vessel found next to the left
1. Keramika posuda tamnosive boje pronaena uz li- femoral bone of the skeleton (dimensions: height 9,8;
jevu bedrenu kost skeleta (dimenzije: vis. 9,8; otv. 9,4; opening 9,4; base 7,4 cm) (Pl. VII,1).
dna 7,4 cm) (T. VII,1).
Grave 2 Completely destroyed earthen grave pit of ir-
Grob 2 Potpuno unitena grobna zemljana raka neo- regular form and orientation. Skeletal remains are too
dreena oblika i orijentacije. U grobu su sauvani izni- poor to determine the gender and the age of the deceased.
mno mali dijelovi kostiju skeleta na osnovi kojih nije mo-
gue odrediti spol i starost pokojnika. Grave 3 Completely destroyed earthen grave pit of ir-
regular form and orientation. Skeletal remains are too
Grob 3 - Potpuno unitena grobna zemljana raka neodre- poor to determine the gender, and the age of the deceased
ena oblika i orijentacije. U grobu su sauvani iznimno was estimated at between 35 and 49.
mali dijelovi kostiju skeleta na osnovi kojih nije mogue
odrediti spol, a starost pokojnika procijenjena je izmeu Grave 4 Completely destroyed earthen grave pit of ir-
35 i 49 godina. regular form and orientation. Skeletal remains are too
poor to determine the gender and the age of the deceased,
Grob 4 - Potpuno unitena grobna zemljana raka neo- it was only possible to determine that it was an adult.
dreena oblika i orijentacije. U grobu su sauvani iznimno
mali dijelovi kostiju skeleta na osnovi kojih nije mogue Grave 5 Completely destroyed earthen grave pit of ir-
odrediti spol i starost pokojnika; jedino se moe utvrditi regular form and orientation. A large undressed stone was
da je rije o odrasloj osobi. found near the bones. Tiny remains of an infant skeleton
were preserved in the grave, and the age of the deceased
Grob 5 - Potpuno unitena grobna zemljana raka neo- was estimated at between 7 and 15.
dreena oblika i orijentacije. Uz kosti nalazio se jedan
vei neobraeni kamen. U grobu su sauvani iznimno Grave 6 Destroyed grave pit of irregular form, par-
tially lined with a row of irregular stones, lying in the NE-
mali dijelovi kostiju djejeg skeleta ija je starost procije-
SW direction. Western segment of the grave is completely
njena izmeu 7 i 15 godina.
destroyed. There are no skeletal remains (Pl. II,2).
1) A dark grey ceramic vessel found in north-western
Grob 6 Unitena grobna raka neodreena oblika djelo-
part of the grave (dimensions: height 10; opening 9;
mino obzidana jednim redom nepravilnog kamenja koja se
base 7,5 cm) (Pl. VI, 5)
pruala u smjeru sjeveroistok-jugozapad. Zapadni dio groba
2) A smal iron knife (dimensions: length 8,6; blade
u potpunosti je uniten. Ostataka skeleta nema (T. II, 2).
width 1,7 cm) (Pl. VI, 4)
1. Keramika posuda tamnosive boje pronaena u sje-
3) An iron square ring with rounded ends (dimensions
verozapadnom dijelu groba (dimenzije: vis. 10; otv. 9;
2,8x2,8 cm) (Pl. VI,3)
dna 7,5 cm) (T. VI, 5).
4) A bronze crescent-shaped pendant (dimensions:
2. eljezni noi (dimenzije: du. 8,6; ir. otr. 1,7 cm).
height 4,9; width 4,2, thickness 0,2 cm) (Pl. VI, 1),
(T. VI, 4).
5) A bronze round pendant with a T-shaped ending
3. eljezna kvadratina alka zaobljenih krajeva (di-
(dimensions: height 5,1; width 3,8; thickness 0,4 cm) all
menzije: 2,8 x 2,8 cm) (T. VI, 3).
found in south-eastern part of the grave (Pl. VI, 2).
4. Bronani polumjeseasti privjesak (dimenzije: vis.
4,9; ir. 4,2; deb. 0,2 cm) (T. VI, 1).
Grave 6a Grave architecture in form of a stone cist con-
5. Bronani kruni privjesak sa zavretkom u obliku
sisting of two vertically placed large slabs at the sides and
slova T (dimenzije: vis. 5,1; ir. 3,8; deb. 0,4 cm (T. VI, 2).
two smaller slabs on the ends. The bottom of the stone
cist was filled with hard-packed small stones. Remains of
Grob 6a Arhitektura groba u obliku kamene krinje
two skeletons were found in the grave, one of which be-
koja se sastoji od dvije okomito postavljene vee ploe
longs to a man whose age was estimated at between 50
na bonim i dvije manje na poprenim stranicama. Dno and 64 years, and the other to a woman who was between
kamene krinje bilo je ispunjeno nabojem od sitnog ka- 20 and 34 years old.
menja. U grobu su sauvani ostatci dva skeleta, od kojih
jedan pripada mukarcu ija je starost procijenjena izme- Grave 7 Orientation: SW-NE. Rectangular grave pit
u 50 godina i 64 godine, a drugi eni starosti izmeu 20 lined with large and small undressed stones arranged in
godina i 34 godine.

Grob 7 Orijentacija: jugozapad-sjeveroistok. Grobna


* Results of the anthropological analysis which was conducted at the De-
Karla Gusar
raka paetvorinasta oblika obzidana veim i manjim neo- partment of Pathology, Forensic Medicine and Cytology, within Clinical
Dario Vujevi braenim kamenjem uslojenim u tri reda. U grobu su sa- Hospital Center Split were used in this catalogue.
123
uvani ostatci mukog skeleta ija je starost procijenjena three rows. Remains of a male skeleton were found in the
izmeu 45 i 59 godina (T. II, 3). grave, the age of the deceased was estimated at between
45 and 59 (Pl. II,3).
Grob 8 Orijentacija: sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Unitena
grobna zemljana raka neodreena oblika. Uz lijevu stra- Grave 8 Orientation: NW-SE. Destroyed earthen grave
nu pokojnika nalazio se jedan vei neobraen kamen. U pit of irregular form. A large undressed stone was next to
grobu su sauvani ostatci enskog skeleta ija je starost the deceased persons left side. Remains of a female skel-
procijenjena izmeu 50 i 64 godine. eton were found in the grave, the age of the deceased was
estimated at between 50 and 64.
Grob 9 Orijentacija: sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Grobna
raka ovalna oblika djelomino obzidana jednim redom Grave 9 Orientation: SW-NE. Oval grave pit partially
veeg neobraenog kamenja. U grobu su sauvani ostatci lined with a row of large undressed stones. Remains of a
enskog skeleta ija je starost procijenjena izmeu 30 i 49 female skeleton were found in the grave, the age of the de-
godina (T. II, 4). ceased was estimated at between 30 and 49 (Pl. II, 4).
1. Keramika posuda crvenkastosmee boje ukraena 1) A reddish-brown ceramic vessel decorated with a
valovnicom pronaena uz desnu nogu skeleta (dimenzije: wavy line found next to the right leg of the skeleton (dimen-
vis: 9,3; otv. 9,5; dna 7,2 cm) (T. VII, 2). sions: height 9,3; opening 9,5; base 7,2 cm) (Pl. VII, 2).
2. eljezni predmet ouvan u tragovima (vjerojatno 2) An iron object preserved in traces (probably knife)
no) pronaen uz lijevi kuk skeleta. found next to the left hip of the skeleton.

Grob 10 Sitni fragmenti izgorjelih ljudskih kostiju po- Grave 10 Tiny fragments of burnt human bones placed
stavljeni na naboj od sitnog kamenja koji ini podlogu on the fill of small stones which makes the basis of the en-
cijelog tumula. Zbog iznimne fragmentiranosti i otee- tire tumulus. Due to exceptionally fragmentary and dam-
nosti ne moe se ustvrditi ni spol ni dob, kao ni patoloke aged state, neither gender and age nor pathological and
i traumatske promjene. traumatological changes could be determined.

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. BATOVI 2005 Grobni humak iz ranog bronanog doba u Podvrju, srednjeg bronzanog doba), Glasnik zemaljskog muzeja u Sa-
U osvit povijesti Zbornik odabranih radova, Opera selecta I, rajevu, n.s. XXXII (1977), Sarajevo, 1978, 5-173.
Zadar, 2005, 491-618.
B. ovi 1983 Regionalne grupe ranog bronanog doba Hrvatske, Pra-
. BATOVI N. ondi 2005 Istraivanje arheolokih nalazita na tra- istorija jugoslavenskih zemalja IV, Sarajevo, 1983, 114-191.
si autoceste Biljane-Nadin-Ratevi, Obavijesti Had-a, 37(3),
Zagreb, 2005, 74-91. R. DRESCHLER-BII 1983 Srednje bronano doba u Lici i Bosni, Pra-
istorija jugoslavenskih zemalja IV, Sarajevo, 1983, 242-270.
J. BELOEVI 1962 Slavenska keramika iz ranosrednjovjekovne ne-
kropole Materiza kod Nina, Diadora, 2, Zadar, 1962, 237-249. E. GARAM 1980 Sptawarenzeitliche durchbrochene bronzeschei-
ben, Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarium Hungari-
J. BELOEVI 1973 Starohrvatska nekropola uz humak Materiza kod cae, 32, Budapest, 1980, 161-180. DUEVIA GLAVICA
Nina, Diadora, 8, Zadar, 1973, 221-244. DUEVIA GLAVICA
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K. GUSAR 2008 Ranosrednjovjekovna keramika iz Krneze, Srednji vek: E. MANEVA 1996 Nekoi aspekti za problematikata na ranosrednove-
arheoloke raziskave med Jadranskim morjem in Panonsko kovnata kulturna grupa Komani-Kruje i njezinoto prisustvo
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der Adria und der Pannonischen Tiefbene (ur. Gutin M.),
Ljubljana, 2008, 197-202. E. MANEVA 2005 Ancient jewellery from Macedonia: midlle ages,
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K. GUSAR 2009 Ranosrednjovjekovni grobovi iz humka Jokina glavi-
ca u selu Krneza, Zbornik o Luji Marunu. Zbornik radova sa I. MAROVI. B. OVI 1983 Cetinska kultura, Praistorija jugoslaven-
Znanstvenog skupa o fra Luji Marunu u povodu 150. obljet- skih zemalja IV, Sarajevo, 1983, 191-232.
nice roenja (1857.-2007.) (ur. Tomii ., Uglei A.), ibenik
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nuiteta u materijalnoj kulturi ranosrednjovjekovne Dalmaci-
K. GUSAR 2010 A Contribution to the Early Slavs in Croatia New je, Diadora, 11, Zadar, 1989, 347-359.
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ropa (6.-9. Jahrhundert) im Lichte naturwissenschaftlicher A. MILOEVI 2000 Karolinki utjecaji u kneevini Hrvatskoj, Hrvati i
Datierung, Wroclaw 21.-24. 10. 2008., (u tisku). Karolinzi, Rasprave i vrela, Split, 2000, 106-139.

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ine, Archaeologia Adriatica, 3, Zadar (u tisku). vice, Starohrvatska prosvjeta, III. serija, 34, Split, 2007, 79-87.

J. EISNER 1952 Devnska Nov Ves. Slovansk pohebit, Bratislava, 1952. M. PETRINEC 2009 Groblja od 8. do 11. stoljea na podruju ranosred-
njovjekovne hrvatske drave, Split, 2009.
T. IPPEN 1901 Prehistoriki nalazi iz Albanije, Glasnik Zemaljskog mu-
zeja u Sarajevu, XIII, Sarajevo, 1901, 603-608. V. POPOVI 1988 Albanija u kasnoj antici, Iliri i Albanci (ur. M. Garaa-
nin), SANU, Beograd, 1988, 201-283.
. JANKOVI 2007 Srpsko pomorje. Beograd, 2007.
F. PRENDI 1980 Nj varrez e kulturs arbrore n Lezh, Iliria,
R. JURI 2007 Ranosrednjovjekovno groblje u Velimu kod Benkovca, 9-10/1979-1980, Tirana, 1980, 123-170.
Diadora, 22, Zadar, 2007, 217-233.
I. RAJTERI SIVEC 1976 Oris arheolokega stanja in povojna razisko-
J. KOROEC 1953 Datacija slovanskih ostalin v okolici Skadra v Alba- vanja zgodnjesrednjeveke arheologije u Albaniji, Arheolo-
niji, Arheoloki vestnik, IV/2, Ljubljana, 1953, 234-255. ki vestnik, XXV, Ljubljana, 1976, 552-574.

S. KUKO 2004 Lokalitet Nadin humak 13, Hrvatski arheoloki go- H. SPAHIU 1971 Gjetje t vjetra nga varreza mejetare e Kalas s Dal-
dinjak, 1, Zagreb, 2004, 192-194. maces, Iliria, 1, Tirana, 1971, 227-262.

S. KUKO 2009 Nadin liburnski kult mrtvih, istraivanja 2004.-2006., . TOMII 2002 Keramika iz (ponekih) ranosrednjovjekovnih groba-
2009. god., Asseria, 7, Zadar, 2009, 11-80. lja kontinentalnog dijela Hrvatske, Zgodnji Slovani. Zgod-
njesrednjeveka lonenina na obrobju vzohdnih Alp (ur.
N. MAJNARI PANDI 2003 The burial rites of the Bronze Age and Gutin M.), Ljubljana, 2002, 129-141.
the Iron Age in Croatia, Sahranivanje u bronzano i gvozdeno
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skoj, Zadar, 1973.
V. MALENKO 1985 Ranosrednjovekovna materijalna kultura v Ohrid
i ohridsko, Ohrid i ohridsko niz istorijata, knjiga 1, Skopje, Z. VINSKI 1971 Rani srednji vijek u Jugoslaviji od 400. do 800. godine,
1985, 269-339. Vjesnik arheolokog muzeja u Zagrebu, V, Zagreb, 1971, 47-73.

E. MANEVA 1992 Srednovekoven nakit od Makedonija, Skopje, 1992. M. ZAGARANIN 2008 Ranosrednjovjekovna nekropola Mijela kod
Virpazara, Magistarski rad, Beograd, 2008.

Karla Gusar
Dario Vujevi
125

tabla I
126
tabla II
127

tabla III

2
128

tabla IV

1 2

3
4

5 6
129

tabla V

2
3

4 5
130
tabla VI
1-4

0 6 cm

0 6 cm
131
tabla VII
1

0 6 cm

0 6 cm
132
tabla VIII
1

0 6 cm

0 6 cm
133

1 tabla IX

0 6 cm

2-3

0 6 cm
Ivana Anteri, eljana Bai, REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE ANALIZE
Ela kori, imun Anelinovi
GROBOVA S tumula DUEVIA GLAVICA
RESULTS OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS OF THE OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
FROM THE TUMULUS OF DUEVIA GLAVICA

S tumula Duevia glavica antropolokom je Ten graves from the site of Duevia glavica
analizom obraeno 10 grobova, s vie od dvje- were anthropologically analyzed, with more
sto veih fragmenata kostiju, te kotani ostatci than 200 larger bone fragments, together with
spremljeni zasebno bez oznake, vjerojatno dio the bone remains which were preserved sepa-
nekog od navedenih grobova. rately without any information about the cir-
S obzirom na iznimno izraene postmortalne cumstances of discovery. They were probably
promjene, prekrivenost zemljom, korijenjem part of the osteological material from the ana-
i kamenjem, prije analize bilo je potrebno de- lyzed graves.
taljno oprati i oistiti materijal, vodei rauna o Due to strongly emphasized postmortem
tome da korijenje i zemlja koji se nalaze unutar changes, coverage with dirt, roots and stones, it
kosti, te su u pojedinim sluajevima utjecajem was necessary to wash and clean thoroughly os-
vremena postali i inkorporirani u kost, dodat- teological material before analysis. It was also
no ne unite materijal za analizu; sl. 1. necessary to pay attention that roots and dirt
Ouvanost kosturnih ostataka stupnjevana which were inside the bone and which have be-
je u pet kategorija, od vrlo loe do odline, te come incorporated into the bone in some cases
je zabiljeen stupanj postmortalnog oteenja due to climate and weather changes, do not ad-
korteksa, kao i fragmentiranost kostiju. Kota- ditionally ruin material for analysis; (figure 1).
ni su ostatci bili veinom loe ouvani; jedino Preservation of the bone remains was classi-
su ostatci u grobovima 7, 8 i 9 bili neto bolje fied into five categories, from very poor to ex-
ouvani, u grobovima 8 i 9 ouvani su dobro, cellent. Levels of postmortem cortex damage
a u grobu 7 vrlo dobro. Na svim je kotanim were also recorded, as well as the levels of bone
ostatcima vidljivo vee postmortalno oteenje fragmentation. Bone remains were mostly poor-
korteksa. U grobu 10 pronaene su spaljene ly preserved, whereas only bone remains from
kosti pokojnika. graves 7, 8 and 9 were preserved better, those in
Zbog opisanog stanja kod veine ispitiva- graves 8 and 9 were in good state of preservation
nih kostiju nije bilo mogue obaviti standardna and those in grave 7 were very well preserved.
antropometrijska mjerenja. Ako je bilo mogu- Considerable postmortem cortex damages were
e, kosti su izmjerene pomou osteometrijske present on all bone remains. Cremated human
ploe i pominog mjerila, izraen je shematski bones were found in grave 10.
prikaz kostura i zabiljeen zubni status.1 Due to previously described conditions, it
Pri odreivanju spola pregledane su sve was not possible to obtain standard anthro-
morfoloke znaajke prisutnih kostiju, naroi- pometric measurements for most of analyzed
to zdjelice i lubanje.2 bones. Skeletons schematic overview for every
Odreivanje dobi kod osoba koje su zavrile individual person was made whenever possi-
rast, u ovoj je analizi bilo mogue odrediti na ble, standard measurements were taken and
temelju samo nekoliko pokazatelja: stupnja dental status was recorded as well.1

1 P. H. Moore-Jansen R.L. Jantz, 1990., 1-89, appendix A i B.


2 W. M. Bass, 1995, 200-206; D. H. Ubelaker, 1999, 52-60; W. M. Krogman
M. Y. Iscan, 1986, 200-259; T. W. Phenice, 1969, 297-301; D. Zeevi,
2004, 194-202. 1 P. H. Moore-Jansen R.L. Jantz, 1990, 1-89, appendix A i B.
136
During gender determination all morpho-
logical characteristics of present bones were
reviewed, pelvis and skull bones in particular.2
Age determination for persons whose
growth ended was possible on the basis of only
few indicators: degree of skull sutures accre-
tion3, changes in dental status4 and general ap-
pearance of the bone remains. Due to signifi-
cant postmortem damages on the osteological
material, age at the time of death for adults was
given in the range from over 15 years.
A subadult skeleton was found whose gender
could not be determined due to poor preserva-
tion and insecure gender determination of sub-
adult bone remains.5 Age at the time of death
of this skeleton was only approximately esti-
Sl./ Fig. 1 srastanja avova lubanje,3 promjena u zubnom
Krneza-Duevia mated on the basis of the length of long bone
glavica, grob 6,
statusu4 te opeg izgleda kotanih ostataka. S
diaphyses6 because neither one of them was
osoba 1 i 2 obzirom na vea postmortalna oteenja oste-
Krneza-Duevia fully preserved. Due to significant postmortem
olokog materijala, starost odraslih osoba u
glavica, grave 6, changes present on osteological material, age
persons 1 and 2 trenutku smrti dana je u rasponu od petnaest
estimation could not be obtained on the basis
i vie godina.
of specific changes in dental status induced by
Pronaen je jedan djeji kostur, kojemu,
eruption and formation of deciduous and per-
zbog loije ouvanosti te zbog nemoguno-
manent teeth together with the degree of bone
sti pouzdanog odreivanja spola u djece5 nije
ossification process based on the degree of ac-
odreen spol. Starost pronaenog djejeg ko-
cretion of epyphises with diaphyses.7 The sub-
stura procijenjena je iskljuivo na temelju du-
adult skeleton was given longer age range than
ljine dijafiza dugih kostiju,6 i to priblino, jer
usual for the same reason.
nijedna dijafiza nije sauvana u cijelosti. Pro-
It was not possible to note traumatic and
cjenu starosti djeteta na osnovi promjena u
pathological bone changes since cortex of all
zubnom statusu prouzroenih formiranjem i
bones was damaged by water, soil and roots.
nicanjem mlijenih i stalnih zuba i stupnja os-
Eleven persons were buried in ten graves,
cifikacije kostiju s obzirom na stupanj srasta-
one animal tooth was found in one grave and
nja epifiza s dijafizama7 nije mogue dati, jer
pottery sherds in several graves.
su na kotanom materijalu prisutne izraene
postmortalne promjene. Iz istog je razloga za
dijete dan vei raspon godina od uobiajenog.
Kako je korteks svih kostiju oteen djelova-
njem vode, zemlje i korijenja, nisu se mogle zami-
jetiti mogue traumatske i patoloke promjene.
U deset se grobova nalazilo jedanaest oso-
ba, u jednom je pronaen ivotinjski zub, a u
pojedinim su grobovima pronaeni fragmenti
keramike.

2 W. M. Bass, 1995, 200-206; D. H. Ubelaker, 1999, 52-60; W. M. Krogman


M. Y. Iscan, 1986, 200-259; T. W. Phenice, 1969, 297-301; D. Zeevi,
2004, 194-202.
3 Z. Zupani-Slavec, 2004, 39-41. 3 Z. Zupani-Slavec, 2004, 39-41.
4 W. M. Bass, 1995, 12-25; D. H. Ubelaker, 1999, 75-84; W. M. Krogman 4 W. M. Bass, 1995, 12-25; D. H. Ubelaker, 1999, 75-84; W. M. Krogman
Ivana Anteri M. Y. Iscan, 1986, 103-179; D. Zeevi, 2004, 202-205. M. Y. Iscan, 1986, 103-179; D. Zeevi, 2004, 202-205.
eljana Bai 5 E. E. Hunt I. Gleiser, 1955, 479. 5 E. E. Hunt I. Gleiser, 1955, 479.
Ela kori 6 E. Maresh, 1970, 157-200. 6 E. Maresh, 1970, 157-200.
imun Anelinovi 7 IBID. 7 IBID.
137
Nalazi po grobovima: Overview of graves:

Grob 1: Grave 1:
Uuvanost korteksa: loa Cortex preservation: poor
Spol: enski. Gender: female
Starost u trenutku smrti: 35-49 godina Age at time of death: 35- 49 years
Patoloke promjene: nisu vidljive. Pathological changes: not present

Prisutni su fragmenti lubanje, od kojih je osam veih Fragments of the skull were preserved. Eight of them
dimenzija, svi debljeg promjera. Na pojedinim su fra- have larger dimensions, whereas all of them have thicker
gmentima vidljivi avovi, veinom srasli (osim kosti uz diameter. Some fragments have visible sutures which are
koronalni av), i djelomino obliterirani. Na dijelovima mostly joined (except coronal suture) and partly obliter-
temporalne kosti ouvani su mastoidni nastavci, veeg ated. Mastoid process is preserved on parts of temporal
promjera i snaniji. bones and they are all massive and have thicker diameter.
Pronaena su i dva fragmenta mandibule, i to desnog A premolar in situ is present on a fragment of maxilla.
dijela (bez angulusa i ramusa) s drugim kutnjakom (M2) Two fragments of the right third of the lower jaw were
in situ, te fragment tijela mandibule duljine 2 cm. Sedam also found. They do not have preserved angle and ramus
je zuba postmortalno ekstrahirano (sjekutii, onjaci, pret- but they have one tooth (molar) in situ. Fragment of the
kutnjaci), a grizne plohe svih zuba su iznimno istroene. body of the lower jaw with length of 2 cm was also pre-
Prisutan je i djelomino ouvan atlas, manjeg pro- served. Seven teeth were extracted postmortem (incisors,
mjera, lijevi femur bez distalnog i proksimalnog dijela, canines and premolars) and all the teeth surfaces were
srednjih dimenzija, dva fragmenta tibije, dva fragmenta extremely worn out.
humerusa s neto izraenijim miinim hvatitima te fra- There are also: partially preserved atlas with thinner
gmenti fibule, radijusa i ulne, gracilnije grae. diameter, medium-sized left femur without preserved
Pronaeni su i fragmenti zdjelice, irih sjednih ureza. proximal and distal parts, two fragments of a tibia, two
Fragmenti ostalih kostiju su jako sitni, duljine ne vee od fragments of a humerus with less pronounced muscle at-
2 cm, te samim time nisu dostupni analizi. tachments and fragments of a fibula, radius and ulna all
Prema izgledu sjednog ureza, gracilnoj grai analizi- with fragile structure.
ranih kostiju te slabije izraenim miinim hvatitima, There were also pelvis fragments with wider incisura
moe se zakljuiti kako se radi o enskoj osobi. ischiadica. Other bones fragments are very small, not
Prema stupnju srastanja avova lubanje te istroeno- longer than 2 cm and therefore unsuitable for analysis.
sti griznih ploha zakljuuje se da je rije o starijoj odrasloj Appearance of incisura ischiadica, fragile structure of
osobi (35-49 godina). analyzed bones and less pronounced muscle attachments
most probably indicate that this is a female skeleton.
According to the degree of accretion of the skull su-
tures and state of teeth surfaces the conclusion is that this
was probably an older adult person (35-49 years).

REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE
ANALIZE GROBOVA S
tumula DUEVIA GLAVICA
RESULTS OF THE
ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS OF THE
OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
FROM THE TUMULUS OF
DUEVIA GLAVICA
138
Grob 2: Grave 2:
Uuvanost korteksa: loa Cortex preservation: poor
Spol: muki. Gender: male.
Starost u trenutku smrti: odrasla osoba Age at time of death: adult.
Patoloke promjene: nisu vidljive. Pathological changes: not present.

Ouvano je devet fragmenata kostiju, od kojih sredinji Nine bone fragments were preserved: central part of a hu-
dio humerusa dimenzija 11,7 x 2,7 cm, dio zglobne plo- merus with dimensions of 11.7 x 2.7 cm, part of scapular
he skapule (cavitas glenoidalis) dimenzija 4,6 x 2,3 cm, articular surface (cavitas glenoidalis) with dimensions of
fragment kraljeka te est fragmenata kostiju nepravilnog 4.6 x 2.3 cm, vertebral fragment and six bone fragments
oblika, manjih dimenzija, za koje se ne moe odrediti ko- with irregular shape and smaller dimensions for which it
jim kostima pripadaju. was not possible to determine which bones they belong to.
S obzirom na stanje i stupanj oteenja osteolokog Analysis indicates that the adult person was buried in
materijala, pregledom je mogue utvrditi kako se u ovom this grave. Morphological characteristics of the humerus
grobu nalazila muka odrasla osoba, i to na temelju mor- which is massive, with pronounced muscle attachments
fologije fragmenta humerusa, koji je robusne grae, jae and intertubular sulcus indicate that this person was a
izvuenih miinih hvatita, naglaenog intertuberalnog male. Due to heavy postmortem cortical damage there are
sulkusa. Zbog velikog postmortalnog oteenja korteksa no visible pathological changes.
nema vidljivih patolokih promjena.

Grob 3: Grave 3:
Uuvanost korteksa: loa Cortex preservation: poor.
Spol: nije mogue odrediti Gender: undeterminable.
Starost u trenutku smrti: 35- 49 godina. Age at time of death: 35- 49 years.
Patoloke promjene: nisu vidljive. Pathological changes: not present.

Prisutno je est fragmenata lubanje debljine 0,4 cm i pro- Six skull fragments were preserved. They are 0.4 cm thick
sjenog promjera 4 cm. Jedan dio lubanje fragmentiran je and 4 cm in diameter. One part of the skull is fragment-
uzdu ava koji nije u potpunosti obliterirao, ali zbog fra- ed along the suture that did not fully obliterate. Due to
gmentiranosti se ne moe odrediti o kojem se avu radi. extreme fragmentation it was not possible to determine
Prisutan je i fragment desnog dijela mandibule, bez zuba which suture was it exactly.
in situ, robusnije grae. Sauvana su i tri postmortalno There is also a massive fragment of right part of the
ekstrahirana zuba, od kojih jedan ima iznimno istroenu lower jaw, without preserved teeth (in situ).
griznu plohu. Takoer je vidljiv zaivotni gubitak prvoga Three postmortem extracted teeth were also pre-
kutnjaka mandibularno desno (M1), odnosno resorpcija served and one of them has extremely worn out teeth sur-
kosti na mjestu alveole. face. Alveolar bone resorption indicates antemortem loss
Pregledom fragmenata lubanje i prisutnih zuba moe of the first molar of the right side of the lower jaw (M1).
Ivana Anteri se zakljuiti kako se radi o starijoj odrasloj osobi (35 - 49 Analysis of the skull fragments and present teeth in-
eljana Bai godina), dok spol nije mogue odrediti. dicates that this was an older adult person (35-49 years),
Ela kori
imun Anelinovi whereas gender could not be determined.
139

Grob 4: Grave 4:
Uuvanost korteksa: loa Cortex preservation: poor.
Spol: nije mogue odrediti Gender: undeterminable.
Starost u trenutku smrti: nije mogue odrediti Age at time of death: undeterminable.
Patoloke promjene: nisu vidljive. Pathological changes: not present.

Pronaen je vei fragment lubanje, dim. 5,6 x 6,8 cm, pro- Larger skull fragment was found, with dimensions of 5.6 x
mjera 0,6 cm, na jednom dijelu fragmentiran po avu, te 6.8 cm, diameter 0.6 cm. It is fragmented along the suture
jo etiri manja fragmenta lubanje. Prisutna su dva pos- in one part. There were also four smaller skull fragments.
tmortalno ekstrahirana zuba, sa srednje istroenim gri- Two post-mortem extracted teeth are present, with mod-
znim plohama, sedam fragmenata dugih cjevastih kosti- erately worn out teeth surfaces. There are also seven frag-
ju, maksimalne dimenzije 3,5 cm, koji zbog veliine nisu ments of long bones, with maximal dimensions of 3.5 cm,
dostupni analizi. which are not suitable for analysis due to small dimensions.
Pregledom kotanih ostataka mogue je zakljuiti kako Analysis of bone remains indicates that an adult per-
se u grobu nalazi odrasla osoba, nepoznatog spola i dobi. son was buried in this grave, of unidentified gender and
age at the time of death.

REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE
ANALIZE GROBOVA S
tumula DUEVIA GLAVICA
RESULTS OF THE
ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS OF THE
OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
FROM THE TUMULUS OF
DUEVIA GLAVICA
140
Grob 5: Grave 5:
Uuvanost korteksa: loa Cortex preservation: poor.
Spol: nije mogue odrediti Gender: subadult.
Starost u trenutku smrti: od 7 do 15 godina Age at time of death: from 7 to 15 years.
Patoloke promjene: nisu vidljive. Pathological changes: not present.

Od kotanih ostataka pronaena je klavikula dimenzija Among bone fragments there were: clavicle with dimen-
1,0 x 1,3 cm, distalni dio humerusa bez sauvane trochlee sions of 1.0 x 1.3 cm, distal part of a humerus without pre-
humerii dimenzija 7,2 x 1,6 cm, proksimalni dio radiju- served trochlea humeri, dimensions 7.2 x 1.6 cm, proxi-
sa bez sauvanog caput radii dimenzija 7,8 x 1,0 cm, dva mal part of a radius without preserved caput radii dimen-
fragmenta tijela radijusa ili ulne dimenzija 9,8 x 1,2 cm, sions of 7.8 x 1.0 cm, two body fragments of a radius or
odnosno 5,5 x 1,0 cm, fragment tijela tibije dimenzija 6,5 ulna with dimensions of 9.8 x 1.2 cm i.e.5.5 x 1.0 cm, body
x 1,6 cm, dva fragmenta duge cjevaste kosti, i to femura fragments of a tibia with dimensions of 6.5 x 1.6 cm, two
ili tibije dimenzija 9,9 x 1,2 cm i 9,1 x 1,1 cm, tri fragmen- fragments of a long bone, most probably a femur or tibia
ta angulusa lopatice dimenzija 5,1 x 3,2 cm, te dvanaest with dimensions of 9.9 x 1.2 cm and 9.1 x 1.1 cm, three
manjih fragmenata ostalih kostiju. Sve su kosti gracilnije fragments of a scapular angle with dimensions of 5.1 x 3.2
grae, tanjeg promjera i manjih dimenzija. cm, and 12 smaller fragments of other bones. All bones
Detaljnim pregledom moe se zakljuiti kako kosti are fragile with thinner diameter and smaller dimensions.
pripadaju djetetu starosti 7 do 15 godina, i to na temelju Detailed analysis indicates that the bones belong to a
dimenzija i morfologije kosti. Starost djeteta procijenjena subadult who was between 7 and 15 years of age on the
je aproksimativno na temelju duljina sauvanih dugih ko- basis of bone dimensions and morphology. More accurate
stiju. Za preciznije odreivanje dobi nedostaju zubi, dis- age determination was not possible due to missing teeth,
talni i proksimalni dijelovi kostiju, kao i epifize. proximal and distal parts of bones and epiphyses.

Grob 6: Grave 6:
Analizirane kosti ispunjene su zemljom, koja je fiksira- Analyzed bones were filled with soil and roots that fixated
la korteks kotanih fragmenata, proetom korijenjem. bone cortex. Articular surface was not preserved on any
Ni na jednom fragmentu nije ouvana zglobna ploha. of the fragments.
Pregledom kostiju ustanovljeno je da se u grobu nalaze Anthropological analysis indicates that two persons were
dvije osobe. buried in this grave.

Osoba 1 Person 1:
Uuvanost korteksa: loa Cortex preservation: poor.
Spol: muki Gender: male.
Starost u trenutku smrti: 50 -64 godina Age at time of death: 50 -64 years.
Patoloke promjene: nisu vidljive. Pathological changes: not present.

Ivana Anteri Prisutno je nekoliko fragmenata lubanje, svi su avovi Several skull fragments were preserved. All sutures are
eljana Bai vrsto srasli i obliterirali. Pronaeno je i dvadesetak fra- firmly joined and obliterated. There were 20 fragile frag-
Ela kori
imun Anelinovi gmenata dugih kostiju, srednje grae, s jako izraenim ments of long bones with prominent muscle attachments.
141
miinim hvatitima. Prisutno je i etrnaest postmortal- There are also 15 post-mortem extracted teeth (incisors,
no ekstrahiranih zuba (sjekutii, pretkutnjaci, kutnjaci), premolars and molars) all with strong roots with ex-
jaih korijena, s iznimno istroenim griznim plohama. tremely worn out teeth surfaces.
Jae izraena miina hvatita, morfologija lubanje i Extremely pronounced muscle attachments and teeth
zuba upuuju na osobu mukog spola, a avovi lubanje i morphology indicate male gender, whereas skull sutures
zubni status na dob od 50 godina do 64 godine. and dental status indicate age from 50 to 64.

Osoba 2 Person 2:
Uuvanost korteksa: loa Cortex preservation: poor.
Spol: enski Gender: female.
Starost u trenutku smrti: 20 34 godina Age at time of death: 20 34 years.
Patoloke promjene: nisu vidljive. Pathological changes: not present.

Prisutan je kotani fragment distalne treine ulne ili radi- A fragment of a distal third of ulna or radius without ar-
jusa bez zglobne plohe, gracilnije grae i manjeg promje- ticular surface was preserved. Fragment is fragile and
ra kosti, te 10 postmortalno ekstrahiranih zuba (sjekuti- with thinner bone diameter. Ten smaller post-mortem
i, pretkutnjaci i kutnjaci). Grizne plohe zuba odlino su extracted teeth were also preserved (incisors, premolars
ouvane, bez vidljivih znakova karioznih promjena, zubi and molars). Teeth surfaces are very well preserved, with-
su manjih dimenzija. out visible signs of caries.
Na temelju morfoloke grae te izgleda zuba i kota- Anthropological analysis based on appearance and mor-
nog fragmenta moe se pretpostaviti kako se radi o en- phological characteristics of the teeth and bone fragment
skoj osobi, i to mlae ivotne dobi (20 - 34 godine). indicates younger person (20-34 years), of female gender.

REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE
ANALIZE GROBOVA S
tumula DUEVIA GLAVICA
RESULTS OF THE
ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS OF THE
OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
FROM THE TUMULUS OF
DUEVIA GLAVICA
142
Grob 7: Grave 7:
Uuvanost korteksa: vrlo dobra. Cortex preservation: very good.
Spol: muki Gender: female.
Starost u trenutku smrti: 45 59 godina. Age at time of death: 20 34 years.
Patoloke promjene: nisu vidljive Pathological changes: not present.

Prisutna je lubanja, bez veeg dijela baze lubanje i lica, Skull was preserved without larger part of the basis and
ispunjena zemljom koja je fiksirala dijelove kosti. avovi face and it is also filled with soil that fixated parts of the
lubanje vrsto su srasli, dijelom obliterirali, i to veinom skull bones. Skull sutures are firmly joined, partly oblit-
na sjecitu koronalnoga i sagitalnog ava. Kosti lubanje su erated, mostly on junction of coronal and sagittal suture.
robusnije, slabije izraenih miinih hvatita. elo je koso Skull bones are massive with less prominent muscle attach-
poloeno, supercilijarni luk jae je naglaen, supraorbitalni ments. Forehead is positioned obliquely, superciliary arch
luk je deblji i okrugliji, frontalna kost jae je izraena, gla- is pronounced, supraorbital arch is thicker and rounded,
bela i okcipitalni greben slabije su izraeni, kranijalni gre- frontal bone is pronounced, glabela and occipital ridge are
ben je glatkiji, kosti lubanje su okcipitalno veeg promjera less pronounced, cranial ridge is smoother, skull bones
negoli frontalno, hvatita temporalnih miia su plosnatija, have larger dimensions occipitally than frontally, temporal
vanjski okcipitalni nastavak srednje je izraen, dok je ma- muscle attachments are flatter, external occipital process
stoidni nastavak neto jae izraen. Nepce ima elipsoidan is averagely emphasized, whereas mastoid process is more
oblik, zubi su veih dimenzija. Od epigenetskih znaajka pronounced. Palate has ellipsoidal shape, teeth have larger
vidljivi su supraorbitalna poroznost desno, te medijalni dimensions. Among epigenetic characteristics, right sided
supraorbitalni av lijevo. Oblik lubanje je mezocefalian. supraorbital porosity and left sided medial supraorbital su-
Na lubanji su zamijeene i postmortalne promjene, i ture were visible. Skull has mesocephalic shape.
to lijevo temporalno i okcipitalno te desno okcipitalno uz There were also postmortem skull changes on the left
avove, u obliku neravnina na kosti. Na parijetalnoj kosti temporal and occipital bone and on the right side of the
vidljiva je promjena, pravilnog okruglog oblika, za koju occipital bone near the sutures where they look like bone
nije mogue utvrditi radi li se o promjeni nastaloj za i- bumps. Round shaped change of unknown etiology is
vota ili poslije smrti. Prisutna su i dva fragmenta maksile present on the parietal bone.
u kojima se in situ nalaze: desno drugi pretkutnjak (P2) Two fragments of the upper jaw are also present. They
i prvi kutnjak (M1); a lijevo prvi i drugi pretkutnjak (P1 i contain teeth (in situ): on the right side there are the first and
P2), te prvi, drugi i trei kutnjak (M1, M2 i M3). second premolars (P1 and P2) and the first molar (M1); and
Pronaena su i dva fragmenta mandibule snanije on the left side an incisor (C), the first and second premolars
grae, u kojima se in situ nalazi: desno trei kutnjak (M3). (P1 and P2) and the first and second molars (M1 and M2).
Grizne plohe svih zuba jako su istroene. There were also two massive fragments of the lower
Prisutan je i fragment distalne treine humerusa, naj- jaw which have the following teeth in situ: on the right
vjerojatnije desnog, jaih hvatita miia. side there are second and third molars (M2 and M3);
Detaljnim pregledom kostiju, osobito grae lubanje i whereas on the left side there is the first molar (M1).
mandibule, ali i ostalih fragmenata mogue je zakljuiti Teeth surfaces of all teeth are very worn out.
da se u grobu nalazi muka osoba. S obzirom na stupanj Fragment of the distal third of the humerus with pro-
srastanja avova lubanje i zubni status, odnosno izgled nounced muscle attachments was also preserved.
griznih ploha, dob se procjenjuje na 45 do 59 godina. Detailed anthropologic analysis, particularly of the
skull and lower jaw, and all other fragments as well, indi-
cates that person of male gender was buried in this grave.
Due to the degree of suture accretion and dental status,
with respect to the state of teeth surfaces, age at the time
of death was estimated at 45 to 59.

Ivana Anteri
eljana Bai
Ela kori
imun Anelinovi
143
Grob 8: Grave 8:
Uuvanost korteksa: dobra. Cortex preservation: good.
Spol: enski Gender: female.
Starost u trenutku smrti: 50 64 godina. Age at time of death: 50 64 years.
Patoloke promjene: nisu vidljive Pathological changes: not present.

Lubanja je fragmentirana, nakon pranja i suenja djelo- Skull is fragmented. It was partly reconstructed after
mino rekonstruirana. Koronalni av je u cijeloj duini u washing and drying. Coronal suture is completely oblit-
potpunosti obliterirao, sagitalni i lambdoidalni avovi su erated, sagittal and lamdoidal sutures are firmly joined,
srasli, ali ne i obliterirali. Pravilnog je oblika, srednjih di- but they are not obliterated. The skull has regular shape,
menzija, eona kost je ravna, supercilijarni lukovi slabije standard dimensions, frontal bone is straight, superciliary
su naglaeni, supraorbitalni luk tanji je i otriji, glabela je arches are less pronounced, supraorbital arch is thinner
slabije naglaena, okcipitalni greben srednje je naglaen, and sharper, glabela is less pronounced, occipital ridge is
kranijalni greben ima slabije izraena miina hvatita, standard, cranial ridge has less pronounced muscle attach-
vanjski okcipitalni nastavak slabije je izraen. Prisutan ments, external occipital process is less pronounced. Frag-
je i fragment desnoga ramusa mandibule, oteenog kor- ment of the right ramus of the lower jaw is also present. It
teksa i tanjeg promjera. Pronaeno je i est postmortalno has damaged cortex and thinner diameter. Six teeth which
ekstrahiranih zuba (onjak, pretkutnjaci, kutnjaci), fra- were extracted postmortem were found as well (a canine,
gmentiranih i loe ouvanih. Grizne plohe svih zuba izni- premolars and molars). They are fragmented and poorly
mno su istroene. preserved with extremely worn out teeth surfaces.
Detaljnim pregledom prisutnih kostiju, odnosno lubanje Detailed analysis of present bones i.e. the skull and
i mandibule, mogue je zakljuiti da se najvjerojatnije radi o lower jaw, indicates that a female person was buried in
enskoj osobi. Na temelju stupnja srastanja avova lubanje i this grave. On the basis of the degree of suture accretion
zubnog statusa dob se procjenjuje na 50-64 godine. and dental status age is estimated at 50 to 64.

Grob 9: Grave 9:
Uuvanost korteksa: dobra. Cortex preservation: good
Spol: enski Gender: female
Starost u trenutku smrti: 30 49 godina. Age at time of death: 30 49 years
Patoloke promjene: karijes Pathological changes: caries

Pronaeno je devet fragmenata lubanje, uglavnom fra- Nine skull fragments were found, mostly fragmented on
gmentiranih po avovima, te dio lubanje s obje orbite, the sutures, and a skull fragment with both orbits, super-
REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE
supercilijarnim lukovima i dijelom eone kosti. Superci- ciliary arches and a part of the frontal bone. Supercili- ANALIZE GROBOVA S
lijarni lukovi srednje su izraeni, a elo je koso poloeno. ary arches are moderately pronounced and the forehead tumula DUEVIA GLAVICA
RESULTS OF THE
Prisutna su i dva fragmenta maksile: desni dio s prvim is positioned obliquely. Two fragments of the upper jaw ANTHROPOLOGICAL
pretkutnjakom (P1), te lijevi s prvim i drugim kutnjakom are also present: right part with the first premolar (P1), ANALYSIS OF THE
(M1 i M2) in situ. Od mandibule ouvano je tijelo, bez an- and left part with the first and second premolars (P1 and OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
FROM THE TUMULUS OF
gulusa i ramusa, desno sa svim zubima in situ osim me- P2) in situ. Bone body was preserved out of the lower jaw, DUEVIA GLAVICA
144
dijalnog sjekutia (I1), a lijevo s drugim kutnjakom (M2). without angle and ramus. On its right side, all teeth are
Pronaeno je i jedanaest postmortalno ekstrahiranih preserved in situ, whereas on the left side there is a lat-
zuba. Grizne plohe svih zuba srednje su istroene. eral incisor (I2) and the second molar (M2). There were
Takoer su pronaeni i fragmenti zdjelice s uim sjed- eleven teeth which were extracted postmortem. Teeth
nim urezom, obje klavikule, desni humerus, desni i lijevi surfaces are moderately worn out.
radijusi bez distalnih treina, proksimalna polovina de- There were also pelvis fragments with narrower incisu-
sne ulne, lijeva ulna bez distalne treine, desni femur bez ra ischiadica, both clavicles, right humerus, right and left
proksimalne i distalne zglobne plohe, po dva fragmenta radius without the distal thirds, proximal half of the right
tijela lijevih femura, tibije i fibule bez proksimalnih i dis- ulna, left ulna without the distal third, right femur without
talnih zglobnih ploha, desna skapula bez sauvanoga ve- proximal and distal articular surfaces, two fragments of the
eg inferiornog medijalnog ruba te fragmenti kraljeaka i femoral bodies, tibia and fibula without proximal and dis-
rebara. Sve su kosti gracilnije grae i manjih dimenzija. tal articular surfaces, right scapula without a larger part of
Unato uem sjednom urezu fragmenta desnog dijela the medial border on its inferior part, and vertebral and
zdjelice, koji je karakteristian za muki spol, pregledom costal fragments. All bones are fragile and rather small.
ostalih kostiju mogue je zakljuiti kako se ipak radi o osobi In spite of thinner incisura ischiadica of a fragment
enskog spola. S obzirom na zubni status te stupanj srasta- of the right part of pelvis, which indicates male gender,
nja avova lubanje dob u trenutku smrti procjenjuje se na morphology of other bones indicates female gender. On
30 do 49 godina. the basis of the dental status and degree of suture accre-
tion, age at the time of death was estimated at 30 to 49.

Grob 10. Grave 10:


Kotani ostatci iz ovoga groba su spaljeni, iznimno fra- Bone remains from this grave were cremated. They are
gmentirani, prosjene dimenzije 1,2 cm. Detaljnim pre- extremely fragmented with average dimensions of 1.2 cm.
gledom korteksa kosti, odnosno odnosa debljine korteksa Detailed analysis of bone cortex, with respect to relation
kosti i medularne upljine zakljueno je kako se u grobu between the thickness of bone cortex and medullary cav-
nalaze ljudske kosti. Zbog stanja kotanih ostataka ne ity, indicates that human bones were buried in the grave.
mogu se utvrditi spol ni dob, kao ni patoloke ni traumat- Due to poor preservation of bone fragments it was not
ske promjene. possible to determine the age at the time of death, gender,
pathological changes or signs of trauma.
Nepoznati grob:
Prisutan je fragment lubanje, dimenzija 6,6 x 4,2 cm, Unknown grave:
promjera 0,6 cm, fragmentiran po avu. Pronaen je fra- Skull fragment was preserved with dimensions of 6.6 x 4.2
gment duge cjevaste kosti, dim. 4,3 x 0,8 cm, i fragment cm, diameter 0.6 cm, fragmented along the suture.
lopatice (spinae scapulae). Fragment of a long bone was also found, with dimensions of
Pregledom kostiju mogue je utvrditi kako se u gro- 4.3 x 0.8 cm and a fragment of a scapula (spina scapulae).
bu nalazi odrasla osoba nepoznatog spola i dobi. Kotani Analysis of the osteological material indicates that an
materijal vjerojatno pripada jednom od gore analiziranih, adult person of unknown gender and age at the time of death
oznaenih grobova, no zbog iznimno malo informacija was buried in this grave. Osteological material most prob-
koje se mogu dobiti iz ovog materijala nije mogue sa si- ably belongs to one of the aforementioned, marked graves,
gurnou utvrditi kojem grobu pripadaju. Iz istog razloga but due to scarce information that can be obtained from this
Ivana Anteri ovaj kotani materijal nije uzet u obradu podataka o uku- material it is impossible to determine with certainty to which
eljana Bai pnom nalazitu. grave they belong. These bone fragments were excluded from
Ela kori
imun Anelinovi the analysis of data from the entire site for the same reason.
145
Osvrt na rezultate antropoloke analize Review of the results of anthropologic analysis

U deset je grobova pronaeno jedanaest oso- Eleven persons were found in ten graves. Ten
ba, i to deset odraslih osoba i jedno dijete. Za of them were adults and one was a subadult.
tri odrasle osobe nije bilo mogue utvrditi spol, For four adult persons it was not possible to de-
a za tri dob. Meu osobama kojima se mogao termine gender, and for three of them not even
odrediti spol, etiri su ene i tri mukarca. Dje- age. Among persons whose gender was deter-
tetu se spol nije odreivao.8 minable, four of them were women and two of
Za sedam odraslih osoba i jedno dijete bilo them were men. In case of the subadult, gender
je mogue utvrditi dob, i to za odrasle osobe u was not determined.8
rasponu od 14 do 19 godina, a za dijete oko 8 For eight adults and one subadult it was pos-
godina. Znatno vei raspon godina dan je zbog sible to determine age; for adults in the range of
iznimne fragmentiranosti osteolokog materija- 15 to 20 years, and for the subadult in the range
la, te velikog postmortalnog oteenja korteksa. of eight years. Very long year range was given
Kotani ostatci ostale etiri osobe u iznimno su due to extreme fragmentation of osteological
loem stanju, te se iz tog razloga dob u trenut- material and considerable postmortem cortex
ku smrti nije mogla odrediti. Prosjena starost devastation. Bone fragments of the remaining
odraslih osoba u trenutku smrti iznosila je 45,29 four persons are in very poor condition and
godina. Prosjena starost ena u trenutku smrti therefore age at the time of death could not be
iznosila je 41,5, a mukaraca 54,5 godina. determined. Average age at the time of death
Dobivena demografska slika usporeena for adults was 45.2 years. Average age at the
je s nalazitima s podruja Hrvatske koja se time of death for women was 41.4 and for men
datiraju u isto razdoblje. Tako je u Nadinu na 54.5 years.
nekropoli na ravnom prosjena doivljena dob Obtained demographic data were compared
mukaraca 36,7 godina, ena 46 godina, a dje- with other sites in Croatia dated to the same
ce 8,5 godina. Iz istog je naselja, Gradina na period. On the flat necropolis in Nadin aver-
Nadinu,9 na tumulu, najvei postotak osoba age age at the time of death was 36.7 years, for
umrlo u dobi od 26 do 45 godina (30 %), samo women 46 years and for subadults 8,5 years.
manji broj osoba preivio je 45 godina (13,3 %). From the same settlement, Gradina in Nadin9
Mlaih odraslih osoba bilo je 23,3 %. Na loka- on the tumulus, the highest percentage of per-
litetu Vinkovci-NaMa prosjena ivotna dob sons died between the ages of 26 and 45 (30%)
iznosila je za mukarce 51 godinu, a za ene 38 and only a small number of individuals lived
godina.10 Vidljivo je kako je ivotna dob popu- until the age of 45 (13.3%). Younger adults
lacije u tumulu Duevia glavica prosjeno vea made 23.3% of population. In comparison with
od ostalih promatranih populacija, to moe the site of Vinkovci-NaMa it is also transpar-
upuivati na neto vii ivotni standard, odno- ent that the average age is slightly higher (for
sno kvalitetu ivota i medicinske skrbi. men it was 51 year, and for women it was 38
Zbog velikih postmortalnih oteenja kor- years10). According to these results it is evident
teksa kosti, znakove pojedinih patolokih i tra- that the life span of the population from the site
umatskih stanja ije su posljedice vidljive i na of Duevia glavica is somewhat longer indicat-
kotanom materijalu, nije bilo mogue uoiti. ing better standard of life, i.e. quality of life and
Od svih analiziranih kostiju i njihovih fragme- medical care.
nata, te zuba, jedino je na zubima bilo mogue Due to bad preservation of osteological mate-
uoiti patoloka stanja, i to kariozne promjene, rial, except for caries, it was not possible to de-
dok se ostale promjene na zubima, poput hipo- tect pathological changes and signs of trauma.
lazije zubne cakline i alveolarne resorpcije, iz Caries is one of the most common teeth dis-
gore navedenih razloga nisu mogle zamijetiti. eases and it occurs in shape of opaque spots or REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE
ANALIZE GROBOVA S
recessions in teeth. It is a contagious and trans- tumula DUEVIA GLAVICA
RESULTS OF THE
ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS OF THE
8 E. E. Hunt I. Gleiser, 1955., 479. 8 E. E. Hunt I. Gleiser, 1955, 479 OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
9 P. RAJI IKANJI, 2006., 795-799, 9 P. RAJI IKANJI, 2006, 795-799 FROM THE TUMULUS OF
10 M. laus, 2003., 262. 10 M. laus, 2003., 262. DUEVIA GLAVICA
146
Zubni karijes jedno je od najeih obolje- ferable disease caused by microbes that destroy
nja zuba, te se pojavljuje u obliku neprozirnih teeth surface, crown or root. In the early age of
tokica ili udubljenja na zubu. S obzirom na lo- demineralization of dental enamel, reminerali-
kaciju razlikuje se lingualni, bukalni, okluzal- zation may occur, but more often dental enam-
ni, interproksimalni karijes te karijes koji za- el and crown dentine are destroyed. The most
hvaa korijen zuba. Najei uzronik karijesa common caries causative agent is Streptococ-
je Streptococcus mutans, a u ostale uzronike cus mutans, and other agents are lactobacilli
ubrajaju se i laktobakcili i aktinomicete.11 and actynomicetes.11
Zubni karijes zarazna je i prenosiva bolest u ko- Frequency of caries prevalence is related
joj mikrobi unitavaju povrinu, krunu ili korijen to various factors: quality and type of nutri-
zuba. U ranoj fazi demineralizacije zubne cakline tion, genetic predisposition, presence of ele-
moe doi i do remineralizacije, ali ee dolazi do ments in traces in food and water, activity of
unitavanja cakline i dentina krune zuba. pathogen agents, especially bacterial, teeth
Na uestalost pojavnosti karijesa utjeu ra- hygiene, shape and teeth structure12 Low fre-
zliiti imbenici: kvaliteta i vrsta prehrane, ge- quency of caries is recorded in populations
netska predispozicija, prisutnost elemenata u whose nutrition was based on hunting and
tragovima u hrani i vodi, djelovanje patogenih collecting wild fruits, whereas high frequency
tvari, odnosno bakterija, zubna higijena, oblik i was recorded in populations which practised
struktura zuba. 12 Niska je uestalost karijesa za- agriculture and consumed food rich in car-
biljeena u populacijama ija se prehrana teme- bohydrates.13 It was also recorded that caries
ljila na lovu i prikupljanju divljih plodova, dok je frequency is usually higher in women than in
visoka uestalost uoena kod populacija koje su men.14 There is a series of potential reasons
se bavile poljodjelstvom te konzumirale hranu including different nutrition among certain
bogatu ugljikohidratima.13 Takoer je zabiljeeno members of the same population, earlier
kako je uestalost karijesa esto ea kod ena teeth eruption in women and thereby longer
nego kod mukaraca.14 U literaturi se pronalazi exposition to caries pathogens, and nega-
niz moguih razloga: razliita prehrana pojedinih tive consequences of pregnancy on the teeth
pripadnika iste populacije, raniji poetak nicanja health.15 The total frequency of caries in this
zuba kod ena, a samim time i dulja izloenost population is 12.50% (2/8 persons), or 2.22%
uzronicima karijesa, te negativne posljedice (2/90 teeth).
koje trudnoa ima na zdravlje zuba.15 Uestalost Results obtained in this anthropological
karijesa u ovoj populaciji iznosi 12,50 % (2/8 lju- analysis were compared with other results from
di) osoba, odnosno 2,22 % (2/90 zuba) zuba. Croatia and other countries. In Nadin - flat
Rezultati dobiveni ovom antropolokom necropolis caries was noticeable in three per-
analizom usporeeni su s rezultatima iz Hr- sons (42.9% of all persons who had preserved
vatske i svijeta. U Nadinu je na nekropoli na teeth), meaning that 16 % of teeth were affected
ravnom zamijeen karijes kod 42,9 % osoba, with caries. In the analyzed sample from the
odnosno 16 % zuba, a u tumulu na 4,5 % zuba. tumulus (Nadin), caries was recorded on 4.5 %
U populaciji s lokaliteta Vinkovci-NaMa zabi- of present teeth, whereas in sample from Vink-
ljeen je kod 11,6 % zuba, dok je na nekropoli ovci-NaMa 11,6% of teeth were affected with
Venac zabiljeen kod 6,4 % odraslih ljudi. caries, and in necropolis Venac 6,4% of adults
Dobiveni rezultati usporeeni su i s drugim had caries.
populacijama (Europa, Azija i Arapski poluotok) Obtained results were compared with
,16 gdje je uestalost karijesa varirala od 30 % do other populations (Europe, Asia and Arabi-
85,7 % po osobi, odnosno 4,4 % do 18,4 % od an Peninsula)16 where the frequency of car-
ukupnog broja zuba. U populaciji june Afrike iz ies varied from 30% to 85.7% per person, or

11 D. J. Ortner, 2003., 590. 11 D. J. Ortner, 2003, 590.


12 C. Roberts K. Manchester, 2007., 65 12 C. Roberts K. Manchester, 2007, 65
Ivana Anteri 13 D. J. Ortner, 2003., 591. 13 D. J. Ortner, 2003, 591.
eljana Bai 14 C. S. Larsen,, 1997., 75. 14 C. S. Larsen, 1997, 75.
Ela kori 15 M. laus, 2006., 112-113. 15 M. laus, 2006, 112-113.
imun Anelinovi 16 G. C. Nelson, J. R. Lukacs P. Yule, 1999., 335. 16 G. C. Nelson J. R. Lukacs P.Yule, 1999., 335.
147
istog razdoblja zabiljeena je karijes kod 33 % 4.4% to 18.4% of the total number of teeth.
osoba, odnosno u 1,4 % pregledanih zuba.17 Na In a population from South Africa, from the
nalazitu iz SI Maarske18 zabiljeene su kariozne same period, caries was recorded in 33% of
promjene kod 3,7 % prisutnih zubi. Iz iznesenih persons, or in 1.4 % of the examined teeth.17
rezultata vidljivo je kako je analizirana populacija At a site from south eastern Hungary18 car-
na dnu uestalosti obolijevanja od karijesa. Ovi ies was recorded in 3.7% of the present teeth.
rezultati govore o boljem ivotnom standardu, From the presented results it is evident that
ponajprije kvalitetnijoj prehrani. Naime, mnogi the analyzed population is at the bottom of
autori smatraju kako pojavu karijesa treba pri- caries prevalence.
pisati prehrani bogatijoj ugljikohidratima, pa bi
ovaj rezultat mogao upuivati na prehranu bo-
gatiju bjelanevinama. Meutim, ne smiju se is-
kljuiti ni drugi imbenici koji utjeu na pojavu
karijesa, poput florida u vodi te naslijea. Vano
je istaknuti kako su grizne plohe veine zuba jako
istroene, to takoer moe govoriti u prilog ne-
to kvalitetnijoj prehrani, bogatijoj abrazivnim
sastojcima. Rezultati ove analize upuuju na
populaciju iji je ivotni standard neto bolji od
onodobnog prosjeka, to se ponajprije oituje u
veoj prosjenoj ivotnoj dobi, maloj smrtnosti
djece te niskoj uestalosti karijesa.

Literatura / Bibliography

W. M. Bass 1995 Human Osteology, Fourth edition, Missoury Archa- D. J. Ortner 2003 Identification of Pathological Conditions in Hu-
eological Society, 1995. man Skeletal Remains (drugo izdanje), Amsterdam, Boston,
London, New York, Oxford, Paris, San Diego, San Francisco,
E. E. Hunt I. Gleiser 1955 The Estimation of Age and Sex of Preado- Sydney, Tokyo, Academic Press, 2003.
lescent Children from Bones and Teeth, u: American Journal
of Physical Anthropology,13, 1955., 479-487. T. W. Phenice 1969 A newly developed visual method of sexing the
os pubis, u: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 30,
W. M. Krogman M.Y. Iscan 1986 The Human Skeleton in Forensic Hoboken, 1969., 297-301.
Medicine, Second Edition, by Charles C. Thomas,1986.
P. Raji ikanji, 2006 Analysis of Human Skeletal Remanes from
E. N. Labbe F. P. Coetzee M. Loots 2008 A Description of Iron Nadin Iron Age Burial Mound, u: Collegium Antropolo-
Age Skeletons from the Pilanesberg National Park, South gycum 30, 2006, 795-799.
Africa, u: South African Archeological Bulletin 63 (187): 28-
36, 2008. C. Roberts K. Manchester 2007 The Archaeology of Disease,
Third Edition, New York, 2007.
C. S. Larsen 1997 Bioarchaelogy, Interpreting Behavior from the Hu-
man Skeleton, Cambridge, 1997. D. H. Ubelaker I. Pap 1998 Skeletal Evidence for Health and Dise-
ase in the Iron Age of Northeastern Hungary, International
M. M. Maresh 1970 Measurments from Roentgenograms, u: Human Journal of Osteoarchaeolgy. 8: 231251 (1998.)
Growth and Development, Illinois 1970.
D. H. Ubelaker 1999 Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis,
P. H. Moore-Jansen R. L. Jantz 1990 Data Collection Procedures Interpretation, 1999.
for Forensic Skeletal Material (drugo izdanje), Knoxville, 1990.
D. Zeevi et al., 2004 Sudska medicina i deontologija, Medicinska
G. C. Nelson J. R. Lukacs P.Yule,1999 Dates, caries and early naklada, 2004.
tooth loss during the iron age of Oman, America Journal of
Physical Anthropology, 108:333-343, 1999. Z. Zupani-Slavec 2004 New Method in Identifying Family Related
Skulls, Springer Wien, NewYork, 2004.

REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE
ANALIZE GROBOVA S
tumula DUEVIA GLAVICA
RESULTS OF THE
ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS OF THE
OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
17 E. N. Labbe F. P. Coetzee M. Loots, 2008., 32. 17 E. N. Labbe F. P. Coetzee M. Loots, 2008. 32. FROM THE TUMULUS OF
18 D. H. Ubelaker, 1998., 231251. 18 D. H. Ubelaker, 1998., 231251. DUEVIA GLAVICA
Karla Gusar, Dario Vujevi MATAKOVA GLAVICA
MATAKOVA GLAVICA

Tumul Matakova glavica nalazi se s desne stra- The tumulus of Matakova glavica is situated
ne ceste Zadar-Pag, 280 metara istono od tu- on the right side of the Zadar Pag road, 280
mula Jokina glavica, u blizini starokranskih m to the east of the tumulus of Jokina glavi-
dvojnih crkava na lokalitetu Glavine. Dimen- ca, in the vicinity of the early Christian double
zijama je neto manji od oblinjih tumula Jo- churches at the site of Glavine. It is somewhat
kina i Duevia glavica - promjer mu iznosi 12 smaller than the nearby tumuli of Jokina and
m, a visina vrha u odnosu na okolnu povrinu Duevia glavica its diameter is 12 m, and the
1,8 m. Kao i druga dva tumula u ovoj skupini, height of its top in relation to the surroundings
i Matakova glavica spada u kategoriju tumula is 1,8 m. Matakova glavica also belongs to the
sa zemljanim nasipom. U recentnijoj prolo- category of earthen mounds as well as the re-
sti korpus tumula bio je obuhvaen poljopri- maining two tumuli in this group. In the more
vrednim radovima, to je vjerojatno utjecalo recent past the tumulus corpus was subjected
na stupanj sauvanosti grobova ukopanih na to agricultural works affecting the state of pres-
njegovom sredinjem dijelu i rubnim dijelo- ervation of graves in its central and peripheral
vima. Osim prilino izrazitog humusnog sloja parts. Except for a thick humus layer on the ac-
na aktualnoj povrini tumula nije bilo nikakve tual surface of the tumulus, there were no other
druge vegetacije. forms of vegetation.
Nakon uklanjanja povrinskoga humu- After the surface humus layer was re-
snog sloja, u subhumusnom sloju pojavile moved, groups of large rocks appeared in
su se skupine veeg kamenja, a najvjerojat- the subhumus layer, most likely being the
nije je rije o ostatcima arhitekture grobova. remains of grave architecture. Total of four
Ukupno su otkrivene etiri takve skupine, such groups was discovered, one each in
po jedna u kvadrantima III. i IV., a dvije u quadrants III and IV, two in quadrant II (Pl.
kvadrantu II. (T. I). U kvadrantu III. prona- I). In quadrant III were the remains of a grave
en je ostatak groba iju su arhitekturu ini- consisting of two vertical slabs and its upper
le dvije okomito postavljene ploe i zaglavlje part consisted of small stones (grave 1). Only
od sitnog kamena (grob 1). Tek je manji dio a small part of the graves architecture was
arhitekture groba sauvan, no moe se pret- preserved, but it is reasonable to assume that
postaviti da se rasprostirao otprilike u prav- it lay in the E-W direction. There were no
cu istok-zapad. U sauvanom dijela grob- skeletal remains in the preserved part of the
ne konstrukcije, meutim, nisu pronaeni grave construction.
ostatci pokojnika. Prehistoric layer is characterized by yellow
Prapovijesni dio nasipa izdvaja se utom color of the soil and presence of a round stone
bojom zemlje i postojanjem krune kamene platform in the middle of the tumulus (fig. 1;
platforme u sreditu tumula (sl. 1; T. V, 1). Pl. V, 1). Since the entire construction is in
Kako se cijela konstrukcija nalazi u kvadrantu quadrant III, i.e. outside present-day center
III., odnosno izvan dananjeg sredita tumu- of the tumulus, it is evident that the appear-
la, oito je da je izgled humka, zateen prije ance of the mound, before the excavation, was
iskopavanja, nastao kao posljedica stanovitog related to certain reshaping caused by late an-
150

Sl./ Fig. 1 preoblikovanja prouzroenog kasnoantikim tique and medieval burials, and possibly by
Kamena platforma
Stone platform i srednjovjekovnim ukopima, a moda i kasni- later agricultural activities, causing the origi-
jim poljodjelskim aktivnostima, zbog kojih je nal center of the fill to move several meters
izvorno sredite nasipa pomaknuto nekoliko towards north-west (Pl. VII, 1). This is con-
metara prema sjeverozapadu (T. VII, 1). To firmed by a layer of sandy soil which actu-
potvruje i sloj pjeskovite zemlje, koji zapra- ally represents the original, prehistoric fill of
vo predstavlja originalni, prapovijesni nasip the mound which is the thickest in quadrants
humka, najdeblji u kvadrantima II. i III. Ka- II and III. Later late antique graves were not
sniji kasnoantiki grobovi nisu duboko ukopa- dug in deeply but they were made on the very
vani, nego su podizani na samom rubu hum- edge of the mound. They were partially dug
ka. Oni su djelomino ukopani u prapovijesni into the prehistoric layer, and after their con-
sloj, a nakon njihove gradnje taj je dio vjero- struction this part was probably additionally
jatno dodatno zasut zemljom, ime se sjeve- filled with soil which caused north-western
rozapadni dio humka irio, dok se jugoistoni part of the mound to expand, whereas the
s vremenom smanjivao, vjerojatno uslijed po- south-eastern segment shrunk in time, prob-
ljoprivrednih radova. ably due to soil tillage.
Kamena konstrukcija krunog je tlocrta s Stone construction has a round layout with
promjerom oko 4 metra. Graena je od amor- a diameter of about 4 m. It was made of amor-
fnog kamenja postavljenog u tri ili etiri reda phous stones arranged in three or four rows
(sl. 1). Nakon podizanja prstenastog obzida, u (fig. 1). After raising an annular enclosing wall,
unutranjost konstrukcije postavljena je podlo- a basis of large pebbles was put in the interior
ga od krupnih oblutaka, a na vrh je postavljeno of the construction, and smaller stones or grav-
sitnije kamenje i ljunak. Originalni izgled ka- el were placed at the top. Original appearance
mene platforme sauvan je na junom i jugoi- of the stone platform was preserved on the
stonom dijelu, dok na zapadnom dijelu kon- southern and south-eastern part, whereas the
strukcija nije sauvana. Na tom se mjestu sve construction was not preserved in the western
do zdravice nalazi sloj s fragmentima tegula, part. In this part is a layer with fragments of
to upuuje na zakljuak da je za unitenje dije- tegulae all the way to the bedrock, indicating
la prapovijesne konstrukcije zasluno ukapanje that burials in Late Antiquity destroyed a seg-
u razdoblju kasne antike. ment of the prehistoric construction.
Budui da nema nalaza unutar sauvanog Since there were no finds within the pre-
dijela konstrukcije, moemo pretpostaviti da served part of the construction, we can assume
je sluila kao platforma na koju su bili postav- that it was used as a platform for placing the re-
ljeni ostatci pokojnika. Ostatci groba nisu ot- mains of the deceased person. Remains of the
kriveni, premda na njegovo postojanje ukazu- grave were not discovered, though its existence
ju ulomci vee prapovijesne posude pronaeni is indicated by fragments of a larger prehis-
Karla Gusar
Dario Vujevi na neunitenom dijelu nasipa (sl. 2, T. V, 1). toric vessel which were found in the preserved
151

Premda je posuda jako fragmentirana grad- part of the fill (fig. 2, Pl. V, 1). Although it was
njom kasnoantikoga groba (grob 2), disper- heavily damaged by the building of the late an-
zija i poloaj sauvanih fragmenata s velikom tique grave (grave no. 2), dispersion and posi-
dozom sigurnosti upuuju na zakljuak da se tion of the extant fragments indicate with great
ne radi o ulomcima povezanim s ritualnim degree of certainty that these sherds should not
razbijanjem, nego da je rije o posudi poloe- be related to ritual breaking, but that it was a
noj na sredinji dio platforme. vessel placed in the central part of the platform.
Posuda je sauvana u dovoljnoj mjeri da se Reconstruction of the vessel was possible
napravi rekonstrukcija (sl. 3; T. VI), Rije je o from the preserved sherds (fig. 3; Pl. VI). It
tipu posude s izvijenim obodom, konkavnim is a vessel with everted rim and concave neck
vratom koji je na prijelazu u rameni segment which was flattened at the transition to the
zaravnjen. Recipijent je blago bikonian, a shoulder segment. Recipient is slightly bi-
na njemu se nalaze dvije vodoravno poloene conical with two horizontal handles round in
ruke okruglog presjeka. Premda je izraena cross-section. Although it was made of clay
od zemlje s dosta primjesa kalcita vidljivih u with a lot of calcite inclusions visible in the
presjeku, povrina posude dobro je zaglae- cross-section, the surface of the vessel is well
na. U tipolokom smislu posudu nije mogue burnished. Typologically the vessel could not
datirati u ui vremenski raspon, jer je rije o be dated precisely as this type was represent-
tipu koji se javlja od kasnog bronanog doba ed from the Late Bronze Age until the end of
do kraja eljeznog doba u Liburniji. Taj tip po- the Iron Age in Liburnia. They were not re-
sude nije vezan ni uz odreeni pogrebni ritus, lated to a specific funerary rite, since similar
jer se sline posude javljaju i u funkciji urna i vessels can function as urns and grave goods,
kao grobni prilozi, ali i kao dio ritualno razbi- but also as a part of finds which were broken
janih nalaza.1 ritually.1
Uz posudu nisu pronaeni nikakvi ostatci There were no remains related to the burial
koji bi ukazivali na ritus pokapanja. Kod veine rite next to the vessel. In most cases finds of
tumula nalazi keramike uglavnom se veu uz pottery in a tumulus are related to ritual break-
ritualno razbijanje. Tek kod zemljanog humka ing. Only in the case of the earthen mound
Zemunjaa u Smiliu, koji . Batovi datira u Zemunjaa in Smili, which was dated to the
kasno bronano doba, nalazimo primjer groba Late Bronze Age by . Batovi, we have an exam-
od kamenih ploa s ostatcima kostura u zgre- ple of a grave made of stone slabs with skeleton
nom poloaju, poloenog u sreditu tumula, i remains in a crouched position, placed in the
posudom pokraj njega.2 middle of the tumulus, with a vessel next to it. 2

1 . BATOVI 1970; 1983; S. KUKO 2004. Posude slinog oblika, ali neto 1 . BATOVI 1970; 1983; S. KUKO 2004. Vessels of similar form, but somew-
drugaije fakture pronaene su i prilikom istraivanja tumula na Ljubakoj hat different fabric were found in the excavations of the tumuli at Ljuba-
kosi, usp. D. Vujevi, 2012. ka kosa, cf. D. Vujevi, 2012. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
2 . BATOVI 1990, 96. 2 . BATOVI 1990, 96. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
152

Sl./ Fig. 2
Ostaci prapovijesne
posude
Remains of a
prehistoric vessel

No na Matakovoj glavici nema dokaza o On Matakova glavica there is no material


postojanju kamene krinje, koja je tipina za evidence about the existence of the stone cist
inhumacijske pokope tog vremena. Time se which is typical of inhumation burials at the
izglednijim ini pretpostavka da je na Matako- time. Therefore hypothesis that cremation was
voj glavici primijenjen ritus spaljivanja. Uspo- used on Matakova glavica seems to be more
redbu moemo povui i s oblinjim tumulom, plausible. A parallel can be drawn with a neigh-
Jokinom glavicom. U tom tumulu pronaene bouring tumulus of Jokina glavica. Four ceram-
se etiri keramike urne sa spaljenim ostatci- ic urns with offerings and cremated remains of
ma pokojnika i prilozima.3 Urne su oblikom , the corpse were found in that tumulus.3 Form
premda ne i fakturom, sline spomenutoj po- of the urns is similar to the specimens from
sudi na Matakovoj glavici. Blizina dva tumula Matakova glavica, but not the fabric. Proxim-
i slian kronoloki odnos namee pretpostavku ity of the two tumuli and similar chronological
da je kod oba tumula rije o incineraciji. relations imply hypothesis that cremation was
Izuzevi ostatke ve spomenute posude, u in question in both cases.
nasipu tumula pronaeno je jo dvjestotinjak Except for sherds of the aforementioned ves-
komada prapovijesne keramike. Fragmenti sel, about 200 fragments of prehistoric pottery
se grupiraju na nekoliko podruja, pa su tako were found in the tumulus fill. Fragments were
skupine grube keramike pronaene uz zapadni grouped in several areas so that groups of coarse
profil u kvadrantu IV. i na rubu kvadranta I. (T. pottery were found next to western profile in
VI, 2). Za ovu posljednju moe se rei da je rije quadrant IV and at the periphery of quadrant
o dijelovima iste posude, slinog profila kao i I (Pl. VI, 2). As for the latter group we can say

Karla Gusar
Dario Vujevi 3 Pogledati poglavlje B. MarijanoviA o Jokinoj glavici 3 CF. chapter by B. MARIJANOVI on Jokina glavica
153
that these were sherds of one vessel, with simi-
lar profile as the vessel from the surface of the
stone ring. Vessel from quadrant I is somewhat
coarser and it has thicker walls, but according to
preserved fragments we can say that it had an
everted rim, short neck, distinct transition to-
wards slightly biconical recipient with handles
round in cross-section. The only difference is
that this vessel had at least one nub-like orna-
ment on the recipient. Peripheral position, dis-
tance from the round stone construction and
very fragmentary vessel might be explained by
ritual breaking as well as fragments from quad-
rant IV, but it is difficult to say anything with
certainty considering subsequent burials which
disturbed the original fill of the tumulus and
Sl./ Fig. 3
probably additionally destroyed the vessels. Out Idealna
of other finds we can single out a rim of the ves- rekonstrukcija
prapovijesne posude
sel with thick walls and a lot of inclusions deco-
Ideal reconstruction
rated with slanted incisions (Pl. V, 5), fragments of a prehistoric vessel
of a larger vessel with horizontally everted rim
kod posude s povrine kamenog prstena. Posu- (Pl. VI, 3) and fragments decorated with a thin
da iz kvadranta I. poneto je grublja i debljih embossed strip (Pl. VI, 4).
stijenki, ali po sauvanim fragmentima moe- Bronze finds were scarce. A fragment of a
mo rei da je imala izvijen obod, kratak vrat, spiral disk was found, a form which is frequent
otar prijelaz prema blago bikoninom recipi- in the Bronze and Iron Ages in northern Dal-
jentu na kojem se nalaze ruke okruglog pre- matia (Pl. V, 2). Considering the fact that a
sjeka. Jedina razlika je to je ova posuda imala fragment of spiral bronze wire was found in the
barem jedan bradaviasti ukras na recipijentu. tumulus it is possible that they belonged to the
Periferna pozicija, udaljenost od kamene kru- same object: a smaller spectacle-spiral pendant
ne konstrukcije i velika fragmentiranost posu- with two spiral disks connected with a spiral
de, kao i fragmenata iz kvadranta IV., mogla bi tube. Similar objects were present in the Late
se objasniti ritualnim razbijanjem, ali je o tomu Bronze Age in Liburnia. 4 Another fragment of
teko iznijeti decidirano miljenje s obzirom bent bronze sheet with C-shaped cross-section
na naknadna ukopavanja, koja su poremetila was also found (Pl. V, 3). Most likely this was a
izvorni nasip tumula i vjerojatno pritom do- fragment of a narrow bracelet appearing in the
datno unitila posude. Od ostalih nalaza treba Liburian region from the Bronze Age onwards.5
spomenuti jedan obod posude debelih stijenki Recovered finds cannot date Matakova
s dosta primjesa, ukraen kosim urezima (T. V, glavica with certainty, and samples for 14C
5), fragmente vee posude s horizontalno izvi- analysis could not be collected due to soil acid-
jenim obodom (T. VI, 3) i fragmente ukraene ity. Burials under tumuli were a characteristic
tankom plastinom vrpcom (T. VI, 4). of this region from the Early Bronze Age, and
Bronanih predmeta je malo. Pronaen je such burial rite was used until the fifth century
dio spiralnog diska, kakav se oblik esto javlja BC. There are also mounds near Nin, Zaton,
u bronano i eljezno doba u sjevernoj Dalma- Vrsi, Privlaka, Nadin and Ljuba,6 exhibiting
ciji (T. V, 2). Budui da je na tumulu pronaen i similarities in the construction, raising stone
dio spiralne bronane ice istog promjera kao i enclosure walls and ritual breaking of the ves-
spiralni ukras, nije iskljueno da su oni dio istog
predmeta: manjega spiralno-naoalastog pri-
4 . BATOVI 1983, 312.
vjeska s dva spiralna diska povezana spiralnom 5 . BATOVI 1983.
6 . BATOVI 1973; 1983a; 1983b; 1984.; . Batovi N. ondi, 2005, S. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
cjevicom. Slini predmeti prisutni su u kasno Kuko, 2009.; B. Marijanovi, 2007., D. Vujevi, 2012. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
154

Sl./ Fig. 4 bronano doba u Liburniji.4 Uz ove, pronaen sels, with differences in the burial rite and
Arhitektura groba 3
Architecture of grave 3 je jo jedan fragment svijenog bronanog lima grave goods regardless of the period. Burial on
C-presjeka (T. V, 3). Najvjerojatnije je rije o Matakova glavica belongs to a group of tumuli
fragmentu uske narukvice kakve se javljaju na with earthen fill, but as opposed to the similar,
liburnskom podruju ve od bronanog doba.5 nearby tumuli of Jokina nad Duevia glavica,7
Pronaeni nalazi ne mogu sa sigurnou da- it has a round stone platform. Stone enclosure
tirati Matakovu glavicu, a zbog kiselosti zemlje wall was recorded on several tumuli in the wid-
nije bilo mogue prikupiti uzorke za analizu er Zadar region, 8 but stone enclosure wall was
14
C. Pokapanje pod tumulima znaajka je ovog at the periphery of the tumulus, not in the mid-
prostora jo od ranog bronanog doba, a takav dle and it was not used as a platform for laying
obiaj traje sve do 5 st. pr. Kr. Poznati su nam and burying the deceased person.
humci kod Nina, Zatona, Vrsi, Privlake, Nadina Tumuli from Raanovac near Nin (Tro-
i Ljupa,6 koji pokazuju slinosti u konstrukciji, glavce) and kornica near Privlaka which were
podizanju kamenih obzida i ritualnom razbija- dated to the Late Bronze Age have stone coni-
nju posua, uz raznolikosti u ritusu pokapanja cal cores in the center which contain the grave.9
i prilozima neovisno o vremenskom razdoblju. In the case of Matakova glavica we have a plat-
Pokop na Matakovoj glavici spada u skupinu form, not a damaged conical construction. This
tumula sa zemljanim nasipom, no, za razliku is confirmed by a tiny fill at the top of the plat-
od slinih, oblinjih tumula Jokine i Duevia form preserved on the southern side.
glavice,7 ima krunu kamenu platformu. Kame- Vicinity of Jokina glavica, similarities of ves-
ni obzid je pak poznat s nekoliko tumula na i- sels, and grouping of finds in the period of the

4 . BATOVI 1983, 312.


5 . BATOVI 1983. 7 CF. chapters by B. MARIJANOVI on Jokina glavica and K. GUSAR D. VU-
6 . BATOVI 1973; 1983a; 1983b; 1984.; . Batovi N. ondi, 2005, S. JEVI on Duevia glavica
Kuko, 2009.; B. Marijanovi, 2007., D. Vujevi, 2012. 8 . BATOVI 1983; 1984, 17., . Batovi N. ondi, 2005, S. Kuko,
Karla Gusar 7 Pogledati poglavlja B. MarijanoviA o Jokinoj glavici i K. GUSAR D. 2009.
Dario Vujevi VUJEVI od Duevia glavici 9 S. Kuko, 2009, 26.; . Batovi, 1984, 17.; B. Marijanovi, 2007.
155
rem zadarskom podruju,8 ali kod svih kameni
obzid stoji na rubu tumula, a ne u sredini i ne
slui kao platforma za pokop i polaganje tijela.
Tumuli iz Raanovca kod Nina (Troglav-
ce) i kornica kod Privlake datirani u kasno
bronano doba u sredini imaju kamene stoa-
ste jezgre unutar kojih se nalazi grob.9 No kod
Matakove glavice nije rije o oteenju stoa-
ste konstrukcije, nego je rije o platformi. To
potvruje i sitni naboj na vrhu platforme sa-
uvan s june strane.
Blizina Jokine glavice, slinosti u posuda-
ma, ali i grupiranje nalaza u razdoblje kasnog
bronanog i ranog eljeznog doba mogu ukazi-
vati na vremenski sline ukope.
Iznad prapovijesnog sloja javlja se svjetliji
sloj s novim ukopima, koji se svojom konstruk-
cijom i stratigrafskim poloajem razlikuju od
srednjovjekovnih grobova. Pronaena su etiri
ukopa, koja se mogu datirati u vrijeme kasne
antike (grobovi 2-5). U sloju postoje i ostatci
dviju ovalnih jama bez ostataka arhitekture i
pokojnika (T. III, 1). Jedino je u njihovoj za-
puni pronaeno nekoliko manjih fragmenata
tegula. U samo jednom grobu pronaen je dio
skeleta (grob 3), a to je ujedno i jedini ostatak
pokojnika otkriven na itavom tumulu. Nedo-
statak kostiju u ostalim grobovima rezultat je
visoke kiselosti tla, pa je mogue da su i nave-
dene dvije jame ostatci kasnoantikih ukopa.
Od etiri sigurna ukopa, kod kojih se sau-
vao dio arhitekture, prvi se nalazio u kvadran-
tu III. ispod spomenutoga srednjovjekovnoga
groba 1, koji ga je preslojio i iskoristio jedan
dio grobne arhitekture. Arhitektura toga groba Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages might indicate Sl./ Fig. 5

(grob 2) izraena je od tankih, okomito postav- Grobovi 3 i 5


that these were chronologically similar burials. Graves 3 and 5
ljenih kamenih ploa (sl. 7; T. IV, 1). Dno groba Above this prehistoric layer is a light-colored
poploano je slinim kamenjem. Groba je pri- soil with burials which differ from the medieval Sl./ Fig. 6
Grob 3 detalj
blino orijentiran u smjeru istok-zapad. Nisu graves by their construction and stratigraphic Grave 3 a detail
sauvane poklopnice, ali treba napomenuti da position. Four burials were found which can be
je u blizini groba pronaeno dosta fragmena- dated to the period of Late Antiquity (gr. 2-5).
ta tegula. S obzirom na preslojavanje groba u In the layer were also the remains of two oval
srednjem vijeku te blizinu fragmenata tegula, pits without architecture remains or bones (Pl.
moe se pretpostaviti da je rije o ostatcima ka- III, 1). Several smaller fragments of tegulae
snoantikog ukopa pod tegulama. were found in their fill. In only one grave was
Dva groba pronaena su u kvadrantu IV. a part of the skeleton (grave 3) which is at the
(grobovi 3 i 5) (sl. 4-6; T. IV, 3-4). Grob 3 zidan same time the only skeletal remain in the en-
je od sitnijega kamenja i tegula u dva do tri reda, tire tumulus. Lack of bones in other graves is
a result of strong soil acidity, so that it is pos-
8 . BATOVI 1983; 1984, 17., . Batovi N. ondi, 2005, S. Kuko, sible that the mentioned two pits were also the
2009. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
9 S. Kuko, 2009, 26.; . Batovi, 1984, 17.; B. Marijanovi, 2007. remains of late antique burials. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
156
Out of four definite burials, with preserved
parts of the architecture, the first was in quad-
rant III beneath the mentioned medieval grave 1
which superposed it and used a part of the grave
architecture. Architecture of this grave (grave 2)
consists of thin, vertically placed stone slabs (fig.
7; Pl. IV, 1). The bottom of the grave was paved
with similar stones. The grave was laid in ap-
proximately E-W direction. Covering slabs were
not preserved, but it is worth mentioning that
a lot of tegulae fragments were found in the vi-
cinity of the grave. Considering the fact that the
grave was superposed in the Middle Ages, and
the nearby fragments of tegulae, it is reasonable
to assume that these were the remains of late
antique burial under tegulae.
Two graves were found in quadrant IV (gr. 3
and 5) (fig. 4-6; Pl. IV, 3-4). Grave 3 was made of
smaller stones and tegulae in two or three rows,
with use of mortar (fig. 4). Large stone covering
slabs were placed at the top, and all joints were
mortared. On the narrower sides of the grave
stone slabs were found in situ, whereas the mid-
dle ones fell into the grave. The grave was laid in
the NW-SE direction, and its outer dimensions
are 230x80 cm. Out of osteological remains
there was only a part of the skull of a female
person whose age was estimated at between 25
and 30. 10 Namely, the interior of the grave was
filled with soil only in the parts where the cover-
Sl./ Fig. 7 uz koritenje buke (sl. 4). Na vrh su postavlje- ing slabs caved in, and the preserved part of the
Grob 2 skull was above the soil. Due to strong acidity,
Grave 2
ne vee kamene ploe poklopnice, a svi spojevi
su zabukani. Na uim stranicama groba kame- all parts of the skeleton, including the part of the
ne ploe naene su in situ, dok su one sredinje skull, which were laid on the ground were com-
upale u sam grob. Grob je orijentiran u smjeru pletely destroyed, and only the part of the skull
sjeverozapad-jugoistok, a vanjske mu dimenzi- which was not covered with soil was preserved.
je iznose 230 x 80 cm. Od osteolokih ostataka Grave 4 was located in quadrant I. An oval
pronaen je samo dio lubanje enske osobe sta- pit was preserved out of this grave with four
rosti izmeu 25 i 30 godina.10 Naime, unutra- preserved stones along one side belonging to
njost groba bila je ispunjena zemljom samo na the grave architecture (fig. 8; Pl. IV, 2). There
onim dijelovima gdje su popustile poklopnice, were no skeletal remains in the grave, only an
a sauvani dio lubanje nalazio se iznad zemlje. iron knife and an iron ring under it (Pl. III, 2).
Zbog velike kiselosti svi dijelovi kostura, uklju- The knife has a preserved blade and a tang for
ujui i dio lubanje, koji su bili izravno poloeni attaching the handle. The ring is oval in shape,
na tlo, posve su propali, a sauvan je samo onaj with round cross-section. The finds themselves
dio lubanje koji nije bio pokriven zemljom. do not allow a more precise dating, but the fact
Grob 4 nalazio se u kvadrantu I., a od njega that the pit was dug into the original, prehis-
je sauvana ovalna jama koja uz jedan rub ima toric layer of the tumulus, and that the archi-

Karla Gusar 10 Antropoloka analiza provedena je na Zavodu za patologiju, sudsku medi- 10 Anthropological analysis was conducted at the Department of Pathology,
Dario Vujevi cinu i citologiju, KBC-a Split. Court Medicine and Cytology, within Clinical Hospital Split.
157
sauvana etiri kamena to pripadaju grobnoj
arhitekturi (sl. 8; T. IV, 2). U grobu nije bilo sa-
uvanih humanih ostataka, ali je pronaen e-
ljezni no ispod kojega se nalazila eljezna alka
(T. III, 2). No ima sauvanu otricu i bazu na
koju se naticala drka. Alka je ovalnog oblika, a
presjek joj je kruan. Sami nalazi ne doputaju
preciznije datiranje, ali injenica da je jama uko-
pana u originalni, prapovijesni nasip tumula te
da je arhitektura u istom sloju kao i drugi ka-
snoantiki grobovi, podrava pretpostavku da je
i ovdje rije o ukopu iz vremena kasne antike.
Grob 5 nalazio se sjeveroistono od groba 3
(sl. 5; T. IV, 3-4). S obzirom na to da se nalazi
neposredno uz grob 3 i da se iri prema unu-
tranjosti tumula na istoj razini, vjerojatno je
podignut u isto vrijeme kao i grob 3, od kojeg
je upola manji (125 x 45 cm). Od arhitekture
su sauvane samo dvije vee ploe poklopnice
i nekoliko manjih kamenova uz zapadnu bo-
nu stranu. Grobna jama relativno je plitka. U
grobu nisu pronaeni ostatci kostiju, no s obzi-
rom na njegove dimenzije vjerojatno je rije o
ukopu djeteta. U zapuni je pronaen fragment
eljeznog predmeta ouvan samo u tragovima i
nekoliko fragmenata tegula.
Izmeu grobova u ovom sloju, u kvadrantu
IV. pronaen je rimski komemorativni novac
Konstantina Velikog (sl. 9). Na aversu je pri-
kazano poprsja cara u posmrtnom velu i natpis
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG. Na reversu tecture is in the same layer as the other late an- Sl./ Fig. 8
Grob 4
se nalazi prikaz Konstantina Velikog u kvadrigi tique graves, supports the hypothesis that this
Grave 4
kojeg boja ruka prima k sebi, a u odsjeku je burial also belongs to the late antique period.
natpis SMNE. Rije je o postumnom noviu, Grave 5 was situated to the north-east of grave
nominale AE , koji je kovan u Nikomediji u 3 (fig. 5; Pl. IV, 3-4). Considering the fact that it is
ast Konstantina Velikog, prvih godina vladavi- located next to grave 3 and that it widens towards
ne njegovih sinova, izmeu 337. i 340. godine.11 the middle of the tumulus at the same level, it
Kasnoantikom sloju pripada i ulomak ke- was probably made at the same time as grave 3.
ramikog lonca koji je takoer pronaen u This grave is half as large as grave 3 (125x45 cm).
kvadrantu IV. (T. III, 3). Od lonca se sauvao Only two large covering slabs were preserved of
gornji dio s profiliranim obodom izvijenim pre- the architecture as well as several small stones
ma van i dio trbuaste stijenke. Ima kratki vrat next to the western lateral side. Grave pit is rela-
koji naglo prelazi u razvraeni obod. Lonac je tively shallow. No skeletal remains were found in
raen od gline pomijeane sa zrncima kalcita, the grave, but considering its dimensions it was
sivo-smee je boje, a izraen je na brzorotira- probably an infant burial. In the fill was a frag-
juem lonarskom kolu. S vanjske strane ispod ment of an iron object preserved only in traces
oboda nalazi se dekorativni motiv horizontal- and several fragments of tegulae.
nih nepravilno izvedenih linija, dok se u unu- Between the graves in this layer in quadrant
tranjosti nalaze nizovi vodoravnih, paralelnih IV was a Roman commemorative coin of Con-
stantine the Great (fig. 9). A bust of the emperor
with a veiled head was depicted on the obverse MATAKOVA GLAVICA
11 J. P. C. KENT 1981, 471, br. 4. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
158
as well as the legend DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT
AVGG. Depiction of Constantine the Great in a
quadriga with the hand of God reaching down
to him is on the reverse, with an inscription
SMNE in the exergue. This is a posthumous
coin, in nominal value AE which was mint-
ed in Nicomedia in honor of Constantine the
Great, in the first years of the reign of his sons
between 337 and 340.11
A fragment of a ceramic pot which was also
Sl./ Fig. 9 linija. Ovako oblikovani i ukraeni lonci karak- found in quadrant IV (Pl. III, 3) belongs to the
Kasnoantiki novac
Late antique coin teristini su kasnoantiki proizvodi romanskog late antique layer. Upper part of the pot was pre-
stanovnitva Dalmacije. Usprkos tome to se served with an outsplayed rim and a part of a
radi o posve uobiajenom materijalu s dalma- rounded wall. It has a short neck which abruptly
tinskih nalazita kasnoantikog doba, publika- ends in an outsplayed rim. The pot was made
cije ove vrste grae uistinu su rijetke.12 Velika of clay tempered with calcite grains, it is grey-
koliina keramike navedenih znaajka javlja se brown in color, made on fast-rotating potters
na prostoru Istre, Slovenije, Furlanije i Austri- wheel. A decorative motif consisting of irregu-
je; prema mjestu rasprostiranja ta je keramika lar horizontal lines is under the rim on the outer
side, whereas the interior is decorated with rows
of horizontal, parallel lines. Pots which were
made and decorated in this manner are charac-
teristic late antique products of the Roman pop-
ulation of Dalmatia. Despite the fact that this is
quite common type of find from the Dalmatian
sites from Late Antiquity, publications of this
material are quite rare.12 Great amount of pot-
tery with mentioned characteristics was found
in Istria, Slovenia, Furlania and Austria, which
was called south-east Alpine domestic pottery,
dated from the fourth to seventh centuries. 13
Similar types of pots decorated with horizontal
and wavy lines appear later on, among Slavic
vessels. However late antique examples can be
distinguished on the basis of the production
technique on fast-rotating potters wheel, and
rows of parallel lines in the interior which do not
Sl./ Fig. 10 nazvana jugoistonoalpska kuna keramika, appear on the finds with Slavic characteristics.
Vatrite a pojavljuje se od 4. do 7. stoljea.13 Slini ti- Great amount of coarse late antique domestic
Hearth
povi lonaca ukraenih vodoravnim linijama i i.e. kitchen pottery was also found at the nearby
valovnicama pojavljuju se i kasnije, meu sla- early Christian complex Glavine in Podvrje. 14
venskim posudama. No, kasnoantike primjer- Considering poor preservation of the sur-
ke razlikuje tehnika izrade na brzorotirajuem face burials, and the fact that there were no
lonarskom kolu te nizovi paralelnih linija u grave goods in them, there is no firm basis for
unutranjosti koji se ne pojavljuju kod nalaza their chronological determination. Character-
slavenskih znaajka. Vea koliina grube ka- istics of the grave architecture indicate early
snoantike kune, odnosno kuhinjske kerami-

11 J. P. C. KENT 1981, 471, no. 4.


12 Z. BRUSI, 1980, 80, T. III; 2005, 262-263, Sl. 1, Sl. 2/9-10; V. DELONGA, 1987,
12 Z. BRUSI, 1980, 80, T. III; 2005, 262-263, Sl. 1, Sl. 2/9-10; V. DELONGA, 1987, 69, kat. 215; I. BORZI - I. JADRI, 2007, 160, T. VI/3-6.
69, kat. 215; I. BORZI - I. JADRI, 2007, 160, T. VI/3-6. 13 V. BIERBRAUER 1990; H. RODRIGEZ 1992; S. CIGLENEKI 2000; L. BEKI
Karla Gusar 13 V. BIERBRAUER 1990; H. RODRIGEZ 1992; S. CIGLENEKI 2000; L. BEKI 2007; 2007a.
Dario Vujevi 2007; 2007a. 14 A. UGLEI, 2009, 145-146.
159
ke, takoer je pronaena i na oblinjem staro- medieval period. Such dating is confirmed by
kranskom kompleksu Glavine u Podvrju.14 the finds from their vicinity. Medieval pottery
S obzirom na lou sauvanost povrinskih containing two complete vessels and a bronze
ukopa, kao i injenice da u njima nisu prona- loop were found in the fill around the graves. 15
eni nikakvi prilozi, nemamo vrst oslonac za Besides grave remains, a hearth with diam-
njihovo kronoloko odreenje. Oblikovanje eter of 50 cm was found in the same layer with
grobne arhitekture ukazuje na ranosrednjovje- medieval burials (fig. 10). Finds which could be
kovno razdoblje, a ovakvo datiranje potvru- used as chronological determinants were not
ju i nalazi u njihovoj blizini. U nasipu uokolo found in it, but from the stratigraphical position
grobova pronaena je ranosrednjovjekovna and difference in heights of some 20 cm in rela-
keramika, meu kojom i dvije cijele posude, te tion to lower late antique graves it is clear that
jedna bronana preica.15 it belongs to a layer with early medieval burials.
Uz ostatke grobova u istom je sloju sa sred- Identical graves made by using drystone wall
njovjekovnim ukopima pronaeno i vatrite technique of arranged undressed stones or stone
promjera 50 cm (sl. 10). U njemu nije bilo na- slabs were common at the early medieval cem-
laza koji bi predstavljali vremensku odrednicu, eteries in the Dalmatian region.16 However funer-
no iz stratigrafske pozicije i visinske razlike od ary customs such as appearance of the hearth and
20-ak cm u odnosu na nie kasnoantike gro- placing ceramic vessels inside or between graves
bove razvidno je da pripada sloju s ranosred- point to early horizon of the Croatian-Dalmatian
njovjekovnim ukopima.
Na ranosrednjovjekovnim grobljima na po-
druju Dalmacije uobiajeni su upravo ovakvi
grobovi raeni suhozidnom tehnikom od uslo-
jenoga neobraenog kamenja ili kamenih plo-
a.16 Meutim, na rani horizont hrvatsko-dal-
matinske materijalne kulture i vrijeme 8. st. i
prve polovine 9. stoljea svakako upuuju grob-
ni obiaji poput pojave vatrita i postavljanja
keramikih posuda unutar grobova, odnosno
izmeu njih. Pojava sloja paljevine zabiljeena
je na nekoliko grobalja poganskog horizonta u
Dalmaciji. Veina njih vezuje se uglavnom uz
ritus ukapanja spaljenih pokojnika. Meutim,
kako velik broj njih potjee iz sluajno otkrive-
nih i nesustavno istraenih grobova, ritus inci-
neracije sigurno je dokazan na iznimno malom
broju ranosrednjovjekovnih nekropola.17 Jed-
no vatrite postavljeno izmeu grobova otkri- material culture. Presence of a layer of char was Sl./ Fig. 11
Ranosrednjovjekovna
veno je na nekropoli Stankovci - Klaria kue, recorded at several cemeteries of the pagan ho- posuda
a povezuje se s poganskim ritusom ukapanja.18 rizon in Dalmatia. Most of them are related to Early medieval vessel
Smatra se da su se takva vatrita na slaven- the rite of burying cremated corpses. However,
skim nekropolama vjerojatno koristila prili- since great number of such layers originates from
kom obavljanja posmrtnih gozbi.19 Neto eu graves which were found accidentally and ex-
pojavu na ranosrednjovjekovnim slavenskim plored unsystematically, cremation rite was con-
grobljima predstavlja paljenje vatre nad grobo- firmed with certainty on a small number of early
vima kojima se pokojnici oslobaaju zlih duho- medieval necropoles.17 A hearth between the
graves was discovered at the necropolis Stanko-
14 A. UGLEI, 2009, 145-146.
15 K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 340.
16 D. JELOVINA 1976, 70-73; J. BELOEVI 1980, 72-74; M. PETRINEC, 2009,
109, 111. 15 K. GUSAR - D. VUJEVI, 2009, 340.
17 J. BELOEVI 2007, 18-19. 16 D. JELOVINA 1976, 70-73; J. BELOEVI 1980, 72-74; M. PETRINEC, 2009,
18 J. BELOEVI 1980, 55, sl. 3 109, 111. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
19 J. KOROEC 1950, 223; 1954, 103. 17 J. BELOEVI 2007, 18-19. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
160
va.20 Na starohrvatskim grobljima ovaj obiaj vci - Klaria kue, which was related to the pa-
je evidentiran na nekropolama Nin Materiza gan burial rite.18 According to general belief such
i Biljane Donje Trljuge, te na poloaju Kai hearths at Slavic necropoles were used for funer-
Vlaine.21 No, kako ispod vatrita na Matakovoj ary feasts. 19 Lighting fire over the graves in order
glavici nisu otkriveni nikakvi tragovi groba, je- to free the deceased persons from evil spirits was
dinu paralelu za ovaj grobni obiaj predstavlja a more frequent phenomenon at early medieval
spomenuto vatrite iz Stankovaca. Slavic cemeteries. 20 At early Croatian cemeteries
Ranosrednjovjekovnom razdoblju pripada- this custom was confirmed at the necropoles Nin
ju nalazi dviju keramikih posuda (T. II, 1-2). Materiza and Biljane Donje Trljuge, as well
Jedna posuda pronaena je ispod veeg kame- as on the position Kai Vlaine.21 Since grave
na u kvadrantu II. (sl. 11). To je neukraeni lo- remains were not discovered under the hearth on
nac manjih dimenzija (vis. 10, pr. otv. 7,3, pr. Matakova glavica, the only parallel for this funer-
dna 5,8 cm) (T. II, 1-2). Lonac je jajoliko-trbu- ary custom can be found in the mentioned hearth
astog oblika s kratkim vratom koji zavrava from Stankovci.
obodom to se pri vrhu stanjuje i lagano izvija Two ceramic vessels (Pl. II, 1-2) belong to the
prema van. Crvenkasto-sive je boje, to je po- early medieval period. One vessel was found un-
sljedica neujednaenog peenja. Faktura mu der a large stone in quadrant II (fig. 11). It is an
poprilino je zrnata, zbog vee koliine primje- undecorated pot, rather small (height 10, open-
sa kalcita pomijeanih s glinom. Druga posu- ing 7,3, base 5,8 cm) (Pl. II, 1-2). The pot
da pronaena je unutar sjevernoga kontrolnog has an ovoid/belly-shaped form with a short neck
profila. To je takoer lonac, no dimenzijama ending in a tapering rim which is slightly evert-
neto vei od prethodnog (vis. 14, pr. otv. 11, ed. It is reddish-grey, which is a consequence of
pr. dna 7,4 cm) (T. II, 3-4). Vrat lonca je ljev- uneven firing. The fabric is quite granular due to
kast i zavrava s razvraenim, ravno odsjee- great amount of calcite inclusions in the clay. The
nim obodom. Trbuh lonca je naglaen, a najiri second vessel was found inside northern control
je u njegovoj gornjoj treini. Lonac je dobro je profile. It is also a pot, bigger then the aforemen-
peen i tamnosive je boje. Na vratu mu se javlja tioned one (height 14, opening 11, base 7,4
dekoracija koja se sastoji od vodoravno ureza- cm) (Pl. II, 3-4). The neck of the pot is funnel-
nih brazda. Njih zapravo tvori jedna ira, dubo- shaped ending in an outsplayed, flatly cut rim.
ko utisnuta linija koja spiralno krui oko vrata The belly of the pot is emphasized, being the wid-
posude. Slino ukraene posude datirane u 8. i est in its upper part. The pot is well fired, dark
prvu polovinu 9. st. pronaene su na nekropo- grey in color. Decoration on the neck consists of
lama Nin - drijac22 i Kai Glavurak23 te u horizontally incised grooves which actually form
naseobinskom kompleksu uz crkvu sv. Kria u one wider, deeply impressed line encircling the
Ninu.24 Istovjetna dekoracija pojavljuje se i na neck. Vessels with similar decoration were dated
avaro-slavenskoj nekropoli Zhorsk Bystrica to the eighth and the first half of the ninth cen-
na posudama 7. i 8. stoljea.25 turies at the necropoles Nin - drijac22 and Kai
Obje posude s Matakove glavice izraene Glavurak23 and at the settlement complex
su od gline pomijeane sa zrncima kalcita i near the Church of Holy Cross (Sv. Kri) in Nin. 24
pijeska na spororotirajuem runom lonar- Identical decoration appears on the Avaro-Slavic
skom kolu. Vanjtina im je prilino zaglaena, necropolis Zhorsk Bystrica on the vessels from
dok su u unutranjosti vidljivi tragovi obrade the seventh and eighth centuries.25
rukom. Pripadaju skupini tipinih slavenskih Both vessels from Matakova glavica were
posuda, koje se u Dalmaciji javljaju u grobovi- made of clay tempered with sand and calcite
ma poganskog horizonta tijekom 8. st. i u prvoj grains on slow-rotating potters wheel. Their

18 J. BELOEVI 1980, 55, fig. 3


19 J. KOROEC 1950, 223; 1954, 103.
20 J. EISNER, 1952, 231-232; B. DOSTAL, 1966, 29. 20 J. EISNER, 1952, 231-232; B. DOSTAL, 1966, 29.
21 J. BELOEVI 1980, 61, 79; 2007, 31. 21 J. BELOEVI 1980, 61, 79; 2007, 31.
22 J. BELOEVI 2007, T. CXXII/121, T. CXXX/148, T. CXXXIIII/160, 165, 167, T. 22 J. BELOEVI 2007, T. CXXII/121, T. CXXX/148, T. CXXXIIII/160, 165, 167, T.
CXXXV/175, CXXXVI/182, T. CXXXVIII/187, T. CXLIII/216, T. CLII/323. CXXXV/175, CXXXVI/182, T. CXXXVIII/187, T. CXLIII/216, T. CLII/323.
23 J. BELOEVI 1968, 244, T. XV/1. 23 J. BELOEVI 1968, 244, T. XV/1.
Karla Gusar 24 J. BELOEVI 2000, 116-117, T. III/9-10. 24 J. BELOEVI 2000, 116-117, T. III/9-10.
Dario Vujevi 25 L. KRASKOVSK, 1972, Obr. 22/6, Obr. 24/1. 25 L. KRASKOVSK, 1972, Obr. 22/6, Obr. 24/1.
161
polovini 9. stoljea.26 Meutim, s obzirom na outer surface is quite well burnished, and traces
lou sauvanost grobova, ne moe se sa sigur- of hand movements are visible in the interior.
nou utvrditi jesu li se one izvorno nalazile They belong to a group of typical Slavic vessels
unutar grobova ili izvan njih. Osim postavlja- which appear in Dalmatia in the graves of the
nja keramikih posuda u grobove, to je esta pagan horizon during the eighth and the first
pojava u dalmatinskim grobljima,27 takoer je half of the ninth centuries. 26 However, consid-
utvreno da su se one stavljale i izmeu njih. ering the poor preservation of the graves, it is
Ta je pojava prvi put zabiljeena groblju uz impossible to say with certainty whether they
humak Materiza u Ninu,28 a registrirana je i na were inside or out of the graves. Besides placing
oblinjim humcima, Jokinoj glavici i Duevia ceramic vessels in the graves, which was a fre-
glavici u selu Krnezi.29 quent phenomenon at the Dalmatian necropo-
Navedenom sloju pripada i ve spomenuti les, 27 it is known that they were also placed be-
nalaz bronane preice koji vjerojatno potjee tween them. Mentioned phenomenon was re-
iz jednog od unitenih srednjovjekovnih gro- corded for the first time at the necropolis near
bova (T. II, 5). Alka preice ovalnog je oblika, the Materiza mound in Nin, 28 and it was also
prednja strana joj je zadebljana, a fragmentar- noticed at the neighbouring tumuli of Jokina
no sauvana stranja strana je stanjena. Igla and Duevia glavica in the village of Krneza. 29
nije sauvana. Zavretci zadebljanog prednjeg The find of a bronze loop belongs to the
dijela alke su zakoeni. Preica pripada skupini aforementioned layer (Pl. II, 5). It probably
materijala koje je teko ue vremenski odredi- originates from one of the destroyed medieval
ti. Isti tip pojavljuje se na nekropolama seobe graves. Loops ring is oval in shape, its front
naroda u grobovima koji se pripisuju kasnoan- side is thickened, and fragmentarily preserved
tikom autohtonom stanovnitvu, a datiraju se back side is thinned. The pin was not preserved.
u 6. stoljee.30 Meutim, istovjetno oblikovanu Terminals of the thickened front part of the ring
preicu sa zakoenim krajevima alke nalazimo are slanted. The loop belongs to a group of finds
na bronanoj pojasnoj kopi u grobu 322 na which are difficult to determine chronologically
nekropoli Nin - drijac. U grobu je pokopana precisely. The same type appears on the ne-
obitelj dostojanstvenika, a na osnovi materija- cropoles of the Migration Period in the graves
la preica se datira u poetak 9. stoljea.31 Na which are ascribed to the late antique autoch-
zakoenim dijelovima alke postavljen je okov tonous population, and can be dated to the sixth
kope koji se pomicao oko stanjenog dijela, pa century.30 However, an identically shaped loop
ne treba iskljuiti mogunost da je i naa prei- with slanted terminals of the ring can be found
ca neko inila dio sline kope. on the bronze belt buckle in grave 322 at the
Unutar ovog sloja pronaen je i jedan ka- necropolis Nin drijac. A family of an aristo-
meni brus s dvije zaravnjene strane (T. II, 6). crat was buried in the mentioned grave which
Ovakvi nalazi u grobovima ranog horizonta is dated to the early ninth century on the basis
8. i prve polovine 9. stoljea na podruju sje- of the finds. 31 On the slanted parts of the ring
verne Dalmacije registrirani na lokalitetima is a buckle fitting which used to move around
drijac i Materiza u Ninu, Maklinovom brdu the thinned part, therefore it is possible that this
i Razbojinama u Kaiu te Velimu u Stankov- loop was once a part of a similar belt buckle.
cima, gdje se uglavnom pojavljuju u mukim A whetstone with two flattened sides was
grobovima.32 Treba istaknuti da ova vrsta na- found in this layer (Pl. II, 6). This type of finds
laza predstavlja rijetkost i u slavenskim ne- in graves of the early horizon of the eighth and
kropolama Srednje Europe.33 the first half of the ninth centuries were record-
ed at the sites of drijac and Materiza in Nin,
Maklinovo brdo and Razbojine in Kai, and
26 J. BELOEVI 1980, 109-115.
27 J. BELOEVI 1980, 78-79; 2007, 30; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 192-194.
28 J. BELOEVI 1973, 238
29 K. GUSAR 2009, 175-177; K. GUSAR - D. VUJEVI, 2009, 342. 26 J. BELOEVI 1980, 109-115.
30 J. BELOEVI 1968; Z. VINSKI 1991; K. SIMONI 1991. 27 J. BELOEVI 1980, 78-79; 2007, 30; M. PETRINEC, 2009, 192-194.
31 J. BELOEVI 2007, 222, 458, T. C/10. 28 J. BELOEVI 1973, 238
32 J. BELOEVI 1980, 119; 2007, 291, 457; R. JURI 2007, 222. 29 K. GUSAR 2009, 175-177; K. GUSAR - D. VUJEVI, 2009, 342.
33 J. EISNER, 1952, 306; B. DOSTL, 1966, 88; V. TOVORNIK, 1985, 196; 1986, 30 J. BELOEVI 1968; Z. VINSKI 1991; K. SIMONI 1991. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
431. 31 J. BELOEVI 2007, 222, 458, T. C/10. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
162
Analizirani ranosrednjovjekovni nalazi s Velim in Stankovci where they usually appear
Matakove glavice pripadaju poganskom hori- in male graves.32 It is worth mentioning that
zontu dalmatinsko-hrvatske materijalne kultu- this type of the find represents a rarity even in
re 8. st. i prve polovine 9. stoljea. Tijekom tog the Slavic necropoles in Central Europe.33
razdoblja na hrvatskim se grobljima javljaju ra- Analyzed early medieval finds from Mata-
zliiti ritusi vezani uz kult pokapanja, iji je dio kova glavica belong to the pagan horizon of
prisutan i na ovom lokalitetu. Premda je rije o the Dalmatian-Croatian material culture of the
prilino oteenom groblju, zanimljivo je da se eighth and the first half of the ninth centuries.
navedeni nalazi uklapaju u openitu sliku dose- During this period different rites related to the
ljenja Slavena/Hrvata na ove prostore. Primje- burial cult appeared at the Croatian necropo-
rice, prilaganje keramikih posuda jedna je od les. Some of these rites are represented at this
glavnih znaajka nekropola tog doba, a isti slu- site. Although this is quite heavily damaged
aj nalazimo i na Matakovoj glavici. Pojava va- necropolis, it is interesting that the mentioned
trita, meutim, predstavlja uistinu zanimljiv finds correspond to the general image of the
nalaz koji je do sada na tlu Dalmacije zabiljeen arrival of Slavs/Croats into these regions. For
jedino na nekropoli Stankovci-Klaria kue. instance, use of ceramic vessels as grave offer-
Posebnu zanimljivost ovog humka pred- ings is one of the main characteristics of the ne-
stavlja i dug kontinuitet ukapanja, koji se cropoles of this period, and this is also the case
nastavlja tijekom kasne antike i ranoga sred- with Matakova glavica. On the other hand the
njeg vijeka. Prapovijesni humci koriteni za find of a hearth represents a truly interesting
ukope tijekom ranog srednjeg vijeka dosta su find which has been recorded in Dalmatia only
esti na podruju Dalmacije, a osobito na i- at the necropolis Stankovci-Klaria kue so far.
rem podruju Nina.34 Nedaleko od Nina nala- What is particularly interesting about this
zi se i humak kornica u selu Privlaci, na ko- mound is long burial continuity extending
jem su otkriveni prapovijesni i kasnoantiki during Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages.
grobovi.35 Meutim, Matakova glavica, s uka- Prehistoric mounds which were used for buri-
panjem tijekom prapovijesnoga, kasnoanti- als in the Early Middle Ages are quite frequent
koga i srednjovjekovnoga razdoblja, jedin- in Dalmatia, especially in the wider surround-
stven je sluaj na irem zadarskom podru- ings of Nin. 34 kornica mound in the village
ju.36 Kasnoantiko groblje na ovom humku of Privlaka which yielded prehistoric and late
zasigurno je u upotrebi tijekom 4. stoljea, antique graves is also situated in the viciniy of
to potvruje nalaz komemorativnog novia Nin. 35 However, Matakova glavica with conti-
Konstantina Velikog, a njegov prestanak vje- nuity of burials during prehistoric, late antique
rojatno treba smjestiti prije izgradnje obli- and medieval period represents a unique case
njega sakralnog kompleksa na Glavinama in the wider Zadar region. 36 Late antique cem-
u Podvrju krajem 5. stoljea. S obzirom na etery on this mound was definitely used dur-
malu udaljenost izmeu Matakove glavice ing the fourth century which is confirmed by a
i Glavina, te zanimljive arheoloke nalaze, find of commemorative coin of Constantine the
treba svakako ukazati na njihove meusobne Great. End of its use should probably be dated
poveznice. Na Glavinama je uz ostatke sta- prior to building of the nearby sacral complex
rokranske arhitekture otkrivena i nekropo- at Glavine in Podvrje at the end of the fifth
la. Prestanak trajanja kompleksa uslijedio je century. Considering small distance between
tijekom prve polovine 7. stoljea, nakon to Matakova glavica and Glavine and interest-
je kompleks izgorio u poaru, to potvruju ing archaeological finds both locations should
i rezultati radiokarbonske analize.37 Na rue- be observed in relation to their mutual con-
vinama starokranskih crkava kratkotrajno nections. A necropolis was found at Glavine
borave Slaveni krajem 7. ili u prvoj polovini

32 J. BELOEVI 1980, 119; 2007, 291, 457; R. JURI 2007, 222.


33 J. EISNER, 1952, 306; B. DOSTL, 1966, 88; V. TOVORNIK, 1985, 196; 1986,
34 J. Beloevi 1980, 59-60, sl. 4. 431.
35 B. MARIJANOVI 2007. 34 J. Beloevi 1980, 59-60, sl. 4.
Karla Gusar 36 K. GUSAR D. VUJEVI, 2009, 347. 35 B. MARIJANOVI 2007.
Dario Vujevi 37 A. UGLEI, 2004; 2009. 36 K. GUSAR, D. VUJEVI, 2009, 347.
163
8. stoljea na to upuuju nalazi naseobinske next to the remains of the early Christian ar-
keramike.38 Nakon toga kompleks na Glavi- chitecture. The end of the use of the complex
nama potpuno je naputen, a daljnja svjedo- happened during the first half of the seventh
anstva o prisutnosti Slavena/Hrvata na tom century after the complex was burnt in a fire
malom prostoru moemo pratiti na Matako- which is confirmed by the results of radiocar-
voj glavici. Slaveni/Hrvati u ranom srednjem bon analysis.37 Slavs resided shortly at the ru-
vijeku za sahranjivanje ponovno upotreblja- ins of the early Christian churches at the end
vaju ovaj humak. Usprkos tome to su rano- of the seventh or the first half of the eighth
srednjovjekovni grobovi na Matakovoj glavi- centuries which is indicated by the finds of the
ci iznimno loe ouvani, na osnovi prisutnih domestic pottery. 38 After that the complex in
grobnih obiaja mogu se smjestiti u poganski Glavine was deserted, and further testimo-
horizont, odnosno u 8. st. i prvu polovinu 9. nies about the presence of Slavs/Croats in this
stoljea. Da je rije uistinu o vremenu prije small area can be traced on Matakova glavica.
njihova pokrtavanja, svjedoe razliiti po- Slavs/Croats in the Early Middle Ages reused
ganski obiaji, poput prilaganja keramikih this mound for burials. Despite the fact that
posuda u grobove ili uz njih, kao i nadasve early medieval graves on Matakova glavica
rijetka pojava vatrita, koje se takoer moe were exceptionally poorly preserved, on the ba-
povezati s poganskim grobnim obredima. sis of present funerary rituals they can be dated
to the pagan horizon, i.e. period of the eighth
and the first half of the ninth centuries. Various
pagan rituals such as putting ceramic vessels in
or next to the graves as offerings indicate that
they can be dated to the period prior to Chris-
tianization, and another proof of such dating
is an extraordinary rare find of a hearth which
can also be related to pagan funerary rituals.

37 A. UGLEI, 2004; 2009. MATAKOVA GLAVICA


38 K. GUSAR, 2011. 38 K. GUSAR, 2011. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
164
Katalog grobova: Grave catalogue:

Grob 1 Unitena grobna raka neodreena oblika, obzi- Grave 1 Destroyed grave pit of irregular form, paved
dana s dvije vee kamene ploe izmeu kojih je sitno ka- with two large stone slabs between which are some small
menje, koja se pruala u smjeru sjeverozapad-jugoistok. stones, lying in the NW-SE direction. North-western part
Sjeverozapadni dio groba u potpunosti je uniten. Ostata- of the grave was completely destroyed. There are no skel-
ka skeleta nema. etal remains.

Grob 2 Grobna raka ovalnog oblika koja se pruala u Grave 2 Grave pit of oval form lying in the NW-SE
smjeru sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Vanjski obzid rake ine direction. Outer lining of the pit consists of thin vertical
tanke okomito postavljene kamene ploe. Dno groba ta- stone slabs. Bottom of the grave was covered with stone
koer je bilo pokriveno kamenim ploama. Ostataka ske- slabs as well. There are no skeletal remains. (Pl. IV, 1)
leta nema (T. IV, 1).
Grave 3 - Orientation: NW-SE. Grave pit of rectangu-
Grob 3 Orijentacija: sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Grobna lar form with grave architecture tied with mortar. Grave
raka paetvorinastog oblika sa zidanom grobnom arhitek- sides were made of small stones and tegulae fragments
turom vezanom bukom. Stranice groba raene su sitnim arranged in two or three rows. Large stone covering slabs
kamenjem i ulomcima tegula uslojenim u dva do tri reda. were placed at the top, and all joints were mortared. Re-
Na vrh su postavljene vee kamene ploe poklopnice, a svi mains of a female skeleton were found in the grave, the
spojevi su zabukani. U grobu su pronaeni ostatci skele- age of the deceased was estimated at between 25 and 30.
ta ene u dobi od 25 do 30 godina (T. IV, 3).
Grave 4 Grave pit of oval form lying in the NW-SE
Grob 4 Grobna zemljana raka ovalnog oblika koja se direction. On the north-western side were four large un-
pruala u smjeru sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Na sjeveroza- dressed stones belonging to grave architecture. There are
padnoj strani naena su etiri vea neobraena kamena no skeletal remains. (Pl. IV, 2)
koji pripadaju grobnoj arhitekturi. Ostataka skeleta nema 1) An iron knife (length 13,9; blade width 1,9 cm)
(T. IV, 2). found in the north-western part of the grave (Pl. III, 2).
1. eljezni no (vel.: du. 13,9; ir. otr. 1,9 cm) prona- 2) An oval ring (3,5 x 2,8 cm) found in the north-west-
en u sjeverozapadnom dijelu groba (T. III, 2). ern part of the grave under the knife (Pl. III, 2).
2. Ovalna alka (vel: 3,5 x 2,8 cm) pronaena u sjevero-
zapadnom dijelu groba ispod noa (T. III, 2). Grave 5 Earthen grave pit of oval form lying in the
NW-SE direction. Cover of the grave consists of two large
Grob 5 Grobna zemljana raka ovalnog oblika koja se stone slabs representing the only grave architecture.
pruala u smjeru sjeverozapad-jugoistok. Pokrov groba Fragments of mortar were found inside the grave in the
ine dvije vee kamene ploe koje predstavljaju jedinu ar- north-western part, as well as an iron object preserved
hitekturu groba. Unutar groba na sjeverozapadnom dijelu only in traces. There are no skeletal remains. (Pl. IV, 3)
pronaeni su ulomci buke, te eljezni predmet ouvan
samo u tragovima. Ostataka skeleta nema (T. IV, 3).

Karla Gusar
Dario Vujevi
165

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M. PETRINEC 2009 Groblja od 8. do 11. stoljea na podruju ranosred-
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H. RODRIGUEZ 1992 Bemerkungen zur relativchronologischen Glie-
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K. GUSAR 2009 Ranosrednjovjekovni grobovi iz humka Jokina glavi- Z. VINSKI 1991 Razmatranja o iskopavanjima u Kninu na nalazitu
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dar Zagreb, 2009, 169-181.

MATAKOVA GLAVICA
MATAKOVA GLAVICA
166

1 tabla VI

2
3

4
167
tabla II

1 2

3 4

5 6
168

tabla III
1

2 3
169

tabla IV

1 2

3 4
170

tabla V
1

3
2

4 5
171

1 tabla VI

2
3

4
eljana Bai, Ivana Anteri, REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE ANALIZE
Ela kori, imun Anelinovi
OSTEOLOKOG MATERIJALA S
TUMULA MATAKOVA GLAVICA
RESULTS OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS OF THE OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
FROM THE TUMULUS OF MATAKOVA GLAVICA

Antropoloka analiza kosturnih ostataka obav- Anthropological analysis of the osteological


ljena je u Klinikom zavodu za patologiju, sud- remains was performed at the Clinical Depart-
sku medicinu i citologiju Klinikoga bolnikog ment of Pathology, Court Medicine and Cytology
centra Split. Analizu osteolokog materijala within Clinical Hospital Split. Osteological ma-
obavila su dva neovisna antropoloka tima, terial was analyzed by two independent teams
koji su potom usporedili svoje rezultate. and the results were compared subsequently.
Pronaene su kosti lubanje, svijetloute The material consisted of light yellow skull
boje, dobro ouvane, sa srednjim postmortal- bones, well preserved, with moderate postmor-
nim oteenjem korteksa. Kosti lica njenije tal cortex damages. Facial bones are delicate,
su grae, ue, orbite su pravilne, zigomatina narrower, orbits are proportional, zygomatic
kost je gracilna. eona je kost ravna, supercili- bone is fragile. Frontal bone is straight, super-
jalni lukovi slabije su naglaeni, glabela je sla- ciliary arches and glabela are not pronounced,
bo izraena, uni je kanal srednjih dimenzija, ear opening is medium wide, muscular attach-
hvatita miia su slabija, supraorbitalni luk je ments are not pronounced, supraorbital arch is
tanji i otriji, visina i irina orbita manja je od thinner and sharper, orbit dimensions are be-
prosjene, mastoidni nastavak srednjih je di- low average, mastoid process has medium di-
menzija. Na posteriornom dijelu sagitalog ava mensions. The initiation of obliteration is vis-
vidljiv je poetak obliteracije, ostali avovi na ible on the posterior part of the sagittal suture,
lubanji nisu srasli. whereas other sutures are not joined.

Zubni status: Dental status:

U maksili desno prisutni su prvi i drugi kutnjak In the right part of maxilla there are the first
(M1 i M2), ije su grizne plohe odlino ouva- and second molar (M1 and M2), with very well
ne. Sedamnaest je zuba postmortalno ekstrahi- preserved biting surfaces. Seventeen teeth
rano: etiri medijalna sjekutia (I1), tri lateral- were extracted postmortem: four medial inci-
na sjekutia (I2), dva onjaka (C), tri prva pret- sors (I1), three lateral incisors (I2), two canines
kutnjaka (P1), etiri druga pretkutnjaka (P2) te (C), three first premolars (P1), four second
jedan drugi kutnjak (M2). Postmortalno estra- premolars (P2), and one second molar (M2).
hirani zubi jako su oteeni. Na zubima nema Teeth which were extracted postmortem are
vidljivih patolokih promjena. heavily damaged. There are no visible patho-
logical changes on the teeth.

Patoloke promjene:
Pathological changes:
Iznad desne orbite vidljiva je supraorbitalna
poroznost. Poroznost kostiju vidljiva je i na li- Supraorbital porosity can be noticed beneath
jevom dijelu parijetalne kosti, desno na okcipi- the right orbit. The bone porosity is also vis-
174
talnoj kosti, iznad unog kanala, te uz zglobnu ible on the left part of the parietal bone, on the
plohu foramen magnuma. right part of the occipital bone, beneath the ear
Vidljiva je i aktivna cribra orbitalia, jae opening, and on the foramen magnum joint
izraena, prisutna bilateralno. surface.
Na desnoj ouvanoj zglobnoj plohi foramen Strongly pronounced bilateral cribra orbita-
magnuma vidljiv je i blai do srednje izraeni lia is also present.
osteoartritis. Na mastoidnom nastavku vidljive Moderate osteoarthritis can be seen on the
su kotane egzostoze. joint surface of the foramen magnum. Bony ex-
ostoses are visible on the mastoid extension.

Miljenje Opinion

Na osnovi pregleda svih morfolokih poka- On the basis of the examination of all mor-
zatelja spola na lubanji1 mogue je zakljuiti phological indicators of gender on the skull1 it
kako se radi o osobi enskog spola. Na temelju is possible to determine that the person in the
stupnja srastanja avova lubanje,2 ali i zubnog grave is a female. By examination of the suture
statusa zuba prisutnih in situ , dob u trenutku accretion2 and dental status, the age at the time
smrti procjenjuje se na 25-29 godina. of death is estimated at 25 to 29.
U obje orbite vidljiva je aktivna cribra orbi- Active cribra orbitalia is visible in both or-
talia, to je zanimljiv nalaz, iz razloga to je cri- bits, which is an interesting finding, because
bra orbitalia kod odraslih osoba najee u fazi cribra orbitalia is usually in the sanation phase
sanacije. Naime, u aktivnom se obliku najee in adults. Active cribra orbitalia is mostly found
javlja kod novoroenadi i male djece, dok je in newborns and children. This disease is an in-
kod odraslih u zaraslom obliku. Ona je pokaza- dicator of iron deficiency, caused by malnutri-
telj nedostatka eljeza, prouzroenog ili nedo- tion or a number of diseases which cause iron
statnom prehranom, odnosno gladovanjem, ili deficiency (thalassemia, sickle cells anemia,
pak raznim bolestima u kojima se javlja deficit acute leukemia ect.).3 Signs of active cribra or-
eljeza, poput talasemije, anemije srpastih sta- bitalia indicate that the person had ailed form
nica, akutne leukemije i dr.3 Aktivni znakovi of one of the listed diseases, and may suggest a

1 W. M. Bass, 1995, 200-206; D. H. Ubelaker, 1999, 52-60; W. M. Krogman 1 W. M. Bass, 1995, 200-206; D. H. Ubelaker, 1999, 52-60; W. M. Krogman
M.Y. Iscan, 1986, 200-259; T. W. Phenice, 1969., 297-301; D. Zeevi, M.Y. Iscan, 1986, 200-259; T. W. Phenice, 1969, 297-301; D. Zeevi,
eljana Bai 2004, 194-202. 2004, 194-202.
Ivana Anteri 2 Z. Zupani-Slavec, 2004, 39-41. 2 Z. Zupani-Slavec, 2004, 39-41.
Ela kori 3 A. C. Aufderheide C. Rodriguez-Martin O. Langsjoen, 1998, 3 A. C. Aufderheide C. Rodriguez-Martin O. Langsjoen, 1998,
imun Anelinovi 347-351. 347-351.
175
cribra orbitalia indiciraju kako je osoba jo possible cause of death. The skull bone poros-
uvijek bolovala od jedne od gore navedenih bo- ity, although it can be a hereditary characteris-
lesti, te mogu sugerirati i mogui uzrok smrti. tic4, is often a sign of advanced anemia 5, and its
Poroznost kosti lubanje, iako moe biti nasljed- findings on a bone can be indicative of severe
na karakteristika,4 esto je znak uznapredova- anemia.
le anemije,5 to potkrepljuje zakljuak kako je Beneath the ear opening and posterior of
osoba uistinu imala teku anemiju. the jugular foramen, bone porosity in the form
Iznad desnog slunog kanala i posteriorno of small concavities is seen. This can be mark of
od foramen jugulare vidljiva je poroznost kosti chronic, severe inflammation of the middle ear
u obliku sitnih udubljenja na kosti, koja mogu (otitis media), which was not cicatrized dur-
biti pokazatelj kronine, jake upale srednjeg ing the lifetime.6 Chronic inflammation of the
uha (otitis media) to za ivota najvjerojatnije middle ear, which is very common during the
nije zalijeena.6 childhood, can result in deafness and tinnitus
Kronine upale srednjeg uha, koje su u dje- later in life. This, of course, can affect working
tinjstvu este, mogu za posljedicu imati naglu- ability and life quality.7
host ili gluhou u kasnijoj ivotnoj dobi. Samim Signs of osteoarthritis are visible on joint
time osoba je mogle imati smanjenu radnu surface of the foramen magnum. Osteoarthritis
sposobnost tijekom ivota.7 is a result of mechanical and biological influ-
Na foramen magnumu takoer su vidljivi ences which destabilize the normal balance of
znakovi osteoartritisa. Osteoartritis je rezultat destroying and production of joint cartilage.8
mehanikih i biolokih imbenika koji destabi- Mechanical stress and physical activity con-
liziraju normalnu spregu razaranja i stvaranja tribute to its development, and it is most often
zglobne hrskavice.8 Najee mu pridonose found in adults and older persons. When it is
mehaniki stres i fizika aktivnost, te je naj- found in younger persons, it can indicate heav-
ee izraen kod starijih osoba. Pojava oste- ier joint usage, that is, more intense physical
oartritisa kod mlaih osoba upuuje na vee labour, and can point to specific actions, like
optereenje zgloba, odnosno na veu koliinu burden bearing on the top of the head.
fizikog rada, te specifine radnje, poput noe- This young woman was, during her lifetime,
nja tereta na glavi. exposed to heavy physical activity, during the
Ova je mlada ena tijekom ivota bila izloe- childhood she was probably food deprived, and
na velikoj koliini fizike aktivnosti, te je vjero- therefore exposed to illness. It is possible that
jatno tijekom djetinjstva oskudijevala hranom, she died due to infection, which disturbed al-
a samim time bila podlonija bolestima. Vjero- ready weakened organism.
jatno je preminula od posljedica infekcije, koja
je dodatno naruila ve slab organizam.

REZULTATI ANTROPOLOKE
ANALIZE OSTEOLOKOG
4 R. W. Mann D. R. Hunt, 2004, 22. 4 R. W. Mann D. R. Hunt, 2004, 22. MATERIJALA S TUMULA
5 A. C. Aufderheide C. Rodriguez-Martin O. Langsjoen, 1998, 5 A. C. Aufderheide C. Rodriguez-Martin O. Langsjoen, 1998, MATAKOVA GLAVICA
347-351. 347-351. RESULTS OF THE
6 R. W. Mann D. R. Hunt, 2004, 45-50. 6 R. W. Mann D. R. Hunt, 2004, 45-50. ANTHROPOLOGICAL
7 A. C. Aufderheide C. Rodriguez-Martin O. Langsjoen, 1998, 7 A. C. Aufderheide C. Rodriguez-Martin O. Langsjoen, 1998, ANALYSIS OF THE
253. 253. OSTEOLOGICAL REMAINS
8 A. C. Aufderheide C. Rodriguez-Martin O. Langsjoen, 1998, 8 A. C. Aufderheide C. Rodriguez-Martin O. Langsjoen, 1998, FROM THE TUMULUS OF
94-96. 94-96. MATAKOVA GLAVICA
176

Literatura / Bibliography

A. C. Aufderheide C. Rodriguez-Martin O. Langsjoen 1998 R.W. Mann D. R. Hunt 2005 Photographic Regional Atlas of Bone
The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology, Disease, sec. Edit. Springfield, 2005.
Cambridge University Press, 1998.
T. W. Phenice 1969 A newly developed visual method of sexing the
W. M. Bass 1995 Human Osteology, Fourth edition, Missoury Archa- os pubis, u: American Journal of Physical Anthropology,30,
eological Society, 1995. Hoboken 1969, 297-301.

S. Chubinskaya K. E. Kuettner 2002 Exogenous and Endoge- D. H. Ubelaker 1999 Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis,
nous OP-1in Articular Cartilage, u: Edited by T.S.Lindholm, Interpretation, 1999.
Advances in Skeletal Reconstruction Using Bone Morphoge-
netic Proteins, Singapore, 2002. D. Zeevi et al,2004 Sudska medicina i deontologija, Medicinska
naklada, 2004.
W. M. Krogman M.Y. Iscan 1986 The Human Skeleton in Forensic
Medicine, Second Edition, by Charles C. Thomas,1986. Z. Zupani-Slavec 2004 New Method in Identifying Family Related
Skulls, Springer, Wien, NewYork, 2004.
C. S. Larsen 1997 Bioarchaelogy, Interpreting Behavior from the Hu-
man Skeleton, Cambridge, 1997.

eljana Bai
Ivana Anteri
Ela kori
imun Anelinovi
Brunislav Marijanovi, Karla Gusar ZAKLJUAK
CONCLUSION

Iskopavanjem skupine tumula u Krnezi i Pod- Excavation of a group of tumuli in Krneza and
vrju ostvareni su rezultati koji u znaajnoj Podvrje yielded results which significantly
mjeri nadilaze one oekivane, a u svakom slu- surpassed expected results, as well as primary
aju sve primarne motive koji su pokrenuli nji- motives which incited their excavation. This
hovo istraivanje. Ta se konstatacija u prvomu statement refers primarily to their multiple use
redu odnosi na viekratnost njihove uporabe during different periods, i.e. multiple use of
tijekom razliitih razdoblja, odnosno viekrat- the same places for the same purpose, regard-
nost uporabe istih mjesta za istu namjenu, ne- less of the fact that certain groups of graves are
ovisno o tomu to pojedine skupine grobova separated by considerable chronological gaps,
razdvajaju znaajni vremenski rasponi te to su and that members of various socio-cultural
pokapanja provodili pripadnici posve razliitih communities were buried in the tumuli. In that
sociokulturnih zajednicama. U tom se smislu sense we can say that the explored tumuli are
moe kazati kako su istraeni tumuli primjer an example of a particular form of continuity
jednoga posebnog oblika kontinuiteta koji nije which is not determined by spatial-chronolog-
odreen prostorno-vremenskom dimenzijom ical dimension, but with invariability of the
zbivanja na odreenom mjestu u definiranom main character of the place intended for funer-
vremenskom okviru, ve nepromjenjivou ary practice in prehistory, which was also prac-
osnovnog karaktera mjesta odreenog za fu- tised during the later periods regardless of its
neralnu praksu u prapovijesti, a prakticiranu i interruptions and breaks, chronological spans,
tijekom kasnijih razdoblja neovisno o njezinim population and cultural changes. Only this fact
zastojima i prekidima, vremenskim rasponima, is sufficient to indicate that tumuli from Krneza
populacijskim i kulturnim promjenama. Ve se and Podvrje make a special sepulchral whole,
i zbog te injenice tumuli u Krnezi i Podvrju not only in the limited Zadar region. Its unique-
iskazuje kao posebna sepulkralna cjelina, ne ness is determined chiefly by the fact that ex-
samo na uem zadarskom podruju, a njezina plored graves belong to prehistoric and late an-
je posebnost odreena ponajprije pripadnou tique periods, and the Early Middle Ages.
istraenih grobova prapovijesnom i kasnoan- Previous discussions indicated that multi-
tikom dobu te ranom srednjem vijeku. ple burials and certain continuity in the strict
Prethodna su izlaganja pokazala da vie- sense existed already at the level of prehis-
kratnost pokapanja i stanoviti kontinuitet u toric graves, which is illustrated most directly
uem smislu postoji ve na razini prapovije- by Duevia glavica with at least three succes-
snih grobova, to najizravnije ilustrira Due- sive burials. However at the level of prehistoric
via glavica s najmanje tri sukcesivna pokopa. burials that is neither new nor specific. What is
Meutim, na razini prapovijesnih pokopa to i much more important than that are differences
nije nikakva novost i posebnost. Puno znaaj- in the basic burial rite, i.e. biritualism, evident
nije od toga jesu razlike u osnovnom ritusu po- on the level of all tumuli as a unique sepulchral
kapanja, odnosno biritualizam, razvidan kako whole, as well as on the level of its segments,
na razini svih tumula kao jedinstvene sepul- i.e. individual tumuli. The most direct indica-
kralne cjeline, tako i na razini njezinih manjih tor of these differences on the individual level
178
dijelova, odnosno pojedinih tumula. Najizrav- is Duevia glavica. Primary burial in this tu-
niji pokazatelj tih razliitosti na pojedinanoj mulus refers to depositing cremated human
razini je Duevia glavica. Primarno pokapa- remains directly on the basis of the tumulus,
nje u tom tumulu provedeno je polaganjem without any traces of their deposition in some
spaljenih ljudskih ostataka izravno na osnovu vessel functioning as an urn, whereas corpses
tumula, bez ikakvih naznaka njihova pohranji- were inhumated in a stone cist in two later bur-
vanja u kakvu posudu s funkcijom are, dok ials. These difference were not accidental and
su kod dva mlaa pokopa tijela inhumirana u they have to reflect some deeper changes in
kamenu krinju. Dakako, te razlike nisu slu- religious ideology which caused changes in the
ajne i moraju izraavati neke dublje promje- funerary practice. In this tumulus they are ex-
na u religijskoj ideologiji kojima je uvjetovana hibited quite dramatically, without transitional
i promjena funeralne prakse. No, one se u tom phenomena, so that they do not leave much
tumulu iskazuju prilino dramatino, bez pri- space for discussing causes and chronological
jelaznih pojava, pa ne ostavljaju puno prostora frameworks in which they are exhibited. All the
za raspravu o uzrocima i vremenskim okviri- more so because deposition of the cremated re-
ma u kojima se iskazuju. To vie to polaganje mains directly on the tumulus basis seems very
spaljenih ostataka izravno na osnovu tumula archaic, whereas stone cist of the later burials
djeluje vrlo arhaino, dok kamena krinja mla- suggests relating with identical Liburnian fu-
ih pokopa sugerira povezivanje s istovrsnim
nerary structures. Observed only in their form,
liburnskim grobnim konstrukcijama. Proma-
burials in the tumuli of Jokina glavica nad Ma-
trano samo prema formi u kojoj su provedena,
takova glavica appear as a phenomenon which
pokapanja u tumulima Jokina glavica i Mata-
in a certain sense reduces sharply polarized
kova glavica djeluju kao pojava koja u stanovi-
relations between the earlier and later buri-
tom smislu ublaava otro polarizirane odnose
als in Duevia glavica. In primary burials in
starijega pokopa i mlaih pokopa u Duevia
Jokina glavica cremated human remains were
glavici. U primarnim pokopima na Jokinoj gla-
deposited in urns laid in a common shallow
vici spaljeni humani ostatci pohranjeni su u a-
pit, whereas in Matakova glavica cremated hu-
rama poloenim u zajedniku plitku jamu, dok
man remains were probably deposited in an
su na Matakovoj glavici vjerojatno spaljeni hu-
urn placed on a special platform built by using
mani ostatci pohranjeni u aru postavljenu na
drystone wall technique. Leaving aside differ-
posebnu suhozidnu platformu. Ostavljajui po
ences in the manner of depositing urns, both
strani razlike u nainu polaganja ara, oba ta
examples indicate a more developed and so-
primjera upuuju na razvijeniji i profinjeniji
in pokapanja i obreda koji ga prate, u odnosu phisticated burial act and the accompanying
na onaj proveden na Duevia glavici. ritual than the one in Duevia glavica.
Izloene na ovakav nain, navedene razlike Presented in this way the mentioned differ-
dobivaju i stanovitu vremensku dimenziju koju ences get a certain chronological dimension
sugeriraju i 14C datumi, premda u ovome slua- which is suggested also by 14C dates, although in
ju ne treba posve iskljuiti ni potrebu njihove this case the need of their correction should not
korekcije zbog mogue stanovite nepreciznosti be excluded due to possible certain imprecision
uvjetovane razliitim okolnostima u kojima je caused by different circumstances in which
pokapanje provedeno, ukljuujui tu i pedolo- burials were conducted, including pedological
ke specifinosti tla iskoritenog za formiranje specific qualities of the soil used for making
zemljanog nasipa. Jednako tako, ni mogua earthen fill. In the same way, possible chrono-
vremenska dimenzija ne mora biti iskljuiva logical dimension need not be exclusive deter-
determinanta razlika o kojima je rije, ponaj- minant of the mentioned differences, primarily
prije zbog toga to je funeralna praksa openito because funerary practice represents generally
najkonzervativniji segment u kulturi prapovi- the most conservative segment in the culture of
jesnih zajednica, a njezina je promjena obino prehistoric communities, and its change is usu-
povezana s povijesno vrlo znaajnim i prostor- ally related to historically very important and
Brunislav Marijanovi
Karla Gusar no iroko obuhvatnim procesima. spatially wide-reaching processes.
179
Na temelju sauvanih ostataka nije mogue On the basis of the preserved remains it is
ni izdaleka odrediti broj osoba iji su ostatci not possible to determine the number of per-
pohranjeni pri primarnim pokopima u Due- sons whose remains were buried in primary
via glavici i Matakovoj glavici. Meutim, u burials in Duevia glavica and Matakova
primarnom grobu u Jokinoj glavici oigledno glavica. However, in primary grave in Jokina
je pokopano vie osoba, i to razliita uzrasta i glavica evidently several persons were buried,
spola, a etiri are i njihov raspored pri pokopu of different age and gender. Four urns and their
sugeriraju isti toliki broj pokopanih, od kojih distribution suggest the same number of the
dvije odrasle osobe razliita spola i dvoje djece. deceased persons, of which two adults of differ-
Antropoloka identifikacija humanih ostataka ent gender and two children. Anthropological
i njihov raspored u arama u tom smislu nisu identification of human remains and their dis-
posve odreeni, premda doputaju mogunost tribution in urns is not completely determined
meusobnog povezivanja spolno i uzrastom in that sense, although it allows possibility of
razliito disperziranih ostataka na razinu od mutual connecting of differently dispersed re-
etiri pretpostavljene osobe. Sigurnost u tom mains in terms of gender and age to the level
smislu mogla je pruiti samo DNK analiza koja of four persons. Definite answer in that sense
bi, osim toga, odgovorila i na pitanje meusob- could be provided only by DNA analysis which
ne rodbinske povezanosti pokopanih. Premda would also shed some light on mutual kinship
zbog stanja uzoraka DNK analiza nije bila mo- ties of the deceased persons. Although DNA
gua, to znai da u tom smislu ne postoje eg- analysis was not possible due to the condition
zaktne potvrde, vrlo je vjerojatno da istodobno of the samples, which means that there are no
pokopani humani ostatci u arama iz Jokine excat confirmations in that sense, it is more
glavice pripadaju osobama meu kojima po- than likely that simultaneously buried human
stoji vrsta rodbinska veza. remains in urns from Jokina glavica belonged
Poseban je problem pitanje uspostavljanja to persons with strong kinship ties.
prostornih odnosa i povezivanje tumula s ne- It is quite difficult to establish spatial rela-
kim aglomeracijskim sreditem kojemu bi mo- tions and connect the tumuli with some ag-
gle pripadati pokopane osobe. Kao to je to u glomeration center where buried persons may
uvodnom dijelu naglaeno, istraene tumule have lived. As mentioned in the introduction,
nije mogue povezati ne samo s nekom isto- explored tumuli could not be related not only
dobnom nego ni s bilo kakvom prapovijesnom with some simultaneous but with any agglom-
aglomeracijom, jer u njihovoj blioj okolici eration, since there are no hill-fort settlements,
nema poznatih gradinskih naselja, a ni drugih or other archeological traces which would open
arheolokih tragova koji bi ostavljali mogu- up a possibility of existence of some settlement
nost postojanja neke izvangradinske naseobin- unit other than hill-fort. Namely, although the
ske cjeline. Naime, premda su tumuli smjete- tumuli are situated in a spatious field from the
ni u prostranom polju s june strane Ljubake southern side of Ljubaka kosa, which makes
kose, koja s nekoliko gradinskih naselja i izni- a separate archaeological zone with several
mno velikim brojem tumula i ravnih grobova hill-fort settlements and exceptionally great
iz svih faza eljeznog doba te helenistikih gro- number of tumuli and flat graves from all phas-
bova, rasporeenih na irokom prostoru, ini es of the Iron Age, and Hellenistic graves dis-
posebnu arheoloku zonu, ipak je malo vjero- tributed in wide area, it is unlikely that tumuli
jatno da su tumuli u Krnezi i Podvrju izravno in Krneza and Podvrje were directly related
povezani s njima. Takvu mogunost ne sugeri- to them. Such possibility is not suggested even
raju ni opi prostorni odnosi u kojima ljubake by general spatial relations in which hill-forts
gradine i grobovi, unato veliini prostora na and graves from Ljuba make a coherent whole
kojem se nalaze, ipak tvore koherentne cjeline, despite the size of the area in which they are
kao to koherentnu, ali u ukupnosti prostornih located. Tumuli in Krneza and Podvrje also
odnosa zasebnu cjelinu ine i tumuli u Krnezi i make a coherent whole, but in the entirety of
Podvrju. S obzirom na to, pitanje uspostavlja- spatial relations. Taking all this into considera-
ZAKLJUAK
nja prostornih odnosa izmeu tumula i pripa- tion, the question of determining spatial rela- CONCLUSION
180
dajueg naselja u ovome trenutku mora ostati tions between the tumuli and the belonging
otvoreno. settlement has to remain open for now.
Kako je ve vie puta istaknuto, sva tri tu- As mentioned repeatedly, all three tumuli
mula ponovno su koritena za pokapanje tije- were used for burials during later periods, and
kom kasnijih vremenskih razdoblja, a na po- in certain examples it was possible to trace
jedinim primjerima mogue je pratiti i njihov their mutual course as well as different funer-
meusobni slijed kao i razliite pogrebne ritu- ary rites. After the prehistoric period Mata-
se. Nakon prapovijesnog razdoblja najranije kova glavica in Podvrje was reused first, as
u upotrebi je Matakova glavica u Podvrju, na interments were continued in Late Antiquity,
kojoj je pokapanje nastavljeno tijekom kasne and then also in the Early Middle Ages. Out of
antike, a zatim i u ranom srednjem vijeku. Od late antique graves in Matakova glavica mostly
kasnoantikih grobova na Matakovoj glavici grave architecture was preserved, scarce osteo-
ouvala se uglavnom grobna arhitektura, malo- logical remains and grave goods. These burials
brojni osteoloki ostatci i grobni prilozi. Te po- should definitely be related to the nearby ear-
kope svakako treba dovesti u vezu s nedalekim ly Christian complex in Glavine in Podvrje,
ranokranskim kompleksom na Glavinama u meaning that they should be dated to the pe-
Podvrju, to znai da ih treba datirati u vrije- riod before the end of the fifth century, i.e. in
me prije kraja 5. stoljea, odnosno u vremenski the chronological framework defined for the
okvir odreen za nastanak tog sakralnog sklo- formation of that sacral complex which also
pa uz koji je otkrivena i nekropola. Nakon toga encompassed a necropolis. Mentioned hearth
Matakova glavica ponovno je upotrebi u rano- represents an exceptionally important evi-
srednjovjekovnom razdoblju, iz kojeg su sau- dence of pagan funerary rituals which were
vani ostatci grobne arhitekture, grobni prilozi brought by the early Slavs/Croats into these
te vatrite koriteno tijekom pogrebnih obreda. regions after their arrival. Example from Ma-
To je vatrite iznimno znaajan dokaz pogan- takova glavica represents the second recorded
skih pogrebnih obiaja koje rani Slaveni/Hrva- case of this phenomenon in Croatia. All the
ti donose na ove prostore nakon doseljenja, te aforementioned definitely relates mentioned
je primjer s Matakove glavice drugi zabiljeen medieval graves with the pagan horizon of the
sluaj te pojave na tlu Hrvatske. Sve navedeno Dalmatian-Croatian material culture. Consid-
svakako smjeta ove srednjovjekovne grobove ering the fact that medieval graves were quite
u poganski horizont dalmatinsko-hrvatske ma- poorly preserved at this site, their precise dat-
terijalne kulture. Budui da su na tom lokali- ing is not possible, they can only be broadly
tetu ranosrednjovjekovni grobovi prilino loe dated to the mentioned period.
ouvani, njihova preciznija datacija nije mogu- Somewhat different situation was recorded
a, ve ih je mogue samo okvirno smjestiti u in Duevia glavica in Krneza. In this tumulus
navedeno razdoblje. nine secondary burials were discovered which
Neto drugaija situacija zabiljeena je na also belong to the early, pagan horizon of the
Duevia glavici u Krnezi. Na tom tumulu ot- Dalmatian-Croatian early medieval material
kriveno je devet sekundarnih ukopa koji tako- culture. Cult pottery is dominant among grave
er pripadaju ranom, poganskom horizontu goods which was mostly found between or out
dalmatinsko-hrvatske ranosrednjovjekovne of the graves. Such phenomenon was recorded
materijalne kulture. Meu grobnim prilozima at only one more site in Croatia Materiza near
dominira kultna keramika koja je najveim di- Nin. It is also important to mention jewelry ob-
jelom pronaena izvan, odnosno izmeu samih jects similar to the Koman cultural circle which
grobova, to je pojava do sada zabiljeena na belong to a part of truly insufficiently explored
samo jednom lokalitetu u Hrvatskoj, a to je Ma- European medieval archaeology. However it
teriza kod Nina. Takoer treba istaknuti i na- is worth emphasizing that in this case we are
kitne predmete bliske komanskom kulturnom dealing with a necropolis of the early Slavic,
krugu koji pripadaju dijelu uistinu nedovoljno i.e. early Croatian population as indicated by
istraene europske srednjovjekovne arheolo- all other finds. In addition to analysis of grave
Brunislav Marijanovi
Karla Gusar gije. Meutim, svakako treba napomenuti da goods, a radiocarbon analysis of osteological
181
je i u ovom sluaju rije o groblju ranoslaven- remains was also conducted showing that this
ske, odnosno starohrvatske populacije, na to was a medieval cemetery used at the end of the
upuuju svi ostali nalazi. Osim analize grobnih seventh and during the eighth centuries.
nalaza provedena je i radiokarbonska analiza The last necropolis is the one in Jokina glavi-
osteolokih ostataka, iji rezultati pokazuju da ca in Krneza in which 18 early medieval graves
se radi o srednjovjekovnom groblju koje traje were discovered. As this was somewhat larger
krajem 7. i tijekom 8. stoljea. cemetery than the aforementioned, in it we
Posljednje groblje je ono na Jokinoj can trace greater diversity in grave formation,
glavici u Krnezi na kojoj je otkriveno 18 rano- grave goods and accessories. Out of funeray
srednjovjekovnih grobova. Kako je rije o neto rituals we need to mention depositing stones
veem groblju od do sada navedenih, na njemu on the deceased body which is usually related
je mogue pratiti veu raznolikost u oblikova- to vampirism. This phenomenon, recorded in
nju grobova, kulturnim prilozima i nalazima. the Central European Slavic necropoles of the
Od grobnih obiaja treba istaknuti polaganje Early Middle Ages, is quite rare in Dalmatia. In
kamenja na tijelo pokojnika, to se obino do- Jokina glavica, as well as in Duevia glavica,
vodi u vezu s vampirizmom. Ta pojava, eviden- a significant number of ceramic vessels was
tirana na srednjoeuropskim slavenskim nekro- found between the graves which should be re-
polama ranoga srednjeg vijeka, u Dalmaciji je lated to the pagan burial rite. As these are the
poprilino rijetka. Kao i kod Duevia glavice, only sites where this custom was recorded after
i na Jokinoj glavici pronaen je znaajan broj Materiza, it is necessary to indicate connec-
keramikih posuda postavljenih izmeu gro- tions between populations buried at both cult
bova koje treba dovesti u vezu s poganskim ri- places. Out of other grave goods and accesso-
tusom ukopa. S obzirom da su nakon Materize ries, functional and jewelry objects need to be
ovo jedini lokaliteti na kojima je registriran taj mentioned which indicate dating of the cem-
obiaj, svakako treba ukazati na povezanost etery in the second half of the eighth and dur-
populacija ukopanih na oba kultna mjesta. Od ing the ninth centuries, alongside the results of
ostalih priloga i nalaza treba spomenuti upo- radiocarbon analysis of osteological remains.
trebne i nakitne predmete, koji uz rezultate Therefore it is possible that early medieval
radiokarbonske analize osteolokih ostataka cemetery in Jokina glavica chronologically re-
upuuju na trajanje groblja u drugoj polovini placed the one in Duevia glavica.
8. i tijekom 9. stoljea, pa je mogue rei da ra- Mentioned early medieval cemeteries be-
nosrednjovjekovno groblje na Jokinoj glavici long to the early Croatian necropoles dug into
vremenski smjenjuje ono na Duevia glavici. tumuli, which are much rarer than the flat cem-
Navedena ranosrednjovjekovna pripa- eteries, and at the same time less explored. On
daju starohrvatskim grobljima ukopanim u tu- the basis of the results of the excavations in
mule, koja su dosta rjea od onih na ravnom, a Krneza and Podvrje we can state with certain-
ujedno i puno loije istraena. Na osnovi rezul- ty that in the Early Middle Ages newly arrived
tata istraivanja u Krnezi i Podvrju sa sigur- Slavs/Croats did not raise new mounds for bur-
nou se moe rei da u ranom srednjem vijeku ials but they used earlier, existing cult places.
novodoseljeni Slaveni/Hrvati za ukapanje nisu Until now this question had not been answered
podizali nove humke, ve su koristili starija, due to poor state of exploration of this type of
postojea kultna mjesta. Loa istraenost te vr- early medieval necropoles in Croatia. Consid-
ste ranosrednjovjekovnih grobalja u Hrvatskoj ering the fact that a small number of graves
do sada je ovo pitanje ostavljala otvorenim. was found in all three explored tumuli in Krn-
Budui da je na sva tri istraena tumula eza and Podvrje and that these were not larger
u Krnezi i Podvrju otkriven manji broj grobo- medieval necropoles, it is most likely that these
va, te da nije rije o veim ranosrednjovjekov- were cemeteries of smaller communities. These
nim nekropolama, vjerojatno se radi o groblji- early medieval cemeteries belong to the early
ma manjih rodovskih zajednica. Ta ranosred- Slavs/Croats, and they can be broadly dated to
njovjekovna groblja pripadaju ranim Slaveni- the period from the end of the seventh to the
ZAKLJUAK
ma/Hrvatima, a okvirno ih je mogue smjestiti end of the ninth centuries. It is important to CONCLUSION
182
u razdoblje od kraja 7. do kraja 9. stoljea. Va- emphasize that 14C dates from Jokina glavica
no je istaknuti i da su 14C datumi s Jokine i Du- and Duevia glavica are the only examples
evia glavice jedini primjeri radiokarbonskih of radiocarbon analyses conducted at the ne-
analiza provedenih na nekropolama ranoga cropoles of the Early Middle Ages in Dalmatia,
srednjeg vijeka u Dalmaciji koji bi s obzirom na which may contribute to more exact determin-
nedovoljno poznavanje ovoga kljunog razdo- ing of certain phenomena in the Early Croatian
blja svakako pridonijeli tonijem odreivanju culture having in mind insufficient under-
pojedinih pojava u starohrvatskoj kulturi. No, standing of this crucial period. Despite the re-
usprkos rezultatima svih ovih analiza, i ovdje sults of all these analyses, the same question
se, kao i kod prapovijesne populacije ukopane arises, as with prehistoric population buried in
na tumulima, postavlja pitanje kojoj aglome- the tumuli, concerning agglomeration to which
raciji pripisati ova groblja, budui da nikakvi these cemeteries may have been ascribed, since
tragovi ranosrednjovjekovnih naselja na ovom traces of early medieval settlements in this re-
prostoru do sada nisu otkriveni. Njihova ubi- gion have not been discovered so far. Their
kacija od iznimne je vanosti, ponajprije zbog pinpointing is exceptionally important prima-
injenice da su naselja ovog razdoblja na tlu rily due to the fact that settlements from this
Dalmacije gotovo potpuno nepoznata, te da period in Dalmatia are almost completely un-
analizirana groblja nije mogue promatrati kao known, and that analyzed necropoles cannot
izolirane dijelove, ve ih treba uklopiti u iru be observed as isolated parts, but they must be
arheoloku sliku ranoga srednjeg vijeka u Hr- included in a more comprehensive archaeolog-
vatskoj; s obzirom na poloaj tumula u Krnezi ical image of the Early Middle Ages in Croatia.
i Podvrju i izvanredne uvjete za ivot na ovom Considering the position of the tumuli in Krn-
prostoru, naselja vjerojatno treba traiti u nji- eza and Podvrje and outstanding life condi-
hovoj neposrednoj blizini. tions in this area, settlements should probably
be sought in their immediate vicinity.

Brunislav Marijanovi
Karla Gusar