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Patho: pathogenesis (= the development of a disease)

pathophysiology
Pathogen: the spread of pathogens by insects
pathogenesis
Pathological: pathological depression
Pathology, pathologist: Four experienced pathologists reviewed all the diagnoses.
The pathologist confirmed that death was due to poisoning.
The police pathologist examined the body and confirmed that death was due to
poisoning.
Morbid
Aetiology
Nosology

Patient: cancer patients


Ailing: She looked after her ailing father.
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 9th edition Oxford University Press, 2015

Curable: Most skin cancers are curable if treated early.


Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 9th edition Oxford University Press, 2015

Incurable: an incurable disease/illness


OPPOSITE curable
Inoperable: an inoperable brain tumour
Terminal: He has terminal lung cancer.
The illness is usually terminal.
(figurative) She's suffering from terminal (= very great) boredom.
Terminal(2): a terminal patient
See: long stay @ therapy
Degenerative: degenerative diseases such as arthritis
Refractory. see: persistent.

Cross-infection: The hospital is taking measures to reduce the risk of cross-


infection.
Infectious= infective.
Catching= infectious
Contagion: There is no risk of contagion.
Contagious(1\2): Scarlet fever is highly contagious.
(figurative) His enthusiasm was contagious (= spread quickly to other people).
a contagious laugh
The new disease proved contagious.
Infect: infect somebody/something It is not possible to infect another person
through kissing.
infect somebody/something with something people infected with HIV
Give(8): give somebody something You've given me your cold.
give something to somebody She'd given the bug to all her colleagues.
Infection: to be exposed to infection
to increase the risk of infection
Contact(n8)
Communicate(4): The disease is communicated through dirty drinking water.
Communicable: communicable diseases
The value of the product must be communicable to the potential consumers.
Pandemic: a pandemic disease
Plage(n2): SYNONYM epidemic
the plague of AIDS
Epidemic: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in this country.
epidemic disease
Endemic: endemic (in) Malaria is endemic in many hot countries.
Corruption is endemic in the system.
endemic (among) an attitude endemic among senior members of the profession
endemic (to) species endemic to (= only found in) Madagascar
the endemic problem of racism
Pestilence
Pestilential
Plague:
Epidemiology
Epidemiological: epidemiological studies/data/evidence
Introduce(5): Vegetation patterns changed when goats were introduced to the
island.
Congenital:congenital abnormalities
Half of all fetuses with the syndrome have a congenital heart defect.
Familial: familial left-handedness. see: inheritable
Hereditary: a hereditary illness/disease/condition/problem
Epilepsy is hereditary in her family.
Its a hereditary disorder that can cause abnormal growth.
See: inheritable at: BIO
Exogenous. see: extracorporeal.
Endogenous

Side effect
Complication: She developed complications after the surgery.
Infertility is one of the complications of this type of radiotherapy.

Complaint(3): a skin complaint. see: ailment, disposition, malaise at: health.


see: niggle at: pain (minor pain)
Lurgy: I've caught some kind of lurgy.
It's the dreaded lurgy! (the C-wrod)
Bug: a flu bug
There's a stomach bug going round (= people are catching it from each other).
I picked up a bug in the office.
Virus: There's a virus going around the office.
Stress(6): Those most vulnerable to heat stress are the elderly.
Virulent: a virulent form of influenza
a particularly virulent flu germ
Infection(2): an ear/throat, etc. infection
to spread an infection
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 9th edition Oxford University Press, 2015

Case(n9): a severe case of typhoid


The most serious cases were treated at the scene of the accident.
Condition(3): a medical condition
He suffers from a serious heart condition.

Go down/ drop etc like ninepins: Men and horses went down like ninepins before
them, in a tangle of waving limbs.
Theres a lot of flu about and people are going down like ninepins.
Come down with sth: I think I'm coming down with flu.
Be/ go down with sth
Go down with sth= catch: our youngest daughter has gone down with chickenpox
Get(9): I got this cold off (= from) you!
She gets (= often suffers from) really bad headaches.
Pick up
Catch(v10): catch something to catch measles
catch something from somebody I think I must have caught this cold from you.
Contract(v3): to contract AIDS/a virus/a disease
Develop(3): Her son developed asthma when he was two.
The car developed engine trouble and we had to stop.
Clear up: Has your rash cleared up yet?
See: go at: leave

Immunodefficiency: human immunodeficiency virus or HIV


Autoimmune: an autoimmune response
asymptomatic
Symptom: flu symptoms
Look out for symptoms of depression.
Symptoms include a headache and sore throat.
Symptomatic: a symptomatic infection
symptomatic of something These disagreements are symptomatic of the tensions
within the party.
Symptomize
Non-specific
Syndrome: PMS or premenstrual syndrome
This syndrome is associated with frequent coughing.
This syndrome mostly affects women in their forties.
SEE ALSO AIDS, Downs syndrome, economy class syndrome, sick building syndrome,
Tourettes syndrome

Predispose: Stress can predispose people to heart attacks.


Prophylaxis: prophylaxis
Preventive
Prophylactically: All employees were advised to take antibiotics prophylactically.
Prophylactic(n/adj): prophylactic treatment
Vaccinate: I was vaccinated against tetanus.
Immunize: a campaign to immunize children against the common killer diseases
Children have been routinely immunized against polio since 1958.
They immunized some mice with a dose of the live vaccine.
Inoculate

Invade: Demonstrators invaded the government buildings.


As the final whistle blew, fans began invading the field.
The cancer cells may invade other parts of the body.
Invasive: invasive cancer
Spreading
Radiate

Wasting
Enervating
Opportunistic: an opportunistic infection
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 9th edition Oxford University Press, 2015

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#Serious disease
Anthrax
Meningitis: He is suffering from viral meningitis.
Encephalitis
Ague
Malaria
Dysentery
Amoebic dysentery
Chikungunya
Dengue= dengue fever= breakbone fever
Yellow fever
Trench fever
Typhoid fever: a typhoid epidemic
Lassa fever
Hay fever
Mononucleosis= grandular fever= mono
Typhus
Chickenpox: to catch/get/have chickenpox
Smallpox: In 1742 he suffered a fatal attack of smallpox.
Sleeping sickness
Diphtheria: Parents are advised to have their children immunized against
diphtheria.
Croup
Bilharzia
Hookworm
Cholera: A cholera epidemic swept the country.
German measles= rubella
Measles: All our children have had the measles.
Mumps
Lyme disease
Avian flu= chicken flu= bird flu: Ten new cases of bird flu were reported
yesterday.
Swine flu
bubonic plague= the black death
Poliomyelitis
Jaundice

The big C
Precancerous: precancerous cells
Cancerous: to become cancerous
cancerous cells/growths/tumours
Carcinogenic: the carcinogenic effects of some pesticides used on fruit
Carcinoma
myeloma
Kaposi's sarcoma

Toxic shock syndrome


ME= myalgic encephalomyelitis= chronic fatigue syndrome: Shes had ME for six
months.
Crohn's disease
Hodgkin's disease.
Marburg disease
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#Skin diseases
Jock itch: The fungi that cause jock itch thrive in warm, moist places.
Athletic's foot. see: trench foot,
Thrush

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#Functional trouble

Overactive: an overactive thyroid


Congested
See: infarction
Bed-wetting
Continence X incontinence.
Anaemia:
Anemic: She looks anaemic.
Pellagra
Scurvy
Beriberi
Diabetes
Diabetic(adj1): She's diabetic.
a diabetic patient
diabetic complications
Diabetic(adj2): a diabetic diet
Diabetic(n)

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#Tumor
Oncology
Muscular dystrophy
haemorrhoids= piles
polyp
papilloma
cyst
sarcoma
fibroma
fibroid
Plantar wart= verruca
ganglion
haematoma
metastasis

tumescent= swollen
detumescence
Swollen: swollen glands
Her eyes were red and swollen from crying.
Swelling(2): Use ice to reduce the swelling.
Slight swelling had occurred under his chin.
Swelling(1): The fall left her with a painful swelling above her eye.
There is a marked swelling of the lymph nodes.
Growth(3): a malignant/cancerous growth
Lump(3): He was unhurt apart from a lump on his head.
Check your breasts for lumps every month.
Malignancy: SYNONYM tumour
Heavy alcohol consumption causes increased blood pressure and malignancies.
Tumor: a brain tumour
a benign/malignant (= harmless/harmful)tumour
Turgid: the turgid waters of the Thames
Distend: starving children with huge distended bellies
He tied a piece of cloth around his upper arm to impede circulation and distend
the veins.
She looked very ill and her belly was horribly distended.
engorge
edema
Inflammation: inflammation of the ear
a cream to reduce the inflammation
Inflammatory

Diverticulitis
aneurysm
mastitis
bubo
Lumpectomy

Benign = non-malignant
Malignant: malignant cells
OPPOSITE non-malignant
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 9th edition Oxford University Press, 2015

Diahrrea: Symptoms include diarrhoea and vomiting.


Th runs= the squits= the squitters.
Gippy tummy= gyppy tummy.
Turista
Constipation

Sydenham's Chorea= St Vitus's dance


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#
MMR Measles, Mumps, rubella: an MMR jab (= a vaccine given to small children to
prevent these three diseases)

Toxoplasmosis
Botulism
Salmonella: cases of salmonella poisoning
an outbreak of salmonella
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 9th edition Oxford University Press, 2015