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Overhead Lines for High Resistivity Soils

Departamento de Engenharia Eltrica Diretoria de Redes Convergentes

Escola de Engenharia da UFMG Fundao CPqD

Belo Horizonte, Brazil Campinas, Brazil

josvaldo@cpdee.ufmg.br grcelio@cpqd.com.br

AbstractThis paper presents an approximate formula for recently, Zhang et al. [8] proposed a LIV peak-value formula

the peak value of the lightning-induced voltages in an aerial line considering stratified ground and Rizk et al. [9] proposed a

over high resistivity soils. In its derivation, it is considered the LIV peak-value formula for high-resistivity ground which is

transmission line return stroke model (TL) and a trapezoidal based on a number of correction coefficients.

current waveform. The formula is an improved version of a

previously expression presented by the authors, whereas its The peak value formula from Paulino et al. [7] was limited

validity range is extended from 1000 Ohmsm to 10000 Ohmsm. to soil resistivities up to 1000 m. However, many areas

The paper also illustrates the formula application in the experiencing high lightning-related problems have soil

assessment of the indirect lightning performance of overhead resistivities higher than 1000 m. Therefore, the aim of this

distribution lines. paper is to expand the LIV peak value formula presented in [7]

to soil resistivity values up to 10000 m.

Keywordscomponent; formatting; style; styling; insert (key

words) This paper is organized as follows. Initially, Section II

extends and validates the computer code TIDA for high-

I. INTRODUCTION resistivity soils. Section III derives the new peak value formula

The calculation of lightning-induced voltages (LIVs) in an and validates it against TIDA results. Section IV illustrates the

overhead conductor is relevant in order to develop cost- new formula application in the assessment of a power

effective protective methods for power distribution lines and distribution line flashover rate. Section V discusses some

telecommunication lines. For instance, the theoretical relevant aspects of the approximations considered and

assessment of the lightning flashover rate of a power Section VI draws the main conclusions.

distribution line allows the specification of the relevant line II. EXTENSION OF THE COMPUTER CODE TIDA FOR HIGH

components in order to achieve a desired performance. Are

RESISTIVITY SOILS

examples of these components the supporting structure

(including clearances), type of insulators, grounding scheme The computer simulations presented in [7] were carried out

and resistance, and installation of surge arresters. with the TIDA code [10] that uses the time-domain formulation

proposed in [11]. References [12]-[13] show that this

New modeling techniques and powerful computers allow formulation has a limitation at close range, especially for poor

the calculation of the LIVs considering realistic line topologies, conducting earth. In [14], the authors analyze the impact of this

which include complex line configurations, presence of surge limitation on the lightning induced voltages in aerial

arresters, and the shielding effect provided by nearby structures distribution lines at close range (50 m) and show that it is

[1]-[3]. Although these techniques are very useful to significant only for very poor conducting earth. Therefore,

investigate the effect of realistic lines, they have the drawback = 1000 m is considered as an upper limit for the earth

of requiring sophisticated software and large computational resistivity for using the formulation proposed in [11] for LIVs

resources. The latter is particularly relevant when it is calculation at close range (50 m). Up to such resistivity value

necessary to compute the indirect flashover rate, when and aerial distribution lines, the errors can be neglected.

hundreds thousands of simulations are required.

Considering the electric field component originated in the

On the other hand, the assessment of the indirect flashover current flowing in the ground near the point of impact of the

rate through the LIV peak value, although approximate, can stroke, a new formulation for the horizontal electric field was

yield fast and sufficiently accurate results for many proposed for the close range in [12]. This new formulation is

applications. A LIV peak-value formula was originally derived now incorporated into TIDA code.

by Rusck [4], considering perfectly conducting soils. This

formula was lately expanded by Darveniza [5] to take into The TIDA code was already validated for soils with

account lossy soils. An improved formula was proposed by resistivity up to 1000 m [10]. Recently Rizk et al. [15]

Paulino et al. [6] considering a step current waveform, which presented some LIV calculations for high-resistivity soils using

was lately expanded to a more general version [7]. More the 3-D FDTD method. The LIV were calculated in an aerial

for Scientific and Technological Development).

2017 International Symposium on Lightning Protection (XIV SIPDA), Natal, Brazil, 2nd 6th October 2017.

line 10 m height and 3400 m long, over soil with resistivities 1 s T 12 s, and a return-stroke velocity v in the range

varying from 0 to 20 km. A stroke current 25 kA peak and 30 m/s v 150 m/s. The LIV peak value VP is given by:

2/100 s waveshape was used in the simulations, and the

relative soil permittivity was r = 4. The striking point was VP k VR VS (1)

aligned with the line center and is y = 50 m away from the line.

where VR is the parcel that considers a perfect soil and was

Fig. 1 and 2 show a comparison between results from TIDA derived by Rusck [4], while the second parcel VS was

code and from Rizk results [15]. It can be seen in the figures proposed by the authors [7] to include the contribution of

that, for soils up to 4 km, the correlation between the results finitely conducting soil to the total induced voltage:

is very good. For soils with resistivities in the range of 8 to

20 km there are some significant differences in the

waveforms, fronts but the peak values are almost the same. It is

V R 15 I 0

2

h 1 1 ;

2 (2)

ln

worth to mention that [15] also presents results with r = 10, y 1 1 2 2

where the wave front times are somewhat larger than those

shown in Fig. 2, but the peak values are roughly the same.

1 (3)

Therefore, it comes out that the new TIDA code version VS 3 v r 3 I 0 ;

can be used for calculating LIVs for soil resistivities up to y

4 km, and LIV peak values for soil resistivities up to where:

20 km. vr

1 ;

2

r

2 1 v v r 1

2

T;

150 v r

y

T is the return stroke current front-time in s and h is the line

height, I0 is the peak value of the stroke current, is the soil

resistivity, y is the closest distance between the lightning

striking point and the line, vr is the relative velocity of the

return stroke (vr = v/c), v is the return stroke velocity and c is

the light velocity. The factor k=0.915 is needed to account for

the delay between the voltages VR and VS, as discussed in [6].

The peak value is calculated at the closest point along the

Fig. 1. LIV calculated by TIDA code and Rizk et al. [15] for a 10 m height, line with respect to the flash, as the maximum induced voltage

3400 m long line, and 2/100 s stroke current waveform. Soils resistivities occurs at this point [6].

varying from 0 to 2 km.

Paulino et al. [16] showed that the use of the median value

for the stroke current front time (T = 5.63 s) and the relative

return stroke velocity vr = 0.4 s lead to flashover rates very

close to those computed using the probabilistic variation of

these parameters in the Monte Carlo method. Therefore, the

values above will be assumed in this paper, which leads to a

simplification in (2):

VR 0.0568 I 0 h ln

1 1 2 ,

2

(4)

1 1 2

2

where = 337.8 / y.

Fig. 2. LIV calculated by TIDA code and Rizk et al. [15] for a 10 m height, it is necessary to add a third term that takes into account the

3400 m long line, and 2/100 s stroke current waveform. Soils resistivities contribution of the conducted current flowing through the

varying from 4 to 20 km. channel base [12]. Therefore, the peak value VP becomes:

III. IDERIVATION OF THE PEAK-VALUE FORMULA VP k VR VS VHRS , (5)

In a previous paper [7], the authors presented an where VHRS is the voltage component due to the conductive

approximate formula for the evaluation of the peak value of current.

LIVs in an aerial line, considering soil resistivity values from

100 to 1000 m, stroke current front-time T in the range

2017 International Symposium on Lightning Protection (XIV SIPDA), Natal, Brazil, 2nd 6th October 2017.

For the relatively slow-rising current considered (5.63 s

front-time), it is reasonable to assume a quasi-static approach at

the close range from the strike. Based on this assumption, one

can use the late-time expression for the horizontal electric field

at ground surface [12], which is:

1

E HS I0 2 . (6)

2 y

distance to the stroke (y), it is relevant only for the relatively

close range. Therefore, the effect of this field component can

be approximately captured if it is integrated up to a finite

distance d along the ground surface:

yd

I0 dy

VHRS

2 y y2

(7)

I0 d . (8)

VHRS

2 y y d

by TIDA code, in a trial-and-error process, a good match was

found for d = 36 m and k = 0.94. Introducing the d value in (8)

leads to:

18 I 0 d . (9)

VHRS

y y 36

The results from (5) and (9) were then compared again with

those obtained from TIDA. The parameters considered for this Fig. 4. Assessment of the error in the total voltage Vp as given by (7), (3), (4)

comparison are: 12 km long line, 5 and 10 m high, 10 kA and (5), for r = 10, = 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 5000, 8000 and

10000 m, T = 5.63 s and vr = 0.4. (a) h = 10 m; (b) h = 5 m.

current peak, 5.63 s current front-time, 0.4 relative return-

stroke velocity, and distance between the stroke and the line

varying from 50 to 2000 m. The line is matched to ground at

both end, as shown in Fig. 3, and the percent differences IV. LIGHTNING FLASHOVER RATE OF AN AERIAL LINE IN

between the results are calculated by: HIGH RESISTIVITY SOIL

VPeak Computercode VPeak Formula To illustrate the application of the proposed peak-value

Difference (%) 100 . (10)

formula on the assessment of lightning performance of

VPeak Computercode

overhead lines, some simulations were carried out using a

probabilistic approach similar to the one used in [16]. The

Figure 4 shows the differences between the peak values

Monte Carlo Method was used as described in [17] and 106

obtained with the computer code TIDA and the new peak

simulations were made for each case studied.

value formula. For the range of parameters considered, the

maximum difference between the peak values obtained with The annual indirect lightning-induced voltage flashover rate

TIDA and the new formula is between -9% and +8% for of an overhead line, 10 m high, in a region with 1 flash/km2/

h = 10 m, and between -9% and +12% for h = 5 m. year is showed in Fig. 5, as a function of the line critical

flashover (CFO). The values of soil resistivity used in the

simulations are 0, 200, 1000 and 5000 m, the relative return

stroke velocity is 0.4, and the current front time is 5.63 s.

Equation (4) was used for perfect conducting soil. The

maximum distance considered between the stroke striking

point and the line center was 2000 m.

Table 1 summarizes the flashover rates for three relevant

CFO values: 100, 170, and 300 kV. In Brazil, the 100 kV and

170 kV CFOs are representative of 13.8 kV and 34.5 kV power

distribution lines, respectively. The 300 kV CFO refers to a

special line design for lightning prone areas.

Fig. 3. Line parameters and lightning stroke relative position.

2017 International Symposium on Lightning Protection (XIV SIPDA), Natal, Brazil, 2nd 6th October 2017.

Fig. 5 and Table 1 show that a distribution line with 300 kV It can be seen in Fig. 6 that indirect lightning is the major

CFO in a region with 1 flash/km2/yr will present almost no concern for the 100 kV CFO lines, as the flashover rate for

flashover due to LIVs for ideal soil. Moreover, the flashover indirect flashes outnumber those from direct flashes for ground

rate increases 14 times as the soil resistivity increases from 200 resistivity values above 200 m. On the other hand, for the

to 1000 m and 12 times as the soil resistivity increases from 170 kV CFO lines, the indirect lightning flashes become the

1000 to 5000 m. A similar analysis for 100 kV CFO shows main cause of lightning-related flashover only for relatively

that a five-fold increase in the soil resistivity leads to about poor conducting ground (above 1000 m). Finally, for the

three times increase in the flashover rate. special design lines (CFO = 300 kV), the indirect lightning

flashes outnumber those from direct flashes only for very high

According to the IEEE Guide [18], in a region with resistivity soils (above 3700 m).

1 flash / (km2 year) and a 10 m high distribution line, the

number of direct flashes to the line is 11.15/100 km/yr. Fig. 6 V. DISCUSSION

shows the indirect flashover rate from Table 1 and the

flashover rate due to direct flashes. A. CFO correction factor

The ability of a LIV to produce insulation breakdown

depends not only on its peak value, but also on its wave shape.

Acknowledging this fact, the IEEE Guide 1410 [18] uses a

factor 1.5 to divide the LIV (CFO = LIV/1.5) in order to

evaluate the flashover rate from the LIV peak values. As

shown in [19], this correction factor shall take into account the

ground resistivity. Table II, adapted from [19], shows the

correction factor dependency on the ground resistivity and line

length. Based on this table, it can be concluded that the

flashover rates calculated in Section IV for ground resistivities

equal to or above 1000 m do not need to take into account

the CFO correction factor, as it approaches one. On the other

hand, the flashover rates calculated for ground resistivities

equal to or below 1000 m should take into account the

flashover correction factor. This means that these values may

Fig. 5. Annual indirect LIV flashover rate calculated with the new peak- be somewhat overestimated in Section IV.

value formula. NG = 1 flash / (km2 year), h =10 m and vr = 0.4. Phase-to-

ground LIVs and soil resistivity values: 0, 200, 1000 and 5000 m. TABLE II. CFO CORRECTION FACTORS FOR FLASHOVER RATE

ASSESSMENT BASED ON LIV PEAK VALUES.(ADAPTED FROM [19])

TABLE I. FLASHOVER RATE CONSIDERING GROUND RESISTIVITY AND

LINE CFO Line length (km)

Ground resistivity

Line CFO (kV) (m) 0.8 1.2 2.0 5.0

Ground resistivity

(m) 100 170 300 0 1.50 1.43 1.40 1.35

The new peak-value formula was validated with simulation

results obtained with the computer code TIDA, which uses a

lossless line model. The TIDA results compared well to results

from 3-D FDTD [8], for soils with resistivities values up to

4 km. However, it is important to highlight that the line used

in this comparison was 3.4 km long and the distance between

the stroke and the line was only 50 m. On the other hand, the

peak value formula was validated using a 12 km long line and

stroke striking distances ranging from 50 to 2000 m.

Rachidi et. al [20] concluded that, for LIV calculation, the

losses in the line can be neglected if the line length is lower

than the inverse of the attenuation constant calculated for the

maximum frequency of interest. According to Hidalen [21],

the maximum frequency associated to a waveform can be

assessed from its front-time T as:

Fig. 6. Indirect lightning flashover rate for a line 10 m high and ground flash

density of 1 flash / (km2 year), and the expected number of direct flashes.

2017 International Symposium on Lightning Protection (XIV SIPDA), Natal, Brazil, 2nd 6th October 2017.

1 , (11) For the 12 km line considered in this paper, the farthest

f point for a strike aligned with the line center is about 6 km

4T

from the strike. Fig. 9 shows the time-derivative of the

where f is the frequency. The LIV front-time is always greater magnetic field at 6 km from the strike, for 5000 m, 10000

than the stroke current front-time [19], that is 5.63 s in this m and perfect soil. In this case, the propagation effects cause

paper. Therefore, the maximum frequency associated with the not only a delay on the time-derivative wave, but also a small

LIV is about 45 kHz. reduction on its peak value. As the voltages induced close to

the 12 km line extremities are unlikely to affect the LIV peak

Fig. 7, adapted from [20], shows that the inverse of the value at the line center, it follows that the propagation effects

attenuation constant for 10000 m soil and 45 kHz is 20 km. of the electromagnetic fields can be neglected for the study

This means that, for the conditions considered in this paper, the carried out in this paper.

effect of the lossy ground on the surge attenuation along the

line is not significant.

When calculating LIV in high resistivity soils, an important

aspect is the magnetic field attenuation as it propagates from

the stroke striking point to the line. The attenuation of a unit

step magnetic field as it travels over homogeneous lossy

ground can be obtained from the expression developed by Wait

[22]. This expression can be used with the convolution theorem

[23] to calculate the attenuation of the magnetic field produced

by an arbitrary waveform. In order to do so, a current

waveform having 10 kA peak and 5.63 s front time was

obtained from the Heidler function [24] and used to compute

the undisturbed magnetic field calculated using the formulation Fig. 8. Time-derivative of the magnetic field produced by a 10 kA peak and

contained in [11]. 5.63 s current waveform, at 500 m from the flash, with and without

considering the propagation effects (p.e.) over 5000 m and 10000 m lossy

According to Cooray [25], the inductive effects of a ground.

radiated electromagnetic field are associated with the time-

derivative of the magnetic field. Fig. 8 shows the time-

derivative of the magnetic field generated by the referred

current waveform, at 500 m from the stroke for 5000 m and

10000 m soil resistivity. In the same figure is shown the

waveform for perfect soil, i.e., without the propagation effects

(p.e.). It can be seen in this figure that, apart from a small-time

delay, the magnetic field time-derivative is practically

undisturbed by the propagation effects. It is worth to mention

that the LIVs relevant to line flashover are those induced by the

close flashes.

5.63 s current waveform, at 6 km from the flash, with and without

considering the propagation effects (p.e.) over 5000 m and 10000 m lossy

ground.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

A simple formula is proposed to calculate the LIV peak

value in aerial wires over soils with resistivities values in the

range 100 10000 m. This formula is useful for the fast

assessment of the indirect flashover rate of power distribution

lines in regions where the soil resistivity main attain high

Fig. 7. Variation of the inverse attenuation constant (1/) as a function of values.

frequency for three ground resistivities values (r =10), adapted from [20].

The application of this formula shows that indirect

lightning is the major concern for the 100 kV CFO lines, as the

flashover rate for indirect flashes outnumber those from direct

flashes for ground resistivity values above 200 m. On the

2017 International Symposium on Lightning Protection (XIV SIPDA), Natal, Brazil, 2nd 6th October 2017.

other hand, for the 170 kV CFO lines, the indirect lightning comparison with the IEEE STD. 1410 Method, IEEE Trans. Power

flashes become the main cause of lightning-related flashover Delivery, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 684692, Jan. 2007.

[18] IEEE Guide for Improving the Lightning Performance of Electric Power

only for relatively poor conducting ground (above 1000 m). Overhead Distribution lines. Approved 28 January 2011, IEEE

Finally, for the special design lines (CFO = 300 kV), the Standards Board. IEEE Std 1410TM- 2010.

indirect lightning flashes outnumber those from direct flashes [19] J. O. S. Paulino, C. F. Barbosa, I. J. S. Lopes, W. C. Boaventura,

only for very high resistivity soils (above 3500 m). G. C. Miranda, Indirect lightning performance of aerial distribution

lines considering the induced-voltage waveform, IEEE Trans. on

Electromag. Comp., vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1123-1131, Oct. 2015.

[20] F. Rachidi, C.A. Nucci, M. Ianoz, and C. Mazzetti, "Influence of a lossy

VII. REFERENCES ground on lightning-induced voltages on overhead lines," IEEE Trans.

Electromagn. Compat., vol. 38, no. 3, pp.250-264, Aug.1996.

[1] A. Borghetti, F. Napolitano, C. A. Nucci, and F. Tossani, [21] H.K. Hidalen; Analytical formulation of lightning-induced voltages on

"Advancements in insulation coordination for improving lightning multiconductor overhead lines above lossy ground; IEEE Transactions

performance of distribution lines," Int. Symp. on Lightning Protection on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 45, no 1, pp. 92-100, 2003.

(XIII SIPDA), Balnerio Cambori, Brazil, Sept.-Oct., 2015. [22] J.R. Wait, "Transient fields of a vertical dipole over homogeneous

[2] A. Borghetti, F. Napolitano, C.A. Nucci, and F. Tossani, "Influence of curved ground", Can. J. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 27-35, 1956.

the return stroke current waveform on the lightning performance of [23] A. Greenwood, "Electrical Transients in Power SystemsSection 2.6:

distribution lines", IEEE Trans. on Power Delvery, in print. Duhamels IntegralResponse of a Circuit to an Arbitrary Stimulus,"

[3] F. Tossani, A. Borghetti, F. Napolitano, A. Piantini, and C.A. Nucci, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 1971, pp. 2731.

"Lightning performance of overhead power distribution lines in urban [24] F. Heidler, Analitische blitzstromfunktion zur LEMP-berechnung,

areas", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, in print. presented at the 18th Int. Conf. Lightning Protection, Munich,

[4] S. Rusck, Induced lightning over-voltages on power transmission lines Germany,1985.

with special reference to the over-voltage protection of low-voltage [25] V. Cooray, Propagation effects due to finitely conducting ground on

networks, Ph.D. dissertation, Royal Inst. Technol., Stockholm, Sweden, lightning-generated magnetic fields evaluated using Sommerfelds

1957. integrals. IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Comp., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 526-531

[5] M. Darveniza, A practical extension of Ruscks formula for maximum Aug. 2009.

lightning-induced voltages that accounts for ground resistivity, IEEE

Trans. Power Delivery., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 605612, Jan. 2007.

[6] J. O. S. Paulino, C. F. Barbosa, C.; I. J. S. Lopes, W. C. Boaventura; An

Approximate formula for the peak value of lightning-induced voltages in

overhead lines. IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 25, no.2, April

2010, pp. 843-851.

[7] J.O.S. Paulino, C.F. Barbosa, C.; I.J.S. Lopes, W.C. Boaventura.; The

peak value of lightning-induced voltages in overhead lines considering

the ground resistivity and typical return stroke parameters," IEEE Trans.

on Power Delivery, vol. 26, no.2, pp. 920-927, April 2011.

[8] Qilin Zhang, Liang Zhang, Xiao Tang, and Jinge Gao, "An approximate

formula for estimating the peak value of lightning-induced overvoltage

considering the stratified conducting ground," IEEE Trans. on Power

Delivery, vol. 29, no. 2, April 2014.

[9] M. E. M. Rizk, F. Mahmood, M. Lehtonen, E. A. Badran, and

M. H. Abdel-Rahman, "Computation of peak lightning-induced voltages

due to the typical first and subsequent return strokes considering high

ground resistivity," IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, in print.

[10] J. O. S. Paulino, C. F. Barbosa, I. J. S. Lopes, and G. C. Miranda,

"Time-domain analysis of rocket-triggered lightning-induced surges on

an overhead line", IEEE Trans. on EMC, vol. 51, no. 3, Part II,

Aug.2009.

[11] C. F. Barbosa; J. O. S. Paulino, "An approximate time domain formula

for the calculation of the horizontal electric field from lightning," IEEE

Trans. on Electromag. Comp. vol.49, pp. 593-601, Aug. 2007.

[12] C. F. Barbosa and J. O. S. Paulino, "A time-domain formula for the

horizontal electric field at the earth surface in the vicinity of lightning,"

IEEE Trans. EMC, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 640-645, Aug. 2010.

[13] V. Cooray, Horizontal electric field above and underground produced

by lightning flashes, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 52, no. 4,

pp. 936943, Nov. 2010.

[14] J. O. S. Paulino, C. F. Barbosa, W. C. Boaventura, "Effect of the surface

impedance on the induced voltages in overhead lines from nearby

lightning", IEEE Trans. on Electromag. Comp., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 749-

754, Aug. 2011.

[15] M. E. M. Rizk, F. Mahmood, M. Lehtonen, E. A. Badran, M. H. Abdel-

Rahman, "Influence of highly resistive ground parameters on lightning-

induced overvoltages using 3-D FDTD method," IEEE Trans. on

Electromag. Comp., vol 58, no. 3, June 2016.

[16] J.O.S. Paulino, C.F. Barbosa, I.J.S. Lopes, and W.C. Boaventura,

"Assessment and analysis of indirect lightning performance of overhead

lines," Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 118, pp. 55-61, 2014.

[17] A. Borghetti, C. A. Nucci, and M. Paolone, An improved procedure for

the assessment of overhead line indirect lightning performance and its

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