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D a n i e l K r i e ge r
J A P A N

Teaching
ESLVersus EFL
P RINCIPLES
AND
PRACTICES
A S A TEACHER OF ENGLISH, I HAVE HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO TEACH IN BOTH

English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Foreign Language (EFL)

contexts. I have found that they are quite distinct, requiring the teacher to

approach classes differently. The need for different approaches stems from the

fact that in an ESL setting the class is usually multilingual and living in the cul-

ture of the target language, whereas in the EFL setting the class is usually mono-

lingual and living in their own country. Brown (2001, 116) says that it is use-

ful to consider the pedagogical implications for a continuum of contexts ranging

from high visibility, ready access to the target language outside the language

classroom to no access beyond the classroom door. In each case, different

resources can be exploited to meet the students needs. This article examines

how the use of these resources affects four areas of teaching: the motivation level

of the students, activity selection, the use of the students native language (L1)

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in the classroom, and ways to approach L1 English is relevant to their daily lives. By being
and target language (L2) culture. I examine in the target language community, they have
these particular aspects of teaching because of more opportunity to use English and see imme-
their practical significance; each addresses diate results from using it. The typical students
issues that will assist the teacher in creating the in my ESL classes wanted to learn English for
optimal space for learning in a variety of con- personal reasons, such as to communicate with
texts. In looking at these issues, I reference my a variety of people from other countries, or
teaching experiences as I transitioned from a they wanted to learn the language for profes-
multilingual class in San Francisco, California, sional reasons, perhaps to get a better job. By
to a monolingual class in Japan. contrast, many of my EFL students lack the
opportunity to experience English in their
Student motivation daily lives, and, although they may want to
A framework learn it for the same reasons as those of ESL stu-
Student motivation has been analyzed and dents, their motivation level can suffer when
categorized in a variety of ways, yet the effect application in daily life is minimal. In the ESL
that it has on teaching and learning remains context, many students had higher integrative
elusive because motivation is quite challenging motivation, which Irie (2003, 88) describes as
to measure and harness. One useful framework a desire to assimilate into the target language
for talking about motivation posits that there community. Whether or not they want to
are two main kinds: extrinsic motivation, which assimilate, many of these students have a need
stems from a desire for an external reward, and to improve their English in order to function in
intrinsic motivation, which consists of learning an English-speaking country. Some of the stu-
for personal reasons as an end in itself (Harmer dents I encountered in a language school and at
1991). But the dichotomy between the two a university in San Francisco were learning Eng-
types of motivation is not simple. According lish because of their desire to stay in the United
to Brown (2001, 75), intrinsic/extrinsic moti- States. In addition to integrative motivation,
vation designates a continuum of possibilities of many of these students have what Irie (2003)
intensity of feeling or drive, ranging from calls instrumental motivation, whichlike
deeply internal, self generated rewards to strong, extrinsic motivationstems from a desire to
externally administered rewards from beyond gain benefits, such as getting a better job or
oneself. Research has shown that students in passing an exam.
ESL versus EFL classrooms can be characterized Which motivation is most desirable? If stu-
as having different levels of motivation, which dents are motivated extrinsically versus intrin-
could in turn affect how a teacher approaches sically, do the learning results differ?
these contexts. Theory into practice
ESL versus EFL student motivation According to Brown (2001, 76), a con-
In an EFL setting, intrinsic motivation can vincing stockpile of research on motivation
be low, and English may not seem relevant to strongly favors intrinsic drives. He cites the
the students since it is not part of their daily research of Piaget, Maslow, and Bruner to sup-
lives. In many cases, they may be required to port the claim that intrinsic motivation is
study English for a test or because it is a com- more powerful. Indeed, all of these researchers
pulsory part of the curriculum (Brown 2001). make the case that the intrinsic drive stems
Also, EFL settings often involve large classes from a profound human psychological need to
and limited contact hours, which makes learn- grow. If so, teachers need to know how to
ing English an apparently insurmountable chal- apply this knowledge. They can begin by tak-
lenge (Rose 1999). What options does a teacher ing the students motivation profile into
have when his or her high school or university account when they design a class and can then
class consists of 30 to 50 students and meets find ways to boost motivation when they per-
once a week for 90 minutes? Such a course, ceive it is lacking. Age is one factor that can
common in compulsory English study, simply inform a motivation profile. With children
does not offer enough exposure to the language. younger than twelve, for whom language
In an ESL classroom, students are likely to learning may come more easily, intrinsic drive
have a higher intrinsic motivation because can be harnessed if good strategies are used to

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hold their attention. Children can be content Activity selection


to study English for its own sake if learning it In considering what activities are appropri-
is fun and engages them. However, many ate for ESL classrooms, I will use as a model an
older students, especially EFL students, may Oral Communication/Conversation class in-
not care if they learn English if they perceive it formed by communicative language teaching.
as having no practical significance in their life. This class is commonly found in language
Because such students are statistically less like- schools and at the university level, both in the
ly to be motivated intrinsically to learn Eng- United States and abroad.
lish, teachers need to use intrinsically motivat- Principles for selecting ESL
ing techniques. These include helping students classroom activities
see the uses for English in their lives, present- In an ESL classroom, the teacher can use
ing them with reasonable challenges, giving the multilingual nature of the class as a
them feedback that requires them to act, play- resource in a variety of ways. The fact that the
ing down the role of tests, and appealing to students come from different countries be-
their genuine interests (Brown 2001). By tun- comes a natural information gap, which can
ing in to what the students are interested in, be filled by a variety of question-and-answer
the teacher is more likely to stimulate them to and discussion activities about the students
respond favorably to activities. Moreover, by countries. I have observed students gain a sense
giving them choices in how they approach of confidence when they talk about something
activities, the teacher can help them direct their about which they are authorities, such as their
own learning, pursue their preferred learning own country. They can also do presentations
style, or simply talk about what they want to to teach classmates about their culture. Stu-
talk about. Of course, these tips apply to any dents are often quite eager to participate in
teaching scenario, but it is in an EFL context such presentations. I once had a student from
that the teacher may need to make a more con- the Congo who astounded everyone with the
scious effort to stimulate intrinsic motivation. cultural features that he presented. The ESL
On the other hand, these same EFL stu- context requires students to use only English
dents who lack intrinsic motivation may have when they are speaking to students who do not
high extrinsic and instrumental motivation if share their language. In fluency practice activ-
their education system emphasizes the extrinsic
ities, the teacher can rest assured that the stu-
reward of high test scores. These forms of moti-
dents will not resort to their native language.
vation, while perhaps not as good as intrinsic
Task-based problem-solving activities are espe-
motivation, can still inspire students to work
cially useful in this case because they engage
hard under certain circumstances. For exam-
the learners linguistically and cognitively and
ple, in my university classroom in Japan, the
require them to negotiate a solution entirely in
students frequently speak Japanese for conver-
English. This classroom scenario also gives the
sation activities in spite of my efforts to con-
teacher an opportunity to sometimes focus
vince them to use English. However, when they
more intensively on accuracy in speaking be-
know they are being evaluated on their oral
cause many of the students have ample oppor-
speechthe main criterion being that they
tunities for English fluency practice outside of
speak only Englishthey all do so, demon-
the class. The teacher can also structure specif-
strating the power of extrinsic motivation. Yet,
when we return to our normal class routine, ic tasks that require students to go out and use
they frequently resume speaking Japanese. Un- the resources of a native-speaking environment,
less the teacher can inspire it, in the EFL con- such as doing a scavenger hunt or language ex-
text there tends to be a lower incidence of change, or interviewing someone and then re-
intrinsic motivation. As Brown (2001) ob- porting back to the class.
served, if learners have the opportunity or de- Selecting EFL activities
sire to learn language for its own sake, such as In an EFL scenario, the teacher must deal
to become competent users of that language, with the fact that the students are probably
they will have a higher success rate in terms of not receiving any significant exposure to Eng-
long-term learning than if they are driven by lish outside of the classroom. In a survey of my
only external rewards. EFL students, 96 percent claimed they had no

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interactive exposure to English other than not be too cognitively demanding to man-
through movies and music. Although movies age in English.
and music can generate interest in the language be interesting to the students.
and provide useful input, they do not provide To meet these criteria, I often use games in
the negotiation that two-way communication which the rules require students to accomplish
entails. Because of this lack of opportunity to a task by speaking English only. Games pro-
speak English, teachers need to maximize flu- vide an organizational framework that makes
ency practice, getting the students to use the the activity more appealing and accessible to
language as much as possible in class and re- students. When the element of competition is
ducing emphasis on accuracy. To this end, introduced, tension is heightened by the urge
teachers need to be judicious in their selection to win. In a game scenario, students seem will-
of speaking activities to ensure that students ing to play by the stated rules; they are moti-
will use English. Activities that lack structure vated to use English because they are given a
or which fail to generate student interest inevi- compelling reason to do so. To further their
tably lead most students to abandon English. desire to use English, I tempt my students
Also, an activity that is interesting but too cog- with a prize, which can only be won if all of
nitively challenging to manage in English will the rules are followedthe most significant
cause most students to resort to their native being speaking English for the duration of the
language. I have witnessed this situation when game. More than 50 percent of my students
I gave my students the following prioritization responding to a questionnaire administered to
tasks, which had worked wonderfully in my determine their learning interests and prefer-
ESL class. ences indicated that they want to play English
Survival. Students working in pairs are games. I have heard teachers say of this prefer-
asked to choose six out of ten people from a ence for games that students just want to have
list to be the last survivors on earth. They must fun and dont really want to work. But I be-
discuss the qualities of each candidate, com- lieve it is possible for teachers to integrate fun
pare their importance, give opinions on the and work by carefully engineering activities to
candidates, and reach a consensus. When their achieve both. So I try to build a game structure
selection is completed, students compare their into activities whenever possible. This entails
choices with those of another pair. setting a time limit, clarifying the rules, some-
The Dinner Party. Students are asked to times giving prizes, and generating enthusiasm
make a seating arrangement for a dinner party to play. The next section describes some useful
based on descriptions of the personalities of games and why they work.
each of the invitees and relationships they have
Sample activities
with the other invitees.
In both cases, I observed that 22 pairs of Guess the Word. In this game, each student
students used Japanese to complete the task. is given five to ten cards, each of which has a
Many of them engaged quite enthusiastically word with several words beneath it. For exam-
in finding solutions to the problems and pre- ple, umbrellawet, rain, dry. The object is to
cisely because of the compelling quality of the get students to guess the word umbrella without
tasks, they discarded cumbersome English in using any of the words on the card, gestures,
favor of their mother tongue. (See Role-play or deictic clues. This game is good for vocab-
ulary review and fluency practiceactivating
and Conversation Line for tips on how to adapt
the English they already know.
these activities to make them work in a mono-
Information Gap Crossword Puzzles. Stu-
lingual classroom.)
dents working in pairs each get a copy of a
Criteria for selecting EFL classroom activities crossword puzzle. One student gets a copy
To best elicit English from students in an with all of the across answers written in and the
EFL monolingual class, an activity ought to: other student gets a copy with the down
have a visible, clear, and compelling answers. This activity is a variation on word
objective. guessing, in which one student helps another
have English use built into the logic of figure out what the missing word is. The first
the activity. pair to finish the crossword puzzle wins.

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These examples meet the above criteria: the laughing and having a good time. Because they
objectives are clear and easy to see, and the are constantly given a new partner, they are
tension makes it compelling. Since the object able to maintain English for the short duration
of the game is to complete the tasks in Eng- of each conversation and dont run out of things
lish, using the L1 becomes cheating. These to say. If the class has an odd number of stu-
activities do not require analysis, which would dents, it provides an opportunity for the teacher
encourage the students to fall back on their to join the line and talk one-on-one with many
L1. Lastly, the activities are interesting for the students. This activity is great for injecting
students because they are fun, and they give energy into the classroom. A conversation line
students a chance to use the English they can also be applied to activities like Survival or
know to fulfill the objective. Three other types The Dinner Party. Rather than doing the entire
of activities I recommend are described below. activity in fixed pairs, each student could do
Role-play. If well-designed, role-play gives one part of the activity with one partner for a
students a compelling reason to stick with few minutes and then go on to the next partner
English: they get involved in their role. Role- to discuss the next item. (At the end, they can
play encourages students to use their imagina- compare their final list in small groups.) Be-
tion, which for some can be quite liberating cause students have a greater likelihood of stick-
from the rigor of many analytic left brain ing with English when the exchange is brief,
classroom activities. Role-play can be used to they tend to speak more English.
improve Survival and The Dinner Party, the two Using Dice. Dice can be creatively applied
activities discussed earlier. In Survival charac- in a variety of ways, and students love using
ters can represent themselves, explaining why them. Sometimes, rather than giving students
the character should be chosen. In The Dinner a list of questions to discuss, the teacher can
Party, students acting as the characters can put each question in a box on a board game
make their own seating arrangements rather template (A free download can be found at:
than do the more challenging task of talking http://esl-lounge.com/board_games.html).
hypothetically about the characters. This Somehow, the act of rolling the dice and the
reduces the linguistic strain, and by having the resulting randomness of the questions make it
students assume the role of English-speaking more fun for students.
characters, builds English into the logic of the
Using the students L1
activity. Another way to ensure that students
do not lapse into their L1 is to put them into L1 in an ESL context
triads. While two students participate in the In the multilingual ESL context, there are
role-play, the third one has the task of monitor- several issues of concern. One is the teachers
ing English usage and keeping track of any L1 use of the L1 spoken by only some of the stu-
usage. The presence of an observer/enforcer can dents in the class. It is unlikely that the teacher
serve to remind students to proceed only in could speak all of the languages spoken by the
English. Another possibility is to give students students (I have had classes with as many as
a grade for their participation in the role-play. twelve L1s). But even if the teacher could, it
Conversation Line. Students face each would be burdensome to conduct the class
other in two parallel lines. They are given a using more than two languages, and using the
conversation task, such as a greeting followed L1 would detract from the English atmos-
by questions about the weekend (or anything phere of the classroom. Since the teacher is
relevant to that moment), which requires them supposed to be the model for English speak-
to talk for about two minutes. Using a stop- ing, interacting with some students using their
watch, the teacher instructs them to switch L1 can cause all students in the class to feel
every one to two minutes, at which point each that speaking English is not a high priority. I
student rotates one space clockwise. This goes myself have been guilty of this and I found
on for about 20 to 25 minutes, during which that it can alienate students who do not speak
each student talks to 10 to 15 students. What that L1. The point is, the teachers job is to
is noticeable is that some students begin to serve as a model of fairness and neutrality, and
depart from the conversation model and talk using only English is the surest way to achieve
to each other spontaneously in English, often this in a multilingual classroom.

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Regarding students use of their L1 in an concepts and 67 percent said that their L1 helps
ESL context, the teacher needs to establish rules them to feel less lost (Schweers 1999). My
at the beginning. In my class in San Francisco, experience in Japan has borne this out; my stu-
students often chose to sit next to their com- dents respond well when I use Japanese for clar-
patriots, and, naturally, they began speaking ification and to help lost students feel included.
their L1. In response to this, I always request- In the survey, Schweers asked teachers why
ed that students pair with someone who spoke they thought that L1 might be more effective
a language they do not speak. The rationale I than using English exclusively. Some of their
offered was, Not only is this good for Eng- responses were that L1 serves as additional in-
lish; it also gives you a chance to learn about put, is good for establishing rapport with stu-
another culture. This has always worked quite dents, and can be used to diminish the affront
well in my experience. Of course there were of a language being imposed upon them
times when I felt that students were using their (Schweers 1999). He noted that one teacher oc-
L1 in an appropriate wayusually when they casionally used a sentence or phrase in Spanish
were helping another student with a difficult to keep the students who do not understand
task requiring an explanation in the L1 or her every word on track as to what is happen-
when they were telling another student the ing in the lesson (Schweers 1999, 9). From all
equivalent word in the L1. of this, Schweers concluded that the pedagog-
L1 in an EFL context ical and affective benefits of L1 use justify its
The EFL context involves quite different limited and judicious use (Schweers 1999, 7).
issues regarding the use of the students L1. In He went on to say that recognizing and wel-
my training, I was always told that all classes coming their own language into the classroom
should be English-only. For an ESL teacher, as an expression of their own culture could be
this surely made sense. However, when I began one way of dispelling negative attitudes
teaching EFL, I started to use a little Japanese toward English and increasing receptivity to
in class, though with some trepidation. Per- learning the language (Schweers 1999, 8).
haps in recognition of this anxiety among EFL Some of my students have written that they
teachers who occasionally use the students L1 feel that English has been imposed upon them
in class, Auerbach (1993, 13) observed that the in an almost imperialistic way. By speaking
English-only axiom is so strong thatteachers their language, I validate it and show that Eng-
assigned a negative value to lapses into the L1, lish is not intrinsically better or superior in any
seeing them as failures or aberrations, a cause way, just necessary.
for guilt. I have since come to realize that the Tang (2002) conducted a similar study in
reasons for a strict English-only classroom China with Chinese speakers. In comparing
apply mostly to the ESL context. However, the results of her study to those of Schweers,
this imperative is still frequently enforced be- she said, Both studies indicate that the moth-
cause of a solid seeming rationale. As summa- er tongue was used by the majority of teachers
rized by Auerbach (1993, 1415), that ratio- investigated, and both students and teachers
nale is that the more students are exposed to responded positively toward its use (Tang
English, the more quickly they will learn; as 2002, 41). The research seems to show that
they hear and use English, they will internalize limited and judicious use of the mother tongue
it to begin to think in English; the only way in the English classroom does not reduce stu-
they will learn it is if they are forced to use it. dents exposure to English, she said, but
But several recent studies have shed new light rather can assist in the teaching and learning
on this issue. Schweers (1999) offers a com- process (Tang 2002, 41). These two studies
pelling argument for the validity of incorpo- convincingly show that it is a useful principle
rating the L1 into an EFL classroom. He sur- to work with the linguistic resources that are
veyed students and teachers at his Puerto Rican available, the L1 being the most significant
university and found that 88.7 percent of the one. Other researchers concur. Nunan and
students and 100 percent of the teachers felt Lamb (1996, as cited in Tang 2002) point out
that Spanish should be used in their English that, as a practical matter, EFL teachers in
classes. Eighty-six percent of the students felt monolingual classrooms find it impossible to
that their L1 should be used to explain difficult prohibit the use of L1. Rose (1999, 169) sug-

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gests that the L1 and L2 be used side by side: so that they have the tools to use such knowl-
In an EFL setting there is the possibility of an edge, should they desire (1999, 160). In
in-depth comparison between learners L1 and addition, the ESL scenario provides a great
English, which can be helpful in clarifying dif- opportunity for students to teach their class-
ficult points such as grammar, vocabulary, mates about their culture as cultural ambas-
pragmatics, and cultural subtleties. Students sadors. So the class becomes a world culture
have told me that they appreciate my using learning experience, with an emphasis on com-
their language because it makes comprehension paring cultures. Students are very much inter-
easier for them. In an EFL class the teacher can ested in such an exchange. It is the teachers job
exploit the linguistic homogeneity of the stu- to organize it. As Matikainen and Duffy point
dents as a valuable resource. out, learning about cultural diversity provides
My personal experience has confirmed that students with knowledge and skills for more
students will use their L1 whether teachers per- effective communication in intercultural situa-
mit it or not. The goal of the teacher is to tions (2000, 40). Many students are learning
organize and structure L1 usage so that it can English for precisely that reason. Indeed, many
be used only in pedagogically beneficial ways. of my students have indicated that they want
It is the teachers job to try to preempt L1 usage to learn English in order to communicate with
that does not serve some purpose by making foreigners from all over the world.
absolutely clear what constitutes acceptable L1 Culture in the EFL context
usage and what does not. The EFL setting raises questions about what
culture to focus on. Clearly, the L1 culture
Culture in the classroom
ought to be incorporated into the curriculum
In recent years, culture has become a much- because it is useful for students to reflect on
discussed topic in English language teaching their own culture and be able to explain vari-
discourse. Questions such as how to teach cul- ous features of it to others. Straub (1999, 3)
ture, whose culture to teach, the relationship recommends that students begin with their
between language and culture, and what con- own culture to raise the participants aware-
stitutes culture have fueled considerable re- ness that they are members of a particular cul-
search. Surely, the way culture is approached in ture. By exploring their own culture, students
ESL classes differs considerably from the way it acquire the vocabulary with which to describe
is approached in EFL classes. values, expectations, behaviors, traditions,
Culture in the ESL context customs, rituals, forms of greeting, cultural
In the ESL context, the target language cul- signs, and identity symbols familiar to them.
ture is significant for students because of its When we discuss common cultural reference
presence in their daily lives. With an increased points, my EFL students are often surprised at
awareness of the target language culture, stu- the kinds of things that constitute culture
dents are better prepared to manage their because they believe that the features of their
engagement with native speakers. Content culture are not culture but rather just the
classes that teach students about the culture in way things are.
which they are living serve students well and What about the L2 culture? True, the stu-
are generally advocated by ESL teachers. dents are learning English, but the question
Assuming that the majority of ESL students remains, which culture should represent the
have a high integrative motivation, teaching English-speaking culture? Nowadays, English
them about the target language culture would as a Foreign Language is regarded as English as
meet their needs. For example, pragmatic com- an International Language (EIL), thereby
petence in this scenario is significant because complicating the question of what constitutes
the students will most likely need to interact the target culture. McKay states that in an
with native speakers. Judd, in a discussion of EIL scenario, non-native speakers do not need
how necessary native-speaker pragmatic knowl- to acquire the culture of native speakers of
edge is, says that some students may need and English because they will not be living and
want to adapt to native-speaker norms. Thus, interacting in the native-English-speaking
it is incumbent on those of us teaching ESL to context (2003, 1). According to Smith
present pragmatic information to our students (1976, 1; as cited in McKay 2003), there is

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no necessity for L2 speakers to internalize the was taught that it is essential to get students
cultural norms of native speakers of that lan- orally producing the language as soon as pos-
guage [because] the purpose of teaching an sible. But I found that some of my low level
international language is to facilitate the com- university students in Japan are not ready for
munication of learners ideas and culture in an speech production, as evidenced by their re-
English medium. McKay (2003, 1) argues fusal to speak. It is impossible to force students
that if this is so, then the entire notion that to speak when they do not feel ready or able.
learners of EIL need to learn the culture of Ellis (1997, 20) points out that some L2
native speakers of Englishmust be chal- learnersundergo a silent period. That is, they
lenged. Instead, they need to be sensitized to make no attempt to say anything to begin with.
the practices of a variety of other cultures in They may be learning a lot about the language
order to develop their intercultural communi- just through listening to or reading it. As a
cation skills, something the teacher can foster teacher, I need to permit students to have a si-
by including activities in the curriculum that lent period and acknowledge that they still can
get students to reflect on their own culture and be learning English even when they are not
consider alternate views from other cultures. orally producing it. McKay (2003, 4) argues
Such activities can be found in many commu- that it is important when selecting a method-
nicatively-based textbooks and a new kind of ology for a particular context for teachers to
textbook that focuses exclusively on intercul- consider the local needs of the students rather
tural study. than assume that a method that is effective in
Culture and learning style one context is effective in all contexts. Ulti-
Another aspect of culture to take into mately, it is the teachers job to facilitate learn-
account in EFL and ESL settings is the learn- ing for a specific group of students, whatever
ing style of the students. For example, Japan- overhaul of methodology that may entail.
ese learners have been classified as reflective
Conclusion
learners, who are hesitant to speak, whereas
Brazilian students, according to this classifica- Analyzing the pedagogical implications of
tion system, would be impulsive learners transitioning from an ESL to an EFL teaching
(Gas and Selinger 2001, 173). In light of this environment sheds light on distinctions be-
analysis, it would behoove teachers to consider tween the two and various ways to approach
the learning styles of their students and adjust each. The most salient features from my expe-
their teaching practices accordingly, acknowl- riencestudent motivation, activity selection,
edging the reality of the students cultural cir- use of the students L1, and teaching cul-
cumstance. As Cortazzi and Lin (1999, 212) tureprovide a framework for examining the
explain it, the culture of learning that stu- insights I gained from teaching in San Fran-
dents and teachers bring to the classroom is a cisco and Japan. I feel that the classes I taught
taken-for-granted framework of expectations, in these areas provide apt contexts for this
attitudes, values, and beliefs about what con- kind of analysis because they each represent a
stitutes good learning. In an ESL context, microcosm of ESL and EFL classrooms and
unlike in EFL, the teacher does not have the expose some of the issues that teachers, wher-
luxury of being able to cater to one culture- ever they are, need to negotiate. Regarding
bound learning style. However, awareness of future research, it would be interesting to
the variety of learning styles can assist the examine a wider variety of ESL and EFL con-
teacher in relating to the students, adjusting texts to see if it is possible to generate teach-
expectations, and managing the class. This can ing principles that would provide a pedagogi-
be done, for example, by pairing students cal basis for the kinds of decisions teachers
together strategically so that the more reflec- need to make.
tive learners may benefit from interaction
References
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16 VOLUME 43 NUMBER 2 2005  E N G L I S H T E A C H I N G F O R U M