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ME 678: Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics

Problem Set 1: Introduction

1. Figure 1 shows the velocity profiles at two axial locations, one before and one after a solid
cylinder immersed in a uniform flow with velocity U . Assume constant density steady
flow, and uniform pressure everywhere. Determine the drag force on the cylinder per unit
length (into the plane of the paper).
U

h/2
11111
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11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
U 00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
h/2

Figure 1: Schematic for Problem 1

2. Figure 2 shows a simple schematic of a jet pump. A high speed jet (J) is introduced in
a relatively low speed pipe flow (S). The areas of cross-section for the pipe and the jet
are given (Ap and Aj , say). The velocities of the jet flow and the pipe flow are given (Vj
and V1 , say). Assume both the jet and the pipe to have water flow (constant density).
Assume steady operation, uniform velocity profiles everywhere, uniform pressure profiles
in section 1 and section 2. Neglect frictional force between the fluid and the pipe wall.
Determine the pressure change (p2 p1 ). Using some typical values of velocities and areas
of cross-section, verify that this is a pressure rise.
1 2

Figure 2: Schematic for Problem 2

3. Figure 3 shows a simple schematic of a sluice gate that is used to regulate the flow of water
from a reservoir 10 m deep. The velocity of flow in section 1 is 0.2 m/s (in the positive
x-direction), and that in section 2 is 5 m/s. Assume steady flow, uniform velocities in
sections 1 and 2. Determine the force (per unit length into the plane of the paper) required
to hold the gate in place. Note: recall hydrostatic pressure distribution.
1

Sluice gate

Water
reservoir
10 m

Ground level

Figure 3: Schematic for Problem 3

4. A gas flow enters a 2 cm diameter circular tube at a uniform velocity of 1 cm/s and
density 0 . At a cross-section farther down the tube, the axial velocity distribution of the
velovity is given by "  2 #
r
V = U0 1 ,
R
with r in cm and R being the radius of the tube cross-section. If the density in this
cross-section is given by "  2 #
r
0 1 + ,
R
determine the force exerted by the gas flow on the tube over the length of interest.

5. A curved nozzle assembly that discharges to the atmosphere is as shown (Figure 4). The
nozzle mass is 4.5 kg and its internal volume is 0.002 m3 . The fluid is water. Determine
the force required to be employed to the nozzle to maintain its position.

Figure 4: Schematic for Problem 5

6. Consider the energy equation in the integral form:


d Z Z
~ ~
Z Z
e dV + e(V dA) = qv dV + pV~ dA,
~
dt V A V A

where the symbols used are as defined in class. For steady 1-dimensional flow (i.e., with
one inlet and one outlet for the control volume of interest, with the velocities in the inlet
and outlet sections uniform and normal to the respective areas of cross-section), simplify
the above form to obtain
V2 V2
! !
h+ + gz = h+ + gz + q,
2 o
2 i

where h is the enthalpy, the subscripts o and i stand for outlet and inlet, respectively,
and R
qv dV
q= V ,
m
where m is the steady mass flow rate through the control volume and q will be in the
units of J/kg, and can be interpreted as the heat added to the fluid as it flows from the
inlet to the outlet, per kg of the fluid.

7. Air enters a handheld hair dryer with a velocity of 3 m/s at a temperature of 20o C and
a pressure of 101 kPa. The airstream exits through an area of 20 cm2 with a velocity of
10 m/s at a temperature of 80o C. Assume that the pressure changes in the path of the
airstream are negligible and that heat transfer to the surroundings is negligible as well.
Determine the power needed to operate the hair dryer at steady state.

8. Starting from
De
= qv p V~ ,
Dt
using continuity and definition of enthalpy, obtain the following form of the thermal
energy equation for inviscid compressible flow:
Dh Dp
= qv + .
Dt Dt

9. Show that the thermal energy equation in an inviscid adiabatic compressible flow is equiv-
alent to !
D p
= 0.
Dt
How would you interpret this equation?

10. In general, the enthalpy h = h(p, T ). However, if p = RT , it can be shown that h = h(T )
alone. To show this, start from
T ds = dh vdp.
Then, by considering s = s(p, T ) and h = h(p, T ), show that

s 1 h
= ,
T T T
!
s 1 h
= v .
p T p
By eliminating s from these equations and utilizing p = RT , show that h/p = 0, so
that h = h(T ) follows.