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1 views3 pagesNormal shock fluids

Sep 22, 2017

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Normal shock fluids

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Normal shock fluids

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1. Figure 1 shows the velocity profiles at two axial locations, one before and one after a solid

cylinder immersed in a uniform flow with velocity U . Assume constant density steady

flow, and uniform pressure everywhere. Determine the drag force on the cylinder per unit

length (into the plane of the paper).

U

h/2

11111

00000

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11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

U 00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

h/2

2. Figure 2 shows a simple schematic of a jet pump. A high speed jet (J) is introduced in

a relatively low speed pipe flow (S). The areas of cross-section for the pipe and the jet

are given (Ap and Aj , say). The velocities of the jet flow and the pipe flow are given (Vj

and V1 , say). Assume both the jet and the pipe to have water flow (constant density).

Assume steady operation, uniform velocity profiles everywhere, uniform pressure profiles

in section 1 and section 2. Neglect frictional force between the fluid and the pipe wall.

Determine the pressure change (p2 p1 ). Using some typical values of velocities and areas

of cross-section, verify that this is a pressure rise.

1 2

3. Figure 3 shows a simple schematic of a sluice gate that is used to regulate the flow of water

from a reservoir 10 m deep. The velocity of flow in section 1 is 0.2 m/s (in the positive

x-direction), and that in section 2 is 5 m/s. Assume steady flow, uniform velocities in

sections 1 and 2. Determine the force (per unit length into the plane of the paper) required

to hold the gate in place. Note: recall hydrostatic pressure distribution.

1

Sluice gate

Water

reservoir

10 m

Ground level

4. A gas flow enters a 2 cm diameter circular tube at a uniform velocity of 1 cm/s and

density 0 . At a cross-section farther down the tube, the axial velocity distribution of the

velovity is given by " 2 #

r

V = U0 1 ,

R

with r in cm and R being the radius of the tube cross-section. If the density in this

cross-section is given by " 2 #

r

0 1 + ,

R

determine the force exerted by the gas flow on the tube over the length of interest.

5. A curved nozzle assembly that discharges to the atmosphere is as shown (Figure 4). The

nozzle mass is 4.5 kg and its internal volume is 0.002 m3 . The fluid is water. Determine

the force required to be employed to the nozzle to maintain its position.

d Z Z

~ ~

Z Z

e dV + e(V dA) = qv dV + pV~ dA,

~

dt V A V A

where the symbols used are as defined in class. For steady 1-dimensional flow (i.e., with

one inlet and one outlet for the control volume of interest, with the velocities in the inlet

and outlet sections uniform and normal to the respective areas of cross-section), simplify

the above form to obtain

V2 V2

! !

h+ + gz = h+ + gz + q,

2 o

2 i

where h is the enthalpy, the subscripts o and i stand for outlet and inlet, respectively,

and R

qv dV

q= V ,

m

where m is the steady mass flow rate through the control volume and q will be in the

units of J/kg, and can be interpreted as the heat added to the fluid as it flows from the

inlet to the outlet, per kg of the fluid.

7. Air enters a handheld hair dryer with a velocity of 3 m/s at a temperature of 20o C and

a pressure of 101 kPa. The airstream exits through an area of 20 cm2 with a velocity of

10 m/s at a temperature of 80o C. Assume that the pressure changes in the path of the

airstream are negligible and that heat transfer to the surroundings is negligible as well.

Determine the power needed to operate the hair dryer at steady state.

8. Starting from

De

= qv p V~ ,

Dt

using continuity and definition of enthalpy, obtain the following form of the thermal

energy equation for inviscid compressible flow:

Dh Dp

= qv + .

Dt Dt

9. Show that the thermal energy equation in an inviscid adiabatic compressible flow is equiv-

alent to !

D p

= 0.

Dt

How would you interpret this equation?

10. In general, the enthalpy h = h(p, T ). However, if p = RT , it can be shown that h = h(T )

alone. To show this, start from

T ds = dh vdp.

Then, by considering s = s(p, T ) and h = h(p, T ), show that

s 1 h

= ,

T T T

!

s 1 h

= v .

p T p

By eliminating s from these equations and utilizing p = RT , show that h/p = 0, so

that h = h(T ) follows.

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