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ME 678: Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics

Problem Set 3: One-dimensional Wave Phenomena - II

1. We saw that for a small amplitude r-running wave


u a
= .

In the case of a finite amplitude wave, the above relation is written in terms of the local quantities
as
du a
= .
d
Using this, show that the momentum equation for one-dimensional unsteady inviscid compress-
ible flow, under isentropic conditions, can be written as
u u
+ (u + a) = 0.
t x
(Youll need to express p/x in the monentum equation in terms of u/x). Verify that the
solution u = f [x (u + a)t] satisfies this form of the momentum equation, thereby establishing
the wave-like nature of the solution. Here f is an arbitrary function.

2. Another way of working out the wave-like solution behavior is by showing that the one-dimensional
unsteady equations of motion for an inviscid compressible flow can be recast in the following
forms:
2 a a u
 
+u +a = 0,
1 t x x
and
u u 2a a
+u + = 0.
t x 1 x
Adding and subtracting the above two equations, show that we get
2a
  
+ (u + a) u+ = 0,
t x 1
and
2a
  
+ (u a) u = 0.
t x 1
Comparing with the corresponding results from the small amplitude wave analysis, deduce the
Riemann invariants for the finite amplitude waves and their respective characteristics.

3. The behavior of finite amplitude waves can be described using the Lagrangian/substantial deriva-
tive of the steepness of the wavefront, u/x. In particular, show that
2
D u +1 u
   
= .
Dt x 2 x

Integrate the above w.r.t. time (i.e., in the Lagrangian sense) and obtain the expression for the
steepness at a time t in terms of its value at t = 0. Then determine the time required for the
steepness to become infinity. In the process, show that the initial steepness must be negative for
a shock to form.
4. A shock wave across which the pressure ratio is 1.15 moves down a duct into still air at a pressure
of 50 kPa and a temperature of 30 o C. Find the temperature and velocity behind the shock wave.
If instead of being at rest, the air ahead of the shock wave is moving toward the shock wave
at a velocity of 100 m/s, what is the velocity of air behind the shock wave? Assume the shock
pressure ratio to be equal to 1.15 in the second case as well.

5. A normal shock wave moves at 600 m/s down a tube (in +xdirection) containing air at 50
kPa and 300 K. It collides with a piston which is moving at 50 m/s towards the shock wave,
i.e., in xdirection. After collision, the piston keeps moving at 50 m/s as before (in the
xdirection). Determine the pressure and temperature just ahead of the piston face after the
collision. Neglect any wave generation due to the initial piston motion. In other
words, the shock wave does not encounter any kind of wave until it collides with
the piston.

6. Using Riemann invariants, obtain the expressions for the property ratios across a right-running
centered expansion wave. Write the expression for the velocity u as a function of x and t for this
case. Denote the conditions ahead of the head of the wave by (assumed to be quiescent).

7. Complete the derivation of the shock tube problem to arrive at the relation between the di-
aphragm pressure ratio and the shock pressure ratio.

8. Consider a simple shock tube containing air everywhere. The initial pressures in the driver and
driven sections are 300 kPa and 30 kPa respectively, and the initial temperature in both sections
is 15 o C. After the diaphragm ruptures, determine the pressure and velocity across the contact
discontinuity.

9. A shock wave across which the pressure ratio is 1.45 moves down a duct into still air at a pressure
of 100 kPa and a temperature of 20 o C. If the end of the duct is closed, find the pressure acting
on it after the shock reflects.

10. Consider a shock tube containing air. The contact discontinuity moves at 542 m/s in the +X
direction. The initial conditions in the driven section are 100 kPa and 30 o C.

(a) Determine the initial driver pressure. Initial temperture in the driver is 30 o C.
(b) Determine the time at which the reflected shock off the end wall of the shock tube meets
the contact discontinuity. If required, assume the length of the driven section to be 8 m.

11. Consider a horizontal tube filled with a gas at pressure p1 (higher than the ambient pressure pa )
and at a temperature T1 . The tube is initially sealed at both ends.

(a) At t = 0, say, the right end of the tube is suddenly opened. Assuming that the pressure at
the right end immediately falls to pa , determine the expression for the velocity of discharge
of air from the tube. Hence determine the maximum velocity of discharge of the gas.
(b) Sketch an x t diagram showing the state of the system at a time t > 0.
(c) Consider a tube 4 m long with air filled at a pressure of 200 kPa and a temperature of 30 o C.
The ambient pressure is 103 kPa. At t = 0, the right end of the tube is suddenly opened.
Determine the time when the left end feels the effect of this opening. At t = 0.001 s, the
opened right end is suddenly closed. Show the state of affairs in the tube at t = 0.0012 s
on the x t diagram.

12. Consider air flowing at a speed of 100 m/s in a 5 cm diameter horizontal tube. The air flow is
from left to right. At a given location in the tube, the pressure is 200 kPa and temperature is 40
o C. At time t = 0, say, a gate valve (essentially of the same diameter of the tube) instantaneously

closes at this location. Determine the force on the valve immediately after it is closed.

13. A piston is impulsively accelerated to a final speed of 150 m/s in a long horizontal tube filled
with Argon (Molecular weight 40) at 300 K. The motion of the piston is from left to right. As
a result of the piston motion, an expansion wave is created. Let 1 denote conditions to the left
of the head of the expansion wave, and 2 denote the conditions to the right of the tail of the
expansion wave. After traveling a distance L, the piston is suddenly stopped. Let 3 denote the
conditions on the left face of the piston after it is stopped. Determine p3 /p1 .

14. Consider a 20 m long horizontal tube containing air at 101 kPa and 300 K. The left end of the
tube is rigidly closed. At t = 0, a piston is instantaneously accelerated to a final velocity of 600
m/s, starting at the right end of the tube and moving toward the closed left end. When the
piston reaches a distance of 15 m from the right end, it is brought to rest instantaneously, and
it remains at rest thereafter.

(a) Plot the pressure history (pressure vs. time) at the closed left end of the tube for the time
the piston is in motion.
(b) Determine the pressure just to the left of the piston immediately after it comes to rest.
(c) Determine the final pressure in the tube between the piston and the closed left end a long
time after the piston has come to rest.

15. A normal shock of Mach number 2 moves along a horizontal tube (from left to right). The
conditions ahead of the moving shock are 101 kPa and 300 K, and the fluid is air. The right end
of the tube is open to atmosphere (101 kPa, 300 K).

(a) After the shock passes by the open end, determine the mass flux of the air discharged from
the tube. Assume that the conditions at the open end always remain at the atmospheric
values.
(b) A pressure sensor is embedded in the tube wall 2 m upstream of the open end. Denoting
the time t = 0 when the initial shock passes by the sensor, draw the pressure-time history
recorded by the sensor from t = 2 ms to t = 50 ms. Mark all important times on the plot.
Assume that the tube is very long in the x direction.

16. Consider a 20 m long horizontal shock tube containing air everywhere. The driven section of
the tube is between x = 0 and x = 15 m, with the diaphragm at x = 15 m. A shock wave with
a Mach number of 2 is launched in the driven section when the diaphragm is broken. Assume
the initial conditions in the driven section to be 1 atm and 300 K. The initial temperature in
the driver section is also 300 K. After the shock wave passes by the x = 5 m location, a metal
partition is instantaneously inserted at x = 5 m location.
(a) Determine the pressure and temperature in all regions of interest after the diaphragn is
broken.
(b) Assuming that t = 0 corresponds to the insertion of the partition, draw the x t diagram
for t 0. Show only the waves generated after the partition is inserted. Mention on the
x t diagram the velocities in the various regions of interest.
(c) Determine if the waves generated at t = 0 will overtake the waves initially present in the
tube, or if the initial waves will reflect first off the end walls.
(d) Determine the pressure on either side of the partition immediately after it is inserted.

17. Consider a horizontal tube (10 cm diameter, 4 m length) filled with air at a pressure of 200
kPa and a temperature of 30 0 C. The ambient pressure and temperature are 103 kPa and 30
0 C, respectively. At t = 0, the right end of the tube is suddenly opened, and at t = 0.01 s,

it is suddenly closed. Assume that when the right end is opened at t = 0, the pressure there
instantaneously falls to the ambient value.

(a) Determine (or at least clearly outline the procedure to determine) the pressure at the right
end (facing inside the tube) shortly after the end is closed at t = 0.01 s.
(b) Long time after the right end is closed at t = 0.01 s, determine the steady state pressure in
the tube.

18. Consider two separate piston-induced motions as described below:

(a) A long horizontal tube contains stationary air at 1 atm (101 kPa) and 300 K. A thin piston
is situated at a certain location at t = 0. At t = 0, the piston is accelerated instantaneously
to a final terminal velocity of 122 m/s, and is set in motion in the +X direction. Determine
the pressures and temperatures on the right and left faces of the piston.
(b) A very long horizontal tube contains stationary gas at the conditions . Starting at time
zero, a piston is given a displacement xp = +ct2 , where c is a positive constant. Determine
the pressure p on the left face of the piston in terms of the given quantities. For the purpose
of analysis assume that all C+ characteristics intersect the piston path for the time period
of consideration.

19. A shock tube has an open-ended driver section that contains air at 101 kPa, with its open end
exposed to ambient air at atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa. After installing the diaphragm, the
driven section is evacuated to a certain pressure below atmospheric. A shock wave with Mach
number 2 is launched into the driven section after the diapgram is ruptured. The pressure at
the open end of the driver section can be assumed to remain always at 101 kPa. Determine
the velocity (inflow or outflow) at the open end of the driver after the initial expansion wave
completes its reflection at the open end.

20. Consider a tube of diameter 10 cm. The right end of the tube is rigidly closed. A piston is at
the left end. Initially air at 101 kPa and 300 K exists inside the tube (between the piston face
and the right end). The distance between the piston face and the right end of the tube is 3 m.
At t = 0, the piston is instantaneously accelerated to a terminal velocity corresponding to which
a shock wave with Mach number 1.18 is generated.
(a) Determine the pressure at the right end of the tube 10 ms after the piston launch. Is this
pressure equal to that acting on the piston face? If not, what is the pressure acting on the
piston face?
(b) Compare the pressure at the right end of the tube obtained in part (a) to what would
be achieved if the piston were compressing the air in an isentropic manner, assuming the
distance travelled by the piston to be the same as in part (a) (time required may not be
the same). Assume that during isentropic compression, the pressure inside the tube to be
uniform at any given instant of time.

21. Consider a horizontal tube of length 4 m containing air at 200 kPa and 30o C. Both ends of the
tube are closed initially. The ambient pressure is 100 kPa. At t = 0, both ends of the tube
are instantaneously opened, and the pressures at the two open ends fall to 100 kPa. Plot the
time-history of the velocity u and the temperature T at the mid-section of the tube. Use the
method of characteristics, and perform calculations till the interaction of the waves, generated
at the instant of the opening of the ends, is over. Use four (4) characteristics to represent an
expansion wave.