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Graphics & Multimedia - final yr IT

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MODEL EXAMINATION-I

Branch : IT Semester : VII

Duration : 3Hours Max marks : 100

1. What is the disadvantage of DDA Algorithm?

2. Mention the techniques used for producing color displays.

3. Mention the types of line caps.

4. Define tiling.

5. What is affine transformation? Give example.

6. What is vanishing point?

7. Define parallel projection.

8. What are called blobby objects? Give example.

9. What do you mean by the term chromaticity?

10.Define morphing.

Part - B (5 * 16 = 80)

(OR)

b) Explain two dimensional transformations in detail. (16)

12. a) Explain any one line drawing method with an example. (16)

(OR)

b)Explain Sutherland Hodgman algorithm for polygon clipping. (16)

(OR)

b)Explain midpoint ellipse algorithm in detail. (16)

(OR)

b) Explain HSV and HLS color model in detail. (16)

(OR)

b) Write short notes on

(i) Window to viewport coordinate transformation. (6)

(ii) Inside –Outside test (6)

(iii) Scan line polygon filling algorithm (4)

St.JOSEPH’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, CHENNAI-119.

MODEL EXAMINATION-I

Branch : IT Semester : VII

Duration : 3Hours Max marks : 100

Part - A (10 * 2 = 20)

1. What are the applications of Computer Graphics?

2. Mention the categories of flat panel displays.

3. Mention the methods for joining line segments.

4. Give the 2D transformation matrix for rotation.

5. Define clipping.

6. What are the various three dimensional methods?

7. Define perspective projection.

8. What is a spline?

9. What do you mean by color model?

10. What are complementary colors? Give example.

Part - B (5 * 16 = 80)

(ii) Write short notes input devices. (8)

(OR)

b) Explain midpoint circle generating algorithm. (16)

(OR)

b) Explain two dimensional translation and rotation in detail. (16)

(OR)

b) Explain filled area primitives in detail. (16)

14. a)Explain polygon surface and octree encodings in detail. (16)

(OR)

b)Explain any two color models in detail. (16)

(OR)

b) Write short notes on

(i) three dimensional display methods (4)

(ii) polygon clipping (4)

(iii) storage of color information (8)

SET –I

Part –A

1. (i) time consuming

can cause the calculated pixel position to drift away from the true line

path.

5. Affine transformation:

xI = axxx + axyy + bx

yI = ayxx + ayyy + by

2D display plane

8. Blobby objects

describing the color characteristics namely purity and dominant frequency

Part – B

11.a

CAD

circuits

(2)

Presentation graphics

and economic data for research reports, managerial and other

types of reports (2)

Computer art

using a stylus

(2)

Entertainment

music videos & T.V shows

(2)

systems

(simulators) (2)

Visualization

Scientific

Business (2)

Image processing

Used in robotics

(2)

ICON (2)

b.

Translation

Translation equation:

x I = x + tx yI = y + ty

Matrix equation:

PI = P + T

(4)

Rotation

• rotational angle Θ

xI = x Cos Θ – y Sin Θ

yI = x Sin Θ + y Cos Θ

PI = R.P

(4)

Scaling

& Sy

xI = x . Sx

yI = y . Sy

Uniform Scaling : Sx = Sy

Differential Scaling: Sx ≠ Sy

(4)

Reflection

axis. (2)

Shear

(2)

• Obtain the end points from the user

• Calculate ∆x, ∆y,2∆x,2∆y,2∆y-2∆x and obtain the decisive parameter P0 =2∆y-∆x

• At each xk along the line starting at k=0 , perform the following test

• If Pk < 0 , the next point to be plotted is (xk+1, yk ) &

Pk+1 = Pk + 2∆y

• If Pk > 0 , the next point to be plotted is (xk+1, yk +1) &

Pk+1 = Pk + 2∆y - 2∆x

• Repeat the above steps ∆x times (12)+(4)

b.

performed by processing polygon vertices against each clip rectangle boundary

Processing cases

1. First vertex is outside , Second is inside

add second vertex & intersection point of polygon edge with window

boundary to o/p vertex list (4)

2. If both vertices are inside

add the second vertex to o/p vertex list (4)

3. If the first vertex is inside ,second is outside (4)

save the edge intersection point with window boundary to o/p vertex list

4. If both vertices are outside

add nothing to o/p vertex list (4)

13.a

Every line endpoint is assigned a four digit binary code – region code

Region code identifies the location of the point relative to the boundaries of the

clipping rectangle

Bit 1 is set to 1 if x < xwmin

Bit 2 is set to 1 if x > xwmax

Bit 3 is set to 1 if y < ywmin

Bit 4 is set to 1 if y > ywmax (4)

Accept the lines whose both endpoints are having the region code 0000

Reject the lines whose endpoints have a 1 in the same bit position in the

region code

Lines that cannot be identified as completely inside or outside a clip

window are checked for intersection with window boundaries

Intersection with clipping boundary can be calculated using the slope

intercept form of the line equation. (8)

The intersection point with the vertical boundary is

y = y1 + m (x – x1 )

(2)

The intersection point with the horizontal boundary is

x = x1 + (y – y1) / m

(2)

b.

• Declare the necessary variables

• Obtain the center ,major and minor axes of the ellipse

• Determine the first point of the ellipse (0,ry)

• Calculate the decision parameter for the region as P10 = ry2 – rx2 ry + rx 2/4 (2)

• At each x starting from k =0 in region 1 perform the following test

If P < 0 the next point to be plotted is (x k+1, yk )and P1 k+1 = P1 k +2ry2 x k+1 +ry2

(2)

Else the next point to be plotted is (x ,y ) and P1 k+1 = P1 k +2ry2x k+1 – 2rx2y k+1 +ry2

(2)

Repeat for all k until 2 ry2x >= 2rx2y (2)

• For region 2 calculate decision parameters as P2 0 = ry (x + 1/2) +rx (y0- 1) 2 - rx2ry2

2 2 2

(2)

• At each position in region 2 starting from x = 0 for each xk perform the

following test

If P > 0 the next point to be plotted along the ellipse is (xk ,yk-1) and P2

2 2

k+1 = P2 k -2rx y k+1 + rx (2)

Else the next point to be plotted along the ellipse is (x , y) and P2 k+1 =

P2 k + 2ry2x k+1 – 2rx2y +rx2

(2)

• Determine the symmetry points in other three quadrants

• Repeat the steps for all regions until 2ry2x >= 2rx2y

(2)

14.a

• Parallel projection

parallel lines in world coordinate scenes are projected as parallel lines

in 2D display plane.

(3)

• Perspective projection

parallel lines that are not parallel to the display plane are projected

into converging lines.

(3)

• Depth Cueing

method to indicate the depth with wire frame display.

intensity of the objects are varied according to their distance from the

viewing position

(2)

• Visible line & surface identification

clarify depth relationships

highlight visible lines in a different color

non visible lines are displayed as dashed line

(2)

• Surface Rendering

sets the surface intensity of objects according to the lighting

conditions in the scene and according to assigned surface characteristics

(2)

• Exploded & cutaway views

show the internal structure and relationships of object parts

cut away view removes part of visible surfaces to show internal

structure

(2)

• 3 D & Stereoscopic view

obtained by reflecting a raster image from a vibrating flexible mirror

stereoscopic view provides separarte views for left eye & right eye (2)

b. HSV color model

color parameters are hue (H), saturation (S) and value(V)

3D representation(hexcone) derived from RGB cube

Origin black & Vertex white

Boundary of the hexagon represents various hues

Saturation is measured along horizontal axis, varies from 0 to 1

Value is measured along vertical axis , varies from 0 at the apex to 1 at the

top of the hexcone

Hue is represented as an angle varying from 0 to 360 degrees

Complementary colors are 180 degrees apart

Adding black decreases V while S is constant

Adding white decreases S while V is constant

(8)

HLS color model

Double cone representation

Color parameters are hue, lightness and saturation

Hue specifies angle

Complementary colors are 180 degrees apart

Vertical axis – lightness

L=0 represents black and L =1 represents white

S varies from 0 to 1

Increasing and decreasing L makes the color lighter and darker

Decreasing S moves the color toward gray

(8)

15.a

Polygon & Quadric surfaces

- Object descriptions are stored as sets of surface polygons

- The surfaces are described with linear equations

Polygon table

• data is placed into the polygon table for processing

• Polygon data table can be organised into two groups

geometric table

attribute table (4)

Spline surfaces

it is a composite curve formed with polynomial pieces satisfying a

specified continuity conditions at the boundary of the pieces

Control points

it is a set of point that indicate the general shape of the curve

• interpolation of control points

• approximation of control points

• convex hull

Parametric continuity conditions

Imposed at connection points to ensure smooth transitions from one

curve to another

Zero order parametric continuity

First order parametric continuity

Second order parametric continuity (4)

Fractal constructions & particle systems

Characteristics of fractal objects

• Infinite detail at every point

• Self similarity between object parts

Fractal Generation Procedure

Repeated application of a specified transformation function

to points within a region of space

Classification of fractals

• Self similar fractals

• Self affine fractals

• Self squaring fractals

• Self inverse fractals

(4)

Octree encodings

• divides 3D space into octants

• Stores 8 data elements in each node

• Individual elements of 3D space are called voxels

• If all voxels in an octant are of same type the value is stored in the corresponding data

element of the node

• Otherwise the octant is subdivided into octants & the corresponding data element in the

node points to the next node

• Each node can have 0 to 8 immediate descendants (4)

b.

(i)

Mapping a part of a world coordinate scene to device coordinates

(1)

2D viewing transformation pipeline

MC → WC → VC →NVC →DC

(1)

The mapping of a point at position P(xw , yw ) in window to viewport is given by

xv = xvmin + (xw – xwmin ).sx

(1)

yv = yvmin + (yw – ywmin ).sy

(1)

where

sx = xvmax – xvmin / xwmax – xwmin

(1)

sy = yvmax – yvmin / ywmax – ywmin

(1)

(ii)

Identifies the interior region of objects

Types of tests

odd – even rule

draw a line from a point to a distant point outside ,if the no. of edges crossed is odd the

point is interior otherwise the point is exterior (3)

non zero winding number rule

initialize winding number to 0 for each edge which crosses the line from right to left add

1 and for each edge crossing from left to right subtract 1 if winding no. is non zero the point

is inside otherwise it is outside (3)

(iii)

• locate the intersection points ( scanline with the polygon edges)

• Sort the points from left to right

• Set the frame buffer position between each intersection pair with the

specified color

(2)

Polygon and sorted edge table

• Non horizontal edges are sorted into an edge table

• Each entry in the table contains

Maximum y value for the edge

X intercept value

Inverse slope of the edge

(2)

Process scan line from bottom to top of the polygon

SET –II

Part-A

1.

CAD

Presentation graphics

Computer art

Entertainment

Visualization

Image processing

2.

emissive displays

3.

Miter join

Round join

Bevel join

4. xI = x Cos Θ – y Sin Θ

yI = x Sin Θ + y Cos Θ

Sin Θ Cos Θ

5. It is the process of identifying whether portions of a picture is inside or outside a

specified region of space

6.

Parallel projection

Perspective projection

Depth cueing

7. parallel lines that are not parallel to the display plane are projected into converging lines.

8. It is a composite curve formed with polynomial pieces satisfying a specified continuity

conditions at the boundary of the pieces

9. It is a method for explaining the properties or behavior of color within some particular

context

10. Colors that combine together to produce white color are called complementary colors.

Ex. blue & yellow

Part-B

11.a

(i) Primary output device – video monitor

Beam of electrons emitted by electron gun passes through focusing & deflection system that

direct the beam towards specified position on phosphor coated screen which emits a small spot of

light

(1)

Properties

Persistence- time taken for the emitted light to decay to one tenth of its original

intensity

Resolution - max. no. of points that can be displayed without overlap on the CRT

Aspect Ratio- ratio of vertical points to horizontal points necessary to produce equal

length lines in both directions on the screen (3)

Raster Scan Displays

memory area that stores the picture definition(intensity values for all screen points) (1)

Return of electron beam to the left of the screen after refreshing each scanline

Return of the electron beam to the top left corner at the end of each frame to begin the next

frame (1)

Electron beam is directed only to parts of the screen where a picture is to be drawn

(ii)

(1)

(1)

(1)

SPACEBALL (does not move strain gauges measure pressure applied to provide i/p) (1)

(1)

DIGITIZERS (graphics tablet used for drawing ,stylus is used in combination) (1)

b.

2. Obtain the center and the radius of the circle

3. Determine the first point on the circumference

4. Calculate the decision parameters P0 = 1.2 – r ,if r is an integer then P0 = 1 – r

5. At each xk starting from k = 0 perform the following steps if x0 < y0

6. If Pk < 0 , the next point to be plotted is (xk+1 ,yk) & Pk+1 = Pk + 2x k+1 + 1

7. If Pk > 0 , the next point to be plotted is (xk+1 ,yk-1) & Pk+1 = Pk + 2x k+1 + 1 – 2y k+1

8. Determine symmetry points in the remaining 7 octets

9. Repeat steps 5 to 8 until x< y

12.a

• Declare the necessary variables

• Obtain the center ,major and minor axes of the ellipse

• Determine the first point of the ellipse (0,ry)

• Calculate the decision parameter for the region as P10 = ry2 – rx2 ry + rx 2/4

• At each x starting from k =0 in region 1 perform the following test

If P < 0 the next point to be plotted is (x k+1, yk )and P1 k+1 = P1 k +2ry2 x k+1

+ry2

Else the next point to be plotted is (x ,y ) and P1 k+1 = P1 k +2ry2x k+1 – 2rx2y k+1

+ry2

Repeat for all k until 2 ry2x >= 2rx2y

• For region 2 calculate decision parameters as P2 0 = ry2 (x + 1/2) 2+rx2 (y0- 1) 2

- rx2ry2

• At each position in region 2 starting from x = 0 for each xk perform the

following test

If P > 0 the next point to be plotted along the ellipse is (xk ,yk-1) and P2 k+1 = P2

2 2

k -2rx y k+1 + rx

Else the next point to be plotted along the ellipse is (x , y) and P2 k+1 = P2 k +

2ry2x k+1 – 2rx2y +rx2

• Determine the symmetry points in other three quadrants

• Repeat the steps for all regions until 2ry2x >= 2rx2y

b. Translation

Moves the object without deformation

Points are translated by the same amount (2)

Translation equation:

xI = x + tx yI = y + ty (2)

Matrix equation:

PI = P + T (1)

Rotation

Reposition an object along the circular path in the XY plane (2)

rotational angle Θ

rotation point/pivot point (2)

+ ve values for Θ define anticlockwise rotation

- ve values for Θ define clockwise rotation (1)

Transformation equation:

xI = r Cos( Ф+Θ) = r Cos Ф Cos Θ – r Sin Ф Sin Θ

yI = r Sin( Ф + Θ) = r Cos Ф Sin Θ + r Sin Ф Cos Θ

(2)

but

x = r Cos Ф

y = r Sin Ф

(1)

So,

xI = x Cos Θ – y Sin Θ

yI = x Sin Θ + y Cos Θ (2)

Column vector rep.

PI = R.P

(1)

13.a

Every line endpoint is assigned a four digit binary code – region code (1)

Bit 1 – left

Bit 2 – right

Bit 3 – below

Bit 4 – above (1)

Bit 1 is set to 1 if x < xwmin

Bit 2 is set to 1 if x > xwmax

Bit 3 is set to 1 if y < ywmin

Bit 4 is set to 1 if y > ywmax (2)

Accept the lines whose both endpoints are having the region code 0000

Reject the lines whose endpoints have a 1 in the same bit position in the region code

Lines that cannot be identified as completely inside or outside a clip window are checked for

intersection with window boundaries

Intersection with clipping boundary can be calculated using the slope intercept form of the

line equation.

The intersection point with the vertical boundary is

y = y1 + m (x – x1 )

The intersection point with the horizontal boundary is

x = x1 + (y – y1) / m (12)

b.

Scan line polygon fill approach

• locate the intersection points ( scanline with the polygon edges)

• Sort the points from left to right

• Set the frame buffer position between each intersection pair with the specified color

Polygon and sorted edge table

• Non horizontal edges are sorted into an edge table

• Each entry in the table contains

Maximum y value for the edge

X intercept value

Inverse slope of the edge

Process scan line from bottom to top of the polygon (10)

Inside-Outside test

Identifies the interior region of objects

Types of tests

odd – even rule

non zero winding number rule (2)

Boundary fill approach

start from interior and paint outwards towards the boundary

Methods to proceed

4-connected

8-connected (2)

Flood fill alg.(to fill an area with multiple colors)

Start from a point and reassign all pixel values that are set with a given color with the

desired fill color (2)

14.a

- Object descriptions are stored as sets of surface polygons

- The surfaces are described with linear equations

Polygon table

• data is placed into the polygon table for processing

• Polygon data table can be organised into two groups

geometric table

attribute table (2)

Storing geometric data

To store geometric data three lists are created

Vertex table – contains coordinate values for each vertex

Edge table – contains pointers back into the vertex table

Polygon table – contains pointers back into the edge table

Advantages of three table

efficient display of objects

For faster info. Extraction

expand edge table to include forward pointers to the polygon table (2)

To check data consistency & completeness

Check that

every vertex is an endpoint for atleast two edges

Every edge is part of atleast one polygon

Every polygon is closed

Every polygon has atleast one shared edge

Every edge referenced by a polygon pointer has a reciprocal pointer back to the polygon

(4)

Plane Equation

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0

eqn. is solved by Cramer’s rule

Identification of points

• if Ax + By + Cz + D < 0 ,the points (x,y,z) is inside the surface

• if Ax + By + Cz + D > 0 ,the points (x,y,z) is outside the surface (2)

Octree encodings

Hierarchical tree structure

Node corresponds to a region in 3D space

Extension of quadtree encodings(2D) (2)

Octree

- divides 3D space into octants

- Stores 8 data elements in each node

- Individual elements of 3D space are called voxels

- If all voxels in an octant are of same type the value is stored in the corresponding data

element of the node

- Otherwise the octant is subdivided into octants & the corresponding data element in the

node points to the next node

- Each node can have 0 to 8 immediate descendants (4)

NTSC color model

Based on concepts of CIE XYZ model

• Y contains Luminance information

• I and Q incorporates hue and purity information

• Combination of red, green and blue intensities are chosen for Y parameter

• Black and white television monitors use only Y signal

• Largest band width assigned to Y information (6)

• NTSC encoder converts RGB signal to television signal

Y 0.299 0.587 0.144 R

I = 0.596 -0.275 -0.321 . G

Q 0.212 -0.528 0.311 B (1)

R 1.000 0.956 0.620 Y

G = 1.000 -0.272 -0.647 . I

B 1.000 -1.108 1.705 Q (1)

Primary colors Cyan ,Magenta, Yellow

Describes color output to hard copy devices

Unit cube representation

Point (1,1,1) represents black

Printing process generates color point with a collection of four ink dots

One dot each for the primary colors and one for black (6)

Color conversion from RGB to CMY

C 1 R

M = 1 - G

Y 1 B (1)

Color conversion from CMY TO RGB

R 1 H

G = 1 - S

B 1 V (1)

15.a

Line type - is set by the function

setLinetype(lt)

lt ranges from 1 to 4

1 – solid line

2 – dashed line

3 – dotted

4 – dash dotted

Line width - is set by the function (3)

setLinewidthScaleFactor(lw)

lw – 1 std.line width

>1 thicker line

0.5 half of std. width (3)

Pixel mask

string contains the digits 1 and 0

Indicates the positions to plot (3)

Line caps

adjust the shape of the line ends

gives the lines better appearance (1)

Types of line caps

Butt cap

Round cap

Projecting square cap (3)

Methods to join line segments

Miter join

Round join

Bevel join (3)

b.(i)

• Parallel projection

• Perspective projection

• Depth cueing

• Visible lines & Surface identification

• Exploded & Cutaway views

• 3 D & Stereoscopic views (4)

(ii)

Processing cases

1. First vertex is outside , Second is inside

add second vertex & intersection point of polygon edge with window boundary to

o/p vertex list

2. If both vertices are inside

add the second vertex to o/p vertex list

3.If the first vertex is inside ,second is outside

save the edge intersection point with window boundary to o/p vertex list

4. If both vertices are outside

add nothing to o/p vertex list (4)

(iii)

Color options – numerically coded(+ve int)

Codes – converted into intensity level settings for electron beams

No. of color choices – amount of storage provided per pixel

Methods to store color info. in frame buffer

Direct storing of color codes

Use of a separate table for color code and an index (2)

Color code is specified by the application program

Corresponding binary value is placed in the frame buffer

Minimum no. of colors can be provided

code R G B displayed color code R G B displayed color

0 0 0 0 black 4 1 0 0 Red

1 0 0 1 blue 5 1 0 1 Magenta

2 0 1 0 green 6 1 1 0 Yellow

3 0 1 1 cyan 7 1 1 1 White (3)

Color Table

Frame buffer values are used as indices into the table

Each entry in the table uses 24 bits to specify an RGB color

Entries can be changed instantly

Does not require large frame buffers

Provides reasonable no. of colors (3)

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