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Tap chi Héa hoc, T. 43 (1), Tr. 90 - 94, 2005 XAC BINH HAM LUQNG TONG CACBON HUU CO HOA TAN TRONG MOT SO MOI TRUGNG NUGC BANG THIET BI PHAN TICH ANATOC II Dén Téa sogn 28-6-2004 LUONG THE LUONG', [HI PHUONG QUYNH', LAM NGOC THIEM?, CHAU VAN MINH" Wien Héa hoc cdc hop chat thién nhién, Vien Khoa hoc va Cong nghé Vigt Nam *Khoa H6a hoc, Trung Dai hoc Khoa hoc ty nhién, Dai hoc Quéc gia Ha Noi SUMMARY Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in waters is always one of important factors to assess water quality. In this paper, we propose a simple procedure based on carbon measurements by ANATOC II analyzer to estimate the total dissolved organic carbon in waters of the river system in Hanoi. Our results which were carried out during the year of 2003 showed that carbon contents in the dissolved faction in this river system existed mainly in the organic form and that TOC contents strongly influenced the vegetation and climate I- GIGI THIEU CHUNG Trong moi trudng nude, thanh phan, ham lugng va dang tén tai ciia cacbon c6 téc déng truc tiép dén cée qué tinh sinh-dia-héa noi chung va céc chu trinh chuyén héa cdc chat dink dung néi ring, wi d6 anh hudng truc tigp dén doi sng céc thity sinh vat. Trén thuc té, chat hitu co trong nude 1 nguén cung cép dinh dugng quan trong cho céc thiy sinh vat. Tuy nhién khi ham lwong céc chat hitu co trong nude cao hon nhu céu dinh dung cila cac hé sinh thai thiy vuc thi sé gay anh huéng xu dén dai song cia céc sinh vat, gay ra 0 nhiém moi trudng nuéc (6 nhiém chat hitu co), lim mat can bang sinh thai [1, 2]. Day 1a van dé rat phé bién ciia cdc hé song, ho & Viet Nam va tren thé gidi. Trong bai béo nay ching t0i dua ra mot s6 két qua nghién citu buée dau xéc dinh him lugng cacbon hda tan trong mot sé moi trudng nude Rhéc nhau bang phuong phép quang xtic tac tren may phan tich cacbon téng ANATOC II, nhim g6p phan vao viéc danh gia va quan ly t6t hon nguén nudic Ha Noi dang ngay cang bi 6 90 nhiém. I1- DOI TUONG VA PHUONG PHAP NGHIEN CUU 1, Phuong phap nghién citu ngoai thuc dia Céc mau duge lay theo dting tigu chun Viet Nam 5996-1995 (twong duong véi tigu chuan ISO 5667-6:90), céc mau nuée duge Ioc ngay bang gily loc GF/F, sau dé duge bio quan trong lo thiy tinh & 4°C, 2. Phuong phap nghién cifu trong phong thi nghiem Céc chi titu TOC va TIC duge do tren may phan tich téng cacbon hitu co ANATOC II (hang SGE, Uc) [8] tai Vién Héa hoc cc hop chat thi¢n nhién. Nguyen ly ciia phuong php 1 V6i su c6 mt ciia anh sang cuc tim va chat xtc tic titan oxit (TiO,), 6 pH tir3 dén 3,5, chat hau co sé bj oxi héa thanh CO, va nude. Detector NDIR phat hign cubng do khi CO, thoat ra. Ham lugng chat hitu co trong mau ty 1¢ thuan voi ham Iuong khi CO, thodt ra va duge biéu dign bang don vi ppmC. Ill- KET QUA VA THAO LUAN 1. Téng cacbon trong nude ‘Téng cacbon trong nude (TC-Total Carbon) bao gém téng cacbon hitu co (TOC-Total Organic Carbon) va téng cacbon v6 co (TIC- Total Inorganic Carbon). Téng cacbon hitu co trong nude biéu thi ham luong chat hitu co bao g6m céc protein, axit nucleic, dudng, vitamin, hidrocacbon va dan xuat cia chiing.... Néu ham lugng TOC cao, biéu thi nuéc da bi 6 nhiém chat hitu co. Cacbon hitu co trong nuée con duoc phan ra thanh cacbon hda tan (Dissolved Organic Carbon) va cacbon dang hat (Particulate Organic Carbon). Téng cacbon vo co trong nude biéu thi ham luong cdc chat vo co 6 chifa cacbon (bao gém kh CO, hoa tan, céc mudi cacbonat va bicacbonat...). Trén thuc té, lun cé su chuyén héa lin nhau giita dang cacbon vO co va dang cacbon hitu co trong méi tru@ng née va 66 sy trao déi manh mé CO, sitia khi quyén va thiy quyén nhg hoat dong ciia céc thiy sinh vat, céc phin ting héa hoc va sinh hoa trong nuéc. Hign nay, viéc nghién ctu him luong cacbon trong moi trung nude dang duge su quan tam dac biét cia nhiéu nha nghién citu m6i trudng trén thé gidi [3]. Trong bai bao nay, chiing t0i tién hanh xéc dinh truc tiép ham Iuong TOC va TIC ciia mot s6 mu nude ngim, nude song (Héng, Nhué, To Lich), nuéc thai tir cdc ngudn cong nghiép, néng nghiép va nuséc thai sinh hoat trén may phan tich téng cacbon hitu co ANATOC II, tai Vién Héa hoc cdc hop chit thien nhién. Bang I: Két qua phan tich ham lugng TOC va TIC trong mot sé song & Ha Noi Ham Ivong, ppmC [MI M2 M3 | M4 MS M6 M7 TOC 2,398 | 2,635 | 3,442 | 3,812 | 5,926 | 6,375 | 11,759 TIC 10,149 11,051 12,433 13,543 16,938 17,149 | 32,626 TDC 12,547 Il 13,686, 15,875 17,355 | 22,864 | 23,524 | 44,385 MI la miu lay & vi tri tren song Héng, tai xa Lien Trung; M2, M3, M4, MS, M6 Ia cdc mau duge lay tren song Nhué tai céc vi tri twong ting 1a dap Thuy Phuong, Cau Dién, Cau Den, tram bom Khe Tang, va Cau Chiéc. M7 1a méu duge lay trén song To Lich, tai vi tri sau dap Thanh Ligt, Bang | trinh bay céc gid tri trung binh nam 2003 tai cae vi tri lay mau ké trén. Bang 2: Ham luong TOC va TIC trong nue ngam tai huyén Ti Lim, Ha Noi Ham lugng, ppmC Xa Xuan Dinh (9) Xa Trung Van (0) Xa My Dinh (11) TOC 0,956 4,114 0,012 TIC 16,713 55,909 52,226 TDC 17,669 60,023 52,238 Bang 3: Két qua phan tich TOC va TIC trong nude thai & mot sé nha may tai Ha Noi va View > NM héa | XN ché NM NM VM det | Ham | chat Ditc tenes roe gidy MMoee | NMpin | cy eee) EN sta | Mee | Giang | Dac | Dong Anh | Vier'Ta| ViewTA Dong | Bong "| HN ppmc. a Anh (6) | Anh (7) (8) |) __| Giang (2) @) (4) (5), TOC 15,664 3,497 7,983 25,687 81,573 _| 26,387 | 62,074 122,730 TIC 7,331 37,716 19,382 | 8,170 40,420 | 74,825 1,853, 0,956 TDC | 112,995 [41,213 | 27,365 | 33,857 | 121,993 | 101,212] 63,927 | 103,686 oO Bang 4: Ham lugng TOC va TIC tong nuéc thai nong nghigp tai mot sé xa tren dia phan Ha Noi va Viet Tri Toc [32,483 7,321 8,695 8,333 TIC 49,953 34,232 29,085 0,641 TDC 82,436 41,512 37,78 8,974 Bang 5: Két qua phan tich TOC va TIC trong nuéc thai sinh hoat tai Ha Noi Ham luong, | Xa Sai Déng, | Dong Anh, ppm | GiaLam (16) | Ha Noi (17) TOC 22,867 14371 [Tic | 98,625 40,723 TDC 121,492 55,094 Bang 6 gidi thi¢u ham lwgng cacbon hitu co va cacbon v6 co trung binh trong mot s6 moi trudng nude trén thé gidi (SGE International Pty Ltd., 2002) Bang 6: Ham lugng TOC va TIC trong mot so moi trudng nude tren thé gidi | Losi muse mmc | TIC, ppme Nuéc sach < 0,05 < 0,05 Nude ngim <1 <10 | Nuéc bién <1 Khoang 25 Nudcanuéng | <5 Khoang 50 Nude mat <10 | Khoang 200 nee thai thanh | 249 | Khodng 100 Nuécthaitrong | Léntei | | cdc hé xit ly | 2000 Nhin chung, qua céc vi tri khdo sat, ching t0i thay rng ham lugng TDC trong nude cla he thong song Héng - Nhué - To Lich nim trong kholng 12,5 + 44,4 ppmC, nuéc thai cong nghiép vao khong 27,4 + 123,7 ppmC, nuée ngm vao khoing 17,7 + 60,0 ppmC, nudc thai sinh hoat trong khoang 55,3 + 151,5 ppmC va nude thai néng nghiép 1a 8,9 + 82,9 ppmC. Day 92 chi 8 céc két qua nghién citu khdo sét ban dau. Theo chiing toi, dé c6 cdc két lun sau hon thi can khao sat trén dia ban réng hon va tan suat nhiéu hon. ¢ Ham luong téng cacbon hitu co ham lugng TOC trong nude mat, mot s6 tac gid di dua ra céc két qua va céc nhan dinh bién ddi gid tri TOC theo Khong gian va theo thdi gian trong ving khio sét. Theo két qua nghién cifu chat lugng nude mat 6 ving Florida [7], thi him lugng TOC trong nude mat nim trong khoang 4 + 28 ppmC. Theo cic téc gid [9] ham long TOC trong nude mat giém vao mia xuan, dat gid tri thap nhat (1+ 3 ppmC) vao dau mita hé, va gid tri cao nhat (10 + 30 ppm) dat duge vao cudi mda hé. Mat khac, mot s6 téc gia [4, 9] cho rang, him Ivong TOC trong nuéc mat phy thugc vao lu lugng dong chay, khi luu lugng dong chiy 16n hon 30 m's", TOC nho hon 10 ppmC, va Khi Iu Iuong nhd hon 30 m‘s", gid tri TOC nim trong kho’ng 1 + 30 ppmC. Theo nghién ctu cia N. Patel va cong str (1999), néng do TOC trong lu vue s6ng Amazon (Brazil) thap hon 1 + 2 ppmC. Con theo nghién ctu vé chat lvong nuéc mat & ving bién Aegean ciia R. Sempere va cOng su. (2002) [6], thi ham lugng TOC trong nuéc gidm tirténg mat xuOng tng sau (gidm tir 1,1 dén 0,5 ppmC & phia Bac va tir 0,9 dén 0,5 ppmC 6 phia Nam cita Bién Aegean). qua nghién citu TOC trong nude cia mot s6 con séng & Viet Nam ln déu tién chting toi tiép can cing c6 nhiing khéc biet 16 rét, va TOC dao dong trong Khoang rat rong (2,4 + 11,8 ppmC). Ching t6i cing quan sat thay su thay déi theo khong gian va thoi gian cita céc gid tri TOC trong cdc moi trudng nude song. Him lugng TOC ting 13 ret tir thugng nguén t6i ha Iuu cila song Nhue (hin 1), va thay ddi r6 rét theo mita: mila mua va mia Kho. Déng thoi quan st thay anh hudng 16 ret cla chat luong nuéc séng Té Lich téi ha hu song Nhué. 30 TIC (ppmc) ~ TOC (ppmc). MI M2 M3 M4 MS M6 M7 160 | NTIC (ppmc) {BITC (ppmc) i fel || 1 2 3 4 567 8 Hinh 1: Ham lugng TIC va TOC trong cac mau nude mat vi nude thai cong nghiép Chui thich: MA 18 mau nuéc Iy trén song Héng; M2, M3, M4, MS, M6, la cdc miu nuéc lity trén song Nhué ti thugng nguén dén ha liu va miu M7 la mau nude trén song T6 lich; cée mau | - 8 la cde mau nude thai cong nghiép (bang 3). Trong nudc thai cong nghigp, gid tri TOC vao khoang tir 3,5 + 1227 ppmC, va dat gid tri cao nhat la nude thai ciia nha may ché bién sita. Ham lugng TOC trong nude ngim vio khoang 0,01 + 4,1 ppmC trong khi gid tri nay doi véi nude thai nong nghiép 1a 7,3 + 32,5 ppmC va trong nude thai sinh hoat 1 14,4 + 22,9 ppmC. So v6i cae két qua trung binh vé ham luong TOC trong mét s6 moi trudng nude & tren thé gidi, c6 thé ndi ring céc gid tri TOC trong nude va TOC trong nuéc song To Lich cao hon ic gid tri tuong ting dua ra 6 bang 6, co nghia 1a ham lugng TOC trong moi trudng nuéc & Ha N6i cao hon so véi gid tri trung binh trén thé gidi hay ndi céch khéc 1a moi trudng nude 6 Ha Noi dang bi 6 nhiém hiu co dang bao dong. Qua day ciing c6 thé thay rd anh hudng ciia chat lugng nude thai khong qua xit IY hoae xir ly khong hoan toan duge dé vao hé théng séng hé, gay 6 nhiém hitu co nghiém trong cho cac he thy sinh thai. Diéu nay can dugc quan tam nghiém tic hon nifa trong cong téc bio ve moi trudng. © Chi tiéu TIC (téng cacbon vo co) Qua céc két qua khéo sat, c6 thé thay ring ham long TIC trong céc mau déu cao hon gid tri TOC tai cing vi tri quan trac. Gia tri TIC trong nudc song Héng dao dong trong kho’ng 3,4 + 17,1 ppmC, trung binh TIC trong céc miu nude tai vi tri trén song Héng 1a 10,1 ppmC (chiém 80,9% gid tri TDC). D6i véi song Nhué tai thvong nguén la 12,3 ppmC (chiém 79,0% TDC), ha luu song Nhué 1a 17,0 ppmC (chiém 73,5%TDC). Theo doc chiéu dai song 4 tri TIC trung binh tang dan tir thugng dén ha hu song Nhué (3,8 + 39,8 ppmC), i@t tang rat cao tai cdc vi tri lay mau ving ha hu (Ham Iugng TIC tai ha luu ting gap 1,6 lin so véi ving ha Inu va TOC tang 2,4 lin). Song To Lich tai diém khao sat c6 gia ti TIC trong khoang 8,5 + 58,6 ppmC (trung binh dat 32,6 ppmC, chiém 73,5%TDC). Nhu vay, c6 thé thay rang him Iugng cacbon hoa tan trong céc mau nudc mat chiém phan Ién & dang vo co (hinh 1), TIC trong nude ngiim (hinh 2, vi ti 9, 10, 11) luén chiém ti trong lén trong TDC (93,2 dén 100% TDC). Ham lugng TIC wong nude thai cong nghiép thay déi rat 1én, trong khodng tir 0,8 dén 91,5 ppmC va chiém tir 18,6 dén 42,7%TDC. Trong khi d6, gid tri TIC trong nude thai nong nghiep (hinh 2, vi tri 12, 13, 14, 15) cing thay déi manh tir 7,1 dén 82,4%TDC va trong nudc thai sinh hoat (hinh 2, vi tri 16, 17), TIC chiém tir 73,9 dén 81,2%TDC. 93 160 + 120 ‘wTIc Pm} 80 ~,BTOCppmC), ‘ -tt 0 9 10 7 TIC(ppmC) BTOC(ppmC) 12 13 14 15 Hinh 2: Ham lugng TOC va TIC trong muéc ngdim, nuéc thai sinh hoat va nuéc thai nong nghiép trén dia phan Ha No a Viet Tr Chi thich: Céc mau 9, 10, 11 1a céc mau nude ngdm (bang 2); 16 va 17 1a ede mu nude thai sinh hoat (bang 5) va céc mau 12, 13, 14, 15 1a céc mu nudc thai nong nghiép (bing 4). IV- KET LUAN Qua cae két qua nghién ctu, c6 thé rit ra mot s6 két luan nhu sau - 6 nhiém hitu co trong nuéc thai xir ly khéng hoan toan hoe khong qua xit IY cé anh hudng manh dén chat lugng nude cdc he théng song ¢ Ha Noi. O nhiém hitu co trong moi trudng nude 6 HA Noi qua nghién citu khdo sat ban dau ciia chting t6i 14 rt dang bao dong. Cin phai c6 cdc bién phép hitu hiéu va nhanh chéng dé khic phuc tinh trang nay. - Phuong phép quang xtic téc xdc dinh him lung cacbon hitu co trong moi truing nude bang thiét bi phan tich tong cacbon hitu co ANATOC II la phuong php higu qua, cho 46 chinh xéc cao va c6 thé 4p dung dé phan tich céc moi trudng nuéc khdc nhau. TAI LIEU THAM KHAO Daniel J. Conley. Biogeochemical nutrient cycles and nutrient management stragies. Hydrobiologia 410, P. 87 - 96. Printed in the Netherlands (2000), G. Billen & J. Garnier. Nitrogen transfei through the Seine drainage network: a budget based on the application of the Riverstrahler model. Hydrobiologia 410, 94 139 - 150. Printed in the Netherlands (1999). J. Garnier et al. Biogeochemical mass balances (C, N, P, Si) in three large reservoirs of Siene Catchment (France). Biogeochemistry, 47. 119 - 146. Printed in the Netherlands (1999). N. Patel, S. Mounier, J. L. Guyot, C. Benamou, J. Y. Benaim. Fluxes of dissolved and colloidal organic carbon, along the Purus and Amazonas rivers (Brazil) (1999). P. Servais, A. Barillier and J. Garnier. Annls Limnol., Vol. 31, No. 1, P. 75 - 80 (1995). R. Sempere, C. Panagiotopoulos, R. Lafont, B. Marroni, F. Van Wambeke. Journal of Marine System, Vol. 33 - 34, P. 355 - 364 (2002). Robert Reiss, James S. Taylor, Christophe Robert. Surface water treatment using nanofiltration-pilot testing results and desing considerations (1999). SGE International Pty Ltd. Installation and Operation Manual of Total Organic Carbon Analyzer, guide manual (2002). Stuart J. Parks and Lawrence A. Baker. Wat. Res., Vol. 31, No. 7, P. 1751 - 1750 (1996)