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ILLINO 1_ ___
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University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign Library
Brittle Books Project, 2012.

In Public Domain.
Published prior to 1923.

This digital copy was made from the printed version held
by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
It was made in compliance with copyright law.

Prepared for the Brittle Books Project, Main Library,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Northern Micrographics
Brookhaven Bindery
La Crosse, Wisconsin


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Great Windmill Street, W.1





A Technical Handbook'
Designedfor the use of Hairdressersand Hairworkers




Late Editor of" The Hairdressers'Chronicle." Author of" Heads and Head-
dressesfrom the Saxon Periodto the Nineteenth Century," " Headdresses
of the Victorian Era," and " A lbum of HistoricalCoizfures," etc.



29, 30, 31, 32 & 33 BERNERS STREET, OXFORD STREET, W.I
85, 89 91, 93 & 95 CITY ROAD, E.C.


[All Rights Reseoved]






INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . I

Drawing as a Preliminary to Boardwork-Diagrams of
Foundations-Diamond Parting Designs-Gentleman's
Scalp Foundation-Gentleman's Wig Foundation. 5
Implements Used in Boardwork-Stop-Device for Drawing
Hair-" Jigger "-Weaving Sticks and Frames-Drawing
Knife-Drawing Brush Weight-Finger Shield-Sewing
Silk . . . . . . . . IO
Preparation of Hair-Combings-Root Turning-Cuttings
-Drawing Hair - Nitting - Curling - Waving - Crop
Curl-Bleaching and Dyeing-Accidents in Dyeing 18
Crdoling - Criping - Half-Crepe - Pads and Frizzettes-
Inserted Stems with Crdoled Hair . . . 39
Weaving-Silk on Weaving Sticks-" Once-in" Weft-
" Twice-in " Weft-Other Methods of Weaving-" Thrice-
in," or Wig-Weft-" Fly " Weft . . . 48
Switches, or Tails-Selection of Hair-" Running Up "-
Silk and Hair Loops-Marteau Top Switches-Sewing
up a "Swathe " - Circular Coil Mounts- Circular
Braid Mounts-Colour Graded Switches-Pin Curls-
- Marteaux . . . . . . . 56

Matching Hair-Test Mixing-Preparing and Matching-
Selection of Hair-Grading Colours in Poiiches-Quantity
of Hair to Use-" Hairdressers' Chronicle" Hair Ready
Reckoner . . . . . . 78
Knotting-Single and Double-Designing Fringe Founda-
tions-Mounting Foundations - Galloon Foundations-
Bracing-Stiffened Net Foundations-Knotting Fringes
-Wire-Mesh Foundations--Spring Foundations . 89
Fringe Dressing - Various Methods of Curling--Water-
Waving a Transformation-Dressing the Transforma-
tion. . . . . . . . . 0Io7
Covering Springs -Various Methods-Preparing and Pro-
tecting the Ends-Taking the Measurement-Diagram of
Head Measurement-Plaster Cast of Scalp . . 121

Transformations-Paper Patterns-Methods of Taking the
Pattern-Transformation Mounting on the Block-Caul
Net Addition-Suggestions for Knotting-Scalpettes, or
Invisible Coverings- Semi-Transformations . . 132
Lady's Wig with Parting-Approximate Measurements-
Mounting a Wig-Bracing-Sewing on the Net-To
Clean Postiches-Repairingand Renovating. . I44
Partings-" Open " Partings-Hair Lace Partings-" Drawn
Through" Partings . . . . . . 153
Gentleman's Wig-Importance of Knotting-Wig Founda-
tion-Designing and Mounting-Testing a Mount-
Position of Parting-" Gut " in Parting-Attaching the
Springs-Sewing on Net-Various Parting Materials and
Methods . . . . . . . 162

Gentlemen's Scalps-Gauze Foundations -Adaptation of
Various Nets for Foundations-Galloon and other Mounts
-Knotting a Crown. . . . . . 176

Methods and Fashions of Other Days--French (woven)
Ringlet Fronts-Details of Mountings-Special Weaving
-" Diamond " Foundation Front-Wire-woven Diamond
Mesh Foundation-Cachepeigne Chignon on Combs-
Bandeaux-Galloon Foundation Bandeau-Waving-
Temple-Mounted Fronts . . . . 184


I. THE HISTORY OF WIGs-Ancient Egyptian-

Mediaeval - Royal -Legal-Full-bottomed-
Ramillies-Bag-wigs--17th and I8th Century
Wigmakers' Advertisements . . . 213



Devices in Hair - Cleansing - Curling -
Formation of Ears of Barley-Pearl Band-
Sprays-Feathers - Plaits - Flowers, etc. -
Basket Plait-Leaves-Basket of Flowers-
Star Design-Wheatsheaf-Heartsease-Aster
-Rose-Wild Flower . . . 224

4. RAZORs-The Choice and Care of Razors-

" Setting "-Hairdressers' Chronicle " Prize"
Letter on Razor Setting-Other Views on
Sharpening and Stropping . . . 255

5. WAX FTGURES OR MODELS - Cleaning and

Renovating-Formulae . . . 271

Frontispiece . . . . . . To face Title
I. Switches . . . . Tofacepage 32
II. Waved Pompadour Pad, or Cripon . ,, 81
III. Woven side and top Under-Pads, with
waved hair . . . . ,, 96
IV. Transformation, divided front, softly
waved . . . . . ,, 145
V. Transformation, waved and dressed on
Wax Model . ,, 1660o
VI. Transformation on Wax Model, waved,
with " palm-curls " on the forehead ,, 209
VII. Transformation, with "drawn-through"
parting . . . . . ,, 224

Fig. Page
Diagram of Diamond Parting Foundation . I 6
Diamond Parting Foundation. (Showing
springs in position and " bracings ") 2 6
Diagram of Gentleman's Scalp Foundation 3 7
,, ,, Wig Foundation 4 8
Card, or Hackle, with Brush . . 5 II
Drawing Brushes . . 6 II
Stop-block for Drawing Hair 7 I2
Ordinary Weaving Sticks and Screws 8 13
French Weaving Sticks . 9 14
Pinching Irons . . Io 16
Root and Point Machine. (Showing back
plate for screwing to work bench) II 22
Wire Drawing " Brushes." (Leather
Foundation) . . . 12 26
Nitting Machine . . . 13 27
Box Waving Irons . . . 14 39
Set of Frizzettes . . . 15 42
"'All-round " Pad . . . 16 43
Fig. Page
Weaving Frame and Work Bench 17 48
The Process of Weaving . . . 18 49
French Weaving Frame, with Weft 19 51
Three Stem Switch with Curled Ends 20 61
Expanding Circular Braid Mount 21 65
Pin Curls . . . 22 66
Waved Marteau and Silk Loop 23 67
Waved Marteau, with Comb Attached 24 68
Curled Marteau on Pin 25 70
,, ,, on Comb 26 71
Galloon Covered Comb . 27 73
Weft Pompadour on Spring Mount 28 75
Woven Horsehair Pompadour . . . 29 76
Method of Knotting, and Block Holder 30 90
Ordinary Mesh Hair Net for Foundations 31 91
Fringe Foundation Shape . . . 32 94
Fringe (Showing contrary direction of side
hair . 33 96
Fringe Foundation. (Showing direction of
knotted hair) . . 34 97
Fringe Foundation. (Showing method of
pinning on malleable block) 35 98
Medium Mesh Stiffened Foundation Net 36 102
Outline of Weft for Wire Foundations 37 Io4
Curl Cluster on Wire Foundation 38 105
Fringe on Malleable Block. (Methods of
Waving and Curling) 39 107
Waved and Curled Fringe 40 lo8
Malleable Blocks . . 41 Io9
Curled Fringe with "Palm," Curls on Fore-
head . . . 42 II0
Curled and Waved Fringe 43 III
Waved Fringe, or Semi-Transformation . 44 112

Adjustable Block Holders 45 I14

Divided Front, Waved Transformation . 46 117
Fig. Page
Silk Galloons . . . 47 122
Springs Covered with Galloon. (Showing
method of sewing) . 48 123
Diagram of Head Measurement . . 49 125
Transformation Showing Foundation 50 133
,, Foundation, with Caul Net 51 137
,, Hair Net Foundation.
(Showing direction of knotted hair) 52 139
Hair Net Transformation Mount. (With
galloon " bind," and wire " springs ") 53 140
Waved Parting or Scalpette 54 142
Dressed Lady's Wig, with Left Parting 55 147
"Open" Parting Semi-Transformation,
Waved, with Curled Ends. 56 154
Wire Foundation Shape for "Open"
Parting . . . . 57 156
Gentleman's Wig Foundation . . 58 167
,, Weft Wig Foundation 59 171
Showing Method for Knotting Crown 60 18
Diamond-Barred Mesh Hair Net for
Foundations . . 61 182
French (Woven) Ringlet Fronts . 62 186
Ringlet Front (Dressed) . . . 63 187
Diamond Mesh Wire Foundation Sewn 64 195
Cachepeigne Headdress 65 197
Chignon on Comb . . 66 199
Galloon Foundation for Bandeau 67 202
Bandeau . . . . . 68 204
Temple Mounted Front . 69 209
Portrait of Sir Christopher Wren (1632-
1723), showing Wig worn about 168o 70 215
The Basket Plait . . . . 71 241
Formation of Flowers . 72 243
Flower Devices . . 73 251
Correct Position of Razor on the Hone 74 258
Incorrect Angle in Razor Setting 75 259


THE Second Edition (1903) of" Boardwork " having

become exhausted, and the need for a technical
handbook on the subject being greater than at any
former time, suggest the desirability of thorough
revision and reconstruction to meet modern con-
ditions, and the demands upon the technical skill,
together with the insistent and ever-growing needs
of a higher education and standards of efficiency in
the profession.
In the present manual an endeavour has been
made to describe in simple detail all the practicable
methods and processes of preparing human hair
for fashion and convenience. Where alternative
methods are given they are intended to provide
greater scope and selection, in the hope that in
application they may each prove advantageous.
The careful and comprehensive revision of
" Boardwork" has involved the elimination of a
few unessential details. This is more than com-
pensated for by the introduction of much new
material and several additional illustrations, bringing
it fully up to date; the rewriting of several portions
with a view to the clearer elucidation of many

problems disconcerting to the younger members

of the profession unable to see practical demonstra-
tions of the various processes by more experienced
workers; together with a careful classification of
the whole.
The aim has been to place in the hands of
younger hairworkers a concise and comprehensive
guide to the many details of working in hair, some
of which may appear insignificant and unnecessary,
yet will frequently be found in practice to be of
the greatest use and importance.
It is hoped that the effort will be repaid in
the greater help its pages will afford to the student
who shall resort to them for instruction and assist-
ance in a fascinating and ever-developing branch
of the profession.


THE favour accorded to " Boardwork, or the Art

of Wigmaking," by the late Edwin Creer, together
with the testimony of its usefulness and the con-
stant demand and need for a technical handbook
for the use and instruction of the younger members
of the profession, have suggested the desirability
of issuing a new and revised Manual on the art of
preparing and working human hair in the various
ways comprised under the designation of " Board-
The original work, " designed to meet a long-
felt want, and intended chiefly for the use of
apprentices, improvers and others in the trade
whose knowledge of Boardwork is deficient," has
been entirely revised and re-written, so that the
subject, which is of ever-increasing importance,
might be presented to the profession in a more
complete form, embracing all the salient features
of the former edition, re-modelled and modernised
to meet present needs. The remarkable develop-
ments and changes in hairwork during the past
twelve years render this imperatively necessary,
and whilst introducing new and modern methods

and useful hints of tried and practical value, the

reliable and fundamental principles of Wigmaking,
clearly described in the earlier edition, have been
retained, with but slight and immaterial alterations
of the original text in a few instances. Many very
old styles of hairwork are fully described, not
with the impression that Fashion will again inflict
such modes upon her votaries, but that the younger
hairworkers may make themselves fully acquainted
with Boardwork in all its phases, applying the
knowledge thus obtained to the perfection of
present or future work. The successful workman
is not a mere copyist, but one who strives to
utilise his store of wisdom and information to the
fullest and best development of all that passes.
through his hands.
The relative importance of each section of
Boardwork has been considered, and it may be
assumed that a careful and consistent study of the
various descriptions given will enable any intelli-
gent workman to attain a proficiency in the ever-
varying and interesting art of Wigmaking and its
cognate branches. Some few non-essential por-
tions have been omitted from the earlier edition,
but no detail of importance to the youngest
student has been neglected, and the skilled work-
man will find many useful features worthy his
consideration. The importance of every workman
acquiring a wide knowledge of his craft cannot be

over-estimated, and if in the pursuit of that know-

ledge the desire for proficiency is manifested in a
marked degree, and careful and painstaking
endeavours after excellence are made, the results
will be of a highly satisfactory nature. "Every
man has two educations-that which is given to
him, and the other, that which he gives himself.
Of the two kinds, the latter is far the more
valuable. Indeed, all that is most worthy in a
man he must work out and conquer for himself.
What we are merely taught seldom nourishes the
mind like that which we teach ourselves."
The object which we desire to attain in this
work is to supply the elementary principles
necessary to enable the average young hairdresser
to "teach himself," to clear away difficulties and
to enable him to have a distinct perception of
what is done, and how. The instruction which
this volume may present it is hoped will contribute
to the pleasure and profit of the younger members
of the profession, and assist them in their en-
deavours to attain a proficiency in the fascinating
and useful occupation comprehended in the title
which this book bears.

" I venture to think that the man who loves his
work, who is content to begin at the lowest rung of
the ladder, in order to master all the minutest details
of his particular trade or profession, whose work is
dearer to him than either his wages or his dinner, is
bound to be rewarded, bound to succeed, in whatever
calling of life he may be. It is the half-hearted worker
who sticks in the rut."-MARIE CORELLI.



HAIRDRESSERS recognise in the one comprehensive

term, " Boardwork," all that is comprised in the
preparation and manufacture of human hair for
any purpose for which additional hair is employed
or worn. From earliest times wigs of various
kinds have been worn, and until the earlier part of
the 19th Century, wigmaking formed the chief
feature of " Boardwork," followed later by various
demands upon the skill and ingenuity of the
hair workers which ever-changing fashion dictated
and required. The last three decades of the i 9 th
and the early years of the 20oth Century witnessed
increasing changes and developments in the art of
working in hair for personal adornment, and for
necessary concealment of the deficiencies of nature
or the ravages of time.
The various processes of cleaning and pre-
paring human hair ready for making up, weaving,

sewing, knotting and other elementary essentials,

whatever may be the existing fashion, have to be
mastered, for in the possession of a complete
theoretical knowledge of these lie the future
success of the young hairdresser when called
upon to apply his knowledge in a practical manner
to whatever may be required of him. When it is
realised how multifarious are the details of a
complete practice of boardwork, it will at once
become apparent that only those who have care-
fully studied it, and acquired a sound knowledge
of the principles of the art, can hope to achieve
success as "boardsmen."
Unfortunately, during the closing years of
the I 9 th Century the system of apprenticeship
fell into disuse, and at the present time the
average youth on entering the business does not
receive a systematic education and training in the
essential rudiments of the craft, either in the
"saloon " or at the board. This frequently results
in a superficiality of knowledge, with a correspond-
ing incompetency, which unfits him for the higher
positions his natural ambition leads him to seek,
and retards his progress in a variety of ways.
Under these circumstances, and with a due appre-
ciation of the increasing demands for postickes, it
is superfluous to add that a handbook on the
subject appears to be a necessity.
There are many ingenious devices known to

the practical hairdresser, by which the few disad-

vantages of wearing additional hair-either to
meet fashion's demands, or to supplement a scanty
and deficient growth--may be removed and over-
come. The hairdresser realises how varied are
the requirements, as he is also ready to design and
elaborate new yostic/es adapted to the most
exacting demands. Skilful construction and
artistic manipulation of choice hair enable the
wearer of postic/zes to " defy detection."
It not unfrequently happens that when a youth
has acquired a fair knowledge of hair-cutting and
shaving, he considers himself an efficient workman,
and being satisfied with his accomplishments,
seldom troubles to obtain a knowledge of, and
experience in, the higher branches of hairdressing.
Some few attain a moderate efficiency and become
"general hands," whilst a still fewer number,
stirred to emulation by the accomplishments of
their colleagues, work unceasingly to become
really competent hairdressers and postickeurs.
The educational advantages afforded by the
numerous trade schools have done much to supply
the deficiencies arising from a lack of elementary
instruction in the workshop. Though all that is
comprised in "Boardwork" is an absolutely
necessary adjunct to the art of hairdressing, and
without which no hairdresser can ever hope to be
fully successful, there is a great need for a full and

comprehensive training in hairwork and prepara-

tion, as a substantial-and not a merely casual-
part of the education of every young hairdresser.
To those who seek to obtain a first knowledge
of boardwork by a perusal of the following pages,
or to supplement some degree of skill already
attained, I will briefly state that no work, however
well written and carefully and thoughtfully put
together, can impart ability without practice. To
become efficient it will be imperatively necessary
to diligently pursue the course indicated, and
bring careful thought and intelligence to bear upon
the instruction given. The numerous methods of
working hair will be described as concisely as
possible to enable anyone to commence a piece of
work, and, by following the instructions, complete
it satisfactorily, without much difficulty. There
are many methods, apart from the technical
descriptions in the succeeding chapters of this
book and the ordinary routine of the workshop,
which, if adopted, and followed, by the student in
boardwork will confer many additional advantages.




Drawing will be found to be an accomplish-

ment of no mean assistance to the wigmaker, and
if the young hairdresser is not clever with his
pencil, he will do well to cultivate the art. He
should also study, whilst pursuing the ordinary
occupations of a hairdresser, the conformation of
the head, and carefully note any peculiarities of
shape, so that he may apply this general know-
ledge when called upon to make some form of
hairwork to cover nature's deficiencies. Drawing
may advantageously be employed in the preliminary
study of wigmaking to obtain a perfect knowledge
of the various sections, the curves of the ribbons,
and the positions of the bracing cottons. These
important details should be carefully studied, and
then as diligently drawn to an exact scale on paper
until the mind is thoroughly conversant with every
essential feature. Then, and only then, should
the young hairworker attempt to place a mount
upon the block. Having completely mastered the

theory, the practice will be simplified, and more

rapid and satisfactory progress will be made. The




(Showing springs in position and "bracings.")

numerous diagrams and illustrations to be found

in these pages will offer many suitable examples.
By the courtesy of Mr. Tom Foakes, Guild

Master, these diagrams, as used by the students in

the Boardwork Classes at the Polytechnic in
Regent Street, were reproduced in the Hairdressers'
Possibly, in certain details, the diagrams, which
were of German origin, are scarcely in strict accord-



ance with modern English methods of wigmaking;

yet they afford a good basis for the young board-
worker, and if he will adopt the plan I have
suggested, and which was followed in the classes
at the Polytechnic-draw the diagrams so that he

becomes thoroughly acquainted with every detail

of ribbons, springs, bracings, etc., he will the more
readily and easily master the intricacies of the
work when putting the acquired theories into
Commencing with the simple designs, Fig. i
will be found to represent a diamond parting



foundation, the double lines showing the position

of the ribbons, or galloon; the space between the
two straight ribbons being left for the insertion of
the parting net.
Diagram No. 2 indicates where the "bracing"
should be and the position of the springs.
An outline of a gentleman's scalp will be seen
in Fig. 3, clearly showing the position of the

parting, and the bracing of the mount at every

important point. The parting in this diagram
is designed for the side, and in making a copy
the boardworker should carefully note the exact
position, by which he will more easily secure
satisfactory results when putting a similar design
upon the block.
The curved lines indicate the position of oil-
skin patches sewn under the mount after knotting,
on which the adhesive paste is placed.
In Fig. 4 the ribbons of a gentleman's wig with
side parting are shown, the " bind " terminating at
each side of the parting; the front to back ribbon
and the galloon taken from the ear curve being
secured to the ribbon at the crown.
The " bind," according to English methods,
should be disposed well to the front of the




The Implements used in Boardwork.-

Tools vary somewhat according to the general
work of an establishment, and, in consequence,
young hairdressers who have not worked where
all classes of boardwork are executed, do not
possess a knowledge of all that is required for a
speedy and satisfactory despatch of every form of
hairwork. A brief description of the general
and useful appliances is therefore not altogether
A "card" or "hackle," used for disentangling
combings, smoothing and mixing hair, is a magnified
comb composed of steel spikes or prongs, and
should be familiar to every hairdresser. Special
cards are made for use in place of the ordinary
bristle drawing brushes.
Drawing Brushes should be large and heavy, and
filled with good bristles. They are made in
various sizes, but the larger ones are most useful.

Many hairdressers use wire drawing "brushes,"

and for some classes of work these prove very


useful, occupying less space than the bristle brushes.

Bent wires, L shape, all pointing in one direction,


are inserted in stout leather; they are flexible, and

being very flat, a weight is more easily kept in
position upon them.

In drawing various lengths of hair for weaving,

blocks are placed on the bench, with a stop at the
edge to keep the brushes in the right position for
the ends only of the hair to project over the edge
convenient for the fingers. These blocks are
frequently laid aside, and are not at hand when
required. To render this drawing process easy,
with an adjustable appliance always in place, I have
devised the very simple arrangement which is here
illustrated. Two ordinary screw hooks are fixed


[See also Fig. 17.]

through the ends of the chain at the back of the

bench, the chain is shortened at will, and repeatedly,
as the taper hair renders it necessary, with a mini-
mum amount of trouble, and when finished with
may be put out of the way of work in hand at the
back of the bench. The danger of brushes falling
over during the drawing process is also obviated by
this contrivance. If the hooks are in the way on the
bench, holes may be made for the chains, through
which they will pass easily, and a weight attached
to them beneath the bench; the adjustment may

then be made by drawing the brushes forward to

the desired position.

A "jigger " is a piece of hard wood about

7 or 8 inches long, 3 inches wide and 2 inch in
thickness, screwed to the work bench with 3 inches
projecting. Through the projecting part two holes


are made in a line with each other, and a stout

piece of string is passed through, tied in a knot,
and left hanging to within two inches of the floor.
This is used for piping, or curling hair. Pipes for
curling are about 32 inches in length and the
thickness of a lead pencil, and may be of cane,
willow with the bark stripped off, glass rods or

tubes. The glass is best for white or delicate

shades of hair.

Weaving sticks need no particular description

(see Fig. 8 and Fig. 9). Scissors, combs, curling
pegs, cushions or malleable blocks for fringe
and transformation dressing, pins of various sizes,


narrow white tape in yard lengths, needles of

various sizes, thimble, small hammer, a pair of
round-nose cutting pliers, various sizes of knotting
needles and gauze hooks, tape measure, and in fact
anything which experience indicates or suggests
for the expeditious execution of the work in hand.
Drawing Knife.-This essential tool is usually
of the home-made variety, and the one I have used
for many years was made as follows: An old razor-
blade, worn down to about s of an inch, was re-
moved from its handle, and the edge blunted and
smoothed by rubbing it over the under side of a
hone. A strip of an old leather strop was cut,
about half an inch wide and eight inches in length.
The shank of the razor was placed between the
free ends, leaving a loop about one inch free, and
then bound closely and tightly with strong cord,
forming a smooth but easily held handle. The
leather loop enables one to hang up the tool when
not in use, or to suspend it from a cord to the
bench, where it is always at hand.

Drawing Brush Weight.-This is often a piece

of lead about 6 x 4 x I, or a domestic flat-iron
of sufficient size. Half a brick sewn up in a piece
of cloth has often done duty in the absence of
more orthodox weights.

Finger Shield.-Also a home-made article, too

frequently of the crudest design-a piece of tin
cut to the requisite shape, and bent over to fit the
third finger. In this, as in most instances, a neat,
well-finished tool is best, and if a thin piece of
brass or copper is cut to the shape, and to fit the
finger, a worker in metal will braze the edges and

produce a shield smooth and shapely, the edge well

finished to pick up a needle quickly. For personal
comfort I fitted an ordinary thimble to the fore-
finger, and over this a thin piece of brass was
brazed on, which gave a very satisfactory tool.
Made thirty years ago, it is still quite efficient, and
"as good as new."

Sewing Silk.--This should in all cases match

the colour of the hair or galloon, with a preference


for a shade darker, as in working it apparently loses

a little in depth of colour. Silk, or cotton, taken
from a reel, should be inserted in the needle at the
end freshly broken off, and the knot should then be
made on the same end. This apparently in-
significant detail ensures smooth working without
annoying tangles of the silk.
Where strong sewing is required, it is a good
plan to make a knot of the two ends, then place it
on the running-up hook, holding the needle with
the fingers, and wind up until the two strands are
closely and smoothly twisted together. Before re-
leasing it, rub a little wax over it from end to end,
and then draw between the fingers. A smooth,
strong sewing cord will result, which will afford as
much pleasure in use as it will give satisfaction in
the resulting work.




Preparation of Hair. Combings.-It is ab-

solutely necessary for the student in boardwork to
make himself thoroughly acquainted with all the
simple processes of ornamental hairwork. This is
sometimes considered beneath his notice, with the
result that the person thus discarding the essential
details of his business never attains to a creditable
proficiency. There was a time, and not many
years ago, when such an announcement as "comb-
ings made up" would have astonished the trade
and the public; but now that kind of work is done
in nearly every hairdresser's establishment. Hair
that is cast off in a natural manner, after illness,
and from a variety of other causes, cannot by any
possibility be made equal in appearance and quality
to the hair which is cut from healthy heads.
Hair is shed at regular intervals, and the period
usually associated with annual hair shedding is the
" fall," or autumn, though this cannot be accurately
demonstrated. In a large percentage of cases it
may appear to be more marked during this period
of the year, for which climatic conditions, having
an influence upon the constitution, apart altogether
from other probable or accepted causes, may be
responsible. It is equally probable that persons
born in the early months of the year may ex-
perience a general shedding of the hair at a time
when the hair of persons born in the latter half of
the year would be in its best state of growth.
Conclusive data on this point is not readily avail-
able; but it is, however, fair to assume, from facts
carefully collated, that under normal conditions a
seventh portion of each head of hair is shed at
some period in each year. In other words, the
hair attains to maximum growth in seven years,
when-having fulfilled its natural functions-it falls
out, and is replaced by a new growth. Hair thus
shed is frequently withered and dry, and is gener-
ally unfit for use in the manufacture of the simplest
adornments with which we are dealing. However,
combings are made up in most shops, and a quick
and efficient method of treating them must there-
fore form part of our subject.
In preparing such hair, which generally comes
to hand in a matted, tangled and dusty state, it is
advisable to first shake out the dust in the open air,
then pull it out loosely with the fingers preparatory
to "carding." Take small pieces at a time, and
lightly draw it through the card or hackle, revers-

ing it occasionally until it is all drawn straight.

On no account should it be dragged through, as
that is a careless and destructive method. Keep
wire drawing brushes especially for combings,
through which the hair, after the "hackle" pro-
cess, must be drawn, separated into small sections,
and tied rather loosely about two or three inches
from the clubbed ends, ready for turning.

Root Turning.-This process is comparatively

simple, though many methods are followed to
attain the same result.
The cortical structure of the human hair is
jagged like the teeth of a saw, and this serrated
appearance is produced through the outer layer,
or sheath, being composed of flattened cells or
scales which overlap each other like the scales
of a fish. This can be seen by means of a good
microscope, and felt in passing hair quickly from
point to root through the fingers. By reversing
the hair the difference can more readily be detected
in consequence of its smoothness. The knowledge
of this structural arrangement is important, as it
bears largely upon the "turning" operation. An
efficient, and generally adopted, process of turning
is to take a bowl of hot water in which best wash-
ing soda and sufficient soft soap to make a good
lather, are dissolved. Take each section of the
hair, holding it at the tie, and whisk backwards

and forwards through the water, occasionally plac-

ing the ends at the side of the bowl, rubbing up
and down with the fingers, which process pushes
the points toward the tie, leaving the roots separ-
ate and distinct. When this appears to be well
done, the hair may be washed, being careful not
to disturb the felted ends, and dried, when it is
ready for drawing off to roots and points. Take
each section, comb through the extreme points,
place it in the brushes with the felted end facing
you. Take the roots which are separate and
distinct, push back the felted part with the comb,
then carefully draw off the roots. When this is
done the hair must be reversed in the brushes, and
if the first part of the process has been properly
performed, all the remaining roots will be found at
the other end, and may be easily drawn off.
Another method, the success of which depends,
as did the other, upon the formation of the outer
sheath of the hair described above, is also given,
so that hairdressers may select that which appears
best suited to their ability or requirements. The
hair in this process may be washed first, and dried.
Then place it in the brushes, draw off a convenient
portion, taking care that the part held in the hand
is really clubbed. Hold the piece of hair in the
left hand, have a cup of warm water near into
which the fingers of the right hand are to be dipped
as occasion requires. With the wet fingers and

thumb work the ends of the hair back and forward

-the peculiar formation of the hair gradually
forces the roots upward. They generally present
a whitish appearance and bulbous in form. The
roots are then to be drawn, and laid aside, always
being careful to place root ends at your right hand,
or at the end of the bench facing you, a simple
plan, which if always followed, in this and in other
processes, saves endless confusion.
If a strand of hair is placed, untied, upon a


(Showing back plate for screwing to work bench.)

smooth hard surface-a leather-covered board is

frequently used for the purpose-and rolled quickly
back and forward with the palm of the hand, or
better still, a convenient-sized piece of wood, also
leather-covered, the root ends will gradually work
up in one direction, and can readily be separated,
and the whole completely " turned."
Other methods of turning hair are adopted,
,but the principle is the same, and either alone, or
in conjunction with the foregoing methods, the
"turning" machine is used-the " knobs," or roots,

offer a slight resistance when drawn through the

machine, and are intercepted in their course.

Preparing Cuttings. - Hair is obtainable,

clean and ready for use, prepared in a variety of
ways for any purpose for which it is required, and
in every shade. A reference to Messrs. R.
Hovenden and Sons, Ltd., Hair List will give a
comprehensive idea of the kinds mostly in use.
As, however, the hairdresser sometimes has a
quantity of hair which he is desirous of bringing
into use, the following description of the methods
of preparation will not be out of place.
The hair is probably of divers lengths and
colours. Separate first the different qualities
should there be any variation in that respect, and
place all the coarse hair in one lot, and the fine
into another. If a piece of hair is more bulky
than the rest, divide it, so as to have each piece
uniform in size, and not any thicker than can be
washed and dried easily and effectually. Tie each
piece with string, securely fastened, and moderately
tight, but loose enough to slide up and down a
little when the hair is being washed, otherwise
some portion of the hair will be clean, and where
tied, dirty. Before washing, it is advisable to give
each piece a "carding," to prevent matting
together when wet.
Take two bowls of hot water-as hot as the

hands can bear-and disssolve in each a sufficient

quantity of soft soap and soda. Place a few pieces
of the hair in one bowl to soak, so that the dirt and
grease may be more easily removed. Take up one
of the pieces and commence rubbing at the root
end, gradually working to the points. Do not for-
get to slip the tie, up or down, occasionally. If this
process is carefully performed, the greater quantity
of the grease and dirt will have been removed.
This may now be transferred to the second basin.
Continue in this manner, changing the water
occasionally, as soon as it becomes unfit for further
use. When all the hair has been washed twice in
the above manner, clean the basins, and fill with
fresh water-hot in one, tepid in the other. This
is for rinsing purposes, and the last water must
not show any traces of soap, or the hair will not
be perfectly clean. Great care should be taken to
free the hair from all traces of grease or soap, or
greater trouble will be met with in subsequent
manipulations of the hair. When clean, the hair
may be dried in the sun, a warm room, or in the
ordinary drying oven used for hair. If time will
permit, a warm room, or in the open air is best,
securing the hair to a line, leaving it to blow about
until quite dry. Previous to further manipulation
of the hair, see that the hackles and drawing
brushes are quite clean.
Still keep the shades separate, and having cut
the string of one piece, draw carefully through the
" card" to make it smooth, being careful to hold
the hair as near the roots as possible to avoid
wasting the short and finer hair which is found in
every " head " of cut hair. Having completed the
carding, place the hair with the roots in the draw-
ing brushes, and the points inclined towards you.
Press the top brush down moderately tight, and
place a weight upon it. It is necessary to have the
points of the hair projecting over the edge of the

Drawing Hair. The drawing brushes should

be arranged, either with a stop edge to the bench,
or the movable device (p. I2). For any length
of hair over twelve inches it will be found easier to
place the hair in the hackle, the ends being in the
drawing brushes placed immediately behind. When
in position, it may be found necessary to put a
weight on the brushes, and a smaller hackle may
be turned over and the points pressed lightly
through the larger hackle and the hair. This
renders the process of drawing both easy and ex-
peditious. There is a finer make of hackle, usually
in pairs, used for drawing hair in a similar manner
to drawing-brushes. In practice the writer has
found the combination of one drawing hackle and
one brush very useful. Commence drawing the
hair in small portions. Continue this, holding the

drawn hair firmly in the fingers of the left hand.

As the length of the hair diminishes, it will be
necessary to adjust the " stops" in order to keep
the ends a little over the bench edge. When
sufficient has been drawn, place it on the bench
with the " clubbed," or drawn end facing, or on the
right side. By always observing this rule, the root
ends of the hair will never be confused with the
points. It should then be redrawn to the roots by


(Leather foundation.)

reversing the hair in the brushes, by which the

taper root ends are lying over the bench about
two inches. By drawing until the edge of the bench
is reached, a two-inch length will be secured, and this
method may be continued until the whole is drawn.
Each section must be securely tied, and the '" head "
tied in a bundle to keep together for subsequent
use. The shortest, and in all probability, the finest
hair, in the brushes, must also be drawn, and firmly

tied. The use and value of this will be seen in the

section dealing with "crop " and curled hair.

Nitting.- When the hair has been well washed

a careful examination must be made to see whether
there are any nits. They may not be present, but
it is necessary to be certain on this point, and all
unsatisfactory or suspicious pieces picked out for
the nitting process. Fix the nitting machine to
the bench close to the "card." Take a small

ii11 ,Iil
,i IJ

section of the hair, carefully card it, and then pass

it through the machine, drawing in a slightly
slanting direction, occasionally reversing the hair
so that every portion is repeatedly passed through
the teeth of the machine until free from nits. The
teeth of the machine can be rendered fine or coarse
as may be required to suit the varying thicknesses
of the hair. The eggs, or nits, of the common
louse are easily detected; they are of oval form,
and generally deposited on the hair with the narrow
end towards the root. Hence it follows that by

"carding" the hair the reverse way the nits are

much more easily removed by the machine. When
this process is effectually performed, the hair is
ready for any further manipulation.

Curling. - Curled hair from six to eighteen

inches is most in request. The " jigger " and the
other requirements for "piping" or curling are
already described (p. I3). Take the hair to be
curled, and divide into sections of convenient bulk
(for the purposes of illustration, rather less than a
quarter of an oz. of ten inch), and tie each piece
well and securely at the end. If, as is sometimes
done, one half of the bulk is curled from the roots,
and the other half from the clubbed points, it will
be safer to tie each kind with a special distinguishing
string, so that they may easily be separated after
boiling and baking. Have ready a shallow basin
of warm water, in which the pieces are placed in
readiness for " piping." Lift up the string loop on
the "jigger" and insert the hair close to the tie,
the ends towards you, and press down tight with
the foot within the lower loop. By this means the
hair is, as it were, held in a vice. Take one of the
pieces of cane, or whatever may be employed for
the purpose, and a piece of strong thin paper,
about three inches by two. Too much paper on
the string is inclined to loosen during the boiling
process. Put the "pipe" upon the hair and the

paper underneath, holding both in their places by

means of the thumb and fingers, and pressing gently
the while. Draw the two downwards until you get
to the points, and then commence to curl. By a
movement of the fingers, spread the hair a little,
holding it firm and tight until it is rolled up. Take
a piece of fine, strong string and tie the hair and
the " pipe" together, by passing the string round
one and then the other in such a way as to hold it
firmly in its place without slipping, and fasten
off securely. A small iron bench vice is often used
in place of the " jigger." After the hair is rolled or
curled up on " pipes " it has to be boiled and baked
so as to fix the curl. Some wood curlers, concave
and straight, swell in boiling water and thus tighten
the curl. It should be boiled for an hour or more,
and afterwards left for a short period to drain.
While still warm it is put into trays or dishes and
carefully baked for several hours. By some the
hair is placed in a dish and covered with clean
silver sand moistened with hot water, slowly baked
until thorougly dry and allowed to remain in a
warm place until required for use. This process if
properly carried out, will yield curls of a bright
and glossy appearance with a natural-looking and
durable curl.
To follow up the process and prepare the hair
for use, the sections curled from the clubbed points
must be drawn back to the roots, and then well

mixed with the other portion curled from the

clubbed roots. The resulting blend will be found
highly advantageous in many ways in the making
and dressing of postiches.

Waving. - A second process, by which the

curled hair is "broken" into a wave, and again
baked, or dried, adds a desirable durability unobtain-
able by the single process. Waved hair in the
longer lengths is in demand for transformations, but
as will be observed in the description of preparing
hair for various jostiches must not be too tightly
waved. The mixture of a portion of strongly
waved hair with a portion of straight, is better in
every way than using hair only moderately waved.
Take half an oz. of ten to sixteen inch taper
curled hair, and tie very securely. Slightly damp
it by combing through with a comb previously
dipped in warm water, the final combing being on
a flat malleable block, or smooth piece of wood.
A little finger manipulation will " break" the curl
into a natural-looking ondulation, and the piece
must then be steadily dried. By this method a
softer finish is obtained than by the " friseur-force "
process, and it will be found equally durable, as
well as more workable in the subsequent water-
waving and dressing.

"Crop " Curl.-The shortest and finest hair is

employed for gentleman's wigs, scalpettes, under

knotting, and similar purposes. There is frequently

a natural inclination to curl in hair of this description,
but it is best not to attempt to force it when it is
coarse and strong. To make the curl, take one
of the pieces of fine hair and thoroughly wet it.
Rub the roots with the palm of the hand as
before, so as to cause it to " felt" together. Have
ready a smooth brass tool, five or six inches long,
and in shape resembling the end of a steel used
for sharpening knives. With this (and the thumb)
press the hair between, giving the hair at the same
time two or three turns round the tool; draw away
the instrument; hold the curl between the thumb
and finger, and place it on an enamelled ware
tray. Each curl is to be held in position by
means of a small weight placed upon it, and there
must be a "stop" in the centre of the tray to
prevent the curl unwinding. The succeeding curl
acts as a " stop" to its predecessor. It is not
possible to boil this hair, like that which is rolled
upon "pipes" and securely fastened by means of
pieces of string, therefore it must be steamed before
it is baked. The steaming process can be done
effectually in a small way with ordinary domestic
utensils. Hair manufacturers would proceed some-
what differently, and necessarily so, because their
work is extensive; but I am addressing myself to
hairdressers whose requirements are on a greatly
reduced scale. Take a sufficiently large saucepan

and put therein a metal stand or 3-legged iron

ring, such as used in domestic operations. On this
stand put the tray containing the crop hair and
surround the whole with water, taking care, however,
that none enters the tray. Put the lid on the
saucepan; boil for at least a quarter of an hour,
and by this simple arrangement the hair will be
sufficiently well prepared for the baking process.
Take the tray containing the hair carefully out, and
after allowing the steam to evaporate, a certain
amount of dryness will follow, when it can be
baked in a drying oven. When quite cold the
weights are to be removed, and each curled piece
put into stock for subsequent use. It should be
kept in a warm dry place.

Bleaching and Dyeing.--These operations are

necessary in the preparation of hair, and afford
considerable scope to the careful worker. Hair
varies in shades when on the head, and is also
frequently of bad or faded colours. It is then
necessary to bleach, and in some instances to
subsequently dye, pieces of hair to obtain uniform
tints and shades, and colours suitable for mixing,
or to match colours produced by artificial means.
It is seldom possible to match dyed hair from
natural colours. Dyeing is also necessary for faded
combings, and in cases where worn postickes have
to be remade and brought up to the colour desired.


A. Two-stem Switch.
B. Three-stem Switch.
C. Soft Coil Knot, with two-stem switch.
D. One stem tied into loop for the centre. The second stem a
Gordian Knot, opened and placed over the loop.

Face p. 32

As a preliminary to bleaching and dyeing, the hair

must first be thoroughly cleansed, as the least trace
of dirt or grease will entirely spoil the operation.

Bleaching.-This is to the inexperienced

apparently a simple operation, but the results are
not always satisfactory, as a little investigation
will show. A great measure of success depends
upon the ability to select the right colour for
bleaching. To illustrate this: If two pieces of
hair apparently of the same colour and texture are
immersed in the bleaching fluid for the same
length of time, it will be found in the majority of
cases that two distinct shades are produced. Hair
purchased from the hair merchant usually yields
different results to that cut off and washed in the
ordinary way by the hairdresser. Combings are
occasionally more troublesome in this respect than
any other kind of hair. These peculiarities are
revealed by experience, but as a simple suggestion
on the subject, it may be taken for granted that
full-coloured brown or black hair will yield good
shades of red or red-brown, and medium or pale
brown will give golden or less ruddy gold tints.
Two or three pieces bleached at the same time
give as many varieties of colouring as a result, and
the exact shade required may then be secured by
mixing in suitable proportions.
To prepare the bleaching bath, take a suitable

quantity of hot water in a clean earthenware bowl:

by way of experiment take a pint, to this add
2 oz. of 20 volume peroxide of hydrogen, and
dram of strong liquid ammonia. The piece of
hair to be bleached, previously made ready for the
bath by washing, is placed in a wet condition in
the bleaching bath. Stir it frequently with a
smooth stick, and keep it well immersed. Take
it from the bath occasionally, squeeze nearly dry
in the hands, and examine in the light, so that the
bleaching process may not continue after the hair
has become reduced in colour within a shade of the
desired result. Dry well with a towel, and spread
out to become thoroughly dry, during which
process it becomes a little lighter. It is best to
use enough solution to cover the hair, and the
quantity can easily be adjusted.
Hair subjected to this process is naturally more
susceptible to any subsequent treatment than
natural colour hair, and greater care must therefore
be exercised. In colouring bleached hair, instead
of the dye, or ink, suggested for ordinary dyeing,
make a stock solution as follows :-
Pyrogallic Acid .. .. I oz.
Spirit .. .. .... oz.
Hydrochloric Acid .. .. 30 drops
Distilled Water .. .. to I pint

Mix the spirit with 4 oz. water, in which dis-

solve the pyrogallic acid. Add the hydrochloric
acid to the remaining water, and mix the two
This may be used in varying proportions with
boiling water--from 2 oz. to 4 oz. to the pint,
according to the depth of shade required-follow-
ing the method described for ordinary dyeing. In
each process, after the colour has been secured,
the hair should be thoroughly washed with a small
quantity of soap powder and borax in hot water,
well rinsed, and slowly dried.

Dyeing.-When ordinary colours have to be

produced on lighter natural shades, the subjoined
will be found a reliable dye :-
Logwood Extract .. .. 4 oz.
Boiled Water .. .. 3 pints
Add the extract to the water when cool and
warm it to effect complete solution. Prepare
Chromate of Potash .. .. dram.
Oil of Cloves .. .. dram.
Boiled Water .. .. I pint

When the first solution is cool add crystal

carbonate of soda, 2 drams, and when dissolved,
add gradually, with frequent stirring, the second
When dyeing pieces of hair, select a suitable
saucepan to hold sufficient dye to well cover the

hair. To each pint of hot water add 2 oz. of

stock solution, and bring to boiling point. Have
the hair ready washed, and still damp. Place it
quickly in the dye and stir with a smooth stick to
secure complete immersion, and a free movement
of the hair, so that every part is brought into
contact with the dye. Remove from the dye
occasionally, and examine to see if the colour is
dark enough, exposing it well to the air to allow
the colour to develop. It should be borne in mind
that the weaker the dye (in reason) and the longer
the boiling is prolonged, with the repeated exposures
and examination, the better and more permanent
will be the resulting colours.
For brown shades in which no red is required,
an ordinary blue-black writing ink may be used in
the same proportion as that given for the stock
solution. If hair is being prepared for mixing, it
is sometimes useful to have varying tones of brown,
and to effect this, the dye when ready mixed for
boiling could have, for colder shades, Io grains of
aniline green, with or without i o grains of nigrosin,
added to each pint, and brought to the boiling
point before placing the hair in the solution.
If warmer tones are required, Io to 20 grains of
Ponceau Red R. may be substituted, with good
results. Great care must be observed with hair
previously bleached, and for safety it is best to
avoid these dyes for bleached hair. By bleached
hair the golden and red shades previously treated
with peroxide of hydrogen is referred to. If hair
to be dyed is much faded, place it in the bleaching
solution described elsewhere for a few moments,
and after careful washing restore to the desired
colour with the dye recommended for use with
bleached hair. Boiling solutions of various aniline
dyes give good results with bleached hair. For
safety, a small portion should be experimented with
It frequently happens that combings, which in-
variably are lighter than the remaining hair on the
head, especially if the period of collection is an
extended one, have to be dyed a shade or two
darker. It is a good plan to dye a portion only,
and mix the two shades together after, by which
method the matching is more accurate, and the hair
presents a more natural appearance than if all had
been dyed to one uniform shade. There must not,
of course, be a great difference between the shades,
or the mixed hair will not be a satisfactory colour
to match the pattern.

Accidents in Dyeing.-These occur to the

majority of hairdressers, and do not depend upon
any lack of ability so much as the unknown previous
condition of the hair being treated. Hair is
occasionally dyed to a shade darker than is required,
and it is then necessary to remove the surplus

colour. When the ink or ink-powder dye has been

used, the excess colouring may be removed by
soaking the hair for a time in the following
solution : -Hot water, I pint; salts of lemon
(poisonous), I teaspoonful, afterwards carefully
washing the hair with soap powder and a little
borax in the ordinary way.
When the hair has been dyed to a deeper
brown than is desired, and a red-brown shade is
required, the following bath for the dyed hair will
sometimes give good results :- Hot water, i pint;
muriatic acid, 3 drams. Immerse the hair in this,
take out at intervals, expose to the light, and when
sufficiently bleached, wash well, and dry. Oxalic
acid may also be used in the same proportions. If
Pyro. dye has been used, a very weak bleaching
bath will remove the surplus colour, always bearing
in mind the importance of placing the hair in a wet
condition in the bleaching bath, or dye-pan.




Cr6oling.-Having turned the hair, draw off to

suitable lengths, clubbed at the points, and plait in
moderately fine plaits. Steep in hot or boiling
water for five minutes if the colour permits. When


thoroughly dry, each piece is unplaited and laid out

on the bench, the clubbed ends being kept together.
Take a suitable quantity, card carefully, work
through the card with the finger as in mixing hair,
after which draw it from the taper end through the
brushes twice to the roots, when it is ready for
weaving. The mixing, reversing and drawing gives
it a better appearance, removes the waved effect
which would otherwise remain, and produces the

soft fulness known as crdole. The same result is

often produced by using the box-iron, but if a soft
and silky condition of the hair is desired, plaiting
is preferable and more lasting. Many hairdressers
would not consider crdoling a necessary operation
in preparing combings, but the process applies to
best hair also, and appropriately, I think, finds a
place in this section dealing with the various
methods of working hair.

Creping.-To make frizzettes, rolls, pads or

stems, crdped hair is very necessary, and a large
quantity is also used for covering hair frames,
which have in recent years largely superseded the
ordinary pad. The method generally adopted for
creping, or crimping hair is as follows: Prepare
the weaving pegs with strong thread, or string,
instead of silk. Set up two threads, place the
hair to be used in the drawing brushes with the
roots to the front, and commence by drawing a
moderately thick piece of hair, sufficient to make
a decidedly coarse weft. Place the root end in
the strings close up to the knot previously tied,
and hold it firmly with the fingers and thumb of
the left hand. Then intertwine the free ends of
the hair, in and out in a regular and secure manner,
pushing it up tight, at intervals, until all is woven
in. As an example, take hair of six or eight inches
in length, place the root end between the strings

with the free ends inclining towards the right, and

hanging down. Pass the root end under the
bottom string, draw it through between the two
strings, turn it over the top string, draw the root
end forward again, and give it a twist by which
the position of the weft is changed, the root end
then being held firmly by the left hand, and the
ends hanging free for intertwining with the right
hand till the ends are reached. This may then be
secured in position with a "jockey," which for
this heavier work is best made from two smooth
pieces of wood in the form of an ordinary clothes-
peg, in miniature.
For finer weaving, if a "jockey" is required,
it is best made of watch-spring, two loops of which,
tied together, form a contrivance doubtless familiar
to every young hairworker.

Half-Crepe.--To prepare the criped hair for

"inserted stems," hair of ten or twelve inches, or
more, should be used. Draw from the brushes in
the same way as for ordinary weft, work upon the
strings as previously described, but with this
difference, only the root end half of the hair is to
be woven. Leave the ends loose, push up tight,
follow on with each section of hair until all is
secured, cut down, and tie the ends. For ordinary
colours, boiling is the best process. Put the hair
into the saucepan kept for that purpose, cover with

hot water, and boil for fifteen minutes. Take it

out, allow the steam to evaporate, place in a rather
warm oven for about twenty-four hours to dry
thoroughly, by which the crepe is made durable.
It should remain on the strings in a dry place until
required for making up.

Stems, Pads and Frizzettes are in demand in


one way or another for nearly every mode of hair-

dressing, and they may be varied in shape or size
to meet the requirements. To make an ordinary
Pompadour Pad, set up the weaving pegs upon
which strong glazed carpet thread in place of silk
has been wound. Have ready the fully creped hair
of the colour required, freed from the strings upon
which it was woven, and carded out. Commence

by drawing a thin portion as for ordinary weaving,

and work it in and out of the threads as in criping
until - of an inch is closely and neatly done. This
is for the loop of the pad, a description of which
will follow. Now draw out from the brushes a
thicker "weft," hold it in the middle and commence
by inserting it as described in the weaving process,


putting it through two or three times, and leaving

the ends free. Push up close to the loop section,
and then continue, but with this difference-one
weft must be set up, and the other down, by which
method the ends are disposed around the stem,
forming the round pad, or stem. Continuing this
alternate weft until the desired length is made, see

the last weft is secure, then comb all the ends

smoothly toward the right, rolling the pad slightly
between the hands to make it nicely round, gather
the extreme points together and weave them in to
match the first piece inserted at the other end.
Cut down, turn over each fine piece of weft at the
ends to form a loop, sew up neatly and securely
and the pad is finished-round, smooth, and tapered
at the ends, with a loop for attaching to the head,
of the same colour, with no unsightly cord loop to
show. Any length or thickness may be made in
this manner. It is sometimes necessary to give
pads a certain firmness, and this is secured by using
wire for weaving in place of one of the threads.
To attain a better shape and a more durable article,
the pad, after it has been cut down and the loops
sewn, is sometimes carefully rolled in soft paper,
and baked for a short time in the oven. The
Cardboard Postal Tubes are very useful for this
purpose, and as they are obtainable in varying
diameters, it is advisable to keep different sizes
for use. The pad is merely drawn into the tube,
and placed in the oven to become warm through.
When cold, it will be smooth and of good shape.
To produce a good pompadour shape, the pad may
be placed in position on a block, and baked.
A quicker, but scarcely so durable a method
of making pads, is to start the insertion of the
weft in the usual manner, continuing by twisting

the hair, rope-like, at the same time winding it

over and over the threads for half-an-inch or more,
finally carrying the end through between the
threads in the ordinary way. This may be satis-
factory for certain cheaper classes of work, but for
general purposes, and to secure lasting and satis-
factory results, the first and generally adopted
method is best.

Inserted Stems are made in much the same

way as that described for pads, excepting that
half-crepe hair is used, the root end (creped) is
woven in the silks, leaving a proportion of the
creped roots and the smooth ends free. Carefully
and neatly made, the stems present a full and
smooth appearance, the creped ends being almost,
if not quite, covered by the smooth portion of the
hair. With a " top row " of carefully creoled long
hair, they are very useful for a variety of designs
in hairdressing, apart also from the economical
advantages of providing the bulk with short hair.
Nothing surpasses a well-proportioned tail or switch
without the inserted stem, but when there is a lot
of short hair, and length and thickness are desired,
the stem is a very useful means to accomplish what
otherwise would be impossible.

Inserted Stems with Creoled Hair. -When

short hair only is available, and a long switch is

required, a stem is made by either of the following

methods to give the requisite length:-I. Draw the
taper hair, clubbed, to the points, and plait tightly
in sections of moderate thickness, as for crdoling.
Soak in hot water and dry thoroughly, when it must
be drawn back to the roots. Fix up the weaving
frame, and, holding about an inch of the root end
of a moderately thick " weft," work in the " silks "
as for ordinary weaving, but draw tight from the
first turn, and, according to the length of stem
required and quantity of hair available, work
through six or eight times, pushing up close,
leaving the points loose. Commence the next weft
by inserting in the reverse manner, so that succeed-
ing wefts point up, and down, and the ends alter-
nating likewise. Continue in this manner to the
desired length, comb all the hair back to the left
side, so that all the separate wefts are well blended,
cut down, and fasten off, when the stem must be
well combed through in the reverse direction.
This combing through should distribute the short
and long ends well over the weft, and present an
even appearance, with a soft, full effect. A little,
carefully crdoled, long hair may be attached as a
" top-row," when the stem will resemble a switch
of long hair, and for the majority of cases be
equally good. Stems made thus will be found
softer in finish and appearance than those made,
as described, with half-creped hair.

II. Draw the creoled hair to the roots, and

place in the drawing brushes as for ordinary
weaving. Take small portions, as for weft of
moderate thickness, and weave " twice-in " weft.
Take the thread, or cord, used for " running up,"
fix up a length on the winder rather longer than
the stem required, attach the weft at the bottom
as for ordinary stems, and " run" the weft up,
spreading it over the cord and sewing at intervals.
A long, thin stem is thus produced, which covers
well, and blends easily with a creoled top-row.
If a coil or plait, with curled ends, is required,
the stem may be commenced with curled hair of
the requisite quantity. If curls are required at
each end, the top row may be of curled hair, com-
bined with long hair sufficient to cover the stem.




Weaving.-This forms a very important part

of boardwork, and a thorough knowledge of the
various kinds of " weft," and their application to
the work in hand is essential. No matter whether


the student is employed in a first-class establish-

ment where superior work has to be done, or in
a shop of less pretension, good weaving should
always be aimed at.
Every hairdresser is more or less acquainted
with the weaving frame; it is unneccessary there-
fore to give a particular description of the " Screws
and Sticks " and manner of using, as the accom-

panying illustration indicates nearly all that may

be written about it.

Silk on Weaving Stieks.-In ordinary work

three " strings," as they are usually named, though
in reality silk, are used-one skein of weaving silk
being wound round each groove of the stick. To
do this open out the skein, and arrange it con-


veniently for unwinding without getting it entangled.

Fold a small piece of paper an inch wide, three or
four times, around which fasten the end of the
silk. Place this on one groove, and then proceed
to wind the silk over it, until the groove is full.
The end may be secured by slipping it inside the
paper. Fill each groove in the same manner.
When the "sticks," or pegs, are in position for
weaving, the little wad of paper will enable each

silk to be loosened, or tightened as desired, by

turning it on the groove.
The "back-stick " is usually furnished with a
wire winder, to the hook of which the ends of the
silk from the weaving stick are fastened. The
winder is brought into use in "running up" the
stems at a later stage.
To fix up the silks, take the three ends, tie a
knot, then form a loop with the end about an inch
long, fix this on the hook of the winder. Screw up
the silks to secure an equal degree of tension,
neither too tight nor too slack, and the "frame "
is ready for weaving. The hair to be woven is
placed in the brushes on the board, the roots
allowed to project a little over the edge for con-
venient drawing.

" Once-in " weft is chiefly used when a mode-

rate quantity of hair is required to be put together
in a small compass, and is employed chiefly for
"top-rows." To enable the reader more readily
to comprehend the methods described, I will num-
ber the silks I, 2, 3, beginning at the bottom.
Draw out a weft from the brushes and hold it
about one inch from the roots, firmly between the
thumb and finger of the left hand, which being
held to the silks is also employed in gathering the
silks together as indicated in Fig. I8. With the
first finger of the right hand, push the roots between

i and 2, draw forward through 2 and 3, turn the

root end over the top silk (3), draw it forward
between 3 and 2, pass it under r and 2, draw
through 2 and 3 again; finally, turn the roots over
the top, and draw forward through the two lower silks.
Then hold the longest portion of the hair with the


thumb and finger of the left hand, firmly hold the

roots in a similar manner with the right, draw them
up close by pulling the long portion, at the same
time sliding the weft down to its destination
towards the left, by which process the weft is
tightened upon the silks, and the root end in the
right hand is left projecting about half an inch.
Should the end have a tendency to loosen, use the
"jockey" to secure them, but close and tight


weaving frequently remains in position without the

aid of the little "rider." This description, care-
fully followed, will be found tolerably easy, even
to the uninitiated. If properly executed, the work
will be regular, and smooth, firm and compact-
not " gouty" or irregular, as it appears when done
carelessly. A little practice enables the worker to
draw the requisite quantity of hair each time. This
weft, or indeed any kind of weft, can be made coarse
or fine, according to the quantity of hair drawn, and
the purpose for which the work is intended; but how-
ever thick, or thin, it must be uniform and evenly set.

"Twice-in" Weft somewhat resembles, when

the silks are open, the letter M, and to do this
properly, the weaving has to be increased, or put
through the silks twice, so that the wefts are kept
farther apart. It should at all times be firm, and
not loosely done, or it will be unpleasant to sew
up, and the resulting work very unsatisfactory to all
concerned. To do "twice-in " weft, follow the
directions previously given, until you come to the
words " draw through 2 and 3." Having done this,
continue as follows :-Turn the weft over the top,
draw through 3 and 2, pass under the lower silks,
bring through 2 and 3, turn over the top, finally
drawing through the lower silks--2 and I. Grasp
the long end firmly in the thumb and finger of the
left hand, the short, or root end, in the right hand,
draw up close and tight, leaving a short root end
projecting, then push up towards the loop end of silks,
and close together as each succeeding weft is made.

Another Method of Weaving.-Many hair-

workers finish each kind of weft just described, by
executing the last movement in a dexterous manner,
by which the root end when carried over the top
for the last time is by one turn of the forefinger
brought through 3 and 2 and carried out at the
back through 2 and I. This is effected by inserting
the finger through i and 2 from the back and on
through 2 and 3 from the front, grasping the root
end of the weft as it comes over the top, carrying
it down in front of the middle silk. The principle
is much the same, with the possible advantage in
the weaving that each weft remains more firmly
between the silks without the aid of the "jockey,"
thus also effecting a saving of time and trouble.
When this method is adopted with "once-in"
weft, in the making of tails or switches, the result
in " twisting-up " should be carefully noticed. I
am somewhat in favour of the first system, as the
weft thus made is better adapted for stems, the
ends lying closer and giving a neater result than
the newer method described. Good, even and
regular weaving, with the projecting ends as short
as is consistent with durable work, are, however,
the chief essentials. Weaving too much in one

section of the silks should be avoided, and as the

finished weft lengthens, work closer to the weaving
peg, i.e. the one upon which the silks are wound.
Avoid pressing heavily or clumsily upon the silks.
By observing these simple injunctions, the annoy-
ance of the silks breaking, a vexatious mishap
which sometimes necessitates undoing that which
is already done and re-weaving it, is avoided.
Should a silk break, however, it must be tied
close to the last weft. This is a simple operation,
yet more easily shown than described. An easy
way is to take the broken silk, unwind it three or
four times from the peg, tie it in a simple knot
over the other two silks, push the knot up close to
the last weft, tie the two ends in one firm knot,
and then wind up the loose silk to the required
tension and proceed with the weaving. If a
breakage occurs, ascertain the cause; whether due
to too much pressure, fraying away of the silks in
working, or a faulty spot in the silk. If from the
latter cause, examine the silk to see if it is sound
before proceeding, or the accident may frequently
happen, and the work be consequently spoiled.
Good quality weaving silk is seldom found faulty
in this respect, and may invariably be relied on
for strength and durability.

"Thrice-in," or Wig Weft, is produced in a

similar manner to the weft already described, ex-
cepting that it is much finer, and worked once
more through the silks, finishing by drawing the
ends through the lower silks. Twenty or thirty
yards of this weft is needed for making a wig, a
fact which is sufficient to guide the worker as to
the amount of hair inserted in each weft.

"Fly" Weft for top rows, lies very close and

compact; the roots project from the silks and are
pressed downwards with hot pinching irons pre-
vious to cutting down the weft from the pegs.
" Fly" weft should always be finely and neatly
done, and pushed up close. It is made in the
same way as " once-in," but with this exception-
instead of drawing the roots "between the two
lower silks" at the last movement, draw them
through the top ones--3 and 2. The roots will
stand out or " fly" in an upward direction, and it
is necessary to use a "jockey." By preference,
press the roots with hot irons instead of cutting
them off, as is sometimes done, for if cut, a weft or
two may come out in wear, and then the work
would look unsightly, and rapidly go to pieces.
Previous to pressing, the weft may be slightly
damped and a strip of paper folded over it. This
keeps the ends in position and renders the process
of pressing much easier. Care must be taken to
avoid marks of irons on the hair below the weft,
and if it is carefully pressed, the projecting root
ends will be rendered quite flat and close.




Switches, or Tails, are made into sections, or

" stems," and the methods employed for mounting
the worn hair are applicable to many other designs
in 'ostickes, so that once the hairworker has
mastered the elementary details of weaving,
" running-up," and sewing, the knowledge may be
applied to almost any new phase of the work
presented to him. And in the application of these
principles lies the chief essential to his success.
The usefulness and appearance of the switch
depend largely upon the length of the hair, the
weaving, and the care bestowed upon the " running
up " of the stems. It may be either too thin at the
top, or too bulky, or the points too clubbed or too
taper. The length and thickness and quality
depend upon the price to be obtained, and the
colour is also a matter for consideration. Care in
the selection of the hair will give satisfactory results
whatever the price of the switch may be, and the
selection must necessarily be varied, as may be
gathered from the following examples which give
a good idea of how switches may be made. Take
oz. 20-inch, oz. 22-inch, and 4 oz. 24-inch
straight hair, previously creoled and drawn twice
through the brushes. Mix the 20 and 22 inch
together, and divide into three separate portions,
tying each piece temporarily, to keep distinct. Fix
the weaving sticks and three silks in position.
Place the 24-inch hair in the brushes, and proceed
to weave a top-row weft, commencing very fine, and
after the first inch slightly and gradually thickening
until two inches are woven. Divide the remaining
quantity of 24-inch hair into three portions (to be
used as a top to each stem) and continue the
moderately fine weft with one piece, following on
with the 22-inch portion at an ordinary thickness,
gradually bringing the weaving to be finer towards
the end. Put in the last weft as a " stop-weft "-
carrying the end of the weft back and drawing it
through between the two last wefts, and push up
close. Twist the woven section around the weav-
ing peg, or back stick, on the left-hand side, and
commence the second stem portion about three or
four inches further on the silks. Commence with
a few fine wefts with the 24-inch hair, follow on
with coarser weaving with the 22-inch, finishing
with the finer weaving as before described. Weave

the third sections in the same way, unwind the

sticks, and carefully press all the weaving with the
hot irons, and the work is then ready for cutting
down and " running-up "into stems.
This method may be imitated by using 22-inch
taper hair for the stems, and 24-inch taper hair for
the top row. Many hairdressers invariably use
taper hair, and therefore avoid the necessity of a
judicious mixing of the various lengths of clubbed
Some hair-workers weave the top row on two
silks, adding the third silk when commencing the
heavier weaving for the stem. This is a very
unsafe and unsatisfactory proceeding, the added
silk having a tendency to work loose and make the
finished work unsightly. A better plan is to use
the three silks, weaving as " top-row" weft the sec-
tion of hair set apart, very fine at the commence-
ment, gradually assuming the medium thickness
which is invariably utilised for the stem portion.
By this means the finished stem tapers off to the
loop in a satisfactory manner.

"Running Up."--Attach a piece of stem cord,

double, to the hook of the " jigger" on the back-
stick, and sew the end of the weft securely to the
end in such a manner that no hard knot is left, yet
so firmly, that with ordinary wear the weft will not
break loose. Then take the end of the cord
between the thumb and finger of the left hand,
drawing down tightly, whilst the "jigger " is
turned to the right to produce a smooth cable
effect to the double cord. Still holding firmly to
avoid kinking, hold the weft, together with the
sewing silk in the right thumb and finger, and turn
the cord towards the left with the left hand, mean-
while guiding the weft with the right, as it winds
around the twisted cord. After a few turns, stitch
through once, again turn the "jigger," and again
proceed to " run up" until the top is reached,
where five or six stitches, through and through,
are made to securely finish off. The stem may
then be cut down, leaving 3 inch of cord. Each
stem must be "run up" in the same manner,
allowing for the " top-row" weft section a longer
length of cord. When the stem section of this
piece is rolled up, sew very securely, leaving for
the moment the " top-row " weft loose. Press with
a hot iron the tops of each stem, and then sew
very firmly the free end of cord of the two first
stems to the cord on the "jigger," and cut off loose
ends at varying lengths to avoid a bulky finish.
One cord is now cut above the sewn ends, looped
over, and sewn down to the main cord, thus form-
ing a loop for the switch when finished. This
when sewn should be about 4 of an inch, pro-
viding room for winding over it the "top-row"
weft. Tie the ends of a piece of smooth string,

six inches long, take the doubled end through the

cord loop, and place the two doubled ends of
string on the "jigger." This gives freedom in
completing the switch, which is then ready for the
" top-row." Turn the "jigger," roll up as for the
stems, giving a stitch at each turn, and when the
end of weft is reached, draw it very tight around
the cord, carrying the sewing silk over the extreme
end, and sewing through and through. The finish
should be made without any sewing being visible.
The loose ends of sewing and weaving silks are
cut off, and the result will be found to be equally
secure and more artistic than if the sewing silk is
wound round and round at the top. Carefully
comb smooth from the top, and then pass the ends
through the hackle, finally combing right through
from loop to ends. Fold round the top a piece of
paper, quite close and tight at the loop, tapering
to the shape of the stems so that all loose ends of
weft are gathered together. Secure temporarily
with a pin. Take moderately hot pinching irons,
press the extreme end of weft at the loops, but
avoid any pressure on the lower part, which should
only be well warmed through. The paper pro-
duces the desired result, and when well cooled it
may be removed, giving a graceful taper finish to
the work, showing no marks of the irons, and all
loose ends smooth and not noticeable.
A switch made on this principle will give highly

satisfactory results: The stems will be of sufficient

bulk and not be too tapered, and the points of the
hair will be graduated so evenly that no difficulty
will be experienced in disposing of the ends when
the hair is being used for the coiffure. The advan-



tages of the thin end in each stem produced by

the finer weaving at the end of each section is seen
in the greater flexibility of the stem, the lengthening
of the shorter hair to mingle with the longer hair,
and the absence of any heavy or abrupt finish to
the stems either at the top or the bottom.

The same proportions may be observed in

switches of any length or bulk, and should only be
departed from when some distinct style calls for
other effects.
When making up switches of white or delicate
shades of hair, use sewing silk to match as closely
as possible, black silk and a dark loop having
a very unworkmanlike appearance. Especially in
such instances should a silk or hair loop be made,
but of course they may be introduced with equally
good effect in any colour.

Silk and Hair Loops.-When the sewing-up is

nearly completed, and the loop is being formed on
the cord ready for the top-row, the single cord
should be twisted tightly with the "jigger," and the
silk, or a fine strand of the hair, wound smoothly
around it and secured firmly. The silk or hair-
covered cord is then made into a loop, and the
top row carried around it as above described.

Marteau Top Switehes.--Another method of

sewing-up switches is as follows: Take a larger
section of the longest hair for a top row, weave one-
and-a-quarter inches fine, and the remaining part
of three inches moderately fine. Weave the shorter
hair as described above and "run up" on the cord
in as many stems as may be required. Now sew
up the top row flat, about half-inch in width, as

described elsewhere for marteaux, turning the weft

over and over. When two or three folds are
securely sewn, attach the stems, evenly disposed
across the sewn weft, and then continue sewing up
until the last fold is reached, when the loops may
be made, and the two top rows of weft sewn
through and through, finishing off neatly at the
ends. Two button-hole loops may be made, and
the switch attached to the head of the wearer by
means of a small three-prong comb, two prongs of
which are carried through the loops.

Sewing up a "Swathe."-Divide the desired

quantity of hair into two portions, and weave each
piece separately. Commence with three inches of
very fine weft, following with weft only slightly
heavier. This class of work should always be
carried through in the neatest and best possible
manner, so that when completed, the top-row weft
is the only visible portion of the work, and that
should be scarcely perceptible when in use.
Having completed the two sections of weft, sew up
in the manner described for marteaux (p. 67)
about two inches wide, carrying the weft round and
round, each section folded over above the pre-
ceding one, continuing until all is sewn up, the
final section being sewn above, as the rest. (This
is most important.) Sew up in a like manner the
second piece, and when complete, the two top rows

are laid one over the other and carefully and neatly
sewn through and through. If this is well done,
the strands of hair will extend in opposite direc-
tions, and the joining up will be scarcely perceptible.
As the top rows are being sewn it is advisable to
make the work secure by occasionally carrying the
needle through to the lower row of weft. Press
off the top row without pressing the adjoining hair,
and the "swathe " will have the appearance of a
continuous strand of hair.

Cireular Coil Mounts.-The ordinary stem

switch, with loop, is not suitable for every occasion,
and the circular mount then provides an adaptable
substitute. A sewn mount may be made by
weaving ten inches of top-row weft, continuing with
slightly coarser for five inches, finishing with ordinary
weft of usual thickness, in one piece. Press well,
and cut down. Sew the end to the weft five inches
from the end, and, holding it between the fingers,
carry the remaining weft around, above the first
row, sewing through as directed for sewing up
marteaux, until all is complete. The top row will
give a finish to a circle of closely-sewn weft, and
two button-hole loops may be then made. When
in use, the hair of the head is tied, and carried
through the circular mount, which is pinned close
to the tie by pins through the loops. When
combed through with the growing hair it forms a
useful addition, and is practically invisible, even
before the strand is used in dressing.

Circular Braid Mounts are occasionally pre-

ferred, and as these are obtainable in all shades,
it is not difficult to match the hair being made up.
The weft is made as for the sewn mount, but is
attached to the braided mount, commencing at the
outer edge and finishing on the inner side, allowing


a little margin to enable the mount to slip easily

over the hair of the head.

Colour-graded Switehes.-To meet the vary-

ing shades of hair frequently met with when the
transition stage from brown to grey is being
experienced, it is an excellent plan to make two,
or more, stems of switches of different shades-
one of the lightest, and one of the darkest. The
same method applies to brown hair in which the
natural glints are more pronounced, and where two

or three distinct shades are found. In cases of

greyness one stem may be nearly white, the
remaining stems giving the brown tones at the top
and sides. When coiled, and blended with the
growing hair, the effect will be found to be more

Pin Curls are used for a variety of purposes,

the smaller for forehead curls, or fringes, the larger


dressed in puff curls being adapted for additions to

the coiffure. To make a pin curl, take the desired
,quantity of hair, and weave with a top row and
ordinary weft. Commence by sewing up flat,
about 1 inch wide, turning the weft round and
round, and gradually taper the folds until some
four or five are sewn up. Take a long, fine pin,

push the points through the top row of weft, and

bend over close with the pliers. Continue the
sewing up, finishing by rolling up the top row as
described for an ordinary stem, exercising a little
more care in fastening securely, as the weft is liable
to slip on the pin.

Marteaux are made in much the same manner


as chignons described on page 198 , but are seldom

sewn up with the weft showing, each section being
carried round, one section above the other, until
the last two, the "top rows" are reached, when
they are sewn together, either through and through
or with an "over and over " stitch, which is some-
times preferred by reason of the finish it gives.
F 2

Loops are made, either with silk cord, which is

sewn in before arriving at the top row, or a
"button-hole " stitched loop is added when all the
weft is sewn up.

Stitched Loops.-To make a stitched loop use

twisted double silk (p. 6), starting about 1 inch
from the end of the marteau. Carry the needle



through the top row, and then again ) inch towards

the middle. Draw the silk tight over an ordinary
lead pencil, or curling peg, which will determine
the size of the loop, as well as ensure uniformity.
Take the silk again to the starting point, and again
through the top row, thus forming a loop of two
strands. Give an extra stitch through, when the
pencil may be withdrawn. Hold the weft, at the
loop, firmly between finger and thumb, pass the

needle through the loop, and back through the loop

of silk, and draw tight close down to the top row.
Continue methodically the same operation, keeping
each stitch close together, until the opposite end
of the loop is reached, when a finishing stitch
through the top row will make it secure. Nothing
answers its purpose so well as a well-made stitched
loop, and it always gives a smart finish to a

IMarteaux on Combs.- Loops, as previously

described, are sometimes unsuitable, and additional
security and comfort in wear is then provided by
attaching the sewn marteaux to combs.
Having woven the requisite quantity of weft
for the marteau-for example, 1 oz. of ten to
twelve inch wavy hair, commencing with a top-row
rather more than twice the length of the comb to
be used, and the remaining portion of medium
thickness-fold over into sections the exact width
of the comb, allowing a little more for the last two
rows. Commence sewing up as before described,
folding the weft backwards and forwards-not
round and round--so that when complete the weft
shows on one side only, one row above the other
to secure a flat finish. Carefully and neatly cover
the comb with galloon (p. 72), then place the
sewn-up marteau on the outside of the comb, the
weft underneath, and sew over neatly along the

top edge of the comb, the "top-row" weft being

left loose for finishing off. Lay the top row along


the top inside edge of the comb, the short "fly"

ends projecting outwards. Sew very finely over
and over along the edge of comb, turning in the

weft at the end and securely fastening off. The

top row is then reversed over the top, to cover
the marteau already in position, the edge slightly
damped, and pressed along the top with the hot
pressing iron. If made in this manner, nothing of
the foundation, or comb, should be visible when
inserted in the hair.
This method of mounting, if carried through
with very fine weft, and attached to thin shell


combs, provides very adaptable and useful additions

to the headdress for many purposes, and may also
be inserted on each side of a parting with good
results, the comb keeping it in secure position, and
the additional hair fulfilling a very useful purpose.
Curled and waved hair sewn up as marteaux,
not with the weft showing, but round and round,
is sometimes attached to three-prong pins, or
combs. In this case cover the pin as an ordinary
comb, and sew up the weft until rather more than
two sections of top row are left. Then sew, over

and over, the top of the sewn weft carefully along

the edge of the pin, finally carrying the remaining
weft around the comb, sewing it with neat stitches
to the galloon as you proceed, so that when
finished each side will present the same appearance.
These are useful in a variety of ways, and lightly
and prettily dressed are sufficient in themselves to
form an elegant coiffure, or part of same.

Covering Combs.-When marteaux, or any

piece of hair sewn up flat for any purpose, is to be
attached to a comb, it is necessary to provide some
means of securing it. For this purpose net or
galloon is used. In the chignon period, when
immense quantities of hair were mounted on wide
combs for the back dressing, stout silk net was
used, but galloon is preferable for lighter work,
and in fact, is now nearly always used. To cover
the comb with net, select a strong piece, with the
meshes of sufficient size to enable the teeth of the
comb to go through. Select a row of the mesh
in the middle of the net, and place the teeth
of the comb through, drawing it tight up to the
back of the comb. Sew neatly along the back,
and also turn in each end and sew firmly. When
the hair is mounted, no sewing of the net is then
Covering with galloon requires a little more
skill. Select a gailoon just twice the width of the

top part of the comb, measure off the length,

allowing sufficient for sewing up the two ends, fold
the galloon double, length ways, and sew up each
end securely to the shape of the comb, and cut off
the superfluous edges. Turn inside out, and place
as a kind of cap over the top of the comb. Com-
mence at one end, picking up the edge of the
galloon with the needle between each tooth of the
comb, draw the silk through, and then carry it
between the teeth to the other side, where the


galloon is again caught up and the silk carried over

to the next opening and through to the other side,
continuing to the other end. On no account
should the needle be taken between the teeth, as
the attempt to do so is invariably the cause of
broken teeth. This method gives a neat and
strong covering, to which the hair may be sewn,
and a creditable finish given to the work. The
turned-in ends should be smooth and not project-
ing, but if any roughness is noticed after sewing
on, a hot iron may be usefully employed for

pressing down the ends. Some hairdressers file a

small notch at each end, around which they draw
the sewing silk, as a precaution against the galloon
slipping. This is scarcely necessary if it fits well,
and is sewn tightly over the comb. In this, as in
every kind of boardwork, it must be borne in mind
that the sewing, or weft, is arranged to be under-
neath, so that a neat finish is ensured.

Knotted and Weft Pompadours.--These are

made in a variety of ways to meet individual re-
quirements. Usually, a pompadour extends from
ear to ear--io to 12 inches in length. A fine top-
row weft of the length required, and a similar weft,
slightly coarser, of wavy taper hair is prepared,
pinched, cut down, and sewn together, the top
row above the other. One or two lengths of
moderately coarse weft of crepe hair, or fibre,
woven with one wire and two silks to produce a
stiffer foundation than if all the weaving is done
on silk only, and this is sewn up as directed for the
wavy hair. The wavy hair is water-waved, and
when dry and dressed out, the two pieces of weft
are placed back to back, and sewn neatly over and
over. The mount is then pinned on a malleable
block, the crepe hair towards the back, and the
waved hair falling forward. This must now be
lightly combed back on the top side, turned back
over the crepe section, disposed in a good shape

on the block, secured in position by means of pins,

or a piece of net, and baked for -a short time in
the oven to set as required.
An alternate method provides for a galloon-
c overed spring of the length required,to which on
the top side the previously woven crepe hair is
sewn, and one, or more, rows of wavy hair weft
sewn along the front edge. The top row is placed


in the reverse position, and sewn neatly, over and

over, along the front edge of the galloon, turned
back, and the edge pressed with a hot iron. It
should be waved and dressed as described for the
weft mount.
A better article may be made by covering a
spring with net, joining the net on the top of the
spring, and knotting wavy hair over it, with a

suitable proportion of under-knotting to give a soft

edge. A weft of crepe hair may be sewn at the
back, or the pompadour may be made throughout
of wavy hair, in which case the hair should be well
tapered, so that the dressed pompadour will possess
the requisite fulness. This may be made more
effective if, after the water-waving is set, the
pompadour is dressed out with an excess of frizzing
underneath, or " French combing" as it is termed.


When well baked it is allowed to cool, the frizzing

is combed through, and the pompadour " set" in
the desired shape on the block, and again baked.
It will then have a full, soft effect, with considerable
resiliency, and will give every satisfaction in

Woven Horse-hair Pompadours, covered

with crepe hair, may have a sufficient quantity of

wavy hair sewn along the front edge, and dressed

as the weft pompadours. For a better article, the
uncovered horse-hair expanding pompadours may
be utilised, and the surface knotted with wavy hair.
It provides a light. ventilated pompadour, easily
adapted to varied requirements.




Matching Hair.-It may be necessary, in order

to correctly match the shade of hair with which
the fringe, switch, or transformation about to be
made has to be worn, to mix hair of different
shades to give the desired result. This section of
work often presents considerable difficulties unless
the worker is possessed of good eyesight, and is
careful and somewhat skilful in selection. The
pattern of hair should be cut close to the head,
thus providing a guide to the varying shades.
Frequently the middle gives the most suitable basis
for matching. Take the pattern, and observe the
texture, condition, and general appearance of the
pattern, and make due allowance for the variations
in shades which are noticeable in every head of
hair-the front being often darker than the back,
the ends invariably lighter, and at the sides over
the ears presenting a totally different effect. If a
fringe is to be made, the pattern should be taken
from the front part of the head; and if full success
in the execution of the work is to be attained it
will usually be found an advantage to match the
hair a trifle on the lighter side of the pattern-not
by any means a perceptible difference of shade,
but favouring the lighter side. This will be recog-
nised as an important factor when placing the
finished fringe upon the head, the additional hair,
though accurately matched to the pattern, often
appearing to be actually darker.
Take the pattern to a good light, and examine
it carefully; ascertain if the brown is of a yellow
or red variety. Hold it and the selected hair side
by side to the light, and view it in various positions,
and if the comparison is good, pass the new piece
through the " card," manipulate with the fingers, as
in mixing (see Mixing, p. 8o), and again compare
with the pattern. If the original hair is shaded, in
other words, if two or three shades of hair are
found in the pattern, select hair of the predominat-
ing shade first, and mix a small quantity of the
lighter shade with it, and again compare carefully
with the pattern. It frequently happens that an
ordinary looking brown shows a gleam of red
through it, or it may be yellow. It would be use-
less, therefore, to attempt the mixing of "red"
brown hair, by the addition of a " yellow" brown.
These are little features of matching which come
to the thoughtful worker, each fresh experience

yielding some hitherto unsuspected peculiarity, and

adding gradually to the store of knowledge which
goes to make the expert worker. If brown hair
has no shadings through it, all the greater care is
necessary in selecting a piece to match, and its
yellow or red tendencies carefully noted. More
troublesome still is the "pale " hair, whether found
in the dark, or lighter shades. In this instance,
unless a natural colour is at hand, it is almost
necessary to " make" the colour by the admixture
of " slate " or " grey " hair, to give to suitable
brown hair the " pale," or " mousey," appearance.
Grey hair is frequently more troublesome to
the inexperienced worker than ordinary colours,
the ground work, i.e., the brown hair, assuming a
different appearance immediately white hair is
mixed with it. If, after making a careful selection
of the " ground " colour, and a proper estimate of
the quantity of white hair required to make the
grey, there should be any doubt about the result, it
is advisable to mix a test piece.

Test Mixing.-This is done in the following

manner: Take a small quantity of the brown, or
"ground " colour, and a due proportion of white,
and lay them together on the "card," but allowing
the root ends of the white hair to project about
two inches beyond the brown. Manipulate with the
fingers through the "card " until the hair is inti-


Long waved hair, sewn on the front edge of a galloon

covered spring, with a weft of cr6ped hair at the back.
A very fine " top-row " weft is sewn on front edge, and
pressed close on turning back.

Face p. 81.

mately mixed, then compare with the pattern. The

"ground" hair will now be seen to be perhaps
lighter, or more red, in company with the white,
and it may be necessary to select another piece.
Now the plan of allowing the ends to project will
prove useful, for the white may be drawn from the
brown in a few moments, leaving each piece distinct
as before the mixing. This is an economical ex-
pedient of great usefulness, for it may be incon-
venient to put aside a " mixing " of grey hair for
an indefinite period to await an opportunity of
using it. A careful selection and a little practice
will render this plan almost unnecessary, never-
theless it has its uses in a variety of cases, even
when white hair is not being used. Should it be
necessary to use the hair thus mixed, the difficulty
is sometimes met by adding a small quantity of
hair one or two shades darker than the pattern, to
"kill" the red shading, or by adding a sufficiency
of brighter hair if the ground of the grey hair ap-
pears too dark or too dull. To the inexperienced,
and also to the hairdresser who does not keep a
variety of shades and lengths of hair in stock, it
will be found safer, cheaper, and much more
satisfactory to send the pattern to Messrs. R.
Hovenden & Sons, Ltd., for matching, being care-
ful to make note of any peculiarity of the head of
hair from which the pattern has been taken, so
that the matched hair may be according to your
requirements. G

Great care is necessary in preparing and match-

ing the hair for fringes, transformations, or wigs.
Fringes, or semi-transformations, to use a modern
term, are, perhaps, more general, and the
principles involved in the designing, making and
dressing apply also to more elaborate productions.
In this connection the shading of the hair of the
head should be carefully noticed, and an endeavour
be made in matching the hair, and subsequently
knotting it, to imitate nature as closely as possible.
Frequently the hair is one or two shades lighter on
the temples, and if the Jostiches are made of one
uniform colour from a pattern taken from the top
of the head, a line marks the edge where it joins
the growing hair, and gives it an undesirable false
appearance. Therefore match the sides as well as
the top, and carefully knot the two mixings of hair,
that the top blends with the side hair, and the edges
blend with the hair of the head. The suggestiveness
of this will help and assist in the designing and
making of other articles. When matching and
mixing curled hair, always draw it through the
brushes clubbed to the points for the final mixing,
so that the hair may be cut down to the requisite
length at the root end previous to working up.
There is another reason for this procedure. The
root ends are usually not so much curled as the
points, and if good finish to the work in hand is
desired the straight root end must be cut off. This

means of course that 8-inch hair must be used for

6 to 7-inch work. It may be argued that the end
thus cut off would be knotted in, and would not
show. That is so, but if the roots are not cut off
after knotting, the most usual method, the remain-
ing root ends possess morel curl, and help the
dressing out of the work. If double knotting is
adopted, the "roots" may be cut out, and the
knotting pressed with the hot iron, a procedure
which provides a neater and more natural result,
without impairing the strength of the work in any
way. Naturally, too, points should never be cut,
except with a razor after the work is knotted, but
it is better provided for in preparing the hair. If
hair is of two or three shades, or the ends very
taper, it is a good plan to draw off in three or more
sections, laying each separately on the bench, and
when all is drawn, to take up any two sections for
separate manipulation in the hackle, and gradually
incorporate all the sections, one by one. By this
device a more satisfactory and speedy blending of
diverse lengths, or shades, is assured.

Preparing and Matehing.-Adding a propor-

tion of straight hair to friseur-ford will be found
to be more advantageous in preparing grey hair, as
straight is frequently of a purer white than waved
hair, which frequently assumes a yellow tone as a
result of the process of waving. If used in
G 2

judicious proportion there is no subsequent diffi-

culty in water-waving the postickes made from it.
A little straight white may also be added to waved
white hair to enhance the effect, and help to
neutralise any existing yellow tone.

Selection of Hair._-Friseur-forc, or forced

waved hair, is invariably too tightly waved to give
natural results if used alone in its ordinary condi-
tion. It will be found advantageous in preparing
hair for a transformation to blend with the forced
hair at least a third of the quantity of straight hair.
If this is well manipulated with the fingers, and
afterwards twice drawn through the brushes, a
workable blend will be obtained, which in knotting
and subsequent water-waving will be found an
economical and excellent substitute for natural
waving hair, and the resulting postickes will give
greater satisfaction both in appearance and wear.
If two or three ozs. of hair are required for a
transformation, it is better prepared in three or four
sections, finally well drawing to mix the sections
together. Three-quarters of an ounce of i6-inch
taper hair will be found the maximum quantity for
comfortable manipulation through the card. Unless
possessing some experience in mixing, the requisite
lengths should be blended separately. Unskilful
handling of tapered hair usually entails a consider-
able loss, the shorter lengths being left in the card.
Waste hair in the card may be "turned," and
recovered for other uses, but prevention is better
than cure, especially as the original work suffers.

Graded Colours in Postiehes.-To provide

an effective substitute for the growing hair, and to
avoid an artificial and uniform appearance in a
wig or transformation, the natural growth should
be closely imitated. With a pattern of the hair
from the front part of the head, and of the back,
the brown, or least grey, is first prepared-about
IZ oz. of 12 to 18-inch taper hair, if for a trans-
formation. White hair is then selected, and a
portion of the brown blended with it to produce
the desired greyness for the front, which usually
extends from ear to ear, though, obviously, this
proportion is varied in some cases, and especially
at the temples. A few white hairs may be mixed
with the brown for the back if required. Presum-
ing that 3 ozs. of hair is thus prepared, about 3 oz.
of the greyest, and 2 oz. of the brown, are then
well mixed together, which will provide three
separate blendings. The necessary quantity of
shorter hair for the edges and under-knotting must
be prepared in the same manner. These portions
should be well tapered. In knotting, care must be
taken to merge the shades to avoid any definite
line, and so produce a more natural effect.
Postiches graded in this manner have a very

pleasing appearance, and aid the deception usually

sought for in additional hair. It is also advanta-
geous in preparing hair for knotting, and this
particularly applies to grey shades, to work in the
shorter hair a shade or two darker, and sometimes
whiter, than the longer hair, being more natural in
the result, and relieving the uniformity which would
otherwise exist. If a "head" of cuttings were
used, this selection would not be so necessary, as
the natural gradation of shade would invariably be
In selecting hair to mix with white, a darker
shade than the pattern should be chosen, as the
colour appears lighter when mixed.

Quantity of Hair to Use.-In the making,

and use, of all kinds of hairwork, it should be
borne in mind that any excess in the quantity of
hair employed gives a heavy and unbalanced effect.
A wig or transformation, invariably, should contain
less hair than the ordinary quantity growing on the
head. Heavy coils, or marteaux, added to a thin
head of hair, give immediate indication of additional
hair; it being obvious to anyone that such a super-
fluous quantity could not be growing on the head.
The length and quantity of hair required for a
transformation varies according to the size of the
foundation, and the requirements of the wearer.
Two to three ounces is the average weight. In

preparing the hair it is always desirable to provide

a larger quantity, as any portion left over may be
retained; and will be found useful for subsequent
orders, or for any additions or renovations. Select-
ing the hair from friseurforce, natural wavy, and
straight, suitable proportions of each kind, and in
lengths to ensure the correct degree of tapering,
should be taken, and arranged as follows:-
Take about 4 oz. of i8-inch, which should be
of the lightest tint of the pattern, with 1 oz. each
of I6 and 14-inch, of the middle shade required.
Blend these in suitable proportions, and finally
draw once through the brushes. Then mix in a
similar manner 2 oz. each of 12, Io, and 8-inch
hair, of the darkest shade of the pattern, and after
drawing once, blend in.sections with the longer
hair, and finally draw through the brushes, well
clubbed at the root ends. It is essential that a
fully-tapered section is provided for the outside of
the transformation, which provides a more natural
result. To effect this take a good 4 oz. of 6-inch
taper curled hair, and blend rather more than a
half with oz. of the previously mixed hair. This
may be used around the edge, and a little also
reserved for one line of knotting underneath. The
remaining short hair will be required for knotting
along the forehead line to the temples, and generally
to finish off the edge by very fine under-knotting.
The utility of this will be apparent when the sub-

sequent water-waving and dressing of the trans-

formation takes place.

" Hairdressers' Chronicle" Hair Ready

Reekoner.-The subjoined table was compiled as
a ready reference for the hair-preparing room, and
originally appeared in the columns of " THE HAIR-
DRESSERS' CHRONICLE." When preparing hair for
postiches, it is frequently an advantage to readily
decide at a glance, the exact cost per pound and
per ounce of the hair employed in the work in
hand. Many hairworkers have testified to its
great usefulness, and it is repeated here that its
utility may be extended.

Per lb. Per oz. Per lb. Per oz. Per lb. Per oz. Per lb. Per oz.
/ -
6/- /4 38/- 2/41 70/- 4/41 Io8 6/9
8/- -/6 40/- 2/6 72/- 4/6 II6 7/3
10/- -/71 42/- 2/71 74/- 4/71 120/- 7/6
12/- -/9 44/- 2/9 76/- 4/9 I24/- 7/9
14/- /1i0l46/- 2/101 78/- 4/101q I28/- 8/-
16/- 1 48/- 3/- 80/- / 132/ 8/3
18/- 1/11 50/- 3/ 82 5i 16/ 8/6
20/- 1 52/ 3/3 84/- 53 140/- 8/9
22/- I/41 54/-- 3/4 86/- 5/41 144/- 9/-
24/- I/6 56/ 3/6 88/- 5/6 148/- 9/3
26/- I/7- 58/- 3/72 90/- 5/7I 152/- 9/6
28/- /9 6o/- 3/9 92/- 5/9 156/- 9/9
30/- I/ol 62/ 3/10I 94/- 5/Ioi 160/- io/-
32/- 2/- 64/- 4/- 96/- 6/- 180/- II/3
34/- 2/1l 66/- 4/I 98/- 6/l 190/- II/Io
36/- 2/3 68/- ' 4/3 oo/- 6/3 200/-
00I 12/6




Knotting.--To be a clever knotter the worker

must be careful, patient, have good eyesight, and
bring to bear sound judgment in the arrangement
and execution of the work. Needles, or hooks, of
various sizes will be required, according to the
work in hand, and the kind of foundation net
employed. For finer work, which includes partings,
and knotting upon the fine stiff nets at present in
use stiffened by a special process and closely
imitating hair net in appearance, gauze hooks are
used, and as they are in several sizes, they may be
employed for nearly all classes of work. For very
coarse silk, or cotton net, an ordinary knotting
needle is preferred, as the knots are necessarily
thicker and coarser, and a fine hook would not be
convenient for the mesh.

Single Knotting.- The first thing a learner

should do is to make a "single knot," and for this

purpose a piece of net may be put on the block

merely for the purpose of practising. Take straight
hair about six inches long, and put it between
drawing brushes in the same manner as for weav-
ing. Draw out a small piece as for a weft, double
over at the root end, making a loop of the hair


about two inches long. Hold the hair firmly

between the thumb and finger of the left hand, and
the knotting needle in the thumb and finger of the
right hand; insert the hook in one opening of the
net, and allow it to pass out at the next. By this
movement you have placed your needle ready to
receive the hair. Now bring the loop of hair

forward and hook a portion of it with the needle,

turn the open part of the hook downwards, keeping
a firm hold of the hair, and draw the hook back
through the net again, avoiding the meshes of the
net as the hook is drawn through. This, with
practice, becomes very easy and simple. Slightly
turn the hook, push it forward through the loop
and allow the hook to catch the double ends of
the portion of the hair, which has been by this
time partly drawn from the fingers. By a simple

W*4 l '$4-*.



twirl of the hook between the thumb and finger,

and a backward movement of the hand, the ends
are drawn through the loop, and being pulled firmly,
the hair is securely fastened upon the thread or
line of the net under which the needle was placed.
A little practice enables a beginner to quickly pick
up each mesh with the needle, to catch up the
requisite quantity of hair, to safely withdraw the
needle, and as quickly and dexterously draw the

ends through the loop, completing the knot in a

fraction of a second.
Single knotting, as will be gathered from this
description, is not so secure as double knotting,
which is described below, but the knots can and
should be much finer, with the ends of sufficient
length to hold, as they are liable to be caught by
the comb and pulled out. This is obviated to a
certain extent by carefully pressing the work on
completion, in sections with a hot iron.

Double Knotting.- With regard to double

knotting, turn to the instructions given for single
knotting, and, to avoid recapitulation, begin with
the words, "insert the hook in one opening of the
net," and follow on till you come to " are drawn
through the loop," then instead of drawing the ends
completely through the loop, form a second loop
with the hair drawn through, press the hook forward
again, take up the ends of the hair still held by the
left hand, give the needle a turn, draw completely
through the loop, and pull tight down upon the net.
Thus a double knot is made which so securely
fastens the hair that there need not be any fear of
its becoming loose. These double knots should
be made where they are best concealed, but ought
not to be coarsely done, otherwise they will appear
There are numerous methods followed in knot-

ting transformations, and other postiches, to secure

results in the dressing, which, with ordinary
knotting, are not so easily obtainable. The " self-
dividing" front is sometimes produced by finely
knotting on each side of the mesh, by which the
hair is disposed in all directions. When completed,
the hair may be divided at any part of the founda-
tion, and when water-waved, will retain the position
in which it is dressed, and more nearly resemble
a division of growing hair than would be the case
with hair knotted more coarsely on one side only
of each mesh.
Knotting for a Pompadour is sometimes
varied to avoid flattening in wear. In this
method, hair is attached to the side of each mesh,
one row from left to right, and the next from right
to left, commencing two inches from the middle
for each line, continuing to the extreme edge on
each side. It will be seen that across the front
only is the reverse knotting, and over the temples
on each side it follows the natural downward
In illustration: It is necessary to knot some
fringes towards the face-others from the face, or
a portion forward and the rest back. The obvious
advantages gained by judicious direction of the
hair in knotting are readily seen in the dressing of
the finished fringe, and its retention of the desired
design for a longer period when in wear. The

same desirable result may be largely facilitated by

a carefully designed foundation.

Designing Fringe Foundations.-Presuming

the lady possesses a high forehead and requires
postiches to take the place of hair denied by nature,
or removed by any means, it is first essential to
arrive at an imaginary outline for the forehead line
of the hair. If the hair has been lost, some indi-
cations will doubtless remain to show in what


manner the hair originally grew. To cut a pattern

for a foundation take a piece of thin, tough paper,
fold in two, the fold marking the centre of the
forehead. Take a look at the edge of hair growth
and then proceed to cut along one edge from the
fold to the ends, following the forehead line decided
upon, as nearly correct as possible. Open out the
paper, place it on the forehead, noting where it is
in unison with the line of hair growth, fold again
and trim carefully where necessary to make the

front uniform and correct. Decide upon the depth

of your mount, cut the ends round, and take a
straight line to the middle. This is suitable for an
ordinary fringe, with all curled hair, or with a
certain amount of longer hair at the back, waved
or straight.
To produce certain effects the mount may be
varied in size and design-the size should never be
any larger than is absolutely necessary to enable
the hair upon it to cover the part of the head for
which it is intended.
It is sometimes necessary to bring the long
knotted hair at the back well down to the sides,
and yet undesirable to make the mount of sufficient
width to enable the hair to be combed directly
back from the front in a natural manner. Fringes
brought nearly to the ears are invariably " wiggy "
in appearance, yet it is even more unsightly and
unnatural for hair to be drawn down over the
temples to cover the sides. The great secret of
success in fringe making, as in wig making, lies in
the ability to design, make, and dress them that
the hair follows the same direction as the natural
growth on the head. The effect of a bad design
is shown in the illustration (Fig. 33), where the
hair is combed back at the side in the usual manner,
and the long hair of the fringe, by reason of the
foundation lacking design, taken back in another
direction. To avoid this, at the same time adher-

ing to the principle of a small mount, the ends of

the foundation pattern instead of being cut round
are shaped as in illustration (Fig. 34). In this
pattern the front is shaped to follow the line of
hair growth to the temples, slightly rounded at the
ends, and cut at a suitable angle at the end.
The advantage of this will be seen when the pattern

(Showing contrary direction of side hair.)

is placed in the correct position on the block, and

the long hair is knotted back in a direct line as in
Fig. 34. When dressed, the hair from these
angle ends will comb back with the side hair of
the head in a natural manner, with no unsightly
dividing line as seen in illustration (Fig. 33). Par-
ticular attention should be paid to the growth of




Face p.,96
hair on the head, and the hair should be knotted
on the foundation to imitate as nearly as possible
the direction, and quantity, of the growing hair.
By this I refer more particularly to the front hair.
If the fringe is extended to the temples, the hair
on each side should be knotted downwards, or
sideways on the mount, proceeding gradually round
towards the middle so that the hair is taken in


(Showing direction of knotted hair.)

the natural direction shown; finally in the centre

knotting it directly forward. The suggestions here
given should be sufficient to enable any hairworker
to design a foundation pattern so that the resulting
fringe would be both natural and satisfactory to
the wearer. Yet another design of great useful-
ness, and one which is capable of adaptation to
many needs, is shown in illustration (Fig. 32). The
back is cut in the manner indicated to secure the
maximum result with a minimum of weight, and by
careful knotting, the appearance of a larger founda-
tion and a full back of hair is obtained. Long, or
short hair may be knotted in the sides, in the direc-
tion best suited to the hair growth, and a careful
disposal of the hair over the back, will enable the
dressing to be carried out in a variety of designs,


(Showing method of pinning on malleable block.)

in all cases covering up in a satisfactory manner.

The front may be cut less, or more, pointed, if the
disposal of the hair is required in that style on the

Mounting Foundations.--Having decided upon

a satisfactory design, there is a variety of methods
by which the foundation may be made. Originally,
fringe foundations were chiefly made with galloon
and net on the general principles of wig-making.
For economical reasons, and to ensure greater
lightness, the wire mesh woven fringe was intro-
duced, followed later by the excellent contrivances
of hair and silk-net which have contributed in great
measure to the popularity of such postickes of
to-day. Taking the countless requirements of our
fair customers into consideration, fringes, and all
forms of ornamental hair admit of great variety,
affording ample scope for the postick/zer in design-
ing, and in the style of dressing.

Galloon Foundations are not so frequently

made since the introduction of a lighter, neater,
and equally strong mount, but this manual would
not be complete without a description of it for the
benefit of those who may still desire to adhere to
this style. 'rake a duplicate of the paper pattern,
slightly moisten with a sponge, and press firmly on
the block in the exact position in which it will
eventually be worn on the lady's head. ' Start with
the galloon in the centre of the back, follow the
edge of the pattern until again arriving at the start-
ing point, inserting points at all curves and corners
to maintain the correct shape, and fasten off the
ends by stitching, as described in wig mounting.
Then proceed to the " basting" of the mount, or
" bracing " as it is more frequently termed.

Bracing.-Drive a point into the centre line of

the block an inch and a half below where the front
centre portion of the mount is intended to be.
Use strong cotton single, tie a knot at the end of

it, and attach to the point (slightly bend the point,

draw the knot close under it, and loop the cotton
over the point to secure it). Take out the point
in the galloon in the middle of the front, pass your
needle through the same hole, draw it gently down
into position, loop it round the point, then take one
or more similar stitches upon each side, taking care
to have equal tension; then loop the cotton over
the point with the finger, to fasten it, give the point a
tap or two with the hammer or pliers to bend it
down and knock the bent end of it into the block.
Proceed in a similar manner with other parts of the
mount, drawing the foundation into correct shape
and making it quite secure upon the block for the
next process of stitching on the net. This should
be carefully and smoothly spread over the galloon,
starting by placing the straight line of the mesh
exactly in the middle, from front to back, and
pointed down to the block all round the mount on
the outside. Place the block conveniently on the
knees, or in an adjustable bench, or stand, block-
holder (see Fig. 45), and commence the stitching
from the right-hand corner of the inside edge of
the galloon, the stitches being moderately close
together and so arranged that the smallest possible
portion of the silk is seen underneath, which when
taken off the block is the finished side. Having
proceeded thus to the left-hand corner, turn the
block, and sew in the same manner to the other

side. The points which have held the net in

position on the block may now be removed, the
mount carefully braced to the correct shape,
and the outside edge of the net neatly trimmed,
leaving just sufficient to turn under when stitch-
ing to the outer edge of the galloon. This is
done in a similar manner to the inside stitching
excepting that the needle is inserted into the net
in,line with the edge of the galloon, and by lifting
the net on the needle, the finger shield is used to
turn in the free edge of the net, when the needle
picks up the galloon beneath. When this has been
carefully done, the mount may be pressed, when it
will be quite ready for the knotting process.
Should springs be required, they may be cut to the
requisite size, the ends filed down and covered
(see p. 121), and stitched in position upon the
galloon, previous to putting on the net.
With the introduction of stiffened fibre and
silk nets, galloon mounts have been more or less
discarded, in favour of the sewn edge net found-
ations, which are more quickly made, and give
lighter results in the finished article.

Stiffened Net Foundations. -Place the paper

foundation pattern in the correct position on the
block, over which smoothly place and point down,
the net, as before described. Take a needle with
double twisted silk, and commence at the back of

the mount, half an inch from the middle, following

in and out of the mesh of the net around the edge,
finishing off a little beyond where the silk com-
menced. An exact outline of the shape will now
be secured, and by some hairworkers the edge is
now b1utton-hole stitched, taking up with each stitch
the double silk already run through the mesh.
After a mount of this kind is knotted, the outside
edges of the net, close to the stitched line, are
trimmed off with the scissors. Generally, however,


N rT.

the following method gives more pleasing and

satisfactory results, and is certainly much neater
and stronger. Carefully carry the double silk, or a
long horse hair, in and out of the mesh of the net
to the shape of the foundation, occasionally at
corners or end of curves making a double stitch to
prevent slipping of the silk, or dragging, finishing
off neatly and securely at the back of the mount.
Brace out the mount by carrying the cotton just

over the binding edge (under the outside edge of

net) at the various parts where bracing will improve
or maintain the shape; then trim the rough edges
of the net carefully, leaving about 4 of an inch
margin, which turn up and over the silk outline,
pressing down with a warm pressing iron, as you
proceed. By this method no rough edge is left to
fray out, and when the fringe is being knotted the
double thickness of net around the edge is caught
up with the needle, rendering the whole mount
much stronger. An inspection of a fringe made by
these two methods will readily reveal the undoubted
advantage of the double edge over the stitched and
trimmed edge.

The Knotting of Fringes to secure natural

results gives great scope to the ingenious and
painstaking worker. A good principle to work
upon is to follow the natural tendencies of growing
hair, and in this part of the work as in every
other, imitate nature as closely as possible. To
secure results which imperious fashion dictates, it
is sometimes impossible to closely adhere to the
foregoing rule, and the knotter must then be guided
somewhat by the actual requirements.

Wire Mesh Foundations are occasionally

utilised for fringes, and for various mounts where
lightness and moderate prices are considerations.
They are made in the following manner :-First

decide upon the size of the mount, and sketch out

on paper the outlines, by which an approximate
idea of the length of weft required will be obtained.
On one section of the weaving stick wind a length
of wire, and fix up ready for weaving with the wire
and two silks. Weave very evenly the required



quantity, press well, and cut down. Fold over the

weaving in equal portions to a little more than the
size required. Take the first two folds and sew
the end, previously tied, and the wire end neatly
secured, to the next piece of weft. Then sew
together at regular intervals - inch for a small
mesh, and up to 2 inches for a larger mesh-then
take up the third row, so arranging as to sew the
second and third rows together, exactly in line
with the centre of the sewn points on the first row.
Follow the same course with each succeeding row
until the last. Pull out to produce the open mesh,
which, if evenly sewn, will assume the "diamond "
shape. Damp each sewn point, and press with
warm irons. An additional row of weft may be


carried around on the outside, and sewn to the

mount at each point. This gives a neater finish
and ensures the maintenance of the desired shape.
It may then be placed on the block for curling and

Spring Foundations.-In some degree resem-

bling the diamond mesh woven foundation, springs,
covered with galloon or net, and sewn together to
form a variety of shapes, may be used as substitutes

for net or other mounts. For light fringes, two

or three lengths of spring, secured at the ends, are
knotted with suitable lengths of hair. When
dressed out, it is difficult for an experienced eye
to detect the artificial nature of the conception.
With the exercise of a little ingenuity on the part
of the worker, these spring mounts may be adapted
to various requirements, the method readily lending
itself to many clever manipulations. In one
particular it is exceptionally useful-in making
pompadour fringes. The first spring is carried
across the forehead, upon which it rests, joining at
each end with a similar spring at the back. The
middle spring is arched, and thus the waved hair
is kept in position, yielding to the pressure of the
hat, and resuming its original shape immediately
the hat is removed. A comfortable transformation
may also be made in this way, and innumerable
designs in long straight hair, or short curled hair,
forming useful aids to ladies in the dressing and
arranging of the hair, are possible. The springs
should be covered as elsewhere directed for wig
springs, arranged upon the block to the shape and
design required, and sewn together at the ends and
where crossing each other. The knotting is then
a comparatively simple process.




Fringe Dressing.-This is one of the most, if

not the most, important parts of the work, for how-


(Methods of Waving and Curling.)

ever neatly and carefully the foundation is made,

and the knotting performed, if the fringe is not

artistically and becomingly dressed it will prove a

failure. Artistically dressed does not necessarily
mean that it should have the appearance of the
fashion plate fringes, but even in the simplest form
of fringe there should be that artistic touch and
style which, though possibly an indefinable quantity,
stamps the work with the all-important word-
It is always necessary in the pursuit of excellence
to do things thoroughly. Some hairdressers having


made up a fringe with strong curling hair, will

proceed to dress it out. This may be done, of
course, but if a satisfactory finish is desired, it is
necessary to re-curl the hair, or in other words to
regulate the curl so that the dressing may be
properly performed. In a newly-made fringe the
curl of the hair is turning in any and every direc-
tion, and " pipeing," or curling up with the fingers
and fastening down with pins, or any other suitable
method, is necessary in order to lay the foundation
of the design of the finished fringe.

The following descriptions apply equally to new,

or to other fringes which need re-dressing. If a
new fringe is to be dressed (after carefully pressing
the knotting in sections) cut the bracings, and
remove from the block. Select a suitable covered,
or malleable, block usually kept for dressing pur-
poses, and pin the foundation in the correct
position, so that in the process the foundation and
the curls and waves will assume the shape of the


head upon which it will eventually be worn. This

is an important point, a neglect of which often
produces failure. It is obvious that if the dressing
of a fringe is performed upon a shapeless stuffed
cushion, it will not conform to the shape of the
human head so readily as a fringe which throughout
its manufacture and dressing has been kept to the
shape of the head. A reference to illustration
(p. 98) will show the best manner of securing a

fringe to the block for dressing, the pins in every

instance being inserted at regular intervals, only at
important points of the foundation, and all in one
direction. The advantages of this system of
fastening will be readily appreciated when, the
dressing being fully completed, the fringe has to be
carefully removed to avoid disturbing the delicate
arrangement of curls or waves.



The first point is to decide upon the style of

dressing required, and then employ one or more of
the following methods (Fig. 39) to secure the
desired result. If a light and frizzy dressing is
required a simple and effective process is to divide
the hair in several even sections on each side,
rolling up with leather rollers, cane, glass tubes,
" Easy " curlers, or rolls of stout paper, each piece

of hair being slightly damped before rolling up. An

ordinary fringe would require about four curls on
each side, rolling under away from the parting, and
about one square inch in the middle divided into
three or four sections and rolled up at different
angles. The whole may again be damped, and
carefully baked; and when dry and cold will be


ready for dressing. Take the block upon the knees,

remove the rollers or canes, and comb through each
section with a comb previously brushed over with
a brilliantine brush. Take a section between the
forefingers of the left hand, friz back very ligktly
with a tail comb, towards the foundation and the
face, combing the points over the finger, pulling

them abroad and disposing them to lie close to the

block in the front and rather high at the back.
Continue this from each side, covering each parting
as you proceed, then finish in like manner with the
middle section, where the curls having been
arranged at different angles will dress out and cover
each division without showing any signs of a parting.


Put the tail of the comb through to the foundation

and lift the curls up very lightly into shape, and,
dispersing any thick or matted part, finally complete
the work by covering with a piece of tissue paper,
or, better still, a strip of thin veiling, to create a
good shape or control any refractory hairs. A few
minutes' baking and allowing to cool, and the fringe
is ready to be removed from the block-light,
artistic, and shapely for the head for which it is
Artistic designs are produced by more elaborate
methods, and require much skill, patience, and
practice to produce. For these the hair is divided
in a variety of ways, and each little section is rolled
up in flat curls between the fingers and pinned
down in position on the block. (The Malleable
Block, Fig. 41, is best suited for this work.) The
process is identical with curling the hair in the
fingers and putting each piece in paper pafilottes as
they are termed by our French confrieres.
Waving Lhe longer hair at the back may be
quickly accomplished. Damp the hair with the
comb, previously dipped in warm water. Comb
the hair evenly and smoothly, and arrange the
first portion towards the left side, and evenly
distributed over the cushion or block, and in the
required direction. Fix with a pin on the right
side a narrow piece of white tape, and carry it over
to the left side in the same direction as the hairy
and secure with a pin. Then again comb the hair,
but direct it towards the right side, being careful
not to disturb the first portion beneath the tape,
which must be held in position by pressing the
forefinger along the wave. Carry the tape back
about 4 of an inch, fasten with a pin, and carry
over to the other side, by which the hair is kept in
position. Now keep the fingers on the second

tape, and placing the comb in an upright position,

with the teeth through the hair inside the second
tape, push the hair slightly forward and to the right,
repeating this where necessary across from side to
side. This gives a deeper wave, and also disposes
the hair more evenly over the block. Then proceed


as before, combing first to the left and then to the

right, each wave section being upwards of i- inch
wide, fastening the tape at regular intervals, until
the points of hair are reached. Damp again slightly
and carefully bake. If this is done smoothly and
evenly a good wave will result. When cold,
remove the tapes, and with a moderate amount of

brilliantine on the hands, pat all over, comb through,

friz well underneath, smooth with the brush, set in
the desired position, bake again for a short time,
comb through, and finally smooth with a soft

Water-Waving a Transformation.-To satis-

factorily water-wave a transformation, it is desirable
to select a malleable block much larger than the
ordinary head measurement, but of the same
general shape. Place the transformation on the
block, pinning down securely by inserting ordinary
pins at all suitable points of the mount, slanting
inwards from the edge. When evenly disposed on
the block, a few pins may be inserted along the
back edge of the mount. The slanting pins will
hold more firmly than if pushed down straight.
The hair must then be well combed through to
separate short hair from long, and to prepare for
the damping through for waving. Use hot water-
always slightly blued for white or grey hair-and
by repeatedly dipping the comb in the water, and
combing well through, all the hair will become
sufficiently saturated. At this stage, having decided
upon the style of subsequent dressing, commence
by combing the long hair to the left along the front
edge, pressing down the section with the fingers,
and disposing it as a single wave. Then by pres-
sing on this portion with the fingers, comb the
1 2

next section in the opposite direction, along the

same line, thus forming the second wave. Moisten
the front edge well, and tap it repeatedly with the
back edge of the comb, by which all the short hairs
will be brought out, and disposed over the edge of
the foundation. The importance of this apparently
simple device will be appreciated when the dressing
is undertaken. The first wave trending to the left
may be pressed again with the fingers, assisted by
a lifting motion of the comb, at the same time
pushing the hair well forward, so that the hair along
the front line especially stands up well over the
foundation edge. Take a piece of narrow white
tape, pin down on the right about one inch from
the end of the first wave, carry it along the wave
to the left side, inserting a pin occasionally if the
curve of the wave demands it. Make sure all the
hair is in the correct position, tidying up with
the comb as you proceed, as whatever the condition
of the hair at this stage, so will it be when dried.
A good wave is a success in the dressing out, but
otherwise it is a failure that cannot be remedied
without completely wetting through again. Proceed
with the remaining hair, alternately left and right,
in imitation of natural wavy hair, and keeping in
position with the tape. If no curled fringe is
required and all the hair is to be combed up from
the forehead and temples, the tapping of the edges
will necessarily be a more important feature,
especially over each temple. Here, as indeed in
all sections of any head-dress, a natural effect must
be produced. Short hair well and finely knotted


along the edge, and under also, must be tapped

well forward, and flattened well to the block, so
that when dry, the temple edges will soften down
to the face, following the front wave on each side,

which must trend downwards to the peak. It is

obviously unnatural, and decidedly inartistic, for
a wave to be disposed u from the front of
the ear.
In the case of curled hair being required over
the forehead, it is a good plan before curling to
take each section, and comb back any short hair
tight to the edge of the foundation, where it mingles
with the short ends tapped down from the long
hair. When the transformation is being dressed
this "frizzed" edge is combed out, and again
combed back in the usual way. It will provide a
soft base for any curl design, and effectively cover
up the edge of foundation, in addition to producing
a softer and more natural effect.
Having put all the long hair in " pli," as it is
termed, and the short hair in curl, look over
carefully to see that all is in order, moisten well
again all through, before placing in the oven, where
a moderate, steady heat must be employed to
"bake" it. When quite dry, remove from the
heat, and allow to become cold before removing
the transformation to a block the size of the head,
for dressing out.

Dressing the Transformation.-Remove all

tapes and pins, and with a brush moderately
moistened with a little good brilliantine, tap the
hair all over. If the hair will permit, the brilliantine

may be rubbed over the hands and then distributed

by patting all over. Comb the hair well through,
and if it is to be dressed forward, as is usually most
desirable, take the front hair in 3 sections, dividing
in the manner here shown / . Lightly friz back
the hair of the side sections, holding the ends well
over the face, hold it erect and lightly brush smooth
the front without disturbing the friz at the back.
Then with the finger tips push from the back close
down to the foundation, so that the front edge is well
disposed along the edge. Lightly brush smooth
again, carry the hair back over the block, pin down
temporarily, and then attend to the temple line,
adjusting all short hair to give the desired artistic
and natural finish, pinning here and there where
necessary to keep in position. Continue in the
same manner on the other side, after which the
middle section is treated likewise. Here it will be
noted the reason for the oblique parting, instead of
a straight line on each side. The middle section
being wider in front, when combed back, blends
more naturally with the side sections, and covers
the partings without any effort, whereas straight
divisions would invariably fall apart. The sides
behind the ears may then be treated in the same
way as already described, each section being well,
but softly frizzed, underneath. 'Touch up any
point requiring attention, gathering in any loose
hairs, and then cover with a light piece of net-

a face veil is the most suitable-replace in the oven

to well warm through, and when cold, the under
frizzing may be combed out, any rough points
attended to, and the transformation may be then
removed from the block, ready for wear.




Covering Springs.-Great attention should be

paid to the selection of the necessary springs, and
covering the same, neglect in this respect invariably
bringing its results, and these are usually of an
unpleasant description, either during the completion
of the work, or in the subsequent annoyance to,
and dissatisfaction of, the customer. To ensure a
good fit and subsequent comfort to the wearer of
wig, transformation, or fringe, springs are intro-
duced into various parts of the foundation. This,
though a small matter, is an important feature of
the work. Watch spring is generally used for the
purpose, first cut and shaped to the position, and
covered with galloon to match the other part of
the foundation. Having decided upon the part
where a spring is necessary, cut off a piece slightly
in excess of the actual length required and shape
it to the block, giving it greater curve, or rendering
more straight, by drawing it sharply and firmly
over the edge of the pliers or scissors. When the

correct. shape is attained, rub down the rough ends

on a stone to render them blunt. Have ready
some small strips of capping leather, a bottle of
gum, and a small quantity of goldbeater's skin.
Hold the ends of the spring for a moment in a gas
flame, and while warm, press firmly over the ends
a slip of leather moistened with the gum. Or a
piece of courtplaster may be used in place of the
leather, and well softened before placing on the


spring. Allow to dry, trim off the edges, and as a

final precaution, wind a small strip of goldbeater's
skin around the leathered end, so that in the subse-
quent covering with galloon the leather, or plaster,
is not displaced. The advantage of this is also
found in the wear of the article, as one of the most
frequent troubles is found to be due to the spring
cutting through the galloon of the mount.
The next important detail is the covering with
galloon, and this is done in a variety of ways.

Two descriptions, however, will enable the wig-

maker or fringe-mounter to meet all needs in this
respect. For wig foundations, galloon uniform with
that used in the mounting is generally used, and
the spring is best covered as follows : Cut a piece
of galloon slightly more than twice the length of
the spring, fold over a quarter of its length, which
place on the outside of the curved spring. (In all
cases the "finish" of the spring must be on the


(Showing method of sewing.)

inner, or block side, so that when the mount is

complete, few, if any, stitches are visible.) Hold
the spring inside the folded galloon between the
thumb and fingers, take a stitch through from the
top, commencing at the end, and return through
the galloon again as close as possible to the first
stitch, carry the silk over the top, and stitch through
at the other side in the same manner, bring the
silk again over the top, crossing again to the other
side a good three-quarters of an inch lower down,

and take up a fine stitch in a like manner, following

this zig-zag movement until reaching the short end
of the galloon. Now take up the long end from
beneath, adjust to the proper length, the end lap-
ping the stitched end about half an inch, sew
through, and continue the neat stitching to the
other end, always crossing from side to side over
the top, and keeping the two sides of galloon
perfectly even. When complete the galloon on the
outer side will show long zig-zag stitches, and the
inner side of the curve will appear quite smooth,
with the stitches at intervals scarcely perceptible.
The necessary sewing of the net upon the mount
will provide for a more permanent sewing of the
spring galloon. Three important points in spring
covering should be observed-no unneccessary
stitching; neat, thin ends, hence the joining of the
galloon in the middle, and a secure protection of
the ends with the leather, or court plaster.
Springs for fringes and light transformations
are frequently covered with one length of galloon,
which for neatness and finish should be barely
twice the width of the spring employed. The
edges are sewn together, over and over, along the
top of the spring, the ends being neatly turned
over, and sewn as flat as possible. When finished,
the inside of the curve should be smooth and plain,
and the stitches be on the top, where they will be
completely hidden when the work is complete.

These methods are simple and give the best

and most practical results of any; and though the
description appears elaborate, it is surprising how
quickly the operations are performed. Winding
the galloon round and round the spring, and sew-
ing up at each end gives a bulky appearance at


the ends, and the finished work is generally less

satisfactory in consequence.

Taking the Measureme nt. - In wig-making

there is plenty of scope for ability, ingenuity and
taste, and to ensure success very much is left to
the judgment of the maker, though much also
depends upon the carefulness and discretion of the
wearer, if the " secret " is to remain undiscovered.

The first essential in wig-making is careful

measurement, an all-important factor, for no matter
how well the work may be done, if it proves to be
a misfit all the labour will have been in vain. A
mistake in this direction is likely to prejudice the
mind of the customer, and another article (however
well made) might not, perhaps, be received with
any degree of satisfaction.
The method of measuring the head should be
firmly fixed in the memory, so that whenever called
upon to take the necessary measurement, the system
here described may be followed exactly. A careful
attention to the following directions, and to the
illustration, will enable the reader to understand all
that is necessary for ordinary purposes:-
No. I.-With a tape measure ascertain the
circumference of the head, as shown by the double
lines. This is best done by placing the tape at the
back, bringing it round to the forehead, allowing
the end to rest upon the longest portion carried
over to the left side. This line indicates the posi-
tion of the " bind."
No. 2.--Measure from the centre of the fore-
head (where the hair should be) over the crown to
the nape of the neck. (See details of this measure-
ment in sections, p. 145).
No. 3.-Ascertain the distance from ear to ear
(front of ears) across the forehead (as shown by
lower lines).

No. 4.-From ear to ear over the top part of

the head.
No. 5.-Measure from temple to temple round
the back of the head, being careful to keep the
tape from slipping down at the back.
No. 6.-From ear peak to ear peak, over crown.

These directions are simple enough, and only

require careful attention. The figures should be
distinctly written down, and the general formation
of the head should be carefully noted. Occasionally
perhaps the head may be out of proportion, and it
then becomes necessary to make additional measure-
ments, which may be indicated, and will be readily
observed by a careful worker. These measure-
ments apply principally to wig-making, but it is
advisable in many other sections of boardwork to
obtain some idea of the size and conformation of
the head, so that the work in hand will more
readily fit, and prove comfortable to the wearer.
Even in the case of making gentlemen's scalps, it
is better and safer to obtain full measurements, in
addition to the paper pattern, or plaster cast, of the
bald portion of the head, which is sometimes taken.
Obviously no good result would be obtained if a
scalp were mounted on a 21-inch narrow, short
block, for a customer whose head measured 22
inches or even more, and was broad or high.
Experts might say that these precautions are un-

necessary, but a little preliminary trouble and

caution save infinite trouble and disappointment
after. A paper pattern for a scalp gives Ia very
fair outline of the shape and size of foundation
required, and is very useful where intricacies have
to be noted. Frequently the foundation is to be
of hair net, and this has to be made by an expert,
who needs a reliable pattern to work to, even more
than the boardsman who makes a foundation in
ordinary net. It is in such instances that the
plaster cast of the head is so useful.

Plaster Cast of Sealp.-A cleaner, and more

suitable method of taking a cast of the scalp, than
that usually followed, which I have devised, and
followed with success, is as follows :-
Cut into small pieces-
Pure Beeswax (yellow) .. .. Io ozs.
Petroleum Wax .. .. .. 2 ozs.

and soften thoroughly in water, which should be in

a vessel sufficiently large to immerse both hands.
When the wax is softened, work, or knead it, under
the water, by which method all grit is removed,
and the wax well blended. When the cast is to be
taken place the wax in a shallow vessel, which
must be placed over boiling water to liquefy the
wax. Prepare the scalp by stretching a fine piece
of muslin smoothly over the part it is intended to
cover with the postic/ze. Secure the muslin, then

rub over with cold cream, distributing it well so

that no portion of the muslin, where the model is
to be taken, is left dry. Then, with a black eye-
brow pencil draw a definite line to indicate the
outline of the desired foundation. Also mark in
the same manner the position of the parting, and
the crown. By this time the wax should be suffi-
ciently softened for use. Attach to the muslin on
the forehead a piece of fine twine, or carpet thread,
and carry this to the neck exactly in the middle of
the head. Take two strips of unbleached calico,
with a selvedge edge to each, about io inches long
and 3 inches wide. Dip one in the melted wax
until thoroughly covered, lift up by the corners,
and lay the selvedge edge along the centre line of
the head as defined by the carpet thread. Lay
the waxed calico in position, and when slightly
cooler, press lightly on the head so that it conforms
to the shape. The hands may be slightly oiled
before pressing the wax. Repeat the process on
the other side, and then with a soft brush add more
of the melted wax so that a fairly thick coating is
formed on the head. Before it sets, lift the carpet
thread up from the forehead and pull gently
towards the crown. This severs the wax between
the two selvedge edges. When quite cold, and
set, a process that may be hastened by laying a
towel, well wetted in cold water, over the head, the
fastening of the muslin may be released, when the

entire mould will lift easily from the head without

in any way disturbing the shape. When removed
from the head, a strip of calico dipped in the
melted wax may be laid over the centre, where
the two selvedge edges are, and this will securely
join up the two sides, and complete the mould,
from which an accurate and smooth cast of the
scalp may then be made in plaster, on which will
be seen the outlines first absorbed by the wax
from the pencil markings, and in turn transferred
to the plaster, indicating exactly where the founda-
tion outline is to be followed, and the position of
the parting. The carpet thread for dividing the
cast will not be found necessary if a model for a
scalpette is being taken. It is provided for larger
models, which would not readily lift without
damage, unless so divided.
Before taking the plaster cast, remove the
muslin and lay the wax mould in a shallow box,
and, holding in an upright position, carefully fill
up the box around it with sand, pressing it in
lightly with the fingers to provide a suitable
support for the wax shell. Brush over the mould
with oil to facilitate the ready removal of the
plaster model when set. It will retain its shape
thus, when the liquid plaster is poured in.
To improve the resulting plaster "block,"
prepare the plaster in the following manner :-Dis-
solve I oz. of alum in I6 oz. of water, in a shallow
bowl. Sift fine plaster gradually into the solution,
stirring well until a smooth cream is produced.
Pour this mixture into the side of the mould, which
should be filled. When set, the plaster model will
separate from the wax quite easily. The alum,
which causes a quicker setting, is also credited
with the property of preventing the expansion of
the plaster, which to a certain extent is the case
when plain water is used.




Transformations have become a leading feature

in posticzes, being adaptable to many requirements
which would not so easily be met by the full wig.
The chief feature of construction is the absence of
all foundation inside the "bind," and the use of
the outer portion of the wig mount. In making a
transformation there is, however, frequently a devia-
tion from the general principles of wig mounting,
the foundation possessing less detail, and less regard
for a definite outline such as is desirable in a wig.
The hair attached to the foundation, as will be seen
in Fig. 50, is sufficiently long to cover the head.
Transformations are best adapted in cases where
the hair is thin at the temples, or partly white, or
when the lady desires, for any reason, to hide
her own hair; and last, but not least, they are
eminently useful to busy ladies who cannot spare
the necessary time twice or thrice a day to have
their own hair waved and dressed.

The "bind" should be the essential feature of

a transformation foundation, and it should not only
be the starting point, but it should be the finish
also in regard to a comfortable and secure fit of
the completed article.
It is desirable to cut a paper pattern, and fit it


to the lady's head when taking an order. This

paper is then registered for future reference, a
duplicate being used for placing on the block
when mounting the foundation. To obtain a good
pattern, take a piece of thin tough paper, about
two inches in width, and 24 in length, and fold over
neatly, pressing well to indicate clearly the middle.

Place on the head, and by pinching the ends at the

neck, ascertain the exact circumference, and cut
off the superfluous ends. Fold again, and starting
at the fold, cut a curve extending to the edge at
the end. It will be found when this strip is opened
out, and placed on the head, that the inside curve
will fall into the position of the " bind," which in
the proposed mount should be the inside riblon
While holding it in position on the head, make
a pencil mark to indicate the position of the peak,
and the curve over the ear. Take off the paper,
fold again as before, and with the pencil marks as
guides, cut out the outline of the foundation,
bearing in mind the line of hair growth over the
forehead and temples on the lady's head. Again
place the paper pattern on the head, and note any
points requiring adjustment, which should be
trimmed off, and again tested, or if any addition is
required, make up the pattern with gummed paper.
If a fulness of the pattern occurs at any point, cut
a slip partly through from front to back, press
down into the desired position, and fasten with
gummed paper. By this method, a good, shapely,
well-fitting pattern is secured, and a foundation
made upon it will provide a well-balanced and
perfect-fitting transformation. One great advan-
tage of this method of taking a pattern and design
together, is the " balance " of the entire work when
completed. The exact position on the head is
decided, and if the paper is disposed upon a block
in the same relative position, not only is the
outline secured, but all the salient points will be
preserved. To illustrate this, it is presumed that
even with following correct measurements, the
foundation is disposed on the block half-an-inch
too far forward, or too far back from the proper
forehead line. A transformation made in this way
would never fit comfortably, nor correctly.

The Transformation Mount may then be

made in the following manner :-Take the duplicate
paper pattern, and place in the correct position on
a suitable block. A few points, or thin paste, may
be used to keep it in position. Commence at the
centre line on the inside edge of the pattern at the
top, holding the galloon in the left hand, keeping
it fairly tight as it follows the paper edge, and
using points where necessary to keep it in the
correct position. On reaching the centre line at
the back, put a point in the galloon at the corner
of the pattern, again at the lower corner, and then
follow the outside edge until the left ear curve is
reached, when by a little careful manipulation of
the galloon, pressing carefully with the finger, and
with points inserted on the inside edge of the
galloon, a smooth and shapely curve will be
secured. Turn carefully when the peak in front

of the ear is reached, pointing down on the

outside edge, continue over the temple, and curve
again carefully for the forehead outline. Continue
down the right side, around the ear to the neck,
carry round to the end of the pattern in the neck,
and then up on the inside edge until the starting
point in the middle is reached. Cut off the galloon,
leaving ends long enough to sew securely together
as described in wig-mounting. Ascertain that all
details of the work are in order, and proceed to
cover the springs (p. I2I), and sew in position.
The mount must now be braced into position
(p. 167) , after which the net may be pointed down,
and sewn to the mount, as described in p. 172.
This will provide a foundation which meets, and
yet is separate at the back; or, as occasionally is
required, it is not divided at the back, fitting over
the head as a wig. When open, hooks and eyes
are sewn at each corner where the foundation
meets in the neck. Obviously, transformations are
only suitable for ladies possessing sufficient hair to
which the hair of the posticZe may be attached in
dressing it in the desired style. They are intended
to provide a thin covering of hair for the head, and
not to supply a full head of hair as is usually the
case with wigs.

Caul Net Addition.-An abundance of short

hair, either the result of defective growth or careless

waving, not unfrequently suggests the adoption of

a transformation to cover the unruly hair and
to obviate the necessity of constant curling and
dressing. The ends, however, are sometimes uncon-



(Equivalent to a Wig Foundation, when the Caul

Net is knotted over.)

trollable by this means, and then the resourceful

hairdresser makes the mount of the transformation
like an ordinary wig mount, carrying the ribbons
around the head without the usual opening and

hook-and-eye fastening in the neck. The, hair is

knotted as in an ordinary transformation, the
central portion of the mount being covered with a
caul net, which fits the head, affording a safe
foundation for any coiffure, and effectually control-
ling all the short and obstreperous hairs. Hair is
not attached to the caul net, its purpose being in
this instance only to ensure extra comfort, and for
the confinement of the short hair. A caul net is
made of coarse corded silk in a circular form, the
inner meshes, or "crown," portion having a cord
by which the net is drawn up or made loose at
pleasure. It also possesses the great advantage of
adaptability to the size of the head; the hair which
is usually pinned down and covered over when a
transformation or wig is worn being of varying
quantity, and consequently, if the mount is not
adaptable by this means, the greatest difficulty is
experienced in placing the transformation in the
right position on the head. This adaptability of
the caul net applies also to wigs.
Great skill and ingenuity are often displayed in
the knotting and dressing of transformations, and
in securing excellent imitations of nature great
scope is afforded the painstaking worker. In
knotting, especially at the temples and below the
ears at the back, fine work is absolutely necessary,
and a careful study of the growth of hair on the
head at these points will enable the worker to more

easily imitate it, and supply an article which will

"defy detection." The edges must be light and
thin, and yet not perceptible, and these are best
covered by "under-drawing "--knotting the hair
back a short distance from the front, and drawing


(Showing direction of knotted hair.)

it under and out at the edge where a natural result is

desired. A good method, and the one most usually
followed, is to turn the mount inside out on the
block, after all the outside hair is knotted in, and
knot lightly and finely underneath, in the direction
best suited for the hair thus fixed to mingle with

the hair already knotted at the edge. This process

gives a soft finish at the edges, effectively covering
the mount. Where possible short "points" of
curled hair are knotted in, resembling when dressed
out, the little natural tendrils of hair frequently


(With galloon "bind," and wire " springs.")

found on the temples; the " roots " being afterwards

cut away.
The middle portion in the front may be knotted
as desired, either with the long hair to form a

pompadour with a very few light curls for the

forehead, or as an ordinary fringe, with the longer
hair waved back. For the pompadour front it is
the best plan to knot the hair alternately, one row
from the left side of the mesh, and then from the
right, putting in the first few rows at the edge very
fine and close together. Then when it is waved
back it starts from the forehead, and the few soft
curls which have been " underdrawn " or knotted
underneath will give a natural and soft line, effectu-
ally hiding the mount.
In this section of boardwork, as in every other,
much depends upon the care bestowed upon the
work, and the ready perception of the least indica-
tion of its artificial nature. Other suggestions for
knotting providing for natural and artistic disposition
of the hair in dressing will be found on p. I63.

Sealpettes, or Invisible Coverings, as they are

frequently termed, for ladies' wear, are now invariably
examples of very fine knotting on hair net; the
"mounting" of the foundation being a comparatively
simple matter. It is customary to decide upon the
necessary shape and size, and then obtain a piece
of hair net foundation for the purpose, which only
needs careful "bracing " on the block ready for the
knotting, though a more durable foundation is
secured if a very narrow galloon is sewn round the
sides and back of the hair net, or the edges may

be carefully button-holed with fine silk. The hair

used will depend upon the requirements of the
customer, but this class of work usually embraces
the plain or waved parting, with or without a slight,
curled fringe. Frequently it extends to the crown,
when the knotting has to be carefully done to
ensure satisfactory results.
If no fringe of curled hair is required, carefully


tapered hair should be knotted across the front, so

that when placed upon the head it presents a soft
and natural appearance, and not a hard distinct
line, which would result if hair of one length only
were used. When this tapered hair is waved, it
combs very naturally over the temples and blends
well with the wearer's own h air, at once producing
a light and artistic finish, and overcoming one of

the greatest difficulties constantly met with--that

of covering the temples without producing a
" wiggy " appearanee.

A Semi-Transformation is sometimes made

in a similar manner, the foundation covering the
top of the head, tapering away to a point above
the ears. Hair is knotted as may be desired-
usually with a curled front and with finely tapered
hair at the sides, which effectively covers the
temples, and blends with the longer waved hair
knotted at the back of the foundation. Carefully
adjusted on the head, a semi-transformation enables
the wearer to successfully cover grey or thin hair
at the sides, and there is no necessity for dressing
the temples with curls to hide the foundation, a
plan frequently adopted when a little more care
and attention to the knotting and dressing would
give more natural results.





To make a lady's wig with a hair net parting,

commence by marking the outlines on a clean
block, according to the measurements, checking
each carefully to ensure a perfect balance. To do
this, first decide upon the position of the crown,
from which point all measurements must be
regulated. The details of the diagram for taking
the measurements of the head (p. I25) may be
usefully supplemented by a sectional record of
No. 2-front to back. Place the end of the tape
measure on the forehead exactly at the line of hair
growth; carry it over the head to the crown-
62 inches; to the nape--i o inches; and to the
extreme edge in the neck-12 inches. These are
average measurements. Having then decided upon
the crown, measure the 6 2 inches to the forehead,
and make a pencil mark on the block. From the
crown to the nape, 42 inches, and mark the block
again, as this important point denotes the exact
position below which the "bind" galloon is to be


Face p. 145

placed; finally indicate the extreme edge in the

neck. These being completed, it will be found an
easy matter to mark out the exact positions, on
each side of the block, of temples, peaks and ear
curves. The approximate measurements are:
No. I.-Circumference 21I inches.
No. 2.--Front to back : to crown 6), nape I I,
neck 12-.
No. 3.-Ear to ear across forehead ioj.
No. 4.--Ear to ear over top II.
No. 5.-Temple to temple around back 14.
No. 6.-Peak to peak over crown 13.

All these may be accurately adjusted by pointing

down, at the crown, a length of white thread, which,
taken between thumb and finger may be carried to
each side of the block, noticing, and adjusting any
inequality in the outline. The accurate marking
out being finished, commence by pointing down,
well to the front forehead line, and in the middle
of the space selected for the parting, a piece of
No, i galloon, which must then be taken round the
block, straight to the middle incised line of the
block at the back, immediately below the line of
the io inch measurement at the nape, above
referred to. A point may be put in here to hold
the galloon in position, and the end continued to
the starting point in front, where it is pointed down,
and the end cut off. See that this galloon is equal
from the crown on each side, and pointed down at
about 3-inch intervals to keep it in position,

the ends of the points being turned down on the

galloon, and not at the sides as in the case of outer
Take a suitable length of No. 2 galloon, point
down at the middle incised line in the neck, leaving
a free end of 2 an inch, and in a slight curve carry
to the left edge, where it is pointed down with two
points just the width of the galloon apart, the points
having the ends turned with the pliers , inch, bent
down, and the turned ends tapped into the block.
The galloon is carried up the left side, around the
ear, the peak, and temple, carefully following,
and occasionally testing, the outline with the loose
thread from the crown, until the first edge of pro-
posed parting is reached. Here insert a point as
near the outside edge of the galloon as possible,
then turn back over the head, following the marked
outline of the parting until the forehead line is
again reached, when the galloon is taken over the
temple 'and ear curve down the right side in the
same manner as on the left, until the starting point
in the neck is reached, where it is cut off, leaving
a free end for subsequent stitching down. This
outline ribbon should join the " bind" galloon at
the ear curves, at the temples, and cross it in form-
ing the parting section.
A similar galloon may now be carried round
the block. Commencing, as was done for the
" bind," in the middle of the parting, but about two
inches from the front edge, continue to the nape,
and along the other side to its starting point, where
it is pointed down as directed for the " bind." If
fine mesh net is to be used all over the head, it
will be necessary to carry an additional ribbon
along the centre line of the block from the neck to


the front, or to the back edge of the parting, and

another from ear to ear over the crown, using only
sufficient points to secure the galloons in the desired

Bracing.-The outside galloon must now be

" braced," commencing in the front. If the parting
is to be in the middle, place a point about two inches
from the galloon on the incised line of the block,
bend over the end with the pliers, and tap down

to barely touch the block. With the white bracing

cotton, slip the knotted end under the point, and
draw tight. Take out the point at the corner of
the parting, insert the needle in the same hole in
the galloon, draw gently to the right position, and
slip the cotton again under the point, holding it in
position while the point at the other corner of the
parting is removed, and the bracing cotton carried
through in the same manner. Turn the .cotton
over the finger to form a loop, which slip over the
point, and pull tight. Again take the needle
through the first corner of the parting, then through
the second, by which a strand of cotton crosses the
front. Pull sufficiently tight, press the corner with
the finger to keep in position, then pick up the
galloon on the other side of the parting about
an inch from the front, crossing the cotton as it is
carried to the other side an inch farther back, and
so on, producing a zig-zag to the back of the part-
ing space, as in illustration (Fig. 58). Adjust the
cotton to produce an even line of galloon on each
side, and fasten off at the end. Now place a point
I inches from the temple and from the "peak,"
in a direct line with the crown. This is a small
matter; but important, if correct balance is to be
preserved, apart from the advantages and satisfac-
tion to be derived from a symmetrical finish of the
work. Loop the cotton end over the first bracing
point, pick up the galloon with the needle at the

temple, crossing the cotton and continuing to the

second point at the peak, and then carry the bracing
to the peak in the manner shown in the illustration
(Fig. 167), the space between the two cottons being
the width of the spring which will later have to be
sewn there. Follow this by putting in a point as
shown, bracing the temple front to give a slight
curve to the galloon. Do the same with the ear
curve, and then proceed in the same order on the
other temple down to the ear, completing the
bracing by attending to the neck.
On the lower, or outer, edge of the ear curves,
it may be necessary to sew along the edge with a
"button-hole" stitch, to gather in any slack portions,
and at each angle to pinch together, fold over
neatly, and sew down all loose galloon.
Springs for the necessary positions must now
be covered (p. 121) and sewn down at each point
where crossing the foundation galloons. With all
these details in order, the mount will now be ready
for the net. Obviously, the outside portions of
the foundation are the most important, and to
ensure the best results, it will be found desirable
to take a strip of net wide enough to extend over
the bind, and the outer edge, down the side to the
neck, and place the straight line of the mesh exactly
in the middle of the block in front, and point down.
This disposition of the net provides the best
arrangement of the mesh for the subsequent knot-

ting, and each side being identical, a desirable

uniformity will result. The two sides being pointed
down about half an inch from the outer galloons,
the inner edges may be sewn, bearing in mind the
fact that all stitches under the galloon will show
when the mount is removed from the block. For
this reason, the sewing silk, from stitch to stitch,
must be visible as the work proceeds, and the
needle carried through the net and galloon in as
fine a manner as possible. Stitch along the spring
galloons also. Removing the points, the loose
outer edges of the net may be neatly trimmed
round, leaving a margin just one half the width of
the galloon to which it is to be sewn. These tw-o
sides will approximately represent a transformation
mount. The inner portion of the foundation may
now be covered with a caul net, or fine net, similar
to the outer portion. When sewn down to the
inner edges, the raw edge of the outer net may be
neatly turned in and sewn down, thus securing the
two raw edges together.
The loose ends of net covering the space
provided for the parting may now be cut away in
a similar manner, and the space covered with a
piece of coloured paper, with a line accurately
drawn down the centre, as a guide for knotting
the parting. Point the hair net down, so that the
mesh follows the line, sew down the inner edge all
round, and finally gather in the two net edges

together, and finish off neatly. With a moderately

warm iron, press all the sewn portions, and the
foundation will be ready for knotting.
It will be found that these details are not too
fully described, when the worker undertakes the
mounting of a wig for the first time, and it may be,
that, to those already possessing some degree of
knowledge, the methods here described may prove

To Clean Postiehes.-If carefully done, there

is no better method of cleaning than washing: the
spirit, or petrol "dry" cleaning possesses some
advantages, the chief of which are quickness and
no disturbance of the knotted hair. It is a process
by which grease is extracted, but only a proportion
of the dirt is removed, and this is a serious
disadvantage, especially with light and delicate
colours. A fringe, transformation, or wig, should
be pinned in a very careful manner to a malleable
block, so that the shape of the foundation is not
disturbed. For the " dry " process it is dipped in
the liquid and the hair squeezed and rubbed through
the hands. A better result is obtained if the work
is passed through a second bath of clean liquid,
and finally dried with a soft towel, exercising great
care in the entire process to avoid disturbing the
knots and the foundation. For washing, a similar
course is followed, and, when clean, rinsing well in

water, combing through before drying, or proceeding

to water-wave the hair in its damp condition. Any
rubbing close to the foundation is apt to spoil the
shape, and to cause the hair to work through the net.

Repairing and Renovating.-Transformations

and wigs need occasional renovation, or alteration,
in addition to periodical cleaning and waving. Grey
posidches will often appear to have become darker.
This is due to the white hair becoming soiled, or
yellow. After carefully cleaning the article, some
white hair of suitable length is mixed with a small
proportion of hair at least a shade darker than that
in the Jostic/ze, and well drawn through the brushes.
When knotted in, either on the edge of the founda-
tion, or dispersed through the old hair, the new
grey will blend without showing up distinct knots of
hair, and the darker shade will have the desirable
effect of freshening up, and improving the appear-
ance of the article. If pure white hair, unmixed,
were added, the result would invariably be patchy
and unsatisfactory.




Partings as inserted in the Waved Bandeaux,

described (p. 203) are seldom in demand, but
fashion may at any time compel a return to the
style now only followed by ladies of advanced
years. Even in a modified form, or as a distinct
feature of a semi, or full transformation, various
methods of imitating the natural division of the
hair must always be an essential feature of

An "Open" Parting.-Where additional hair

is required, either for fashion or convenience, and
a parting is desired, the " open " parting foundation
offers much scope in designing the postiche, and in
the subsequent adaptation to the head. A suitable
proportion of growing hair on each side of the part-
ing being disposed over the oval or square opening,
provides a natural parting, with the additional hair
entirely hidden, but fulfilling its purpose. It may
be made according to the following methods; the
oval design being more suitable for transformations,
and the square opening for semi-transformations
where no undue tension is placed upon it.

For the oval design, giving a 3-inch parting,

take a piece of steel wire about 8 inches in length,
of the substance of a 22-gauge hairpin wire. This
is first looped together, the ends being temporarily
secured. The loop portion is then held in a gas
flame until heated through, laid quickly upon a
_ ___



piece of iron, and tapped with a hammer to partly

flatten it. It should be kept as near as possible to
the size required during this process-the flattening
having the tendency to widen it. Having com-
pleted the flattening of the loop end, make the wire
again hot and plunge into oil until cold, which
restores the " temper " of the steel. Three-quarters

of an inch is a suitable width for the loop, and

this allows about an inch to turn at the ends. This
may be done with pliers, first heating the wire.
When the requisite shape is obtained, make hot
again, and flatten the ends as directed for the loop,
finishing by dipping in the oil. The ends must be
well smoothed, or turned round with the pliers,
warmed to absorb superfluous oil, rubbed dry, and
covered with thin silk ribbon wound round from
end to end. It is then ready for attaching to the
foundation, which is varied in mounting by carrying
the outside ribbon around to the desired shape,
bringing again to the front, and continuing in the
usual manner, until it reaches the loop, when it is
finished off, commencing again on the other side
of the loop, following the outline to the neck.
The square opening is made in a similar
manner to the oval shape. It, however, must be
made stronger, to permit a " pull" from each side
without destroying its shape. The wire being
stouter, may be flattened more than for the oval
design, and is bent to the form shown in Fig. 57.
When covered and sewn in position on the mount,
a fine covered watch spring is sewn to give a
straight line to the required width of the parting.
If these are well placed, and secured to the mount,
no ordinary strain will destroy the shape. When
these mounts are well knotted, the inside edges
having a suitable proportion of under-knotting, the

arrangement of the growing hair is very easily and

effectively made.

Hair Lace Partings, which depend for their full

success upon the scalp showing through the net,
can only be successfully used when worn in close
contact with the scalp. If a net parting is decided



upon for a transformation, to be worn over the

growing hair, a "lining" of the parting with gold-
beater's skin, or very fine flesh-coloured silk, will
produce a useful imitation of the scalp, and be of
great advantage in regard to comfort and wear. It
protects the foundation in cases of excessive
perspiration, or greasiness of the hair. It provides

a smooth finish to the parting, an advantage when

the scalp is sensitive. The "skin" may also be
renewed as required. " Drawn-through " partings
have been introduced since the second edition of
" Boardwork " was published. For transformations
they are a useful adjunct, though the inherent
drawback of weft attached to the under side of the
special gauze gives a bulky finish difficult to hide,
except in waved designs of considerable fullness.

" Drawn-Through" Partings.-These are a

modern adaptation of the silk, or " machine " part-
ings almost exclusively used in wigs, and " bands,"
before the general adoption of, and improvements
in, hair lace and net knotted partings in the middle
of the nineteenth century. The " machine " parting
was a comparatively bulky article, and invariably
advertised its presence when worn. Rows of weft
were disposed beneath the silk, and the hairs were
drawn through singly. They were usually supplied
by Messrs. Hovenden and Sons " ready made."
The "drawn-through" parting is similarly con-
structed, but the weft is disposed at each side of
the parting, and drawn through in single hairs with
a gauze hook, or in some instances rows of fine
weft are arranged beneath the gauze, about 4 of an
inch apart. This form is slightly less bulky than
the old-fashioned " machine " parting, but it retains
many of its disadvantages. The "drawn-through"

parting is, like its prototype, supplied by Messrs.

Hovenden and Sons, Ltd., but many hairdressers
make them in their own workrooms. Various
methods are now employed by which inherent
defects are overcome, and improved results secured.
To avoid the heavy effect which weft gives, the
necessary amount of hair is more accurately pro-
vided if an ordinary knotted foundation is first
made. If a semi-transformation is being made
with a " drawn-through " parting the following
method will be found quite satisfactory, and to
give a neat and artistic finish. Place the founda-
tion pattern in the correct position on the block-
as elsewhere described for mounting foundations-
and either with, or without galloon edge, complete
the ordinary net mount. Decide upon the size
and position of the parting, and mark the outline
with a white thread through the mesh. Then pro-
ceed to knot the requisite quantity of hair over the
section, knotting it all to fall forward. When com-
plete make transverse divisions, and lift up each
section, turning it back over the finger. This will
cause the roots to project, when they should be
cut off fairly close to the foundation. When the
roots are removed, damp the knots, and press well
with a hot iron to " set" the knots. The necessity
for thus removing the ends will be obvious, as
when the hair is being drawn through the gauze
the short ends would be drawn equally with the

longer hair, and the advantages of the process

would be destroyed, apart from the unsightly finish
of the parting. A suitable piece of gauze is then
pointed down to the block at the back of the part-
ing section, and a }-inch section of the knotted
hair at the back be divided. The remaining quan-
tity is temporarily covered with a piece of paper,
or linen, secured with pIoints at the sides, after
which the gauze is pointed down in position. This
leaves the narrow section only ready for drawing
through. Take a fine gauze hook and insert at
regular intervals across the gauze, pulling through
one hair each time. Continue this over the 4-inch
depth, when the gauze at the back is released and
lifted up to ascertain if all the hair is through. If
not, the remaining hairs may be engaged by insert-
ing the needle through the loosened gauze, after
which the gauze is again pointed down, and the
process repeated for each successive quarter-inch
section, until the front is reached. This may appear
an unnecessarily tedious process, but the result
repays the trouble taken in ensuring that the hair
is more evenly distributed over the parting. The
middle, and the front edge should be very carefully
and regularly done, as being more visible on com-
pletion. When all the hair is drawn through, comb
it very thoroughly, and make sure that each hair
has been brought through completely, so that the
gauze and knotted net are quite close together.

Make a division, and if necessary press the parting

to dispose it as required. If it is to be waved, it
may be left until the dressing process. Having
completed the parting, release the points, trim the
edges of the special gauze, turn in along the sides,
and sew very neatly to the foundation. The back
and front edges may be left until the under-knotting
is done, when they may be turned in, and neatly
sewn and knotted to give the desired finish. The
knotting of the remaining part of the foundation
may be proceeded with in the ordinary manner,
and the parting being an integral part of the whole,
will give better results than if made separately, and
sewn into position in a foundation independently
It is probable that the " machine " which gave
the name to the old style parting was something of
the " Tambour " apparatus, much in vogue in the
period named for a variety of fancy and other work.
Before the advent in the seventies of suitable sew-
ing machines for the purpose, the three lines on
the back of gloves were variously made and orna-
mented by hand, the process being termed "tam-
bouring," and the apparatus referred to being used
for the purpose. It is possible for this apparatus
and method to be advantageously adapted to the
" drawn-through" parting, if made of a suitable
size. The knotted section would then be placed
between two wood sections at each end, and


Face p. 160

clamped tightly together. The gauze would be

similarly disposed about it, with a space between
of a quarter of an inch. A rack arrangement
would provide for the material being stretched
tightly. The drawing through would be the same
as if the material was pointed down tightly to a
block, with the added advantage of having the hair,
and the action of the needle, under complete obser-
vation in the space between.





In designing and making a gentleman's wig, it

will be found necessary to exercise even greater
care, and to give more attention to the minutest
details than applies to ladies' wigs, if the work is to
prove satisfactory, not alone to the worker, but to
the gentleman who will eventually wear it. The
chief object in view is to render the wig natural,
so that when worn it will" defy detection." There
are several difficulties to be overcome to accomplish
this, and some of these are apparently insurmount-
able in certain
instances. Entire loss of hair,
known as Atricia, or hair-lessness, a condition
denoted by the total absence of the hair on the
head, beard and eyebrows, offers greater difficulties
to the wigmaker than an ordinary loss, or thinness
of hair, as it invariably involves the entire hair
growth, including the soft, fine down and hair
which usually cover the neck, and though, when

present, almost imperceptible to the naked eye,

assist in giving to the features the softness and
bloom associated with health and beauty, and,
blending with the hair growth, provide that condition
which art has hitherto failed to copy. To emphasise
this, I will invite any boardworker to note the hard
line which clearly defines a wig on the head, and
the softly graduating termination of the growth of
hair or beard. Nature possesses no hard lines, and
art, to copy or imitate her efforts, must also be as
free from them as possible.

Knotting the Hair for a gentleman's wig is

even more important than any other knotting
process, as the direction of the hair must be
carefully observed at every point, so that an
ordinary combing or brushing, when on the head,
will produce a natural effect, for it must also be
borne in mind that no curls, as in a fringe or
transformation, are present to hide the mount, or
any deficiencies or bad work. It is necessary to
attach the hair to some foundation, and it is conse-
quently extremely difficult, especially in the neck, to
produce anything approaching the softly graduated
natural effects. This may, however, be partly
accomplished by careful trimming of the hair when
the making of the wig is complete. Trimming in
this instance is best accomplished with a keen razor.
Held at an angle, and taken lightly over the hair,

following the comb, the ends of the hair are tapered

to any desired degree. This method ensures a
more natural appearance. But if the foundation
and knotting are at fault, heavy and bulky instead
of light and neat, no amount of trimming will pro-
duce the effect so much desired. The outer edge of
the foundation maybe knotted first, and in the neck
portion especially, a good 2 inch depth should be
finely knotted, drawing the hair from the points,
and knotting with ends of 4 to I inch in length.
When this portion has been completed the longer
hair should be held between the fingers, the
knotted-in hair pushed back with the comb, and
the hair in the fingers cut away with a sharp razor,
leaving sufficient only in length to make the
knotting secure. After the cutting out process, the
hair may be combed down into the position re-
quired in the finished wig, damped with a sponge,
and carefully pressed with a hot iron. The result
will be an outer fringe of natural points of hair,
just the length required, and which will not need
subsequent trimming. If desired, the entire wig
may be made with knotted-in points, graduating
the lengths as required for the various parts. In
which case the cutting away of the longer root
ends, and pressing, may be left till the knotting
is finished. Under-knotting will, of course, be
equally necessary for this method, as for any

Foundation for Gentleman's Wig.-Mounting

and finishing in accordance with the general details
here given, should, when complete, provide a wig
closely imitating nature, and enable the prospective
wearer to rejoice in the possession of an artistic
covering. The first essentials are lightness and
strength; in the delicacy of construction strength
for ordinary wear and tear must not be sacrificed.
Accurate measurements in accordance with the
instructions and diagram on p. I25, together with
a paper mask, or plaster cast of the head, should
be in readiness.
If a paper mask is being used, test it first on
a block suitable as regards size and conformation.
The block must be clean and smooth-scraping
the surface with a piece of glass, or rubbing smooth
with sandpaper is usually sufficient; or a piece of
white paper is pasted over the portion on which
the "bind" and outline ribbons will be placed.
Follow closely the measurements, and mark out
the block to -them. The position of the paper
mask will now be more easily found, and it should
be adjusted, and secured with points, paying
attention to any inequalities. Should there be any
material difference in the shape and size it may be
overcome by building up the shape with layers of
paper, pasted and pressed tight. When dry, these
additions may be smoothed down with sandpaper.
It is always desirable to use, a 'block - inch in

circumference larger than that of the head to be

The parting in a gentleman's wig, is invariably
on the left side, and this is the position selected
for this design. Take a piece of three-quarter galloon
(Fig. 47), and point down as near the front as
possible in the middle of the parting section, and
carry round the block in the position shown in the
illustration. This galloon is technically known as
the " bind," and upon its correct placing on the
block, and as a basis of the mount around which
all the details are constructed, depend the success
or failure of the foundation. The " bind " controls
every other part of the design. When a wig is
placed upon the wearer's head, it will fit comfort-
ably and remain securely in position, if the " bind "
has been correctly, and, it might be stated, scienti-
fically, arranged on the block. The " bind " must
be placed as far forward as possible, though of
course not more than will ensure its being taken
in a direct line around the head, and not lower
than will ensure its being in line with the curves
of the temples and ears. A reference to Fig. 58
will clearly show the position of the " bind " in re-
lation to the outside galloon at each curve referred
to. Having placed the "bind" on the block
correctly, proceed with the mount as follows :-
Point down the end of a piece of "half " galloon on
the centre line at the back, where it is already

marked for the neck. Carry it, slightly arched, to

the side, and point down with two points the width
of the galloon apart. Follow the outline up the
left side, carefully curving the galloon at the ear.
Here it will be seen the outer galloon touches the


"bind." :Put in the requisite points on the top

edge, and on the outer edge when the peak in
front of the ear is reached, where the peak is out-
lined by two points, galloon width, as in the neck.
Give a decided curve with the galloon between the

peak and the temple, pointing down on the inside,

and outside again at the temple point. Here the
forehead curve must be carefully formed, until the
lower line of the parting is reached, when a point
is inserted to give a sharp angle to the galloon as
it is turned to form the outline of the parting.
Continue the line to the circle for the crown,
pointing down with the points in the middle of the
galloon, and on the outside at the circle. Take it
in a similar manner down the right side to the
forehead. Give a sharp turn, and follow around
the right side temple, peak and ,ear curve as
directed for the left side, finishing at the neck where
the start was made.

Testing a Mount.--A point is usually put in

the block in the middle of the "nose," and a
thread attached, held between the thumb and finger,
is taken to the principal parts-such as the temples,
peak and ear curves to see if the right and left
sides correspond. The inequality of the average
block does not ensure accuracy by this method, and
it is much more satisfactory to take such testing
measurements from within the foundation. It will
be obvious that, if the crown is taken as the base,
the exact size must be arrived at, and at no risk
due to the irregularity of the block, which ordinarily
is less accurately shaped outside the limits of a wig
foundation, than within.

Having adjusted the outline, and the "bind"

galloons, by the method indicated above, proceed
with the work by gathering the two ends of galloon
in the neck between the thumb and finger, and sew
through and through. Turn back the ends, and
tap with the hammer to make the join flat.

Bracing the Mount is then proceeded with,

and the details of this will be found on p. 147.
Great care must be taken to ensure a correct shape
throughout, and especially the circle at the crow n
and the curves at the temples. The zigzag bracing
of the parting must also ensure an exact shape,
otherwise springs, and parting net cannot be accu-
rately placed. Having completed the " bracing,"
testing each portion with the thread as the work
proceeds, take a galloon from the middle in the
neck, over the " bind," following the incised line
up the back, until the crown galloon is reached,
where it must be neatly sewn down. A similar
galloon is then taken from the top of the ear curve
across the block, over the crown galloon to the
other side.

The Position of the Parting may vary a trifle

as may be required, and this must be first decided
upon before commencing the foundation, so that
it shall be in the position desired. The orthodox
parting in a wig in earlier days started from a
" crown'" in the centre of the head, and was carried

in a slanting direction to the forehead. Observing

the natural growth of the hair, and usual position
of the crown, this line of parting has much to re-
commend it, but for practical purposes the straight
parting is usually introduced. One advantage of
this is the greater ease of inserting a spring along
the galloon on the top of the head, and the ready-
made hair lace is invariably made for a straight
parting. The " crown " for a straight parting lies a
little to the side, and not in the middle of the head.
Having completed the "bracing," sew the
galloon at all points where it crosses, leaving the
free ends in the parting. At the neck, corners,
peaks, and curves will be found loose portions of
galloon, and slack edges. These must be neatly
sewn down. The edges are best stitched with a
loop, or button-hole, stitch, by which the galloon
is drawn into shape, and is made to lie flat upon
the block. The galloon at the back, from neck to
crown, and the one carried from the ear curves, is
chiefly to ensure against strain when the finished
wig is repeatedly pulled into position on the head.
There is a second value also, which will be quickly
found in sewing the net into position.

" Gut " in Parting.-To provide for the strain

upon the foundation, and the parting, it is some-
times desirable to take the strain of the "bind"
from the parting net by attaching to the side

galloons two or three strands of "gut," sold for

the purpose. It is sewn in with a needle, com-
mencing at the lower corner of the " bind," where
it is neatly made fast, carried across the parting,
and again secured, then over the galloon a 1 of an
inch towards the crown, again across the parting-
in a straight line, not zigzag as in the bracing-


repeating the operation until four strands are in

position. The " gut" will be invisible when the
parting net is fixed and knotted.

Attaching the Springs is the next procedure,

and these should be in readiness, prepared as de-
scribed on p. 121. A spring extending as far as
possible along the top parting galloon to the circle

may be partly covered-galloon on the top side

only, to avoid bulkiness. Two springs crossed at
the temples, and two crossed at the neck, though
here one spring only is frequently used. Its correct
position is in a line from the outside corner of the
mount to the crown. Point them in the correct
positions, and sew down to the galloons, and sew
together where they cross.

Attaching the Net.-Commence on the side

of the parting, allowing the straight mesh of the
net to be in line with the galloon of the parting.
Point down along that line, and then arrange the
net over the temple and peak, pointing down out-
side the foundation outline as far as the net will
go without puckering. It will be found that the
galloon from the ear to crown will be a convenient
position for joining, and the other portion of net
may be found to fit comfortably over the mount to
the neck, where the spring will provide another
joining, and the " bind " likewise to the ear. Point
down at every suitable portion and cut away the
superfluous net. This section may then be sewn,
commencing on the outer side of parting galloon at
the crown to the temple, along the inner side of
galloon to the peak, over the ear to the neck, up
the spring to the "bind," back to the ear, and
thence along the cross galloon to the starting point
at the crown. Commence sewing again at the ear,

following the " bind" to the parting, back along

the other side of "bind" to the temple springs,
which must be sewn down on each side to the net.
Take out the points and accurately trim the outer
edges of the net along the line of the respective
galloons, leaving about 1-6 of an inch for turning in.
It may be snipped at the ear curve to enable the
turning in to be easily and neatly done. The sew-
ing of the outer edge may now be done, by first
turning the net edge under with the fingers, in line
with the galloon, or as the sewing is proceeding,
turning in the edge with the finger shield as it is
caught up with the needle. Either method may be
followed, as found most convenient. The opposite
side may then be covered in the same manner;
and finally the sections covering the back. The
loose edge of net along the sides of the parting
may now be temporarily turned back, and a piece
of coloured paper-preferably blue-cut to the size
of the parting, and clearly marked, as shown in
illustration, p. 181, as a guide for knotting the
crown and parting, placed in position over the
cross bracings. Over this the parting net is laid,
exercising great care to ensure the mesh of the net
being in exact line with the indicated parting.
Point down along the galloon on each side and at
the crown, sew neatly along the inner edges, and
finally turn back the edge of outside net, and sew
down over the parting net. This ensures stability

of the hair lace, and a neat finish to the founda-

tion, which, after pressing of all the sewn edges,
is quite ready for knotting. After pressing the
wig (which should be done in sections, as its
object is to fix the knots more securely), remove
from the block and neatly fix an elastic on the
" bind," immediately below each ear curve. Plac-
ing the elastics in this position is equally effective,
and ensures a better appearance than when sewn
in across the neck.

Partings for Wigs.-It may be desirable or

expedient to vary these designs to suit peculiar
needs, and then a general knowledge of old and
new styles of wigmaking will prove useful, and give
scope for the application of the various theories.
As a general rule, unless price entirely prevents its
use, hair net should be used for the parting, even
though some other detail is omitted. Gauze or
stiff net may be used, and the ribbons varied to
suit the altered conditions. Needless to suggest,
the knotting should be equally . fine, and in entire
keeping with the mount, for heavy, coarse knotting
on a light foundation would at once spoil the
The same methods may be followed for a
cheaper make of wig, substituting stiff net in place
of hair net, so placing it upon the block that the
selvedge edge of the net crosses the forehead,

though with a good quality net the edge may be

cut to the desired shape, and left " raw." It is also
frequently turned over about a quarter of an inch,
well pressed down, and the two thicknesses of net
knotted together in the process. Only the finest
knotting should be employed in this class of work.
These minor details are mentioned, though much
of the success in carrying out the work described
will be largely due to the intelligence of the worker
in applying them in a practical and artistic manner.




Gentlemen's Scalps to be satisfactory should

always be made of hair net, which ensures a better
and more natural finish and effect. A paper
pattern cut exactly to the shape of the patch to be
covered should be carefully prepared (p. 127), and
a piece of hair net made to that shape, noting on
the paper pattern the exact position of parting, if
any, and designing the front portion so that the
knotting may be carried out in a manner best
suited to the style the wearer desires to arrange
the hair. By noting the position of the parting
the hair-net maker so works it that the selvedge is
covered by the knotting, and the parting section in
front is left with a neat edge.
Should there appear to be any difficulty in
securing a good shape from a paper pattern, the
extra trouble in making a cast of the scalp (p. 128)
will be well repaid in a perfectly-fitting foundation.
When price is a consideration, a cheaper kind
may be made, using hair net for the parting only,

and ordinary silk net or gauze for the other portion

of the mount.

Gauze Foundations may be made in various

ways, much after the methods employed for net
foundations - with or without galloon. With
galloon the best plan to adopt will be as follows:
Select a suitable block, as nearly as possible
answering to the principal measurements of the
head, and the shape of the paper pattern. If any
inequality, make up the block to the exact shape.
Place the paper pattern upon it, having due regard
to the position it should occupy on the head, and
test its size and shape by careful measurement.
Then proceed to carry a narrow galloon round the
outside edge, pointing down where required, and
turning over and neatly stitching the ends at each
side of the parting, which, of course, must be left
open. Any portions of the galloon which are
puckered through being curved to the shape, should
be carefully button-holed along the loose side.
Presuming that the outside edge is tight, and the
inside edge is loose for about an inch in length,
take a needle and silk to match the galloon, com-
mence at the extreme end of the loose portion, and
stitch along the edge, looping up each stitch-
button-hole stitch-until you arrive at the other
end. You will perceive that the galloon now lies
flat and shapely on the block. Another plan is to

" tack" it with white cotton in two parallel lines

through the loose section of galloon, thus holding
it in the correct position until the mount is finished,
when it is withdrawn. I am perfectly aware that
many workers do not consider this necessary, but
attention to these small and apparently insignificant
details gives far better and more satisfactory results
both in appearance, and in the wear of the Scalp,
Transformation or Wig; for the same process may
advantageously be applied to all such work.
Having, then, secured a shapely outline with
the galloon, place a fine spring along each side
galloon, brace out the foundation, being careful to
maintain the correct shape. Then select a suitable
piece of gauze (or net) paying particular attention
to the portion for the front of the parting, and
spread it over the mount, fastening down smoothly
and evenly in position with points. (The points
securing the galloon should lie on the galloon, not
turned outwards.) Now stitch neatly and regularly
along the inside edge of the galloon from one side
around to the other; remove the points by which
the gauze or net is secured, and trim the gauze
neatly round, allowing it to project about 116 of an
inch over the outside edge of the galloon. Having
completed this, sew down the outer edge of the
mount by turning under the surplus edge of the
gauze neatly and uniformly with the galloon. The
front portion at the parting may have about 4 of an

inch neatly turned and pressed back. the sides

sewed down to the galloon, and the whole stitching
pressed with a moderately hot iron, when the
mount will be ready for knotting.
More frequently, perhaps, these mounts are now
made without galloon, and the new stiffened nets
as used for fringes are admirably adapted to the
work. To make a scalp without galloon, place the
paper pattern upon the block as previously described,
with the position of the parting carefully marked,
and then fasten a suitable piece of net over it, as
in making a fringe mount. Now take a needle
with silk more than twice the length of the outside
of the mount. Make a commencement at the back
with a secure fastening, and take the single silk in
and out of every hole around the edge, following
exactly the shape as indicated by the paper pattern
underneath until arriving at the edge of the parting
section in the front. See that the silk is sufficiently
tight along the whole length traversed, and then go
back over the same section, taking up the alternate
meshes and occasionally, particularly at any curve
in the shape, taking a stitch over and over the
other silk for additional security. Continue around
to the other side, and return in a like manner,
finishing off securely at the back. Horsehair, and
sometimes several human hairs, are substituted for
the silk, carried through with a needle in the same
manner. Frequently a few hairs are carried from

side to side across the front of the parting. Having

attended to these preliminaries, a few points may
be removed, and the net trimmed neatly to within
4 inch of the outline, and the bracing of the mount
is effected by carrying the cotton over the outline
silk at intervals, continuing until all the foundation
is braced-or basted-into position. The outside
edge of net is now turned over and well pressed
down with a hot iron, and a mount is then ready
for knotting which, when finally complete, will
present a shapely and finished appearance quite
equal to a galloon mount, almost, if not quite as
strong, and much lighter and quite as comfortable
in every respect. Made in this manner, a covering
for a bald head need not weigh more than half an

Scalp with Hair Net Parting.-Should it be

necessary to make the mount with a hair net parting,
and it is always desirable to do so if the price is
not the chief consideration, the same methods may
be followed as previously described for gauze and
net mounts, with or without galloon. Having
completed a mount in either of these styles, place
the hair net in position on the top of the mount,
and stitch down neatly all round. Previous to the
knotting of the parting, a piece of smooth paper
(preferably a tinted note paper) cut a little narrower
than the parting, and with a rounded end, is inserted

between the hair net and the gauze. There are

obvious reasons for this; the presence of the paper
prevents the knotting needle picking up the under
net (which it should do, however, at the edges for
extra security), and the contrast in colour shows up
the mesh of the net more plainly and renders the



knotting process more easy and comfortable.

When the work is finished, and taken off the block,
the underneath gauze may be cut away with the
scissors, and it is found a good plan to notch the
edges so that it does not fray out. Small oval
pieces of oiled skin are sometimes lightly sewn on

the mount underneath, on which spirit gum, or a

small layer of Pommade Toulouse is placed to fix
the scalp to the head.

Knotting a Crown.-There are various theories

respecting this section of the work, and each worker
follows his own methods. It is of course desirable
that the hair should be so implanted that it will
be naturally disposed over the foundation when



finished. The most simple plan, and one that is

frequently followed, is to decide upon the exact
centre of the crown, and then knot the hair in
circles, each succeeding row being smaller, and
finer, until the centre is reached. This gives
a fairly satisfactory result; but unless carefully
worked is liable to present a mechanical rather
than an artistic finish. One of the best methods
will be found clearly shown in the accompanying
illustration (Fig. 6o). To knot a crown in this
manner, a piece of paper should have the curved
lines providing for eight equal divisions, clearly
marked upon it, together with the line of the part-
ing, and placed beneath the net as a guide when
knotting. It can then be followed accurately, and
a certain result assured. In each curved section
the knotting should be the ordinary thickness to
commence, placing a knot in alternate meshes,
continuing with gradually decreasing quantities of
hair until the centre is reached, where a single
hair will be found sufficient for the finishing knots.


Methods and Fashions of Other Days.-

Fashion is ever changing, and the fickle goddess
does not seem to know her own mind for long
together. And this remark is as applicable to
hairdressing as it is to dress, or indeed anything
else. To hairdressers, nothing perhaps is more
interesting than a perusal of illustrated books of
earlier periods, and to note the varying styles of
coiffure. It is also of importance, as frequently
wigs and yostic/es illustrative of earlier fashions are
required for theatrical wear, and for fancy dress.
Though they may never come into general use
again, still those who wish to be proficient in board-
work should learn how to make them. To be well
grounded in the rudiments of any trade is of the
greatest importance, for all must have a beginning,
and the more skilful work of the clever tradesman
will surely follow after.

French (woven) Ringlet Fronts used to be in

good demand, and being so light, the ingenious
way of making them, I think, ought to be preserved.
The method of weaving is described, as much for
its preservation as for its adaptability to other uses.
The weaving frame resembles that which is shown
for ordinary weft, but has more silks upon it. The
peg is specially made for this kind of work, and
there are a number of grooves for the silk, but one
with twelve spaces will perhaps answer every pur-
pose. Wind the silks upon it in the usual way,
and tie up in groups of three according to the

stop to the weft) be in a line, thus: '

customary mode. Let each knot (which forms a
and have
nine of the silks placed in position on the nine
lower grooves. Take first a piece of straight hair
of the same colour as the curls, and about 2 inches
long, and draw out what is best described as a
coarse weft. This has to be plaited, as it were,
upon all the silks employed in making the front.
Hold the root end between the thumb and fingers
of the left hand, having the long end uppermost.
Commence by placing it at the back of the lower
silk, and draw it through. Then over 2, under (or
behind) 3, over 2 and behind the top one. Con-
tinue in the same fashion, but reversing the move-
ment until the whole of the hair is worked up.
Plait tight; but it can be made close and firm by
pulling the hair as frequently as possible to get it

into shape. (See the ends and centre of illustra-

tion, Fig. 62.) Having thus worked the hair, finish
off at the lower three silks by drawing the ends
towards you, and leave it so for the present. Take
oz. or I oz. of I2 inch ringlet hair, and divide
into two equal parts. Place the proper portion
into the drawing brushes, and weave five inches of
moderately close fine weft upon the three lower
silks. Next make 4 inches of the same descrip-


tion of weft upon the three middle silks, leaving a

I inch space between the end of the plait and the
weft: the reason for doing so will presently appear.
Now weave five inches of the same kind of weft upon
the three top silks, and the end of each row must
be regular. Draw off another coarse strand of
straight hair, and plait all the silks together as
before. Three rows of weft are now to be done
exactly as before, leaving the 1 inch space at the
corresponding end; then take a third strand of
straight hair and make a finishing plait as at the

beginning. The whole length of the "front" should

be I I inches, including the plaited ends, and centre
piece. The illustration is so plain, that no mistake
can possibly arise if proper attention be given to
the subject. Comb out the hair as each row is
completed, and form into curls. Press each section
of the weft, and carefully remove with the scissors
all superfluous ends and hairs. Cut the centre silk

FIG. 63.-RINLET FRONT (Dressed).

of each group of three, finish off securely, and then

cut down. As previously indicated the reason for
leaving the space at the ends of the middle row of
weft would shortly appear, and you are now to
take hold of those three silks and pull them. Do
so at each end, the result will be to shorten the
centre row; thus enabling you, with the help of
springs, to form the mount as designed (Fig. 62).

Make two springs, about two inches long, and rub

down the ends, cover with kid, plaster, or parch-
ment, as previously described, and sew them up in
narrow galloon. Stitch the sides neatly, and sew
them securely to each row of weft. Strings of
galloon are to be affixed, at each end, and may
have a hook and eye, and an elastic, so that a
comfortable fit is assured.
It is now to be placed upon a block, pressed
and dressed as indicated in the illustration, p. 187.
The number of curls is immaterial, for the hair
may be arranged in three upon each side, or there
may be as many as a dozen, and on each side
the curls are dressed towards the face.
In addition to the kind just described, there is
another way of proceeding so as to introduce a silk
or skin parting. These fronts can be made very
light, and as there is no net and but little galloon,
ventilation is not interfered with. Proceed as
follows :-Set up the weaving frame as described
on p. 185, but instead of nine silks there are now
to be twelve. Tie them in threes as before, and
intertwine a piece of straight I2-inch hair according
to the following directions :-Hold the root end,
pointing downwards, firmly between the thumb and
finger of the left hand, and also the lower silk.
Push the long hair through, pass two silks, and
bring the hair to the front again. Then push the
hair through, and pass three more, draw it forward,

pass two, and over the top one. The hair plait
(for plait it is) is now to be continued downwards,
but the movements are to be reversed. I will
describe this in another way. Say that you are
holding the hair in the manner set forth above,
together with the first lowest silk-now-over one,
under two, over three, under three, over two, under
one, and over the top, reversing the order of
plaiting up and down till the length of hair is all
used. You must " manoeuvre," or "work it" a
little so as to get it tight, firm, and regular, and
fasten off as previously instructed. Take 3 oz., or
an ounce of ringlet hair of the required length, say
So to 12 inches. Weigh the two portions, so that
you have an equal quantity of hair to work with.
Make 43 inches of weft on the lower silks ; 42 inches
of weft on the next group; a like quantity on the
group above, and 51 inches of a weft on the top.
There is to be a vacancy of 4 inch (near the plait)
in the second and third rows, and this will explain
why they differ from the lower one. As there is
to be a parting, a space of I} inches (but this
depends upon the width of the parting) must be
left in the centre to which you have now arrived;
the top row forming an exception, and that is to
be woven right along without any break whatever.
Commence weaving in the order just described
upon the other side, leaving the }-inch spaces at
the ends of the second and third rows as before.

Complete the weaving of the top row ; see that the

weft joins properly in the middle, because it should
be uniform and regular. Make a corresponding
plait to that which you did at the beginning; press
the weft with warm irons; fasten off securely, and
cut down.
It has now to be mounted, for which take a
clean wig block. Partings vary in depth, but the
"front" here described is four inches deep, and it is
assumed that a similar one is being made. Have
some galloon the full width of the parting (after
the edges of the latter are tacked) and cut off
five inches. Turn up the lower edge of the ribbon
and lay the smooth surface upon the block, exactly
in the centre, and just where the front should be
worn when upon the head. Drive two points into
the block, at short but equal distances from each
other; take a needle and single cotton, tie a knot,
to "fasten on" to a point; pass the needle through
one corner of the ribbon, and secure the cotton to
the point below. Proceed in the same way with
the other corner. Turn the block round, bend up
the end of the ribbon as before, and secure the
corners by means of bracing stitches in a like
manner. Remember that in weaving it was
arranged that I-in. spaces were to be left at both
ends of the two inner rows of weft. Now draw
the silks out a I inch, so as to bring the weft close
to the plait, for by this movement you will be

enabled to spread out the top and bottom rows to

the end of the springs, while the centre rows are
tightened and nearly straight, as they should be.
Next sew the strings on to the plaited ends; make
two springs, each a full 4 inch deeper than the
parting, cover as previously instructed, and fix in
their appointed places, the additional length of the
springs ensuring the correct shapes. The two
middle rows of weft need not be sewn to them yet.
Now place all upon the block, get the mounted
ribbon exactly in the middle, take hold of the
strings, pull tight, and drive a point through them
at the back in the place where they should be tied
by the wearer. Arrange so as to keep the top row
of hair out of the way ; let the lower silks be f inch
above the place where the parting touches the
forehead, and fix all in their respective positions
by means of a needle and silk. Secure the two
middle rows of weft to the springs in the same way.
Now to affix the parting. Turn in the edges of
the silk or skin upon which the parting is worked,
and " tack " them in such a manner that the lowest
portion (being the most important) is turned up
last. The parting is now to be sewn neatly to the
ribbon, commencing at the bottom; both should
exactly fit, and, what is most important, only the
parting is to be seen where it touches the brow.
The pressing iron can now be used, and the
curls--be they many or few-arranged as desired.

"Diamond" Foundation Front.-There are

other fronts with ringlet curls beside those just
described. For instance, there is a mounted front
of a diamond shape, which is made to slide, techni-
cally called a diamond front. It is made as
follows: Cut off two pieces of galloon about 8 or
9 inches in length each. Sew the ends (through
and through, not over and over) neat and firnm;
these are for the two sides. Place one of them
upon a block, in the position it is intended to be
worn. The ends of the galloon (where it has been
sewn) must be uppermost at any place except a
corner. Open the ends and hammer slightly, so
as to make them lie as flat as possible. Take four
points, and spread out the galloon in diamond
shape, so that it will be about 2 inches deep, and
perhaps 4 inches long. Now take a needle and
cotton, points, etc., and brace out in the required
form; the upper and lower bracings (where the
springs go) to be somewhat pointed; the ends are
to be square, equal to the width of the galloon
forming the strings. Make another mounting on
the corresponding side of the block, and both must
be alike in every particular. Upon the block (be-
tween the right and left sides of the mountings) a
space of 2 inches or more should be left, because
the wearer's own hair must be seen when the curls
are worn. Bear in mind this is to be a sliding
front, and the lady will be able to adjust the curls
to her own wishes or taste. Now, the two sides
being in their proper positions, and firmly secured
by means of the bracing stitches, sew a piece of
galloon on one side only from one end to the other ;
the reason for doing so will be presently given.
Cut off sufficient galloon for the strings, and this
must be long enough to encircle the head, leaving
plenty to tie in a double bow as well, or to have
elastics, and hook and eye attached. Find the
centre of the galloon, and temporarily fasten it
with a point between the mounts. One of these
strings is to be continued along the mount, corre-
sponding with that upon which a piece of galloon
has been sewn, the remainder being fastened by
means of a point in the neck. The other half is
to be abruptly turned back over the crown, and
temporarily secured to keep it out of the way.
Measure off two springs, rub down the ends, cover
with narrow galloon as previously instructed, and
fix in their respective places. Put on the net;
sew it to the inner edges of the mount only, and
to both sides of the centre galloons and springs.
The foundation is now ready for the hair.
Take sufficient hair, say I oz. of I2-inch ringlet
and divide it equally. Weave a top row first,
and ordinary front weft with the remainder. Do
the same with the second lot of hair. Sew on the
weft, beginning at the bottom of the lower galloon;
turn the corners neatly; let the weft appear in

regular rows, and lastly, sew on the top row. Comb

out the hair and curl it over the fingers in proper
form before doing the other side, which, when done,
is to be treated in a similar manner. Divide the
weft in conveniently small portions, and press care-
fully. Take the mount off the block, and cut off
another piece of galloon. Turn in about 2 an inch
at one end, and sew the corners securely to one of
the ends of the mount. Neatly stitch the edge of
this piece of galloon to the edge of that which is
attached to the mount, but before fastening off turn
in the free end as you did at the beginning. Sew
along the other edge of the galloon as before, and
secure the stitches. There is now a hollow space
for the string to 'travel through, and a bodkin is
necessary for threading it in the first instance.
Replace the front upon the block, dress and arrange
the curls as required.

Wire Woven Diamond Mesh Foundations,

made principally for the side curls so much in vogue
from 1840 to 185o, and even later, were made up
as follows; the system of making being, of course,
applicable to other and more modern styles. The
requisite quantity of hair for a pair of "bunches "
will be 4 oz. of 14-inch curled hair. Weigh out an
equal quantity of hair for each side; take one
section and place in the brushes and weave; when
woven, comb it out carefully, and form several

ringlets. Take the next piece of hair, and weave

to correspond with the first piece as much as
possible in every respect. Fasten off in the usual
manner, and cut down. The sewing up has now to
be performed. Take one of the pieces of weft,
double it, and press the fold so as to temporarily
mark it. This will give the centre of the piece.
Fold one of the halves into three (by which you
obtain the width to make up) marking each turn as


before. Take the two bottom sections of weft, the

first one of which may be half an inch longer than
the other divisions, and sew neatly and firmly
together at regular distances apart as described on
pages 104 and 105, take up another row, and sew
again in the same manner, but arranging that the
fastening shall be exactly between the stitches on
the lower sections, and continue until the last fold
of weft is sewn, maintaining the exact width through-
out. By pulling the rows of weft apart, the sewn

divisions will assume a " diamond" shaped mesh,

and the loose half inch of weft at each end may
now be sewn to the next piece, completing the mesh
at each course. Slightly damp the weft and press
with warm pinching irons.
Sometimes the weft is sewn up close, when it is
desirable to condense the hair into a smaller space,
but if it has to cover a larger surface and is required
light, it is best to make the " diamond" shaped
mount. To sew up closely, fold back and measure
off in precisely the same manner as before described.
Take the two bottom divisions, and sew the end to the
fold of the next piece. Hold the two folds of weft
in the left-hand finger and thumb, the second piece
being immediately above the first. Push the needle
from the back towards you through the centre of
the lower piece of weft, and from you through the
upper row of weft, being careful to avoid sewing
" over and over." Keep all the stitches small.
Having worked in this way from end to end, take
another row of weft, and place in position above the
second row. Sew as before, continuing with each
section until the whole is completed. The rows of
weft must be kept straight and flat, holding firmly
with the finger and thumb. Another way by which
the weft is hidden is to sew up as before and when
two rows are sewn up, instead of turning the weft
backwards and forwards by which the weft is shown,
turn it round and round in order to conceal it, still
sewing up as previously described.
Caehepeigne.-This literally means a covered
comb, and is a name given to a headdress largely
favoured in the Chignon period. It is made upon
a well-known principle of hair mounting, and may


be utilised for many modern styles with advantage.

Originally the Cackeeigpe e was made with about
3 ozs. of varying lengths of taper curled hair,
ranging from 12 to 20 inches. To make, proceed

as follows:-Fix up the weaving " pegs " with silks

on the upper and lower sections, and fine wire in
the middle, weave firmly and evenly, and sew up
into a diamond-shaped foundation, as described
elsewhere for wire foundations. The mount, when
completed, should be about seven inches long and
four wide, the shortest hair being at the top, and
the longest at the bottom.
Cachepeignes were usually dressed out in ring-
lets and broken curls, but for any suitable modern
or historical coiffure the arrangement may be varied
to meet the requirements or taste of the wearer.
The advantages of this foundation are extreme
lightness, complete ventilation, and the ease with
which the hair of the head may be entirely covered.

Chignons on Combs are sometimes in request,

and may be woven and sewn up in the same manner
as described under the heading of Marteaux on
Combs. In the case of chignons, creoled straight
hair is invariably employed and is dressed in coils.
To make a chignon of serviceable size and weight,
take about half an ounce of 22 inch hair, previously
creoled and twice drawn through the brushes, and
weave a fine close top row half an inch wider than
the comb to be used. Then weave two ounces of
20 inch crdoled taper hair and sew up flat to the
width of the comb, turning the weaving back and
forward, and not round and round as described for

marteaux. It is a good plan to measure the weaving

before cutting down, and if too long to fold over in
proportionate sections, push up until it is of suitable
length. For example: If the comb is two inches
wide, the weaving would, in all probability, be


about I6 inches, giving eight sections of two inches

each. Should it measure i712, push it up to make
half an inch more than necessary-I61 for eight
sections, or if less than i6 inches-- 14 for seven,
the allowance being for turning. Turn over an d
mark the sections, and commence sewing from the
first fold by inserting the needle in the upper secti on

from the front. Bring the needle back through the

middle of the same weft, push through the middle
of the lower section, and continuing from right to
left until the first section is sewn, holding it firmly
between the fingers of the left hand. At the end
of this section it will be necessary to sew securely
the end of the weaving, and commence again by
turning back the third section, following on in the
same manner until all is sewn up. If it is carefully
and evenly sewn it will be flat and uniform, ready
for the pressing iron, and sewing to the comb,
which has been covered with galloon as elsewhere
described. The top section is sewn neatly and
firmly to the top edge of the comb, after which the
top row is attached. To do this neatly and to
ensure a good finish, the weaving should be held
on the front side of the comb, with the " roots " of
the weaving outside, then sew over and over to the
comb. The ends are carried round the edge of
the comb and securely fastened, after which the
top row is carried over to cover the other part
already sewn up, and when pressed down along the
top of the comb should present a neat and finished
appearance. A dressing may now be formed with
the hair, which is easily attached to the head of
the wearer by means of the comb.

Bandeaux, or as they are more generally

termed, "bands," embrace a variety of designs to

suit different requirements. Some are made plain,

with a parting of silk or skin; others have net,
gauze, or human hair foundations. There are
bandeaux with waved hair and "fringes," while
others have long hair attached for combing in with
the natural hair at the back.
To make a plain bandeau, take a yard and a
half of galloon, measure Io inches from one of the
ends, but do not cut it off. Turn it back and give
it two or three taps with the hammer so as to make
a mark. Keep the galloon even and smooth, and
turn back another io inches at the other end; both
of which are to be brought together. The ends
are to be turned in, and stitched over and over.
Double these sewn pieces exactly in the centre,
and tap with the hammer again. Open out, and
you will find that a mount of between nine and ten
inches is begun. Now take a mounting block,
which should be clean and smooth, and place the
galloon thereon. The centre of the mount has
already been found, and after opening it (say two
inches) temporarily fix by means of points in the
centre of the block. There is no difficulty about
this, because a fine line marks the place, and I need
scarcely say the mount should be on the block
exactly as it is intended to be worn on the head.
'Fake the galloon in each hand, pull tight, double
one piece over the other, and drive a point through
both at the back of the net. Hammer it down

firmly, and then fix the remainder of the galloon,

which is intended for the strings. For a three inch
silk or skin parting band, commence with bracing
the lower galloon first, and then the top one, draw-
ing it back at the same time, so as to give the
necessary depth. Make it a rule to give a quarter
of an inch more depth than the parting. Next
draw back the lower centre, and form a suitable


curve, the object being to keep the galloon out of

the way, lest it be seen in the most critical part of
the work, and, further, that the parting should lie
on the forehead both flat and close. After carefully
bracing into position take two pieces of watch
spring the required length; the ends of which are
to be rounded off and covered, afterwards neatly
enclosing the springs in galloon. They should
have just sufficient bend to easily fit the head, and

assist in holding the parting in position. A

reference to Fig. 67 will illustrate these details.
Having well secured the mount, which should
always be tight and firm upon the block, take a
piece of ribbon exactly the width of the centre
between the springs, and sew thereon, the object
of this being to give a neat appearance to the band
when off the block, and, also, to conceal the work
in the parting which otherwise could be seen. The
net should next be attached, as directed in previous
instructions, and then the mount will be com-
In addition to the parting, take an ounce of the
best hair, say I6 inches long (the hair in the parting
being of the same length), and weave a top row.
Weave the remainder of the hair in rather fine front
weft, and then divide, marking the division, how-
ever, by merely tying a piece of string in the place.
The parting should next be sewn in its proper
position, beginning with the two corners in front;
it will then be as well to sew it at the top, and
afterwards the sides. The parting should be straight,
and exactly in the centre; perfectly smooth and
not stretched or puckered in any direction. The
weft must be sewn on next, but should there be a
rather wide space between the parting and the top
edge of the galloon, put in two or three rows of
weft first. Sew the weft along the bottom and top
edge of the galloon and then at regular intervals

until one side is completed. Do the same with the

other side, and, finally, put on the top row.
The number of rows will, of course, depend
upon the quantity of weft, which must be judged
according to requirements. Press, tie the hair of
each side together or loosely plait in three, leaving
the wearer to arrange it when upon the head.
What has already been said is sufficient to show


the learner how to make a " band " with a parting

of either silk, or skin, or any other similar sub-
stance. For making a waved bandeau with fringe,
turn to the instructions for mounting already given
and notice the mount upon the block. A mount
of a similar description is to be made, but without
the arched piece of galloon in the centre, for the
parting being of transparent material, the skin of

the head should be seen through it. Besides, a

dark line of galloon just in the most conspicuous
spot would be quite out of order. Proceed as
follows: Take a clean block, and mark with a
pencil the exact dimensions of the mount, in its
proper place. Be very particular about this, because
the pencilled lines should be strictly adhered to.
These lines, then, having been made, commence
by driving a point through the end of the galloon
near the crown and on the right side. Continue
the galloon down to the angle upon the forehead
where the spring goes, and fix with a point. Keep
the'galloon flat, and turn it towards the ear, where
it is also to be secured. Pass the galloon along
the top, and when in the centre of the block (being
mindful of the depth of the parting), drive in
another point. For the other side continue the
galloon as before, and finish on the top of the
block in a corresponding position to that where it
begins. The mount should then resemble the
illustration to which your attention is directed
(p. 202), but with this difference-the centre arched
portion of the galloon is absent.
The galloon is now to be braced and preceding
instructions observed; the mount being tight and
firm, the strings are to be neatly sewn on, fixed in
the neck, and the long ends put out of the way as
before. It is now seen that there is a gap in the
centre, and unless some kind of stay is put at the

lower part, the parting will, in all probability, soon

get torn. To obviate this, it is usual to employ
"gut," which is securely fastened across the
bottom, or nearly at the bottom, for the parting
should be so arranged as to lie flat on the fore-
head, the closer it lies the better. Sometimes a
white horse-hair is used for the purpose, and
occasionally white silk, but whatever the material,
it should be strong and durable. It is usual, also,
to put additional "stays" about an inch apart
right along the parting, for they are not seen when
upon the head, and much greater strength is given
to the article. When the parting is more than
three inches deep, it is absolutely necessary to
do so.
Put on the strings as before, and let them be
narrow. Now attach the net and the mounting is
completed. A mount should be accurately designed,
and measurements taken from any convenient place
upon the block must correspond one side with the
other. Indeed, where much boardwork is done,
it is a strong recommendation to be a good
"mounter," and a correct eye is not among the
least of a hairworker's qualifications. It matters
not how well done the knotting, weaving, or sewing
may be; should the mount be inexact, the work
is faulty from the very commencement, and might
result in the article being returned. This is best
avoided. Therefore, make it a rule to " start fair"

with whatever work is undertaken, and, if slow, be

sure, remembering at all times that " practice makes
perfect," and how important it is that strict atten-
tion should be paid to minute details.
The mount having been finished, the next thing
is to put in a transparent parting, with a "fringe."
This " fringe " should be of short, curled hair, which
can be arranged when the work is finished. In
transparent partings generally there are no edges to
turn up, like those made of silk or skin, and alluded
to before. Commence by sewing the parting to the
corner of the mount on the right side first, finish
off, and then attach it to the corresponding corner
on the left side, keeping the line of parting
exactly in the middle. It will then be proper to
sew the top; see that it is firm, straight and smooth,
and conclude by stitching the sides. About the
same length and quantity of hair will be required
for this as was used in the previous one; therefore
weave a top row, divide the weft and proceed
according to the instructions already given. Sew
the weft on in rows, beginning at the bottom;
neatly and securely turn the corners; and, lastly,
affix the top row. Press and dress as required
take it off the block, remove out the brac-
ing stitches, and if desired wave and dress the
The hair can be left straight if desired, but if
waved, the effect is much more natural. Put the

band on a malleable block and wave the hair.

[The old and simple methods of waving are given,
which may be adopted when occasion demands.]
(I) By plaiting. Slightly damp the hair, and make
two or more three-plaits upon each side. Plait
rather tight, and pinch with moderately warm irons,
but only sufficient to remove the moisture, if any,
and to fix the wave. This perhaps is the most
simple and natural way. (2) With hair pins.
Divide the side hair in two or three equal portions,
so as to make the wave regular and uniform. Take
a long hair pin and with the left hand hold it close
to the roots of one of the pieces, keeping the prongs
rather wide apart. Then, with the right hand,
entwine the piece of hair in and out as though
forming with it any number of figures 8. Having
come to the end (or done as much as you consider
necessary), push up close to the head of the pin,
turning back one of the points to keep the hair
well in place. Do the same with all; pinch with
warm irons, and allow it to be quite cold before
drawing out the pins. (3) Curling irons are used
also for waving the hair, but although permissible
when dressing a lady's hair, it is not desirable for
work of this description. There are other methods
of waving hair, as with string, card, wire, etc., but
what is described, if carefully done, will answer
nearly all requirements. "Easy " wavers may be
used instead of hair pins.



Face p. 209

Temple Mounted Fronts.-Measure off 23 inches

of galloon, double it, and stitch at the ends through
and through. Shift the ends a little, so that they
will come anywhere but where bracing stitches are
likely to be put. Now double the galloon again,
tap it with the hammer, open it, and you will find
that you have two creases. Put these creases upon
the line which marks the centre of the block, and


point down to about the depth of the parting. Take

other points and bring the mount into shape. You
will now require a tape measure, a pair of com-
passes, and a large double-threaded needle, to
enable you to make correct measurements. You
can measure from any convenient spot, but when
the strings are on, they should be so adjusted that,
when off the block and tightened, the mount will

incline inwards both at top and bottom, thus prov-

ing that it will bind, or fit well to the head. The
shape is well defined in the illustration (Fig. 69),
and the places where bracing stitches are to be put
distinctly shown. Springs are made and fixed on
the top about the width of the parting, the inter-
vening space being filled up with a piece of ribbon.
A spring is also placed on each side near the ear,
so as to keep the mount well in shape, and the
springs, as will be seen, are made to cross over
from the bottom galloon to the top. The trained
eye will perceive at a glance how comfortable this
shaped mount is likely to be to the wearer.
Having sewn on the net, commencing, as usual,
upon the inner edge of the lower galloon, the next
thing is to put in the parting, which should be
either skin or silk; but if transparent a deviation
will have to be made as already explained. The
same remark applies as to whether the hair should
be knotted or woven. These matters must always
be decided on at first, when the mount is
commenced. Take (say) I4 oz. of 12 in. ringlet
hair, and put the curls in two lots as usual. Weigh
one parcel against the other, and balance evenly.
Make a fine top row, comb out, and cut down.
Weave the hair in fine front weft and of a similar
length for both sides. Commence sewing on at or
near the string, and proceed as before instructed.
In stitching on the weft be careful to well secure

the net, and the spaces must be according to the

length of the weft used, certainly they should not
be so much as a quarter of an inch apart. Let
both sides be uniform and alike in every respect.
Press ana dress as required, and retain the hair in
position by means of side combs. If, at the outset,
it is decided to "knot" the hair, then the mount
should be prepared accordingly, respecting which
instructions are given in another place.



APPENDIX.-Section 1.


Wigs were commonly worn by the ancient

Egyptians, and it may reasonably be suggested,
that this general use was preceded in exclusive
circles, thus giving a far greater antiquity to wigs.
There has long been in the Egyptian gallery of the
British Museum a peruke which was found in the
ruins of the temple of Isis, at Thebes, in Upper
Egypt-the most flourishing period of which city
is generally regarded as about 1500 to 1ooo B.c.
It is worthy the notice of any wigmaker for its
excellent work, and perfection of curl till this day,
some hundreds of minute curls being arranged with
the utmost care, and retaining their shape and form
after the thousands of years which have gone since
their creation.
The (Church) Council of Rouen in 1096

decreed that all who wore long hair should be shut

out of the Church during life, and not be prayed
for after death-a decision which in those days
usually carried a special terror with it. But the
wig survived it all.
Stowe, writing at the end of the sixteenth cen-
tury, states that the wig was first brought to this
country about the time of the Massacre of St.
Bartholomew (1572), and " wigs were first worn by
barristers about I673, to which opposition was
made by the Judges, and some of the leaders were
not allowed to plead in their new headgear." We
know, however, that centuries before this date, our
serjeants-of-law wore a coif, represented in modern
times by a black patch on the crown of the (ser-
jeant's) wig. This has now, we think, disappeared.
The drawings of the early coif suggest a close cap,
much resembling the plain wig of a present-day
judge, as distinguished from the wig, with rows of
curls, worn by K.C.'s and outer bars, and the
" dress," or full-bottomed wig, coming down to the
shoulders, worn on state or special occasions. A
very early, if not the first, mention of wigs in our
social history is assigned to the privy purse accounts
of Henry VIII. (1509-47), wherein 20/- is recorded
as having been paid in December, 1529, for a
" perwyke " for the king's fool. Their use seems
to have been universal among ladies in the reign
of Elizabeth (i558-1603), and both that queen,

and her great rival Mary Queen of Scots, appear

to have made considerable use of them. Charles I.,
we are told, wore a peruke in prison, " by way of
disguise." In the reign of Charles II. periwigs
were of immense dimensions. Following Marl-
borough's victories, there were the Blenheim and
Ramillies wigs. The naval heroes of Queen


(1632-1723), SHOWING WIG WQRN ABOUT 1680.

Anne's reign wore full-bottomed wigs, but relin-

quished them on the accession of the House of
Hanover. In Gay's" Frivia " (1688-17 3 2) gentle-
men walking in the streets of London were
cautioned of being likely to have their wigs stolen
from the head in broad daylight. Towards the
close of the eighteenth century the bag-wig

ordinarily worn by gentlemen was so large that it

is recorded "a little man's shoulders are entirely
covered with black satin." As a fashionable wear
these exaggerations were discarded soon after,
except in the cases of clergymen, doctors and
lawyers. In more modern times the " official " wig
is limited to judges, barristers and other office
bearers, and to men-servants of the nobility. Wig-
making for legal wear is a separate branch, and
distinct from the profession generally devoted to
wig-making for personal wear. The making of the
large variety of wigs required for theatrical and
fancy-dress wear is also chiefly confined to a branch
of the profession specialising in such work.
Louis XIII., having become bald, gave the ex-
ample of wearing additional hair in 1630. His
headdresses were styled moutounes and were com-
posed of linen, through which the hair was passed
with a needle. The Abbe Thiers, in I69o , wrote
" The History of Wigs," and Nicolai also contri-
buted to the literature of the subject in I809.
It was in the reign of Louis XIV. that the wig
attained to its full glory. Yet Louis was thirty-five
before he could be induced to patronise the wig-
makers. His own hair was abundant, and rather
than let it fall to the scissors, he had the peruke
adapted to it; the natural hair showing through the
meshes of the wig. His perruquier was Binet, quite
an artist in his craft, who gave his name to the

peruke called binette. Louis had a chamber full of

wigs at Versailles, and put on a fresh one for chapel,
for hunting, for resting indoors, and for receiving
the visits of the ambassadors. Binet rarely quitted
the Court, and was one of the five hundred persons
who had the privilege of dining at the royal board.
At this period the wig industry consumed an
incredible quantity of hair obtained from the four
qfiarters of the globe. Colbert, the minister, was
disposed to check the importation of hair, which
would end, he thought, in the ruin of France. But
the perruquiers were better economists than the
minister, for the statistics which they presented to
him showed conclusively that the sale of perukes to
foreign customers brought into France more money
than went out of it in the purchase of hair. From
England, Spain and Italy, there was a steady demand
for the French creations. Towards the close of the
reign of Louis XIV. human hair was already so
scarce, that recourse was had to horse-hair for wigs
of the commoner kinds.
In England, in the time of Charles I., it was
considered as mean for ladies to wear their own
hair as to don a gown of their own spinning. They
did their best to keep pace with the men, and
sometimes wore wigs when on horseback.
Early in the eighteenth century the periwig
often reached to the waist. Powder had been
previously used, but not profusely. The powder

of the seventeenth century was not white, and was

perhaps used principally for its perfume. But early
in the eighteenth century plain white powder came
into fashion, and was used, unsparingly, for nearly a
hundred years. The periwig was then reduced in
size, and the pigtail was all that was retained of the
wig's former magnificence.
The "majestic period " of the wig is generally
assigned to the time of Louis XIV., when the
royale, or " in-folio," a form reserved exclusively for
the aristocracy, was, wrote a eulogist, "fitter to
crown a statue than to be flattened on the head of
a mere man." The wig, described as a " symbol
of an absolute monarchy," waned in dignity with
the power of the throne. Under Louis XV. it was
in its decline; the superb royale began to shrink,
and its colossal proportions were never afterwards
restored to it. Despite all this, the middle of the
eighteenth century was distinguished by no less
than forty-five varieties of wig, each owning a style
and name of its own, though, doubtless, it required
the judgment of an expert to distinguish them.
Under Louis XVI. all Paris was be-wigged-nobles,
commoners, every profession, trade and calling, and
every age. The merest lacquey would have been
ashamed to show himself without his proper cheveux,
and the form of the wig proclaimed the quality of
the wearer.

In the Newes of February 4, 1663, appeared an

advertisement as follows :-
" WHEREAS, George Grey, a Barber and Perri-
wigge-maker, over against the Greykound Tavern, in
Black. Fryers, London, stands obliged to serve some
particular Persons of eminent Condition and Quality
in his way of Employment : It is therefore Notifyed
at his desire that any one having long flaxen hayr
to sell may repayr to him the said George Grey, and
they shall have ios. the ounce, and for any other
long fine hayr after the Rate of 5s . or 7s. the

Hair Merchant's Advertisement, 1722:-

To Perriwig-makers,
At the loweft Houfe on the Right-Hand in
Norfolk-ftreet, right Weft-Country Hair, grey, and other Colours,
curl'd to the beft Advantage, for all forts of good Work: T'yes ready
curl'd or prepar'd to any Pattern; and all other forts of Hair, ufed in
the Trade, curl'd with the utmoft Care. Every Sort to be fold for
what it really is, and no Advantage taken of the real or imagined
Neceffities of any, either in refpect of Timte or Circumftances; the
Stock being laid in by fome People of Subftance, whofe Purpofe is, by
a moderate Profit, to promote a Publick Good. N.B. As the Proprie-
tors have been pleafed to entruft the whole Management of this Affair
to me, I hope to make it appear to all who are to inform themfelves,
by a due Obfervation, how much Wafte there is in working, and how
much Lofs of Weight in Drying and Baking, on a fmall Tryal, that
every Thing here undertaken is faithfully perform'd; and that confi-
dlering the great Variety of Goods unavoidably ufed in the Trade, this
Undertaking, if encouraged, will be or great Service to moft others,
as well as to thofe whofe Stock in Trade is not fufficient to keep Goods
always ready for their Cuftomers. ALEX. FERGUSON.

Dublin Wigmaker's Advertisement, 1784:-

THE moft fafhionable are now at ENGLISH's Patent Wig Ware-
I houfe, the only one in this kingdom, No. 28, Naffau-ftreet, made
under his own infpection, and of the very beft materials and colours to
fuit all complexion-. By his Elaftic and other Springs, as made by the
Patentee in London, he is enabled to fit the moft oifficult Head or
Temples: His Grey and Bag Wigs, &c. are fuperior to any in this
kingdom for colour and manufacture.-As said ENGLISH fpares neither
time, labour or expence to have his work finifhed in the moft fuperb
and beft manner, and to give every fatisfaction to his Cuftomers,
and such Noblemen and Gentlemen as pleafe to honour him with their
commands, has brought from London a contiderable quantity of the
beft Hairs and other materials, and of the moft beautiful colours that
could be got in that city; and he always made a point of employing
none but the beft workmen. His Natural Wigs, Curls and Deceptions
are of fuch excellence as not to be diitinguifhed from the real beauties of
the natural Growth; and as he lays in all his materials at firft coft, he
means to fell thirty per cent. cheaper than any fhop in Dublin.
N. B. Chambers continued, as ufual, at the rere of the Four Courts,
for the Gentlemen of the Law to drefs in.

A Modest Wigmaker's Advertisement, 1787:--

being univerfally complained of, and not altogether without
that they neither fit well, fit eafy, nor appear fufficiently
COURTIER, Perrequier, No. io, Great Newport-ftreet, Leicefter-
fields, (removed from Long Acre) from many years application and
experience in his bulinefs, and the great encouragement he has received
for feveral years paft from the Nobility, Clergy, and Gentry, flatters
himfelf that he has not only remedied thofe errors fo juftly complained
of, but has alfo brought Wigs to the greateft perfection.
He, therefore, begs leave to fitbmit to the trial of the curious, that
love convenience and elegance, his much admired Spring Wigs, which
fit perfectly light and eafy, and never fly off the face; And undertakes
to recommend wigs for the purpofe of travelling, which are made of a
particular kind of hair, and prove not only a perfect imitation of nature
but require little or no dreffing.

APPENDIX. Section 2.


To give completeness to the subject of Wig-

making, a short account of "The Genealogy of
Implantations" from the Moniteur de la Coiffure,
will, no doubt, be of interest, for it has a direct
bearing on most forms of posticzes.
The journal named had the following under the
heading of " Croisat and the roi Coiffeurs " :-
" In 1805, Leguet, hairdresser at Lyons, in-
vented the flesh coloured hair net. Postiches had
hitherto been so coarsely made that this improve-
ment in the manufacture of wigs caused quite a
sensation. The fame of the inventor soon reached
Paris, and M. Tellier, hairdresser at the Palais
Royal, tried to buy Leguet's patent. In i8Io,
Leguet, who had found that his wigs did not keep
the desired firmness (the hair being badly knotted),
easily agreed to cede his patent to Tellier. An
English firm having heard of Leguet's invention,
procured one of his wigs, which they imitated and
improved. This came to the knowledge of Tellier,
who went to London to study the improvements.
Meanwhile, Carron, another coiffeur at the Palais
Royal, bought from a Lyons silk-weaver the process

for the implantation of silk of a different kind,

which, though less suitable for men's wigs than
that of Leguet's, gave much neater partings for
women's work. Tellier, on his return to Paris, in-
tending to considerably extend his novel industry,
associated himself with a stocking weaver of the
Cevennes. Hence arose a law suit between Carron
and Tellier. But, contrary to the ordinary rule,
this law suit, instead of ruining the parties more
immediately concerned, helped to make their
fortune. All the papers were full of this suit, and
every baldhead, feminine or masculine, in the
kingdom was eager to see and perchance to re-
juvenate itself by the novel inventions. The poor
Lyons weaver, who had parted with his patent,
being unable to witness others amassing fortunes
by its means, while he remained in misery, put an
end to his days. In the law suit M. Tellier, having
produced the patent bought of Leguet, got the best
of it.
" Michalon, a weaver, invented the silk parting,
produced with a long piece of silk without head,
which he put in his shuttle. Defaur invented the
knotted hair foundation, knotting the hair by means
of a gauze needle. Then a workman established
himself in the Faubourg St, Denis, who made
partings in the same way Carron made them. He
was the first to make partings in heart shape. The
brothers Lavacquerie perfected the work of the

latter. Valon, one of Dufaur's workmen, further

perfected the wigs by giving a tighter and better fit.
" In 1822, Souchard took out a patent at Bor-
deaux for implantations made with an embroidery
needle, and having in the course of time perfected
his invention, he tried to implant hair oq a pig's
bladder, which being lined with gros de Naples,
made an excellent bald wig for theatrical perform-
ances, and produced a very good effect.
" In 1882, Souchard went to England to study
the manner in which the English made their silk
net wigs. He found the English silk net infinitely
superior to the French, and he adopted the former
for his wigs.
" This genealogy of M. Souchard's was written
in 1836, and since then implantation has made
immense progress."

APPENDIX.-Section 8.




As an appropriate accompaniment of the varied

sections of boardwork, I introduce here an article
written many years ago by an artist in hair, when
the art of hair device work was very popular and
in great demand. It has become more or less
unfashionable during recent years, and what little
is done in this interesting branch of hair manipula-
tion is performed by a very few who mastered the
intricacies of the art in earlier days. It is scarcely
probable that public opinion will turn favourably
to this almost lost art, but in any event the present
is considered a fitting opportunity and occasion to
preserve the following description, thinking that if
for no more profitable purpose, the young board-
worker may elect to spend some spare moments in




Face p. 2l24
this pleasing and attractive work, which cannot fail
to extend his knowledge and render him a more
deft and careful workman :-

"When we think or speak of human hair we

naturally enough associate it with the human head.
The mind recalls the curly locks of youth, dwells
upon the flowing tresses or gigantic superstructure
of womanhood, or mournfully turns away from the
spare and scattered grey covering of old age.
However we may look upon it, in admiration or in
sorrow, we still connect hair with heads. But our
present subject does not allow of this natural
association of ideas. We come to hair, not as worn
but as worked, to hair disconnected from the head.
When we think of the imperishable nature of
human hair, we can easily understand the anxiety
with which a tress or lock cut from the forehead of
a friend who is perhaps long among the dead, or
separated from us, not only by miles of ocean, but
by new ties and new cares, is preserved. We look
upon the few solitary hairs which call back the dear
face never more to be seen, scenes never again to be
revisited, and incidents long held by the past amongst
its own. It is not surprising, then, that these links
which connect us with the past should be treasured,
as we see them sometimes turning up neglected
and forgotten from some tiny drawer of an escritoire,
long thrown aside in the lumber room; and still

more frequently preserved in the trinket, valued,

not for the goldsmith's art which it displays, but
for the few hairs clustering within. Now, to the
lasting disgrace of those who practise it, there are
persons whose greed of gain leaves them no regard
for the finer feelings of the living, no respect for
dead. The hair of a departed friend is taken to a
tradesman to be worked up into some little device,
and if the hair should be too short or not of
sufficient quantity for the purpose intended, the
tradesman dishonestly matches the hair with other
hair, perhaps already worked up, and the unhappy
dupe lives on the delusion that he possesses the
hair of a friend whose memory he cherishes, whilst
he in fact has that of some person of whom he has
never either seen or heard. To such an extent is
this practice carried on that it is not unusual for
artists in hair to have many parts of the usual
devices ready made, of various colours and sizes,
to answer any demand that may be made upon
them. Now we propose to afford a protection
against this abuse. There is but one means of
doing so, and that is by enabling anyone who
wishes to preserve hair to become his or her own
artist in hairworking. Before the young artist sets
out upon the task before her, a word or two upon
the form and peculiarities of the human hair may
not be out of place, as it will enable her to
appreciate some of the difficulties she may meet

with, and suggest to her the means of overcoming

them. The human hair is but very rarely cylindri-
cal in form, and appears to be so only in straight
hairs. In curled hair the transverse section is ellip-
tical, and it occasionally exhibits a beam-like form,
which is to be accounted for by a furrow passing
lengthwise down one side of the hair. As far as
curling is concerned the flattened form seems the
most favourable, the cylindrical the most difficult.
We have a good example of this in the crisp woolly
hair of the negro, where a very marked flattening
is to be observed, the hairs being sometimes as
much as two-thirds broader in one direction than
the other. In the wool of a sheep, which appears
to approach the cylindrical form, the phenomenon
of curling is attributed to the transverse inequalities
with which the surface of the hair is furrowed. It
is difficult to appreciate the strength of the human
hair. Possibly in younger and less charming days
our readers may have had their hair pulled.
Children and parents will do such things before
beauty has acquired the respect due to it. They
will then be able to judge of the amount of pulling
their fair locks could endure without parting. One
may still, however, be unaware of the strength of a
single silken hair. It is, to say the least of it,
remarkable; hair is also considerably extensile,
and most highly elastic. Saussure is said to have
found that a human hair, when freed from grease

by maceration in an alkaline solution, formed a

very delicate hygrometer, consequent upon its
property of elongating on absorbing moisture.

Cleansing the Hair.--Having now fairly started

on our task, the first thing the young artist has to
learn is that the lock to be fashioned must be
absolutely free from all impurities. . It may seem
to be a sort of treason to the adorable or adored
one who bore the silken tress to hint that, in its
natural state, the hair is not so. However dark,
or fair, or beautiful the hair may be, it has made
the acquaintance of oil and dirt in some form or
other, and that oil and dirt must be carefully re-
moved before it is to take its place among the fine
arts. Once you admit the presence of oil and
impurity their removal is an easy matter. All you
have to do is, take, say half-a-teacupful of hot
water, and dissolve in it two small pieces of borax
and soda, each about the size of a nut. Into this
preparation put the lock of hair, and having left it
in the water for about a minute or two, take it out,
and carefully spread it on the palette. Having
spread the hair carefully out with one hand, hold
it firmly to you, and with the other scrape it care-
fully down from you with the edge of the knife,
until you have entirely removed every particle of
any sort of impurity. Having carefully scraped
the hair, then take about half-a-teacupful of water,

dissolve in it about the same quantity of borax as

that used on the first occasion, and in this solution
rinse the hair, which will then be ready for the
next step in the process. Before going further you
must take care to have the palette carefully cleaned,
and freed from any grease that may have been left
attached to it by the last process. Having seen
that this is done, the hair should be spread down
evenly'on the palette with the edge of the knife,
and the uneven or jagged ends cut off. The hair
having been now cleansed, spread out, and trimmed,
is ready for the more delicate manipulations which
follow. The next step takes us into the midst of
the art or mystery of hair-working, and here we
may perhaps be permitted a word or two of
monition it is that each of our little processes
should be carefully mastered before the next in
succession is attempted. This will lead both to
perfection and to peace of mind, both admittedly
not undesirable results. A well-known and justly-
admired design, called the Prince of Wales's
feather, can be easily mastered. Now we mean,
with the help of your own intelligence, to point out
to you the way in which you may produce that and
other designs even prettier than it is. The feather
is made up almost entirely of three curls, exactly
similar in form. We propose first to show how
the curl is produced, and then how the final result,
the feather, is attained.

How to Make the Curl.-Take the curling-

irons in your right hand, holding the hollow or
scooped side downwards. With the left lightly
raise the end of the hair, which you will observe
ought to hang slightly over the edge of the palette.
That done, put the hair in the irons, and carefully
pass them down until you get to the trimmed end.
Now close the irons as carefully as you can, and
turn them round towards yourself three times.
You will remember that all this time you must hold
the end of the hair carefully in your left hand,
keeping it gently stretched round the irons. Then
place the irons either in the flame of a candle, or
over a spirit-lamp, at a point about halfway between
the handle and the hair, but at such a distance
from the hair as to prevent its being injured by the
flame, and hold the irons in this position until they
become so heated as to cause the hair to steam.
Then remove the irons from the flame to cool.
There is one matter in which you cannot be too
careful, and that is to hold the end so firmly and
steadily with the left hand that a strong curl may
be obtained. Having obtained the curl, the next
step is to remove it from the irons. This is a
comparatively easy matter, if carefully managed.
First pass the irons from the right hand to the left ;
there is no difficulty in this, for the curl being now
set, you need no longer hold the end between your
fingers. Then wet your finger and thumb with

your lips, and moisten the end of the curl slightly

with your finger and thumb, so as to prevent the
hairs from spreading out, then slightly open the
irons, and with the knife gently scrape off the curl
on the palette. The next process is to fix both
the ends and twist of the curl by means of a little
gum. With a camel-hair pencil lay upon the
palette a fine line of gum; then lift the curl with
the point of the pencil, place the head of the curl
on the gum line, leaving the loose end free. Then
take a finely-pointed needle, dip it slightly in the
gum, pass it lightly through the eye or centre of
the curl, keep the curl steadily on the palette by
means of the forefinger, and whilst you withdraw
the needle press it gently, so that the needle may
leave a small quantity of the gum inside the curl.
Having now made your curl, and gummed it,
the next thing is to secure the result of your labours.
As soon as the needle has been withdrawn, firmly
press the curl on to the palette with the ivory
counter. Then place upon it the sugar-loaf weight,
and leave it so for about an hour, at the end of
which time the curl will have been sufficiently set.
You will not fail to observe that in this design
one curl should turn towards the left, and two to
the right, so that, in fact, you must have right and
left curls. This is easily managed, and depends
entirely upon which side you insert the gummed
needle. For a right curl the needle has to be

inserted on the left side, and for a left curl on

the right side.

Finishing off the Curl.-The curl having been

made and set in the way we have described, and
left under the sugar-loaf weight for an hour, may
be finished off. The loose end of the curl is to
be freed from any dried particles of gum that may
be attached to it, by slightly damping it with the
pencil dipped in water, and lightly scraping away
the gum with the knife. The loose end having been
thus cleansed, should be moistened by the pencil
dipped in a weak solution of gum, and the hairs
above the curl lightly spread out with the knife,
taking a few hairs at a time, and brought round.
This done, the curl should be slightly moistened
with a weak solution of gum, and left to dry in the
desired shape.
Now it is just possible that the hair you are
anxious to preserve is too short to form a curl of
these dimensions. In that case we must endeavour
to find you a way out of the difficulty. You simply
lengthen the curl by adding a tail to it. The curl
has now to be removed from the palette. To do
this you warm the palette by placing before the
fire for a few minutes, and you will soon find that
the curl becomes loose, and may be lifted off with
the edge of the knife, ready for either the ivory
tablet or opal. The next step in the process is to
transfer the curls to the tablet, fix them there, and
add a few finishing touches for the purpose of
giving elegance and lightness to the whole.
Having got a tablet of the size and shape you
desire, gum it upon a piece of white writing paper;
then take the three curls, one left and two right-
hand ones, or vice versa, according to taste, slightly
damp the back of each curl with gum and place
them on the tablet. As far as the hair portion of
the design is concerned your labours have now
ceased, but, as you will observe, there is yet much
to be done in the way of finish before the produc-
tion can meet open criticism. You will place
between the curls two golden ears of barley, and at
the bottom of the design a little filigree work and
three pearls. We now propose to show you how
these are to be prepared and attached, and although
the work looks difficult, and requires some nicety
in its manipulation, you must not be disheartened,
for the task, after all, is one to be learnt with com-
parative ease. Having provided yourself with a
reel of gold wire thread, wind off about eighteen
inches, and divide this into three or more pieces
of equal length. Affix the gold thread to the
hooks, and make a cord of them by twisting the
right-hand hook, holding the other tightly in the
left hand; you will see the result in the form of an
enlarged thread or cord. This cord you may make
of any thickness you please, by simply increasing

the number of the threads you use. Having made

the cord, we now come to the next stage of the
process. Now take the tapering needle, twist the
cord round it. Then pull away the needle, and you
have the coil. This coil has now to be flattened,
which is done by simply pressing it down with a
piece of ivory.

The Formation of the Ear of Barley.-To do

this, cut off from the cord, prepared in the manner
already pointed out, a piece of the proper length
to form the stalk of the barley. Now this must, in
the first place, be given a curved form, and the
process is quite an easy one. All that is necessary
is to hold the piece of cord tightly in the left hand,
whilst with the right hand you scrape it firmly
between the thumb and the edge of the knife. Then
dip the stalk into the gum, and with the camel-hair
pencil place it upon the palette in the position where
the ear of barley is to appear. Then fix the stalk
into this position by means of the knife, and it is
then ready to receive the corns. These are made
by cutting the gold cord into little pieces of the
requisite length. These having been dipped in the
gum are placed along the stalk by means of the
camel-hair pencil, side by side, but so as to over-
lap one another, and as soon as you have done that,
the barley ears are completed and in their proper
position, and we may move on to the next stage of

the design. Before we start afresh, however, it is

as well that we should remind you, that, in all cases,
the hair curls must be fixed upon the tablet before
you attempt to do anything in the way of golden
barley. Having now finished with curls and barley,
we may leave them, and go down a little way to the
stem of the design, where there has to be formed-

The Pearl Band.-First get a piece of white

writing-paper, cut it into the desired shape and
size. This piece of paper forms the groundwork
of the band, and should be gummed upon the
lower part of the hair, where the three curls join
into one stem. Having affixed the piece of paper,
take gold cord, curve it slightly, in the same way
you did the barley stalk, and divide it into three
pieces, each a little longer than the band. Dip
these pieces so prepared into the gum, and place
two of them at the top of the band, and one at the
bottom. Now you have to add the three pearls,
and having done that you will be very near the end
of your labours. Take the pearls and split them
in halves, by pressing a pin through the hole in the
pearl. Dip the pieces of pearl into the gum, and
place them one at each end of the band, and one
in the centre. By the way it will add considerably
to the appearance of the design if you have the
half pearl for the centre a little larger than the
other two. But one thing more and that is a

little gold filigree work connecting the ends of the

two outside curls with the band. Take two pieces
of the gold cord twisted into the form of the coils,
according to your fancy, dip them in the gum, and
place them on the device. A little more, and we
have done, and the lesson learnt. Take a little
spirits of wine, and by means of the camel-hair
pencil slightly damp the design, and with the knife
remove any superfluous gum you may see. If you
should select an opal tablet, you will do well to
place a piece of embossed foil behind it, which
will add very greatly to the effect of the whole.
Some of our artists may entertain objections both
to ears of barley and gold. We now show how
the design we have just described may be made
with sprays of hair, instead of ears of barley.

To Form the Spray.-You should take a

small portion of hair, cleansed of course, and
moisten it with a thin solution of gum. Having
placed the moistened hair on the tablet by means
of the knife, press it into the required shape, and
leave it upon the tablet until it is dry. The next
thing to be' done is to get it off. This is a very
simple affair: you have only to warm the tablet,
and off it comes. Having taken it off, place it in
its proper position on the device just in the same
way as you did the ear of barley. Another form
of the spray is made by taking a small quantity of

the cleansed hair, and having moistened it well

with stiff gum, working it out to the form required.
If care be taken, the latter form of spray will be
found to add very considerably to the effect of the

The Feather.-To form the device called the

feather, we must of course begin with the cleansing.
Having cleansed the hair, the next thing to be done
is to select a tablet of the desired shape and size,
and by means of a little gum fix it upon a piece of
writing paper. Having got so far, and arranged
our materials, the first step in the process is the
formation of the stem of the feather. To do this
take a small quantity of the hair, moisten it well
with a solution of gum, place it on the tablet, and
then by means of a knife press it into the form
required. Here a delay must occur until the hair
has had sufficient time to get thoroughly dry and
hard. As soon as the stem has become dry, get
some more hair, and cut it into little pieces of
about a quarter of an inch in length, or it may be
a little more or a little less, according to the size
of the device, only, as you will at once see, these
little pieces of hair, which are to form as it were
the fringe of the feather, must be in due proportion
to the stalk. These pieces of hair, which are to
form the outer edge of the feather, have next to be
thoroughly saturated in the solution of gum. As

soon as that is done place them along the stem by

means of the knife, beginning about half an inch
from the bottom, and continue placing them in
this way along the stem, using only a few hairs at
a time, until the entire outer edge is completed.
It is scarcely necessary to point out that the hairs
at the top and bottom of the stem are to be
shorter, and should gradually increase in length.
With the object of imitating the natural form of
the feather it is necessary, in addition to the last
directions, to observe that in placing the small
hairs they should be kept close to the stem at the
beginning and end, and gradually spread out and
slightly curved towards the middle. Having com-
pleted the outer edge of the feather, we must begin
again at the inner side, and follow exactly the same
course as before. The reader will notice that the
hairs on the inside of the feather, like those on
the outside, are short at the beginning and end,
and gradually lengthen towards the centre. It
will also be noticed that the inner hairs are also
somewhat longer than those on the outer side.
The feather is now complete, and may be finished
off with pearl band and gold tie, as described in a
former page.

Plaits, Flowers, etc.-We now come to a

totally different style in the art of working in hair
to that of which we have been treating in the

preceding pages. In the interest of the reader we

may, however, premise that the designs to which
we now propose to call attention are, if anything,
simpler and more easy of execution than those
which, under our guidance, we hope have been
already mastered. With these few words we at
once proceed to the formation of plaits, flowers, etc.
We need scarcely say that as a very first step
the hair must be cleansed of all impurities by the
means we have already pointed out. That done,
our young artist must provide himself with a small
strip of gold-beater's skin, which he is to place
carefully and evenly on the palette. To place the
skin neatly and evenly on the palette the latter
should be slightly damped with clean water. Now,
having fixed the skin, take some strong gum, and
by means of the camel-hair pencil, gum the edge
of the skin. Then take a small portion of the
cleansed hair, and lay it carefully along the gummed
line. After which, having carefully arranged the
hair in its proper place, press it firmly down upon
the skin with the forefinger of the left hand, and
then with the flat side of the knife scrape it down
flat and even along the skin. In doing this the
great thing to observe is, that the hairs do not
cross or overlap each other, but lie side by side
smoothly and evenly. Then make another line of
gum, place upon it some more hair, and press it
into its position in the same way as the first line,

and proceed, step by step, until the whole of the

strip of skin has been carefully covered. Having
completely covered the skin, remove the jagged
ends of the hairs with a pair of scissors. Then
raise the skin carefully from the palette by means
of the knife, place it between the leaves of a book,
put it under some pressure, so as to keep it flat,
and leave it until it has thoroughly dried. As soon
as you have prepared a sufficient number of slips
in the manner above described, and have seen that
they are properly dried and ready for use, you may
work them up into any design.

The Basket Plait.-This is the simplest design,

and certainly the easiest of execution, and to that
the reader will do well first to direct his attention.
Take the prepared slips of hair-covered gold-beater's
skin and cut them into smaller slips, of the dimen-
sions you think suitable. Then take a certain
number, say seven, of the strips, and with some
strong gum attach the left ends of the strips to a
sheet of writing paper, leaving the other or right
ends free. Number the strips A, B, C, D, E, F
and G. Then leave the strips until the gum has
become dry, and they have become firmly attached
to the writing paper. As soon as they are ready
you proceed to make the plait, which you will at
once see is a very simple operation, and one which
requires scarcely any explanation. With a sufficient

number of the strips of the same width as those

attached to the paper, you proceed to work the
plait by taking the first strip and passing it over


strip A under strip B, over C under D, over E

under F, and over G. This done, take another
strip and begin again, this time placing the second
strip under A over B, under C over D, under E

over F, under G, and so on. The third strip will

be like No. I, the fourth like No. 2, and so on,
changing alternately until you reach the end, and
have made a plait of sufficient size to cover the
tablet selected. As soon as the plait is finished
carefully raise it up, so as to cover the paper under
it with gum. As soon as the gum has been placed
upon the paper, carefully put the plait back, press
it down upon the gummed surface, so that it shall
adhere to the paper, then put the whole between
the leaves of a book, put a weight upon the book
to keep the plait pressed into its place, and thus
leave it until it is dry. As soon as the plait is dry
it can be cut into any shape desired. It will be
observed that the plait can be made with wide or
narrow strips, as taste may suggest.

The Formation of Flowers.--We now leave

basket-work and take to flowers. We need little
introduction to perhaps one of the prettiest applica-
tions of the art of hair-working. The first step of
course is the cleansing preparation of the hair,
which we shall assume to have been completed.
That done the artist has to select a tablet of the
desired shape, and to fix it with gum upon a piece
of writing paper. Take a small portion of hair and
pass it through the solution of gum, which frequent
mention will have shown to be indispensable in
the working of, any design. Then fix the gummed
hair upon the tablet in the curved shape. This
forms the stalk of the flower, You have now to
add the necessary branches, To do this, take the
knife and insert the point at that portion of the

oa CP
b c d e


stalk whence the first branch is to be taken, and

with the point of the knife gently move the branch
out from the stalk and curve it into the proper
position. To form the other branches it is only
necessary to repeat the last operation until you

have the desired number. Now it is just possible

that these branches may weaken the parent tree,
and reduce the stalk to an objectionable slender-
ness. That difficulty is easily got over, like many a
one in actual life, by a little patching up. You
have only to take a thin strip of prepared hair,
draw it through the gum, and place it along the
stalk, and the thing is done, and the requisite thick-
ness restored. Having now formed the stalk and
branches, we must next direct our attention to the
formation of the leaves.

The Formation of the Leaves.-It will be

remembered that when we were talking of basket-
work, we described how the hair was to be placed
on gold-beater's skin. Now we will assume that
you have some of those strips by you. If not,
prepare some in the way already pointed out. Then
take the strip and with a pair of scissors cut off a
sufficient number of small diamond-shaped pieces.
These are to form the basis of the flower. Now
all you have to do is to fix the leaves into their
proper positions. To do this take the camel hair
pencil, dip the top in gum, and with it touch the
diamond-shaped leaves at the extreme point, and
place them on the branches and stalk, and continue
to do this until a sufficient number of leaves have
been added to give to the flower as rich a foliage
as you desire it to bear. Having made stem,
branches and leaves, we have now to add the

The Flower.-This may appear to the young

artist a much more difficult undertaking than it
really is. Having studied carefully the flower, take
a small piece of strong writing paper and cut it into
a circular form. Now you must, before proceeding
any further, depress the centre of this little piece of
paper so as to form a sort of cup to give a bed for
the flower. To do this you have only to take the
steel pin, press it firmly into the centre of the paper,
and there is the cup. Then take this little cup and
gum it upon a piece of paper with the hollow part
uppermost. Now the bed of the flower is ready to
receive its leaves. To make these the process is
almost similar to that for making the leaves which
have already been attached to the branches. Now
take one of the strips of hair-covered gold-beater's
skin, lay it on the palette, and with the knife cut it
into pieces. This being done with either knife or
scissors, the completed leaf is now represented.
Having got a requisite number of leaves, we proceed
to make the flower itself. Returning to the little
cup, take the camel hair pencil and paint all the
inside of this cup with gum. Then with the same
pencil take one of the leaves and place it in the
hollow of the cup. Then take another and place it
beside the first one, so as slightly to overlap it.

Then add a third and a fourth. The flower now

only wants its centre to be complete. To make
this take a small slip of cleansed hair, pass it through
the gum, and with a pair of scissors cut off a number
of fine particles. Take these, place them on the
palette, dip your hair pencil in gum, and with it
mould the particles of hair into a sort of little round
pea. Place this in the centre of the leaves and the
flower is finished. You may, if your taste should
suggest it, place a small white seed in the centre of
the petal, and it will be found that this frequently
adds much to the finish of the flower. The flower
must now be left until it is dry, and as soon as it is,
all you have to do is to remove it from the sheet
of paper and fix it with gum on the stalk. You
will perceive that there is a great deal more finish
yet wanted, and that although the basis is the same,
there is a bareness and poverty about your flower
which is absent in the natural blossom. This finish
is done by painting in between the leaves the buds
and additional foliage, and it is quite an easy
process. Take your camel hair pencil, and having
selected Indian ink for dark hair, or a paint cor-
responding in colour with any other coloured hair
you may have worked, proceed with the painting.

Another Form of the Flower. There is

another form of the flower to which we now desire
to direct attention.
First select your tablet, and having done so, fix
it upon a sheet of writing paper. Then take a
small portion of the hair cleansed, and drawn
through gum in the manner already directed, fix it
upon the tablet and mould it to the shape required
by means pointed out for the formation of the
preceding flower. Then cut the stem to the
required length. This done, add the diamond-
shaped leaves in the manner already pointed out,
and the stalk is ready to receive the flower. The
flower itself is begun in the same way as the last,
the cup of paper depressed in the centre, gummed,
and the leaves put on in the mode already pointed
out. That accomplished, cut four more diamonds
a size smaller than the first, round off one end, put
some gum on the centre of that portion of the
flower already made, and then place the second
series of leaves side by side, but slightly overlapping
one another. In exactly the same way you add
four other leaves of a still smaller size. You have
now to add the centre, as already directed, and the
flower is complete. You now gently lift your
flower from the piece of paper, and with some
strong gum place it in its proper position on the
stalk already prepared to receive it. You can now
finish off the whole design by means of Indian ink
or paint in the manner already pointed out.

The Tomb and Willow Tree require a slight


knowledge of drawing. Having selected a tablet

of the suitable size, and placed it upon a sheet of
paper in manner already directed, you begin by
drawing upon this tablet the outline of the tomb.
Now you can lay aside your drawing pencil for the
present. Next take a small portion of the cleansed
hair, pass it through the solution of gum, and lay it
upon the tablet beside the drawing on the tomb.
This is to form the stem of the tree. We have
next to make the boughs. This is done by means
of the knife, with the point of which several single
hairs are to be gently moved out into their places.
Our next process is to form the willow leaves. To
do this take a small portion of the cleansed hair,
having first drawn it through the solution of gum,
and, with a pair of scissors, cut off a number of
small particles of hair. Having secured a sufficient
quantity of these tiny pieces of hair, take the camel-
hair pencil and distribute them along the boughs.
To form the foliage, take another small portion of
the cleansed hair, draw it through the gum, cut it
off into short lengths of spray, and as soon as
a sufficient number have been prepared, fix them,
by means of the camel-hair pencil, at the root of
the willow tree. To the left you will arrange four
small trees. These are formed in the same way as
the foliage, with finely cut hair. The grass may be
done with cut hair in the same way, but if done
with the pencil, and ink or colour, it will give, if
anything, a greater lightness and finish to the

The Basket of Flowers.-In this may be

observed an application of the plaits and flowers
already described at so much length. A word or
two, however, by way of resum may be found
useful. The tablet is, as usual, to be fixed on a
sheet of the hair-covered skin cut into writing paper.
Then the foot of the basket is made by means of
the plait already described. The foot of the basket
disposed of, the body we need scarcely observe, is
formed exactly in the same way, only with plaits of
a smaller pattern. The flowers placed within the
basket are only our old friends, the roses and
forget-me-knots, already described. All that remains
for us to say concerning them is, that to secure
variety it will be well to have the flowers of
different sizes. The leaves are of course the same
as we have worked with already. It is also telling
an old story when we say that the sprays may be
made either of hair gummed on, or painted with
Indian ink, or paint, care being taken to match the
colour of the hair.

The Star Design.-This, which we commend

for its simplicity and beauty, is only another appli-
cation of the gold-beater's skin preparation. Take
diamond shapes, and set them round, so as to form

a circle. Then place over these, and more towards

the centre, an inner circle of half-diamonds. It
will be as well to have the star formed of hair of
different colours, and we scarcely anticipate any
difficulty in this, for we may safely assume that if
Bessie should happen to be a golden-haired beauty,
Edwin's hair will be of a darkish hue. For the
centre piece get a disc of ivory or opal glass, large
enough to cover the ends of the inner diamonds.
Then fix it in the centre with strong gum, and
having so fixed it, write thereon whatever imagina-
tion or affection may dictate, or, leave it blank.
Leaving Edwin and Bessie united and happy, we
pass to another pretty device.

The Wheatsheaf.-To form this you first have

to take some hair, form it into cords, draw it
through gum, and place these cords together,
letting them come a little thick towards the centre,
so as to give a raised appearance. This will form
the stalks or straws. The ears of barley may be
formed either of twisted gold thread or hair. The
binding is formed like the stalks of gummed hair,
the twist or tie being made of pieces of gummed
hair, laid over the binding, two or three other
pieces forming the ends of the tie. The foliage or
grass may, as previously pointed out, be either
painted on the tablet or made with finely-cut hair.

The Heartsease.-This elegant device is made

like the forget-me-not, with hair prepared on gold-
beaters' skin, cut into the required shape, and
gummed on to a piece of paper, prepared as


already described, with the stalk and leaves added.

We would direct the reader's attention to the form
of the pansy. It will be observed that the flower
is formed of five leaves, and that the two leaves
behind are intended to be formed of hair darker in

shade than that of those in the front. The leaves

can be tinted with Indian ink or any other colour
to add to the effect.

The Aster.-The aster is formed of two rows

of leaves of different colours, the lighter ones being
placed behind, and tinted. The stem and the
leaves in the form of sprays are then added.

The Rose needs but little in the way of obser-

vation, as it will be readily seen that it is formed
in the same way as the forget-me-nots and roses
already described. The rose at first sight may
appear to be somewhat complicated, but if the
directions already given are followed, it will be
found that it can be produced with comparative
ease. We would here hint that the leaves had
better be made into sections and shapes similar to
half-ovals, and cut to pattern before being placed
on the device.

The Wild Flower.--The centre of the flower is

formed in sections, whilst the two outside flowers
are made with hair prepared on gold-beater's skin,
in the manner already described, cut into the
required shape and size, and flat upon the device.
The cup is formed of finely-cut hair, and the leaves
and sprays are added last.

The Curls consist of three curls finished off

with a hair tie and one pearl. We have only to add
that if the hair of different hues be used, it will add
very considerably to the effect.
A word or two upon hair devices, and we shall
have finished what has been to us a pleasant task.
The designs and patterns we have dwelt upon offer
to the young artist a large field for the exercise of
the gentle art we have been endeavouring to teach.
Still, however, we by no means suggest that attention
should solely be confined to the designs we have
mentioned. It is our hope that the artist may
elaborate them, that he may produce combinations
of the various patterns, or, led by ambition into
untrodden paths, he may, guided by his own good
taste, produce designs entirely new.
The selection of the hair with which the designs
are to be worked out requires a hint or two. Of
course, fineness, and, to a certain extent length,
are, though not absolutely essential, very desirable,
and we need scarcely say that if choice were un-
fettered, the hair of children would be found more
easily worked than that of grown persons. We are,
however, not insensible to a difficulty here, and we
know that in the selection of hair tenderer feelings
than mere suitableness will force themselves upon
the amateur artist in hair. Well, as there is no
resisting these influences, neither would we desire
to be thought willing to resist them, we must only
meet them, and it after all becomes only a question
of design. If the hair be too short for one of the

large designs, affection may still have its sway by

falling back upon a smaller pattern. Another word,
and we pass on. The hair taken from the nape of
the neck will, as a general rule, be found most
A hint or two about the mounting of the designs
may not come amiss. They are usually to be
found mounted in the black enamelled gold used
for mourning. We suggest that plain or burnished
gold should be tried instead; and we will even go
further, and recommend that, at all events in their
earlier efforts, and with the larger designs, our artists
should dispense with any mounting in jewellery at
all, but place the work in an ordinary frame, where
it will be found to look exceedingly graceful and
If the lines we have written, or the art we have
attempted to teach, have served either to while
away a long winter evening, or to preserve a
memento of friendships cemented in youth, and
which the rough work of the world has not broken,
or to carry the mind back to auburn tresses, or
black curly locks, that Death has long claimed for
his own, we shall not have worked in vain."

APPENDIX.-Section 4.




Of razors and razor sharpening much might be

said as regards the instrument itself as well as the
proper mode of keeping it in order. Every hair-
dresser and barber knows when he is in possession
of a good razor, and undoubtedly takes proper care
of it. He is to be commended for this, as he
simply follows the course adopted by those in other
walks in life. Whether the old-fashioned descrip-
tion of razor is better or worse than the more
modern hollow-ground" I will not discuss, believ-
ing that a great deal depends upon the shaver, the
nature of the beard, and the conditions under which
the shaving operation is performed. Good practice
in a barber's shop is the best school in the world
for imparting a knowledge of easy shaving; while
ordinary intelligence, combined with shrewd obser-
vation, will go far towards making one a master of
his art.
Sometimes it is requisite to put a long-used

razor by for a time so as to restore its edge, and

the following observations anent "Tired Razors "
are cpropos of the subject:-Barbers often assert
that razors get " tired" of shaving, and that they
will work satisfactorily if allowed to rest for a while.
It has been found by microscopic examination that
a " tired " razor, from long stropping by the same
hand, and in the same direction, has the ultimate
fibres of its surface or edge all arranged in one
direction, like the edge of a piece of cut velvet;
but after a month's rest the fibres rearrange them-
selves heterogeneously, crossing each other, and
presenting a saw-like edge, each fibre supporting
its fellow, and hence cutting the beard instead of
being forced down flat without cutting.
Razor setting cannot well be taught-it must
(like tuning a violin)-be acquired. Some persons
are unable to set a razor with any degree of
certainty, while others become recognised as clever
in that part of the business.
" It appears," observes a writer* on the subject,
"that the choice of a razor may quite as well be left
to the makers, as determined by the purchaser;
however, it sometimes happens that, exclusive of
its goodness, the weight, the poise, &c., of a razor
are circumstances which seem to claim acquain-

* A Treatise on the Use and Management of a Razor

by M. Savigny.

tance with particular hands; and, with regard to

these, every one will do well to suit himself.
" I have lately ventured, notwithstanding the
long-established notion that weight is a very
requisite property in a razor, to recommend those
which were deficient in this respect; and I will
embrace this opportunity to offer the reasons which
influenced my judgment on the subject.
" It does not appear, upon considering by what
means a razor acts, that its ponderosity can assist
in the operation; the performance depending upon
the condition of the edge, abstractedly from its
weight; momentum can assist only where force is
requisite; thus, in dividing a tough piece of wood,
we find that the edge of a knife, however keen,
cannot make its way; it becomes necessary, there-
fore, to use some instrument of more weight, which,
being applied by an accelerated action of the arm,
becomes equal to the task. The weight of all
cutting instruments should be adapted according to
the nature of their acting; and if the beard required
to be hewn, or chopped off, doubtless a hatchet,
with a sharp edge, would answer the purpose better
than a razor; on the contrary, if the beard can be
erased by an unforced incision, which is certainly
the case, an instrumeut of no considerable weight,
with a proper edge, will always deserve the prefer-
ence; for the hand, having nothing to overcome
in point of weight, performs with more exactness

and ease than it possibly can when feeling the

oppression of weight in the instrument it has to
" In stropping a razor, it is necessary to observe
that the thick or hind part bears upon the leather
at the same time the edge does; for if the back is
raised, the hand loses its only guide; in which case
it could not fail of receiving some injury; but if the
razor is applied flat, and the strop a proper one,


ten or twelve strokes, on each side the blade, will

be sufficient to give the edge its necessary refresh-
"I have always given directions to draw the
razor downwards, from the termination of the edge
to the point; having experienced that this is the
most steady manner the hand can act in; and it is
an observation pretty well established, that anything
can be drawn to a much greater degree of exactness,

than it can be shoved; and in the present case,

were a razor to be pushed upwards along the strop,
that is, from the point to the termination of the
edge, there would be some danger of its turning on
the rivet, and cutting both the leather and the
fingers; to be as secure as possible in this respect,
it will be well to place the hold just above the rivet,
grasping at the same time the handle, and that part
of the blade which issues from it.
" The manner in which a proper strop acts upon


a razor must necessarily form an edge most suitable

for the purpose, as it neither wears it so fast as the
hone, nor confines its effects to a flat; by the
gentle manner in which it operates, and being in
some measure yielding to pressure, it cannot leave
the roughness upon the edge, which the hone, on
account of its quickness, and the solidity of its
surface, is commonly found to produce."
As a further contribution to this subject the
following extracts from the competitive corre-
spondence which appeared in the pages of The
S 2

Hairdressers' Chronicle in May and June, 19go0,

will reflect the experiences of practical hairdressers.
In the prize contribution a distinction is made
between razors for saloon use and those re-set for

The Prize Essay. -"For my own razors I

prefer, and would commend to my confreres, a
water hone, as it gives a far keener, softer and more
lasting edge than the oil hone. The hone and
rubber to be of a medium grain, length about
io in. by 2 in.; place the hone upon a double
fold of a piece of shampooing towel on an even
bench. This gives an elasticity to the hone, which
is an improvement, and far safer than holding the
hone in the hand; it also counteracts any extra
pressure that might be brought to bear on the edge
of the razor. Then with the rubber and a few
drops of water, rub the hone firmly to remove any
particles of steel (from previous setting) until a
rather moist lather is obtained, then lay the razor
flat upon the hone, edge foremost, at an angle of
about 45 degrees, with a light pressure directed
towards the edge, draw the razor towards you with
an easy stroke from heel to point, taking the whole
length of the hone, always turning the razor on its
back, and giving it the barest suspicion of a tilt, as
one reaches the point. Continue this according to
the condition of the razor, try it from time to time

upon the thumb-nail until it feels quite smooth

(taking care always to finish on the side opposite
to that started on), then proceed to fix the edge by
gradually shortening the stroke and lessening the
pressure for a short time until, on testing, the edge
distinctly 'draws' or 'bites' the nail. It can then
be considered sufficiently set and ready for strop-
" Concerning customers' razors, as one finds
them in such a variety of patterns, and invariably
in such bad condition, I would advocate the
possession of two German hones, of the same size
as the water hone, one to be a fast-cutting stone
for the rubbing down of badly-notched or excep-
tionally rough razors, the other of a medium grain
for the ordinary razor that requires setting.
" The nmodus operandi to be pursued in this case
is as follows: Oil the hone lightly with either
sweet or nut oil mixed with one part of paraffin to
three parts of the oil, then take the razor, lay flat
upon the hone, again at an angle of about 45
degrees, and rub it several times down and up,
from heel to point and point to heel on one side,
using the whole length of the hone. Then turn
the razor over (on its back) and rub an equal
number of times the other side, taking care to
keep a regular angle. The number of times to
rub depends on the condition of the razor. I
usually start with seven strokes each way, gradually

lessening the number of strokes as the setting

proceeds by two at a time to 5, 3 and i strokes, at
the same time diminishing the amount of pressure
with each change of stroke, finally finishing the
setting as with one's own razors, as described above.
With this method of sharpening, razor-setting will
no longer be the bug-bear it is to so many, but a
distinct pleasure, and it will rarely take more than
five minutes to set even the most obdurate of
"The razors are now to be carefully wiped by
drawing them flat upon a piece of rag or towelling
(and not to be drawn through the fingers and the
towel), stropped lightly upon a canvas strop, and
finished upon a soft leather strop, previously wiping
strops with the hand. While on the subject of
strops, I would say that it is better for the razor if
the whole end of the strop is grasped in the hand,
not to rely on the ring or leather thong, as by
holding the strop by the ring or thong a concave
hollow is made, which only allows the razor to
work on the edges, but if held as advised, a convex
is obtained, which will allow the whole edge of
the razor to play upon the strop.
" With strops it is always advantageous, when
buying a new one, to prepare it yourself, either by
bottling or boning it. Stretch the strop, and fix
on a flat bench (using soap for canvas and oil for
leather), then rub on the lubricants, rubbing well

up and down with a round bottle, giving particular

attention to the edges, that they get a good bevel-
ling. Continue this rubbing until a good even
surface has been obtained.
" With hones I have noticed a peculiarity.
The oil hone keeps at its best when, after using,
it is wiped and folded up in its cloth; but with
the water hone it is distinctly at its best if the
lather is allowed to dry and it is put aside in an
exposed position.
"A good way of levelling an uneven hone is to
rub it down on a York paving stone till it is even,
then with a small cork bung, that has also been
rubbed down, give it a good dressing with pumice-
stone powder, finally finishing with a dressing of
putty powder.
" As this article bristles with trifles, I will
conclude by quoting the words of Michael Angelo,
that 'trifles make perfection, but that perfection
is no trifle.' "

A Selected Competition Essay.-" The edge

of a razor, if seen through a microscope, when
in good shaving order, resembles a saw, the
whole of the edge standing out in bold relief, as
a row of teeth does on a saw of a carpenter;
by constant usage these teeth are gradually worn
down, and in time the whole surface of the razor
edge becomes smooth, and is then put on one side

by the hairdresser as being ' dull' and requiring

setting. This setting, as distinct from grinding, is
done on a flat hone of a pale yellow colour, the
size of hone, to my mind, being a secondary con-
sideration, if the texture is all right.
" In choosing a hone care should be taken to
pick one neither too soft nor too hard, the happy
medium being best, but buying a new and unused
razor-stone is at all times more or less of a lottery;
an expensive one, at times, will turn out to be well-
nigh worthless, whilst, on the other hand, a cheap
one will exceed all expectations. The best lubricant
for a hand hone is a mixture of oil and paraffin, or
soap lather, the reason being that the paraffin acts
the part of a cleanser; it also prevents the oil from
clogging up the pores of the hone, thus allowing the
stone to bite the edge of the blade, producing a
saw-like edge to the razor. The best lubricant for
a soft stone is olive oil or sweet oil; the softer the
hone is the thicker the oil should be, to prevent
too fine an edge being imparted to the razor. A
soft hone should never be cleared of the oil used
upon it, but it should be allowed to remain, so as
to fill up the pores of the stone; pumice-stone
should never be used on a soft hone. In case of
it losing its bite, a wash in hot water with a soft
brush will quickly restore it to its normal state. In
case of a hard razor-blade, a good plan to adopt,
and one which in many instances will be found

effectual, is to dip the razor, prior to setting, in

very hot water ; the heat of the water sets in motion
the molecules of the steel, and materially assists in
putting on an edge. Great care should also be
exercised so as not to make the blade too keen; a
very keen edge not being conducive to easy shaving,
especially hard and stubbly beards. After setting a
razor, the best way to try it is to wet the thumb and
draw it gently along the razor edge, and if it slightly
drags and bites the skin it will invariably be found
to be keen enough.
" When a razor is found to be too keen it should
be gently rubbed edge-wise along a cork or piece
of soft wood ; and even then should only be used
for shaving downy beards, until the excess of edge
is taken away, and only then should it be used
on hard beards.
"The hone is the mainspring, and it depends
more on what the hone is, than the man using it,
what sort of edge his razors will have. Really good
hones are not very easily obtained, but anyone that
wishes for the best results should not be satisfied
until he has secured a good one. The yellow rock
hones vary a great deal as regards grain and cut,
and one has to find out the method which suits it
best. No strict rule can be laid down as regards
what to use on it. The ways of each stone have to
be learnt by practice and experience. By using a
little judgment one soon finds out the best medium

to use, and what degree of pressure is required on

the razor to get a satisfactory edge.
" The best hone to use is the dark slate-coloured
water hone, on which water is used, and then rubbed
with a smaller piece of the same kind of stone until
a very thin cream is produced. They are clean to
use, doing away with all grease, and much more
reliable in quality than the yellow rock hones. They
put a smooth, sweet-cutting edge on a razor.
" There is another important item in the setting
of the razor, that is, the manner a razor is drawn
over the hone. The ways of doing this are many
and varied; but the way that sets a razor par
excellence is the stroke that draws the razor along
the stone with a curving-over stroke.
"The angle at which a razor is drawn over a
stone is most important. It should not be allowed
a backward slant whilst it is drawn from heel to
point. The point should come over from a back-
ward to a slightly forward slant as the razor is
brought down and across the stone-of course,
keeping the razor perfectly flat, taking it from heel
to point. It is easy to see what condition a razor
is in if the blade is held at a certain angle, so that
the light glints along the level of the edge, and it
should always be examined in this manner before
starting operations, as you can then see what is
required, and treat it accordingly.
" Regarding the strop, one cannot state one

particular kind that will suit all. It depends on

the sort of hone used and the kind of edge set on
the razor. Russia leather or canvas should meet
all requirements. If the stone is at all sharp or
the razor is not set with a fine edge, the leather
strop is best. The strop, if new, should be treated
with a small quantity of Russian tallow, well worked
into it, just enough to make it pliable (on no
account should it be reeking with grease or oil).
No strop will suit a razor at first; it must be worked
into the proper condition, and only constant use
will do it. For a razor that is set with a fine
smooth edge the canvas strop is best. The leather
takes too much out of it, and soon makes it dull.
To get a canvas strop quickly into use, lay it on a
table, then get a damp cloth or sponge and rub off
some of the superfluous dressing, then with a flat
piece of pumice-stone rub it down until it is nicely
smooth, lastly, with a flat-iron that is fairly hot,
press the strop from end to end. This brings it to
the condition that would take months of ordinary
use'to do.
"There is a right and wrong way of stropping a
razor, which a good many do not take the trouble
to recognise. 'They smack a razor up and down,
at all angles, sometimes touching both sides of the
blade, sometimes only one, more often than not
doing the razor more harm than good. In the
first place, a razor should be laid quite flat upon

the strop, and with only a small amount of pres-

sure, especially in the case of very thin blades,
when scarcely any more than the weight of the
blade is needed. The heel of the razor should be
pointing well towards the end of the strop to which
the razor is travelling, care being taken with the up
stroke to have the razor at the same angle as the
down, and to see that the blade is not off the strop.
It is in the up stroke that so many fail. Many
only touch a part of the blade when stropping,
generally leaving about half an inch at the point
untouched. A razor does not require half the
amount of stropping it generally gets."

Warm your Razor before Using was the

advice of Professor A. McWilliam, an expert, in a
lecture on " The care of a Razor; a lesson in the
use of high-temper cutting edges," to members of
the Sheffield Society of Engineers and Metallurgists
in the Sheffield Builders' Exchange.
He had, the Professor said, been experimenting
since 1885 on how a razor should be best looked
after, and he made a survey of the ordinary
methods adopted in the treatment of a razor by its
average user.
Considerable light, he remarked, had been
thrown on the subject by the behaviour of certain

drills made of high-temper steel, hardened and not

tempered, when used for such purposes as drilling
white iron. From these experiments he had found
that if these drills were very carefully worked until
they became warm they were much less liable when
in use to break or chip. This was proved by
warming them first in boiling water, and they would
be found to work well immediately.
As the result of his experiments he advised the
use of a smooth and pliable surface for obtaining
the keenest edge on the highest tempered of
cutting tools. A razor should never be stropped
or used unless its very fine and delicate edge
had been first toughened by being suitably
warmed.- Hairdressers'C/ronicle.

The following directions for dressing a buff strop

were given in the " Answers to Correspondents"
column of the Hairdressers'Chronicle. The process,
as indicated, had been proved, and it has always
been resorted to for saloon and sale strops, through
many years, with unvarying good results :-
"Stretch your buff 'strop on the bench, and
apply sufficient oil to moisten it all over. Then
vigorously rub it with a round bottle, or a piece of
smooth lead, rounding off the edges in the process.
Frequent use will produce a gradually increasing
improvement. The same process may be adopted

for canvas strops, but these are improved by first

rubbing thoroughly into them a mixture of tallow
and soft soap. We have had in constant use in our
saloons some calf-hide strops which Messrs. R.
Hovenden & Sons, Ltd., supplied several years
ago. They were soft and ready for use when
purchased, and beyond a very small quantity of oil
from recently-set razors, have never had or required
any dressing."

APPENDIX-Section 5.




Wax Models for the display of the fashions in

hairdressing are now so universally employed that
a short chapter devoted to their renovation will, I
think, be appreciated, whilst not being out of place
in a work of this kind. It not unfrequently happens
that a hairdresser is unable to keep his Wax
Models in proper order, and they are either put
aside, or placed in the window as though to repre-
sent a person in the last stages of consumption.
To the town hairdresser this scarcely applies, as
the opportunities of keeping his models in all the
pristine splendour of youth and beauty are ever
at hand. The country hairdresser, unless he is
acquainted with the secret of imparting fresh love-
liness to his models, must either incur great risk
and expense of sending them to the London house,
or let them go from bad to worse.

To Clean a Wax Model.-In the ordinary way

very little renovation is required, and a careful

washing with soap and water will suffice. This is

done in the following manner :--Take a quart of
tepid water (great care should be exercised to avoid
having the water hot) and dissolve in it a piece of
soda the size of a filbert nut. With a soft, long-
haired brush (a good shaving brush answers
admirably) lather the figure thoroughly, being
careful in passing over the eyebrows and eyelashes,
as the hair is very lightly inserted in the wax.
Having ascertained that all dirt is removed, rinse
away all the soap with clean water, and dry
thoroughly, without rubbing, with a soft absorbent
towel, soaking up all moisture in the corners of
the eyes, ears and mouth. Allow the model to
remain in a warm room for an hour br more until
all moisture has been removed, and the warmth has
brought the wax to a suitable condition, when it
will then be ready for the final process.
There is also a method by which superfluous
dirt and colour may be removed without washing,
which gives a neutral and uniform basis for make-
up. With the exercise of due care, this process,
which, apparently, upsets all earlier theories of
treating wax, will give exceptionally good results.
Take a small quantity of fairly stiff cold cream,
and apply it sparingly with the finger tips over the
surface to be cleaned, rubbing with a rotary motion
until the colouring and dirt are absorbed by the
grease. With pads of cotton wool, frequently re-

newed, go over the model, especially in the corners

of eyes, nose, mouth and ears, until all the grease
is completely removed. Dust it over freely with
fine pumice powder, and allow to remain for an
hour, when the powder may be removed, using
cotton-wool and a soft dry brush for the purpose.
A very clean and receptive surface will then be
ready for the make-up, which may be proceeded
with, as directed for other cleaning processes.
Should a figure be very dirty, it may be quickly
wiped over with a small pad of cotton wool dipped
in a mixture of turpentine two parts, and methy-
lated spirit one part, to remove the dirt, and
immediately wasied thorougily, as this mixture has
a solvent action upon the wax, and should not be
permitted to remain after the dirt is removed.
The washing with soap and water may then be
repeated, if thought desirable, which should leave
the composition in a uniform, colourless condition.
Rubbing the surface must be avoided if the much-
to-be-desired matt surface is to be obtained. A
glossy or " waxy " result follows frictional rubbing
during any portion of the process. To render the
composition amenable to the finishing processes,
the model when dry should be kept at a tempera-
ture of not less than 90 degrees for an hour,
and this condition should be maintained until the
final touches are made.
Before restoring the complexion the following

powders must be prepared, thoroughly dried and

mixed ready for use, and sifted through fine
muslin : -
No. 1 Powder.
Powdered Pumice ... ... 4 ozs.
,, Calamine ... ... oz.
,, Burnt Umber ... 5of each
,, Carmine ... ) a trace.
The addition of a sufficient quantity of burnt
umber and carmine gives a good tone to the wax,
which is naturally very white after the cleaning
No. 2 Powder.
Prepared Chalk ... ... I oz.
Oxide of Zinc ... ... ... 4 oz.

Calamine ... ... ... of each

French Chalk ... ... .., oz.
Mix thoroughly and sift well to remove any
gritty particles.
No. 3 Powder.
Poudre d'Amour-pink.

No. 4 Powder.
Poudre d'Amour.
Carmine ... ... ... q.s.

Rub up very smoothly in a mortar, a small

quantity of Carmine, to which two drops of

Ammonia is added, gradually adding Poudre

d'Amour, until a good deep pink is produced.
With the model in a favourable light, and
preferably upon a table covered with a soft
material, the No. I powder should be carefully
applied with the finger-tips equally to every part.
The wax at the suggested temperature is easily
affected, and with a slight rotary movement of the
fingers the pumice compound gives a slightly
abraded or matt surface. Lightly dust off, and
follow the same process with No. 2 powder, which
gives a soft and slightly tinted surface. The pink
Poudre d'Amour may then be freely applied, using
a pad of cotton wool, and finally the No. 4 powder
may be applied with the fingers on the cheeks, a
little on the chin, a slight tinge to the forehead and
the ears. Brush off all superfluous powder, stand
the figure in a good light and examine carefully to
see if the cheeks are sufficiently and evenly coloured.
Then take a small quantity of the pure Carmine,
previously moistened with Ammonia and allowed to
dry, and with a soft camel hair pencil, previously
moistened in the mouth, rub up smoothly on a
piece of glass, after which carefully paint the lips
with the pencil. This should be left until perfectly
dry, when the whole face and neck should have a
final powdering with Poudre d'Amour, which should
be left on for some few minutes before wiping off.
A little should also be well dabbed over the lips to

deaden the brightness of the colour imparted by

the Carmine. As a finishing touch the eyebrows
may be darkened if they require it by brushing
through them a very small quantity of dark brown
or black cosmetique or eyebrow pencil. If this
process is carefully followed, almost any model,
however dirty or neglected, may be renovated to
look like new.

Printed by Win. Clowes & Sons, Ltd., Great Windmill Street, W.I
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Cold Cream.
An excellent Toilet

No. 1203 - - 7/- doz.

No. 1204 - - 12/6 doz.

EXTRA with the creamy lather. Enclosed in
handsome nic Whkeled
No. 4760, 12/- doz
,, 4657, 20/- ,,
,, 4658, 36/- ,, 11/6 doz.

Quotations subject to market fluctuations.


THE POPULAR SERIES. No Water Required.

-- ~--==~--
-- -----
--- ;-
,1. O , a 0. SHAMP00 ROWDER.J

Oo Aot!llml lI 11111r :1
I Or 1.1;!' si'.
Chamomile, Chamomile & Rosemary, Pine.
No. 4747/5. 5 pkts. in carton, 8/9 doz. cartons. No. 4554/5- 5 pkts. in carton, 9/- doz. cartons.
,, 4747/7- 7 ,, ,, 12/- ,, 4554/7 7 ,, ,, 13/-
I do7.on card, 21/- gross. I doz. on card, 21/- gross.



No. 4618/5. 7 pkt . in carton, 9/- doz. cart ns.

,, 4618/7. 7 ,, 13/- ,,
I doz. on card, 21/- gro s.


SSaloon or Family

1 In Canisters containing SHAMPOO

about 2 OZs., POWDER. Shampo
Chamomile, Oval Gilt Metal Powd
Chamomile and Tins.

Rosemary, Ais
Pine, No. 4484 AR ETY NEW
20/- doz. 16/- doz. OCESS FoR LENIN

Ordinary, 11 SG
18/- doz. I LEAVING

Quotations subject to market fluctuations.



" EASY " " EASY "

Facsimile of Label. (Registered No. 117,627.)

Showing hair on Waver. Showing hair on Curler.

No. x. 3 ins. long, 6 Curlers in box. No. 2. 44 ins. long, 4 A avers in box,
4/6 doz. boxes. 4/6 doz. boxes.

" ALBANY" HAIR PINS-Jet Enamelled

Ideal, in boxes containing 4 gross packets of 4

Waved or Grip, in boxes containing gross
one size, sizes 2, 21,3, 3- and 4 ins., black packets of one size, sizes 2,2j,, 3 3+ and 4 ins.,
or bronze colour. 17/6 gross pkts. black or bronze colour. 17/6 gross pkts.
"Albany " invisible waved, in boxes containing j gross packets of one size, black or bronze
colour, sizes it, s, 2,2T,24 and 3 ins. 17/6 gross pkts.
" Albany" pins in boxes, assorted shapes and sizes, black or brown colour, 4/- doz. boxes.
Invisible, assorted sizes, black or brown, 4/- doz. boxes.
Quotations subject arket fluZctuations.

R. HO VENDEN & SONS, Ltd., London

P4 v,,
6 i

< >s



m ,


a wi

Grey Bristles.
No. Doz.
_-__- ' Unpolished.
__192 Low Cut 42/-
192 Medium Cut 45/-
192 High Cut 51/-
S. Polished.
IiNo. 192. Low Cut192 45/-
192 Medium Cut 48/-
192 1 igh Cut 54/-
These are very stiff bristles, and are exp cssly made for frequent was/zing.


Stump Pattern. Best bristles, and strongly screwed backs.

-- aa
v %2t Satinwood Saloon Brush.
-Grey Bristles.
\ No. 173. 173
Low Cut
Medium Cut 45/-

173 High Cut 51/-

Yellow Bristle Mixture.

173 Low Cut 69/-
173 Medium Cut 72/-
173 High Cut 75/-


pronounce this to be the best Saloon Hair Brush.
We shall be pleased to make Saloon Hair Brushes to Customers' ow, patterns
at low st possible prices. Quotations on application.


No. 416.
No. 416 Pure Yellow Stiff Bristles, Io rows ...... per doz. 162/-
,, 221X High Cut Ditto, 10 rows ... ... ... .... ,, 168/-
,,4285 Cheaper Line in Yellow Mixture, Large Hole, 6 rows ,, 102/-
Quotations subject to market fluctuations.
This book is a preservation facsimile produced for
the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
It is made in compliance with copyright law
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