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1 views6 pagesThe theory about filters' oder

Sep 22, 2017

Dynamic High Order Filters

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The theory about filters' oder

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Dynamic High Order Filters

The theory about filters' oder

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 6

Rev: 1.0.0

th

Date: 12 March 2004

1 Purpose

This document describes how to dynamically program high-order

filters using AnadigmDesigner2 using algorithmic dynamic

reconfiguration.

the application of Anadigms field programmable analog arrays (FPAAs) to

filter applications.

- Firstly, it is tightly coupled to a the AnadigmFilter filter synthesis tool.

This allows for the rapid and easy creation of high order filters.

- Secondly, for any user application constructed using configurable

analog modules (CAMs), it will automatically generate the necessary

application programming interfaces (APIs) to perform real-time

dynamic programming under software control by a microprocessor.

This can be done using

o algorithmic method (where the processor calculates new

circuit programming data) or

o state-driven method (where programming data segments are

pre-calculated by AnadigmDesigner2).

&

.

* The state-driven method can be applied to any circuit variations,

where the designer sets up different circuit states using

AnadigmDesigner2, which generates the necessary information to

transition real-time from one state to another using minimal data sets

under the control of a microprocessor. This is fully described in the

help information for AnadigmDesigner2.

Here we focus on the algorithmic method, where the designer wants the

target system to re-tune its filters in response to real-time events, and

where the filter settings are unpredictable or need to be arbitrary.

Document revision 1.0.0, 12th March 2004 Doc No. SK01DPF-U001

Design Note: Dynamic High-Order Filters

2.1 Building the Filter

Build the desired filter using AnadigmFilter. To do this, start

AnadigmDesigner2, and select Tools->AnadigmFilter.

Select a filter characteristic that satisfies a typical frequency response that

you will require. This frequency characteristic will be varied under

software control when complete.

Having chosen a response, note the resulting [f0, gain and Q] settings for

each biquad and [f0 and gain] for each bilinear stage. To do this, either

- select List CAMs in AnadigmFilter, which gives you a list of all

biquad and bilinear parameter settings for that filter, or

- select Build circuit in AnadigmFilter and for each stage (CAM) note

the resulting settings in the CAM parameter setting dialog.

Figure 1 shows an example of the former - the bilinear and biquad

th

parameters for a 1kHz 5 order lowpass Chebyschev filter.

Figure 1

The CAMs that are used to build this circuit have the facility for being

dynamically updated under software control using a C-code API. The

functions take parameters f0 & Gain (and Q in the case of biquads).

These need to be re-assigned new values as we change the filter

dynamically (see Section 2.3).

&

.

Details on how to extract C-code APIs and include them into system

software is covered in other documents. The reader is referred to

AnadigmDesigner2 help information, and also to the reference kit

entitled Dynamic Programming Starter Guide Subwoofer

Filter (document number SK01SUBW-U001) on the Anadigm Web

Site (www.anadigm.com).

Document revision 1.0.0, 12th March 2004 Doc No. SK01DPF-U001

Design Note: Dynamic High-Order Filters

2.3 Applying The New Filter Settings

The new CAM parameter settings that must be applied by your system

software are determined as follows.

2. Note the respective parameter range limits as

recommended by AnadigmDesigner2.

3. Scale all frequency settings by the same factor

4. Scale gain using the gain parameter

a. On the first filter stage if increasing gain*

b. On the last filter stage if reducing gain*

5. Keep all Q settings the same

th

So in example in Section 2.1, the new settings for a 3kHz 5 order

Chebyschev filter with a passband gain of 0.7 would be:

Stage 0: F0 0.534

Gain 1.0

Stage 1: F0 2.901

Gain 1.0

Q 8.82

Stage 2: F0 1.842

Gain 0.7

Q 2.14

&

.

* The scaling of gain should be done with care to avoid signal

clipping, which may be averted by performing some of the gain

scaling elsewhere in the biquad/bilinear chain. The

recommendation above is made purely for noise considerations.

It is recommended that maximum gain levels be checked using

the AnadigmDesigner2 simulator first to ensure that clipping

does not occur.

Document revision 1.0.0, 12th March 2004 Doc No. SK01DPF-U001

Design Note: Dynamic High-Order Filters

All filters can be mathematically described using high-order polynomial

expressions.

1

H ( s) =

s + 3.864 s + 7.464 s + 9.142 s 3 + 7.464 s 2 + 3.864 s + 1

6 5 4

th

Classical filter approximations, such as the normalized Butterworth 6

order filter above, deliver frequency responses that best approximate a

brick wall response.

All such expressions can be re-written as products of simpler ones, where

the numerator and denominator are up to first order expressions

(bilinear) or second order (biquadratic).

th

The normalized Chebyschev 4 filter below shows this.

1 1

H ( s) = 2

2

( s + 0.279 s + 0.9865) ( s + 0.6737 s + 0.2794)

blocks FilterBilinear and FilterBiquad (see Section 2.1).

where s is a complex variable. H(s) reaches infinity whenever the

demominator of the expression equates to zero. These values of s are

called poles. Similarly, the zeros of the filter are the values of s for which

numerators of H(s)=0.

Figures Figure 2 and Figure 3 plot the real and imaginary components of

s for the poles of a Butterworth and Chebyschev low-pass filters

respectively.

As can be seen, Butterworth poles, when plotted in this manner, lie in a

semi-circle and Chebyschev poles lie in a semi-ellipse. It is this

positioning of the poles that give rise to the maximally flat passband for

the Butterworth, and the rippled passband & more rapid initial roll-off of

the Chebyschev characteristic.

This characteristic shape formed by the locations of the poles in the

pole/zero diagram is termed the root locus.

Document revision 1.0.0, 12th March 2004 Doc No. SK01DPF-U001

Design Note: Dynamic High-Order Filters

4

Im aginary

2

Q

fo

1

Real

0

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

-1

-2

-3

-4

4

Im aginary

Q 2

1

fo

Real

0

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

-1

-2

-3

-4

These poles lie in conjugate pairs for each biquad and as a single real

pole for each bilinear. For both, the length of the line from the origin to the

pole, f0, is the natural frequency of the pole. For biquads, the Q factor is

reflected by the angle subtended with the imaginary axis as shown (the

smaller the angle, the higher the Q).

Document revision 1.0.0, 12th March 2004 Doc No. SK01DPF-U001

Design Note: Dynamic High-Order Filters

In the case of Butterworth filters, all values of f0 in the biquads are the

same, and the Q factors are different

In the case of Chebyschev filter both f0 and Q vary between the biquads.

characteristic response, all that needs to happen is to maintain the Q

factors of the poles, and scale all values of f0 by the same amount.

This gives a new frequency setting, whilst maintaining the characteristic

shape of the filter, because the root locus forms a semi-circle for a

Butterworth filter and a semi-ellipse for a Chebyschev the root locus

simply expands or contracts.

Document revision 1.0.0, 12th March 2004 Doc No. SK01DPF-U001

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