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UNIT 3

VOCABULARY

Admission fee (n): Instrument (n):


(can) afford (v): Join in (v):
Art gallery (n): Look forward to (v):
Backpack (n): Make up for (v):
Book ahead (v): Mountain-biking (n):
Catch up with (v): Opening hours (n):
Chess (n): Oven (n):
Cyclist (n): Patient (adj):
Deal with (v): Put someones name down (v):
Diving (n): Set out (v):
Feel like (v): Sightseeing (n):
Formal (adj): Surfing (n):
Get on with (v): Take up (v):
Give up (v): Tent (n):
Go off (v): Turn into (v):
Go on (v): Value (n):
Healthy (adj): Water-skiing (n):
Helmet (n): Work out (v):

GRAMMAR

GERUND & INFINITIVE

- INFINITIVE WITH TO:


TO + INFINITIVE:
Mean, appear, threaten, tend, let, remind, order, invite, agree, forget,
intend, plan, want, arrange, expect, learn, prepare, with, attempt, fail,
manage, promise, would like, would better, choose, help, need, propose,
decide, hope, offer, seem, ask, allow, refuse, dare, make, tell, persuade,
warn, afford, begin, demand, pretend, show, explain.

pg. 1
Ex: They agreed to pay that high rent for the house.
Liz didnt want to buy that t-shirt.
Do you promise to visit us more often?
AFTER BE + ADJECTIVE:
Ex: Ann was happy to see Brian again.
Is it expensive to travel to the USA?
It wont be difficult to get tickets for that concert.
AFTER TOO + ADJECTIVE/ADVERB:
Ex: Its too late to go out.
The exam was too difficult to pass it.
AFTER ADJECTIVE/ ADVERB + ENOUGH:
Ex: You didnt run quickly enough to catch the bus.

- INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO:


May, should, shouldnt, cant, can, might, will, wont, could, couldnt,
must, mustnt, would, wouldnt, have to, neednt, shall.
AFTER HAD BETTER/ WOULD RATHER:
Ex: He had better tell Sue the truth.
Wed rather have tea than coffee.
AFTER MAKE OR LET:
Ex: The teacher made us write a list.
My parents never let us go out at night.

- -ING:
AFTER:
Consider, postpone, risk, mention, put off, avoid, fancy, go on, practice,
be worth, cant stand, enjoy, feel like, imagine, suggest, look forward to,
dislike, finish, keep, cant help, be used to, get used to, give up, mind, be
fond of, advise, miss, stop, delay, regret, admit, deny.
Ex: I cant stand lying in the sun doing nothing.
James gave up playing tennis two months ago.
SOME EXPRESSIONS WITH GO+ING:
Ex: Will you go skating on Saturday?
They went fishing last weekend.
AFTER A PREPOSITION:
Ex: She went out without saying goodbye.
Im tired of doing the housework.
AS A NOUN:
Ex: Skiing is an expensive activity.
My favourite sport is running.
IN SHORT PROHIBITIONS:
Ex: No smoking.
No parking here.

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AS AN ADJECTIVE (THINGS):
Ex: The film was interesting.
The novel was boring.

- VERBS USED WITH TO+INFINITIVE OR -ING:


Attempt, help, love, begin, intend, prefer, continue, like, start, hate
Ex: They began to play/playing football at 5:00.
The secretary continued to type/typing letters.

- VERBS USED WITH TO+INFINITIVE OR -ING WITH


CHANGES IN MEANING:
FORGET:
TO+INFINITIVE: olvidar hacer algo
Ex: Dont forget to post these letters.
-ING: olvidar haber hecho algo
Ex: I forgot posting the letters.
MEAN:
TO+INFINITIVE: querer
Ex: Do you mean to work for this firm?
-ING: implicar, suponer
Ex: That means working overtime.
REGRET:
TO+INFINITIVE: lamentar
Ex: I regret to tell you that you havent passed the exam.
-ING: lamenter haber hecho algo
Ex: Youll regret saying those things.
REMEMBER:
TO+INFINITIVE: acordarse de hacer algo
Ex: Please, remember to phone me this evening.
-ING: acordarse de haber hecho algo (recuerdo)
Ex: I remember meeting you last year.
STOP:
TO+INFINITIVE: parar para hacer algo (Descanso)
Ex: We stopped to have a coffee.
-ING: dejar de hacer algo para siempre
Ex: I stopped having coffee, I only have tea now.
TRY:
TO+INFINITIVE: intentar hacer algo
Ex: Laura tried to do all the shopping on Friday.
-ING: experimentar
Ex: Laura tried cooking a Greek speciality.

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EXERCISES:
1. Choose the correct form:
1. Being/Be a teenager isnt easy.
2. It isnt easy writing/to write a book.
3. He doesnt like to study/studying but he would like taking/to take
a course on website design.
4. They promised to give/giving him the post in the new shop.
5. You can start/starting work as soon as you finish school.
6. She stopped smoking/to smoke 2 years ago.
7. She stopped smoking/to smoke a cigarette.
8. After to work/working there for two months, he decided to quit.
2. Complete with -ing or infinitive:
1. _____________(play) chess can help your brain to develop.
2. I cant put up with __________(listen) to that loud music.
3. Were ready ___________(start) training.
4. Stop _____________(eat) so much fast food!
5. Youd better not _____________(go) out in the rain.
6. Would you mind ____________(play) another song?
3. Complete with gerund or infinitive:
1. In France, many people stopped______________(smoke) when
cigarette taxes were raised.
2. None of us remembered ____________(bring) our workbooks to
class which made the teacher quite angry.
3. Shell never forget __________(see) the look of amazement on
Gregs face after he had won the race.
4. We saw a car accident and stopped ___________(help) the
people who were hurt.
5. She hopes ____________(complete) her law studies by next
summer.
6. We regret ___________(inform) you that you have not been
accepted to Sheffield University.
7. They forgot ___________(call) the DJ last week, and now hes
not available for their party.
8. She misses __________(be) with her friends form her old
neighborhood.
9. I remember ___________(read) about the bank robbery, but I
forgot which bank it was at.
10. I regret __________(watch) that programme on ghosts, because
Ive had bad dreams ever since!

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ADJECTIVE FORMATION: NEGATIVE PREFIXES
We use the negative prefixes: un-, in-, im-, il-, ir-, dis-; to give the adjective the
opposite meaning:
Grateful ungrateful
Personal impersonal
Retrievable irretrievable
Conclusive inconclusive
Liberal illiberal
Contented discontented

PHRASAL VERBS

- Ask for:
- Break down:
- Break in:
- Break off:
- Break out:
- Break up:
- Bring back:
- Bring up:
- Call for:
- Call off:
- Call on:
- Call up:
- Care for:
- Care about:
- Come along:
- Come by:
- Come down:
- Come on:
- Fall off:
- Fall through:
- Fill in:
- Fill out:
- Fill up:
- Get around:
- Get on:

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- Get on with:
- Get along with:
- Get out:
- Get over:
- Get through:
- Give in:
- Give out:
- Give up:
- Go after:
- Go away:
- Go by:
- Go off:
- Go on:
- Go out:
- Go through:
- Go without:
- Hold on:
- Hold up:
- Keep in:
- Keep off:
- Keep on:
- Keep out (of):
- Keep up:
- Let somebody in:
- Look after:
- Look at:
- Look down on:
- Look for:
- Look forward to:
- Look into:
- Look out:
- Look out for:
- Look up:
- Look up to:
- Make of:
- Put down:
- Put in for:
- Put off:
- Put on:
- Put out:

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- Put up:
- Put up with:
- Run into:
- Run out of:
- Run over:
- See about:
- See off:
- See through:
- Set off:
- Set out:
- Set up:
- Take in:
- Take off:
- Take over:
- Take up:
- Try on:
- Try out:
- Turn into:
- Turn off:
- Turn on:
- Turn over:
- Wear off:
- Wear out:

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