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PolicyBrief

SENATEECONOMICPLANNINGOFFICE

March2011 PB1101

Conqueringpovertyhasbeen Improvinginclusivenessofgrowth
thefundamentaldevelopment throughCCTs
goalofeveryadministrationin

thecountry.However,despite

thegovernmentsvarious
ThetwinchallengestoPhilippinegrowth
povertyreductionprograms,the
increaseinthenumberofpoor The Philippines posted its highest annual domestic growth rate since
remainsunabated. thepostMarcoseraat7.3percentin2010.Thisisawelcomeprogress
following the sluggish growth in the last two years, which is largely
Giventheineffectiveand attributedtotheglobaleconomiccrisis.
wastefulsubsidyprogramsin
thepast,thegovernments ThebarelyyearoldAquinoadministrationisoptimisticthatthehealthy
economic growth will be sustained in the medium term.1 However, it
preparednesstoimplementan
has to be noted that while the economy has been registering growth
interventionliketheCCT,which
year after year since 2001, the acceleration has been described as
requireslargebudgetsand erratic and lackluster compared to other countries in the region.
exceptionaladministrative Moreover,thegrowth,beingnarrow,hollowandshallow,hardlymade
capacity,isbeingmetwith an impact to poverty reduction in recent years, as reflected in the
doubtsandcynicism. countrys progress reports on the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs)andvariousperceptionsurveys(Balisacan,2010;Habito,2010;
Nonetheless,theAquino Aldaba, 2005; World Bank, 2009). In fact, the latest poverty statistics
administrationhasrequested showedthatthenumberofpoorFilipinosfurtherincreasedbyalmost
970,000,from22.2millionin2006to23.1millionin2009.2
Congressandthepublictogrant
theCCTachancetowork,given Therefore, aside from accelerating and sustaining higher growth rate,
itssuccessinreducingpovertyin the new leadership is also faced with the challenge of ensuring that
LatinAmericancountriesandits such growth benefits a broader spectrum of the economy and more
hugepotentialtodothesamein important,reducespoverty.
thePhilippines.
In pursuit of making economic growth statistics real to the people,
the Aquino administration on its first year scaled up the Pantawid
Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) of the previous administration by
expanding household coverage by 1.3 million and doubling the
programs budget. The 4Ps under the 2011 National Budget has four
components: Supplemental Feeding Program; Food for Work Program
forinternallydisplacedpersons;RiceSubsidyProgram;andConditional
The SEPO Policy Brief, a publication of
CashTransfer(CCT)Program.TheCCTprogramgetsthebulkofthe4Ps
the Senate Economic Planning Office,
budget.Thesaidprogramisseenasasocialprotectioninstrumentand
provides analysis and discussion on
a tool to empower people to rise above poverty by increasing
important socioeconomic issues as
inputs to the work of Senators and
householdincomeandimprovinghumancapital,amongothers.
SenateOfficials.TheSEPOPolicyBriefis
alsoavailableatwww.senate.gov.ph.

1
BasedontheYearEndPhilippineEconomicBriefingoftheInvestorRelationsOffice,BangkoSentralngPilipinas(2011).
2
The new methodology for estimating poverty is criticized for lowering the average official 2009 poverty line for a family of five to PhP7,017 per
monthfromPhP7,953permonthwiththeoldsystem.ThedifferenceofPhP936amountstoasubstantialloweringoftheofficial2009povertylineby
11.8percent,andwouldthusaffecttheestimationofpovertyincidence.

Thisbriefdiscusses4PsCCTasapovertyreductionstrategy,itsorigins,and
advantages and disadvantages. It also presents the impact of CCT and the
issues surrounding it as well as the challenges it faces in the Philippines. It
also provides a survey of selected social protection programs of the
governmentandpresentspolicyinsightsonmakingtheprogramsresponsive
inaddressingthepoorsvulnerabilitiesandneeds,especiallyinachallenging
economicenvironment.

Socialprotectioninafragileeconomicenvironment

WhiletheadverseeffectsoftherecenteconomicdownturninthePhilippines
appearedmilderthanthatoftheAsianfinancialcrisisinthelate90s(Yapand
Reyes,2009),itshouldbeemphasizedthatevenwhenthereisnoglobalor
regionalcrisis,households,especiallythepoorones,aresubjecttorisksand
shocks of various kinds (Manasan, 2010). For example, in a noncrisis year
like 2004, 54 percent of Filipino households were worse off because of the
higher price of food; 19 percent because of reduced income; 8 percent
becauseofjobloss;and3percentbecauseofnaturaldisasters(APIS,2004).

With the looming threat of the adverse effects of climate change coupled
ThePhilippineshasbeen
with the rising of global food prices to alarming levels,3 governments are
ineffectiveinpreventing calledtostrengthentheir socialprotectionandsafetynet programs.Taking
povertyincreasesduring such action is also a way to make growth inclusive4 since, in general, social
protection programs5 cushion households from shocks, help minimize
recessionsorcalamities disruptions to income and prevent adverse coping behaviors that tend to
primarilydueto erode human capital and perpetuate poverty. Sans the appropriate safety
inadequatetargeting, nets, households attempt to stay afloat amid a crisis by increasing working
hours, changing eating patterns and reducing spending on education and
uncoordinatedand health, which can lead to greater destitution in the long run (World Bank,
fragmentedprovisionof 2010).
socialprotectionservices,
By estimates, about 45 percent of Filipinos are vulnerable to falling into
andunsoundpolicies. povertyifconfrontedbyshockssuchashealthproblemsanddeaths,lossof
employment, natural disasters and increasing food prices.6 Since poverty
reduction has been the battle cry of most of previous administrations, the
Philippines is never shortof poverty alleviation efforts, which include social
protection and safety net programs. However, it was found out that the
Philippines has been ineffective in preventing poverty increases (Annex 1)
during recessions or calamities primarily due to inadequate targeting,
uncoordinated and fragmented provision of social protection services, and
unsoundpolicies(Manasan,2009;Balisacan,2010).

Withthe countryshighlevelsofchronicpoverty,Manasanemphasizedthe
urgentneedforasocialprotectionprogramthatwillprovidecashtransfers
toaddresstheimmediateneedsofthechronicallypoor.Moreover,thesocial
protection program should also provide adequate incentive for households
toinvestmoreintheeducationandhealthoftheirchildrenbecausethatis


3
AccordingtoWorldBanksFoodPriceWatch,foodpriceindexroseby15percentbetweenOctober2010andJanuary2011,is29percentaboveits
levelayearearlier,andisonly3percentbelowits2008peak.Thepricehikehasalreadydrivenanestimated44millionpeopleintopovertyaroundthe
world,andisputtingstressonthemostvulnerablewhospendmorethanhalfoftheirincomeonfood.
4
Growthissaidtobeinclusiveifitensuresequalaccesstoopportunitiesforallsegmentsofsocietyregardlessoftheirindividualcircumstances.
5
Social protection programs may be classified under three main categories: (1) contributory social insurance programs, (2) noncontributory social
welfareprogramsandsocialsafetynetsprograms,and(3)activelabormarketprograms.
6
National AntiPoverty Commission and National Statistical Coordination Board. 2005. Assessment of Vulnerability to Poverty in the Philippines.
Manila.
2

theonlywaytheywouldbeabletoescapethepovertytrap.Oftheprograms
assessed by Manasan (2009), the 4Ps was found to hold much promise in
effectivelyaddressingthechronicneedsofthepoor(Annex1).

Manasans findings are consistent with the impressive outcomes of CCT
programssuchasOportunidadesinMexico,BolsaEscolaandBolsaFamiliain
Brazil,ReddeProteccionSocialinNicaragua,ProgramadeAsistenciaFamiliar
in Honduras, Program of Advancement through Health and Education in
Jamaica, FoodforEducation in Bangladesh and Subsidio Unico Familiar in
Chile (de Janvry and Sadoulet, 2006). Following the success stories in Latin
America,CCTprogramsarenowregardedasaleadingedgesocialpolicytool
becauseoftheirabilitytoinfluenceboththeincomeofthepoorintheshort
runandtoimprovetheirhumancapabilitiesinthemediumandlongrun.The
saidprogramshavealsobeenlaudedfortheirabilitytotargetthepoorand
easily integrate different types of social services such as education, health,
CCTshaveimpacted andnutrition;andfortheircosteffectiveness(Son,2008).
thebeneficiary
Allowinghouseholdstoescapepovertythrough4PsCCT
households
aggregate The4PsCCT,patternedafterthegenerallysuccessfulCCTprogramsinLatin
consumptionnot Americancountries,aimstoacceleratethecountrysprogressintheMDGs.
This can be done by providing money to extremely poor households to
onlyintermsoflevel improvetheeducationandhealthofchildren,andmothersbelongingtothe
butalsoits saidfamilies.
composition,with
Whycashtransfer?
beneficiaries
spendingagreater Aside from being consistent with standard economic theory that cash
shareoftotal transfers are expected to generate positive income effect, even if
unconditioned, cash assistance is seen as more efficient than in
consumption kind/earmarkedassistancesinceitgivesbeneficiaryfamiliestheflexibilityto
expenditureon allocateresourcesaccordingtotheirneedsandcircumstances.

food.
Cross country studies on CCTs showed that they have impacted the
beneficiaryhouseholdsaggregateconsumptionnotonlyintermsoflevelbut
also its composition, with beneficiaries spending a greater share of total
consumption expenditure on food. Analysis in Colombia, for example,
pointedtobeneficiaryhouseholdsincreasedconsumptionofeggs,milkand
meatproducts.BeneficiaryhouseholdsofIndonesiasCCTProgram(Program
Keluarga Harapan or PKH), on the other hand, spent the bulk of cash
transfers on expenditures linked directly to childrens education and health
withmuchoftheremainderspentondailyconsumption(Syukri,etal.,2010).
Thedecreaseinthenumberoffamiliesfallingbelowthefoodthreshold7by
58,000 in 2009 is partly attributed to the expansion of 4PsCCT to 277
municipalitiesforthatyear.8

Across the emerging markets, fuel subsidies were given by governments to


shieldthepoorandpreventsocialunrestfromoccurring.However,withthe
sharpspikesinfuelprices,fuelsubsidies,ascomparedtocashtransfers,have
become costly and inefficient in protecting the poor as they mainly benefit
the rich owners of cars and air conditioners, and favor energy and capital

7
Food threshold refers to the minimum cost of food required to satisfy nutritional requirements for economically necessary and socially desirable
physicalactivities.
8
Averagepercapitaincomeofthebottom10percentoffamiliesrosefasterthanpricesoffood.
3

intensiveindustriesratherthanthosethatcreatemostjobs.AnInternational
Monetary Fund (IMF) study on five emerging economies found that the
richest 20 percent of households received, on average, 42 percent of total
fuelsubsidieswhilethebottom20percentreceivedlessthan10percent.9

Moreover, while food transfers readily make food available to families and
can address nutritional needs directly, high transport and storage costs,
losses from spoilage and theft plague food transfer programs (Devereux,
2002). The nutritional impact may also be limited, especially if the size of
transferandthechoicesoffooditemsfortransferarenotadequatetosatisfy
nutritionalrequirementofbeneficiaryhouseholds.InthecaseoftheFoodfor
School Program (FSP) jointly implemented by the Department of Education
(DepEd) and Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), the
size of transfer was the issue. While FSP increased the supply of rice in
households,aninformalsurveyconductedbytheDepEdinFebruaryMarch
2006foundthatfor80percentofhouseholds,onekiloofriceisnotenough
to provide their family with three meals a day and that only 33 percent of
households have not missed a meal in the last three months (Manasan,
2009).

Temporary public employment programs (e.g., Cash for Work) are likewise
less effective than human development CCT in delivering purchasing power
to the poor. About 50 percent of cash for work budget is spent on
construction equipment, materials and skilled labor compared with human
development CCT (10% or less for overhead/administrative costs). Hence, a
muchsmallerpercentageofcashforworkbudgetgoestosalariesandwages
of unskilled poor workers. At the height of the recent crisis, the Philippine
governmentallocatedPhP13.4billionfortheComprehensiveLivelihoodand
EmergencyEmploymentProgram(CLEEP)tocreatejobsthroughinvestment
in public works, including infrastructure and enterprise development. The
programmerelyprovidedtemporaryemploymentinnonproductiveprojects
such as beautification, street sweeping and rudimentary errands for
government units. Manasan (2009) pointed out that such projects did not
enhanceoverallproductivity.

Lastly, human developmentoriented CCT supports the rights of children to
basiceducationandhealthcarethroughastrongerstatefamilypartnership.

Conditions. The 4PsCCT (formerly referred to as Ahon Pamilyang Pilipino
Program),spearheadedbytheDSWD,providesbeneficiaryhouseholdswith
PhP500 subsidy a month for health and nutrition expenses and PhP300 a
monthperchildforeducationalexpenses.Amaximumofthreechildrenper
householdisallowed.Thesegrantswillbegivenuponthesatisfactionofthe
followingconditions:

1) Pregnantwomenmustgetprenatalcarestartingfromthefirsttrimester,
must have child birth attended by skilled/trained professional, and get
postnatalcarethereafter;
2) Parents/guardians must attend family planning sessions/mothers class,
parenteffectivenessserviceandothers;
3) Children 05 years of age get regular preventive health checkups and
vaccines;

9
ArzedelGranado,J.,etal.(2010).TheUnequalBenefitsofFuelSubsidies:AReviewofEvidenceforDevelopingCountries.IMF.September.
4

4) Children35yearsofagemustattenddaycareprogram/preschool;
5) Children614yearsofagemustbeenrolledinschoolsandattendatleast
85percentofthetime;and
6) Children614yearsofagemustreceivedewormingpillstwiceayear.

One of the crucial components of the 4PsCCT is the monthly DSWD
Variousstudies administered Family Development Sessions (FDS). Attendance to the FDS is
ofsocial among the conditionalities of the program. In the sessions, husbands and
protectionand wivesaretaughtfamilylifevalueslikediscipliningchildren,husbandandwife
socialassistance relationshipsandhandlingfinances,amongotherthings.
programsshow Isconditionalitynecessary?
thatsimply
Traditionally,socialprotectionandsocialassistanceprogramsarelimitedto
handingover redistributingincomeandresourcestotheneedy,andmerelyhelpingthem
cashtopoor overcome shortterm poverty during crisis periods. But social policies are
shiftingtheirobjectivestoincludelongertermeconomicgrowthandhuman
familieswillnot
capital development with the emerging poverty trends and increasing
besufficientto vulnerabilitiesofpopulationworldwide(Rawlings,2005).
tacklepovertyin
Critics argue that imposing conditionality on social assistance programs
thelongrun.
conveysthemessagethatbeneficiaryhouseholdscannotbetrustedtospend
cashtransfersfortherightexpendituressuchasimprovingchildrenshealth
and education. Imposing conditionalities also calls for additional costs for
compliancemonitoring,whichcanhikethecostofCCT(Son,2008).

From various studies on social protection and social assistance programs,
expertsfoundoutthatsimplyhandingovercashtopoorfamilieswillnotbe
sufficienttotacklepovertyinthelongrun.Hence,theideaistotransfercash
tothepooronconditionthatthepoorwillcommittoempowerthemselves
and help bring future generations of poor families out of poverty. That
conditionality makes this new generation of social programs an instrument
for longerterm human capital investments as well as shortterm social
assistance.

Sizeoftransfer.Theimpositionofconditionalitiescancelsthecriticism that
the said program is a dole out. With cash grants limited to PhP1,400 a
month (or PhP15,000 a year) and with beneficiaries eligible for grants only
foramaximumoffiveyears,4PsCCTisdesignedtominimizetheproblemof
dependency and mendicancy. A family of five needs to have a minimum
monthlyincomeofPhP7,017permonthtomeetitsbasicfoodandnonfood
requirements. The said amount of cash grant is only a fifth (20.1%) of the
monthlypovertythresholdin2009.

Whatistheidealsizeoftransfer?

In theory, optimal transfer is the minimum amount required to produce
desired objectives. In practice, calculating optimal transfer is not easy
because of lack of data, and lack of knowledge on behavioral responses of
families. Grants to be considered should not be too high as to discourage
workeffortandshouldnotbetoolowastohavenoeffect.

In most CCT programs, grants vary between 13 percent and 25 percent of
incomeofpoorfamilies(Castaneda,2010).
5

The size of transfer is a matter of importance, especially in the Philippines


wheredropoutratesarehighpartlybecausechildren,particularlyboys,tend
toleaveschooltohelpaugmentthefamilyincomebyworking.Thedecrease
in the prevalence of child labor among beneficiaries should also be an
indicatorofthesuccessoftheprogramandshouldbeusedtoassessthesize
oftransfer.

Coverage.Firststartedinthesecondhalfof2007infourpilotareas(Agusan
del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Pasay City and Caloocan City) with 6,000
beneficiary households, the 4PsCCT is expanded to cover 2.3 million
householdsin2011.

Table1.4PsCCTcoverage,20072011
Years
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Budget(inPhP)
50.0M 298.5M 5.0B 10.0B 21.2B
NumberofTarget
Beneficiaries/ 6,000 20,000 321,000 1M 2.3M
Households
Source:DSWDPresentationtotheSenateCommitteeonFinance(2010)

Willallthepoorhouseholdsbecovered?

ThelatestPhilippinepovertystatisticsindicatethatthereare3.9millionpoor
households,ofwhich,1.4millionareunabletomeettheirbasicfoodneeds
and living in extreme poverty in 2009. Thus, even with the additional 1.3
millionbeneficiariesfor2011,the4PsCCTwillstillmissout1.6millionpoor
families.

DuringthedeliberationoftheproposedDSWDbudgetinNovemberlastyear,
theDSWDinformedtheSenateCommitteeonFinancethatoftheonemillion
target households for 2010, it was able to cover and enroll in the program
826,937in733citiesandmunicipalities.Puttingupasystemthatwillbeable
to capture all target beneficiaries early in the fiscal year ensures that the
fundsintendedforthepurposewillbeused.

With some members of Congress doubting whether DWSD can enroll the
target 2.3 million beneficiary households for 2011, Congress proposed a
provisioninthe2011NationalBudget,whichrequiresthatsavingsfromthe
4PsCCT be used to augment appropriations for basic education, maternal
healthcare and immunization. The said provision was vetoed by President
Aquinocitingthatthepowertousesavingsfromthe[4PsCCT]programby
theendofthethirdquarterofFY2011tootherprogramsandprojectsrests
inthePresident.

Targeting.Thetargetingof4PsCCTbeneficiariesinvolvesthreesteps.First,
the poorest 36 provinces are selected based on official poverty lines. The
poorest municipalities from the identified poorest provinces are further
chosenusingthesmallareaestimationmethod.Second,allthehouseholds
intheidentifiedareasandwheretherearepocketsofpoverty(evenifthey
are not included in the poorest provinces) are assessed through houseto
houseinterview.Lastly,astatisticalformulacalledProxyMeansTestisthen
usedtorank,classifyandprioritizethepoorhouseholdsbylookingatcertain
proxyvariablessuchasfamilycomposition,ownershipofassets,employment

and access to basic services. According to the program, the poorest


householdswithchildrenaged014qualifyforthe4PsCCT.

WhatisthemosteffectivetargetingmethodforCCT?

Ensuring that benefits are directed to the poor or vulnerable is a critical
featureofCCTprograms,especiallyforcountrieswithverylittlefiscalspace.

There are two main issues in targeting: defining which poverty measure to
Targetingisadaunting use(income,consumption,multidimensionmeasures,etc.),andidentifying
challengeforCCT andselectingthepoor(whoandhowbywhichmethods.)
programs,especially
CCTstypicallyuseamixofproxymeanstestingandcategoricaltargetingsuch
sincetargetingsystems as geographical targeting and local community involvement. However, the
oftenrequiretremendous multidimensional and multisectoral approach of CCTs to poverty reduction
makesassessingtheirtargetingefficiencyfarfromstraightforward.
administrativecapacity.

The Bolsa Familias unverified selection method, for instance, has been
criticized on the grounds that its highly decentralized process leads to
selection distortions such as patronage and leakage. Suarez, et al. (2007)
quantifiedthetargetingperformanceoftheOportunidadesandBolsaFamlia
and revealed a disappointing picture. Bolsa Familia recorded a 49percent
inclusion error and 59percent exclusion error while Oportunidades
registered 36 percent and 70 percent inclusion and exclusion errors,
respectively.Theinclusionerrorrepresentstheleakagesasitistheratioof
the nonpoor beneficiaries to total beneficiaries. Exclusion error, on the
otherhand,reflectsundercoverageasitistheratioofnonbeneficiarypoor
tothetotalpoorpopulation.

Proponents admit that targeting is a daunting challenge for CCT programs,
especially since targeting systems often require tremendous administrative
capacity. However, even with the targeting errors as in the case of
Oportunidades,researcherspointedoutthatthenonpoorbeneficiarieswho
wereincludedintheprogramwereveryclosetothepovertyline.Inthecase
of 4PsCCT, it was explained that since the targeting used is a mix of
geographicandproxymeanstests,thosewhowillfallintheinclusionerror
willstillbewithinthelowincomedeciles.

Budget.ThebulkoftheDSWDbudgetfor2011(85.5%)isaccountedforby
the 4Ps, which will get an allocation of PhP29.4 billion. Of this amount,
PhP21.2 billion is earmarked for the 4PsCCT program to cover 2.3 million
householdsthisyearfromthe1millionbeneficiaryhouseholdsin2010.

At this time of fiscal consolidation, should the 4PsCCT program be
expanded?

Proponents of 4PsCCT emphasize that funding for the program should be
viewed not as a bigticket expense in the governments budget but as an
investmentforthefuture.

However,Sicat(2010)warnedthatwhileitistemptingtofurtherexpand4Ps
CCT given its likely impact to human development and its enormous vote
getting potential, if the government does not implement the necessary

7

economic reforms, expansion of 4PsCCT may pull the country to a
bottomlesspitoffiscaldeficits.

Table2.Breakdownof4PsCCTexpenditureitems,FY2011

Item Amount(PhP)

Cashtransfer/granttobeneficiaries 17,137,864,333

Implementationsupport
Trainings 1,624,772,529
Salariesandallowancesfor1,800newpersonnel 716,468,037
Bankservicefee 171,378,643
Information,educationandadvocacymaterials 333,049,544
Printingofmanualsandbooklets 315,935,216
Capitaloutlay 217,775,000
Manasan(2010)
Monitoring,evaluationandadministrationsupport 676,873,698
arguedthatitis
Total 21,194,117,000
imperativeforthe
Source:2011GeneralAppropriationsAct
governmentto
Given the priority legislative measures (Annex 2) of the Aquino
considerthe administration, one may wonder if this set of proposed reform measures
impositionofnew (i.e.,rationalizationoffiscalincentivesandinstitutinganationallanduseact)
thatwould promoteeconomicdevelopmentinthe countryaresufficientto
taxmeasuresif
supportthelongtermobjectivesofthe4PsCCTprogramevenastheviability
fiscalconsolidation ofpassingtheselegislativemeasuresisbeingseriouslydoubted.
istobeachieved
The Aquino government, has repeatedly expressed that it will raise the
withoutsacrificing muchneeded revenue for CCT by improving tax administration rather than
thefinancingof by imposing new taxes or increasing the rate of existing taxes. However,
MDGsandinclusive critics do not share the optimism of the administration considering the
record of the Bureau of Internal Revenue and Bureau of Customs in
growth. increasingtheirrevenueeffortthroughimprovementsintaxadministration.
Criticsalsopointoutthattaxadministrationimprovementsdonothappenin
a snap or by mere policy declaration primarily because the installation and
operationalizationofsystemwidechangestaketime.

Manasan(2010)arguedthatitisimperativeforthegovernmenttoconsider
the imposition of new tax measures if fiscal consolidation is to be achieved
withoutsacrificingthefinancingofMDGsandinclusivegrowth.Assuch,she
calls for the implementation of least distortionary options, namely: (1)
restructuring of excise tax on sin products; (2) rationalization of fiscal
incentives;and(3)reformingtheroaduserscharge.Moreover,whiledonor
agencies are more than ready to extend loans for CCTs, it must be
rememberedthatloansstillendupasdebtsthatFilipinoshavetorepay.For
20112014, the Asian Development Bank will finance 45.2 percent (US$400
million) of the CCT project cost while the government will provide the
counterpartfinancingof54.8percent(US$484.2million)includingtaxesand
duties,andfinancingchanges.10

M&E.Themonitoringandevaluationof4PsCCTiscomposedoffivemajor
components:(1)regularinternalmonitoringbasedon4PsCCTmanagement
information system database; (2) biannual spot checks; (3) quantitative


10
ADB.(2010).ReportandRecommendationofthePresidenttotheBoardofDirectors:ProposedLoan,TechnicalAssistanceGrant,andAdministration
ofTechnicalAssistanceGranttotheRepublicofthePhilippinesfortheSocialProtectionSupportProject.December.
8

impact evaluation; (4) multiwave qualitative impact evaluation; and 5)
monitoringbyanindependentadvisorymonitoringcommittee.

The said system was put up by the DSWD in response to the 2008
Commission on Audit report on DSWD, which showed that the lack of
sufficientmonitoringsystemtodeterminecompliancebyallbeneficiariesof
the conditions and to constantly validate the eligibility of selected
beneficiariesmayhindertheachievementofthe4PsCCTobjectives.

Inaddition,aCongressionalOversightCommitteeonPublicExpenditureswas
recently put up to monitor the implementation of the 4PsCCT program,
amongothers.

4PsCCTinitialfindings

According to the DSWD, the Social Weather Stations (SWS) conducted a
WorldBankcommissionedpilotspotcheckon760householdbeneficiariesin
NorthernSamarfromFebruarytoMarch2010.11Thefollowingaretheinitial
findings:

1) Theresultofthespotcheckisdisappointing,particularlythecompliance
ratesforhealth.Oneofthemostpressingproblemsofthecountryisthe
veryhighmaternalmortalityrate(MMR)andlookingatthecompliance
rates of pregnant women surveyed, it seems that the 4PsCCT is
ineffective or inadequate in addressing the maternal deaths among the
poor. Given that deworming and immunization are free, the low
compliancerateispuzzling.

2) Thelowawarenessofbeneficiariesisamajorfactorforlowcompliance
rates.Thesamespotcheckalsoindicatesthatonly5percentofgrantees
knew all the conditions for pregnant mothers and 19 percent knew all
theconditionsfor614yearolds.

Table3.Compliancerateofsurveyedbeneficiaries
ChildHealth Education AttendancetoFamily Maternalhealth
DevelopmentSessions
82% of children under 5 35yearolds: 58% enrolled 94% of beneficiarieswere Received 4.7 antenatal
attendedgrowthmonitoring indaycare aware of FDS and 96% care services during the
and checkups according to 614yearolds: 96% were thought they are very pregnancy
DOHprotocol enrolled in school and 88% useful 79% attended antenatal
62% of the 12yearold attended>85%ofthedays care services at least 3
children received full times13
childhood immunization12, 18% had the last delivery
and 84% had received at attended by a trained
leastoneimmunization professional
All 614yearolds received 7%hadthelastdeliveryat
deworming pills at least ahealthfacility
once, 32% received two 57% had at least one
doses during the last school postnatal care within 6
year weeksafterdelivery
Source:DSWDpresentationonWorldBankcommissionedstudyconductedbySWS(2010)

11
BasedontheDSWDpresentationentitledPantawidPamilyangPilipinoProgram(4Ps)AssessmentReport:KeyFindingsfromthePilotSpotChecks
andQualitativeEvaluation.
12
Fullchildhoodimmunizationconsistsoffivevaccinesthatchildrenneedtohavebeforetheageofone.
13
Quality antenatal care includes screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), anemia, and detection and treatment of
hypertension.Womenshouldbegiveninformationaboutappropriatedietandotherhealthypracticesandaboutwheretoseekcareforpregnancy
complications.TheWorldHealthOrganizationsrecommendedpackageofantenatalservicescanbeconductedinfourantenatalvisitsthroughoutthe
pregnancy.
9

3) While the spot check is most welcome, it would have been better had
WorldBankorotherdonorsincludedanimpactassessmentinthepilot
areas of 4PsCCT to see the programs actual outcome on health and
educationi.e., rate of stunting/malnutrition/undernutrition, infant
mortalityrate,MMR,andcompletionrate,amongothers;andnotmerely
providecompliancerates.

Table4.Conditionsofserviceproviders
Onhealthfacilities/providers Onschools
(16ruralhealthunits) (60schoolswereincluded)
AllRHUshadatleastonemedicaldoctor 18%hadshifts,and20%had
(average1.3) multigradeclasses
AllRHUshadatleast1nurse(average Hadanaverage584PsCCT
1.7) beneficiarychildrenperschool
AllRHUshadatleast5midwives(range Only50%hadcleanlatrinesfor
520,average11.3) studentsandonly27%had
Noneofthefacilitiesreportedsupply runningwater
shortageforvaccines Classroomsinpoorconditions
wereobservedintermsoflighting
(59%),furniture(41%)ceiling
(38%),walls(33%),ventilation
(31%)androof(27%)

Source:DSWDpresentationonWorldBankcommissionedstudyconductedbySWS(2010)

While the spot check revealed that attendance has improved, there are
concerns that the poor conditions of school facilities will negatively impact
thelearningoutcomesandlikely,theretentionratesofstudents.

Table5.Projectedgrossshortagesforcriticalschoolinputs,SY20112012
Item Level SY20092010 SY20112012
Inventory EstimatedGrossShortages

1.Classrooms Total: 421,496 152,569


Elementary 328,406 108,977
Secondary 93,090 43,592
2.Schoolseats Total: 15,280,942 13,225,572
Elementary 11,271,350 10,279,007
Secondary 4,009,592 2,946,565
3.Teachers Total: 487,969 103,599
Elementary 356,397 37,460
Secondary 131,572 66,139
4.Textbooks Total: 85,975,925 95,557,887

5.Sanitation
facilities Total: 313,085 151,084
Elementary 259,855 90,018
Secondary 53,230 61,066
Source:DepEdPriorityIssuesandDirections(August17,2010)
Legend:
A1classroomper45learnersatsingleshift
B48seatsperclassroomneeds
C1teacherper45learnersinGrades1to4and5teachersinevery3classesof45learnersperclass
inGrades5to6
D5teachersinevery3classesof45learnersperclass
EBasedoninternationalarchitecturaldesignratioof1:50

10

From 2004 to 2009, 75,584 new classrooms have been constructed and
52,536newteacheritemswerecreatedinresponsetothegrowingdemand
in public school. However, primarily due to poor targeting, shortages in
classrooms and teachers still persist in many areas as evidenced by high
pupilclassroomandpupilteacherratios,respectively.

While the education budget increased significantly in 2011, the DepEd
pointedoutthatthesaidincreaseisnotenoughforthesectortobeableto
catchupwiththeaccumulatedshortagesinpreviousyears.Thisimpliesthat
theeducationsystem,givenitscurrentresources,mightstillnotbereadyto
welcomeandmaintainmorestudents.

For health, while deworming pills and immunization are available in almost
all barangay health centers nationwide, the shortage of facility for Basic
Emergency Obstetrics Care in 1,863 local government unit (LGU) hospitals/
barangay health stations/RHUs will continue to hinder the goal of reducing
MMR.

With the expansion of 4PsCCT, addressing the challenges from the supply
side should simultaneously be fasttracked. The shortage in facilities and
serviceprovidersshouldnotbedownplayedsinceitposesamajorhurdlefor
beneficiarieswhocommittosatisfytheconditions.

Conclusion

Expertspointoutthatacountrythathasgrownatarespectablerateovera
decade but has not seen substantial reduction in poverty rates like the
Philippinesmayneedtoimprovetheinclusivenessofitsgrowthstrategy.The
countrysadoptionoftheCCTprogramisawelcomeinterventionasitshifts
the poverty reduction strategy from waiting for the benefits of growth to
trickledowntodirectlyredistributingincometotargetedpoorpopulation.

However, given the ineffective and wasteful subsidy programs in the past,
many remain doubtful of the governments preparedness to implement a
program like CCT, which requires large budgets and exceptional
administrativecapacity.Sansclearindicationsofimprovementonhealthand
educationoutcomesofbeneficiariesenrolledinthepastthreeyears,itwas
notsurprisingthattheexpansionof4PsCCTto2.3millionfamiliesfor2011
wasgreetedwithmuchcynicism.

TheAquinoadministrationrequestedCongressand the publictogrant4Ps
CCT a chance, given the programs potential. With its campaign promise of
transparentandprudentspendingofthetaxpayersmoney,thebarelyyear
oldgovernmentassuresthatthePhP21billionallocatedforCCTwillnotgoto
waste.

It must be remembered though that at the minimum, CCT programs
potentialcanonlyberealizedwithasystemthatisableto:

1) capturetargetedpopulationwithveryminimalleakagerate.
2) addresstheshortagesinthesupplyside.
3) instillbehavioralchangeinhouseholdswhenitcomestoinvestingin
humancapital.
4) monitorandevaluatecomplianceandprogressofbeneficiariesregularly.

11

Monitoringtheimplementationandevaluatingtheresultsoftheprogramis
particularly important given that plans are now being drawn to further
increasetheCCTbudgetfornextyear.

Lastly, CCT programs are just one option within the arsenal of social
protection programs that can be used to redistribute income to poor
households.Theycannotbetherightinstrumentforallpoorhouseholds.For
example, they cannot serve the elderly poor, childless households, or
households whose children are outside the age range covered by the CCT.
Redistributiontothosegroupsisbetterhandledthroughothermeans.

References:

Ahmed, A. U., et al. (2010). Comparing Food and Cash Transfers to the Ultra Poor in Bangladesh. Research
Monograph.January.
ArzedelGranado,J.,etal.(2010).TheUnequalBenefitsofFuelSubsidies:AReviewofEvidenceforDeveloping
Countries.IMFWorkingPaperNo.202.September.
ADB.(2010).ReportandRecommendationofthePresidenttotheBoardofDirectors:ProposedLoan,Technical
AssistanceGrant,andAdministrationofTechnicalAssistanceGranttotheRepublicofthePhilippinesfor
theSocialProtectionSupportProject.December.
Balisacan,A.,etal.(2010).ThePhilippineEconomyandPovertyduringtheGlobalEconomicCrisis.
Castaneda, T. (2010). The Design and Implementation of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs (CCTs). Social
ProtectionSpecialistForumonCCTprograms.UPManila,November.
De Janvry, A. and Sadoulet, E. (2004). Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: Are They Really Magic Bullets?
UniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeley,DepartmentofAgriculturalandResourceEconomics.June.
DepartmentofSocialWelfareandDevelopment.(n.d.).4PsConditionalCashTransfer(briefingmaterials).
__________________.(2010).PantawidPamilyangPilipinoProgram(4Ps)AssessmentReport:KeyFindingsfrom
thePilotSpotChecksandQualitativeEvaluation.
Devereux, S. (2002). Social Protection for the Poor: Lessons from Recent International Experience. Institute of
DevelopmentStudiesWorkingPaperNo.142.Brighton,UnitedKingdom.
GeneralAppropriationsAct(variousyears),RepublicofthePhilippines.
HabitoC.(2010).AnAgendaforHighInclusiveGrowthinthePhilippines.ADB.
Luistro,A.(2010).DepEdPriorityIssuesandDirections.August17.
Manasan, R. (2010). Financing the MDGs and Inclusive Growth in the Time of Fiscal Consolidation. Philippine
InstituteforDevelopmentStudies(PIDS)DiscussionPaperSeriesNo.201034.
__________________.(2009).ReformingSocialProtectionPolicy:RespondingtotheGlobalFinancialCrisisand
Beyond.PIDSDiscussionPaperSeriesNo.200922.
MDGNationalProgressReport(2010).UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme.
NationalStatisticOffice.(2004).AnnualPovertyIndicatorSurvey(APIS).
__________________.(2006).FamilyIncomeandExpenditureSurvey(FIES).
Orbeta, A. Jr. (2011). Social Protection in the Philippines: Current State and Challenges. PIDS Discussion Paper
SeriesNo.201102.February.
Sicat, G. (2010). Spotlighting on High Economic Growth, Employment of the Poor, and Poverty Reduction: A
ThreeProngedStrategy.UPSchoolofEconomicsDiscussionPaper201007.July20.
Son,H.(2008).ConditionalCashTransferPrograms:AnEffectiveToolforPovertyAlleviation?
Suarez, S., et al. (2007). Conditional Cash Transfers in Brazil, Chile and Mexico: Impacts upon Inequality.
InternationalPolicyCentreforInclusiveGrowth,WorkingPaper35.

12

Annex1.Assessmentofcash/inkindtransferprogramsinrecentyears
Program Targetingandcoverage Leakage Sizeoftransfer/ Budgetary
estimatedbenefits implications
Rice Price Subsidy While the programs aim is to provide Since NFAs The effectiveness of Because the NFA
Program rice to the poor at lower than market rice price theNFAricesubsidyto is engaged in an
administered by the price, it was observed that interventionis mitigate hunger and activity that
National Food distributionofNFAriceisrandomand auniversal reach the poor is inherently
Authority (NFA), the insensitivetopovertyincidence. consumer limitedbythefactthat entails some
program provides price subsidy, it simply provides a losses, the
subsidized rice to the To improve targeting, the Tindahan it also discount on the price government
poor. With NFA Natin Program (TNP) whose locations benefits the of rice/noodles. To supports the NFA
setting a ceiling to were identified using the Food nonpoor. The access the transfer, by providing it
the price of rice, Insecurity and Vulnerability leakagerateis eligible beneficiaries with budgetary
registered retailers Information Mapping System (FIVIMS) estimated to are required to have support in terms
sell rice to consumers was launched. TNP sells food items at be at 71%. the cash to pay for the of both equity
at a lower price than NFA prices to DSWD/LGUidentified Because of food items, albeit at a infusions and
nonNFArice. beneficiaries upon presentation of a the high subsidized price. This operational
family identification (ID). However, leakage rate, may have limited the subsidies
the targeting mechanism used to theprogramis poors access to the through the
identifybeneficiariesisnotclear. estimated to program. General
have covered Appropriations
Following the pullout of NFA rice only 16% of Act. From 2003
from public markets, Family Access the total rice to 2008, the
Cards (FAC) were issued to families requirements budget for NFA
with incomes below food threshold. of food averaged
The targeting approach followed by poor/poor PhP15.17 billion
FAC is an unverified means test households at ayear.
implementedbytheLGUs. best.
In 2009, NFA
subsidy
amounted to
PhP4 billion, and
was doubled in
2010 at PhP8
billion.

For 2011, NFAs
budget is
trimmed to PhP
2.5 billion to
give way to the
expansion of
CCTs.
Food for School LGUs were selected based on Leakage rate In a DepEd informal 2007:
Program(FSP) provincial level poverty incidence for SY 2008 survey, 62% of the PhP3.75billion
is a conditional in estimates from the 2006 FIES and the 2009was32%. respondents said that
kind transfer that small area estimates of poverty the number of school 2008:
aims to mitigate incidence for municipalities. The FSP days missed declined PhP2.75billion
hunger and improve in SY 20082009 targeted all Pre while 44% of the
school attendance by school/Grades 13 pupils in all public participating children 2009:
providing one kilo of elementary schools and all children included in the PhP5.2billion
rice to eligible attending DSWDsupervised daycare assessment gained
families for every day center in the following LGUs: 21 weight. On the other 2010:
that their children hotspots in the NCR as identified by hand, 20.1% of the [funds were
continue to attend the DILG for the DepEd component respondents reported realigned for
school.Thericeration andallcitiesandmunicipalitiesofthe that they gained CCT]
is provided to each NCRfortheDSWDcomponent: enhanced knowledge
eligible pupil after on basic nutrition from
class. Implementation All municipalities in the 20 food theprogram.
startedin2006. poorest provinces based on the 2006
FIES;and

the poorest 100 municipalities
basedonsmallareaestimates.





13

Program Targetingandcoverage Leakage SizeofTransfer/ Budgetary


EstimatedBenefits implications
Tulong Para Kay Lolo Eligibility was based primarily on an Data from the The PhP500
atLolaProject individual characteristic (age) that is 2006 FIES, million was
launched on July 16, easy to identify. However, the other however, released to the
2008, it provided a eligibility criteria (not receiving suggests that DSWD in 2008
onetime cash subsidy pension and not receiving regular there are for this program,
of PhP500 to qualified income) may not be as easy to verify about 1.96 with 1 million
senior citizens to help given the state of automation in million senior senior citizens
supporttheirspecial Social Security System (SSS), citizens aged identified as
needs. Government Service and Insurance 70 years and qualified
System (GSIS) and Philippine National abovewhoare beneficiaries.
Police (PNP)/Armed Forces of the not receiving
Philippines(AFP)pensionsystems. any pension
or retirement
benefit. The
difficulty to
verify those
with or
without
pension
resulted in a
leakage rate
estimated to
be at 61%.
The exclusion
rate is fairly
low(5%).
Pantawid Kuryente Beneficiaries were identified based The lifeline The size of the Asthe
Project on the amount of electricity they power transfer (PhP 500 per implementation
a onetime cash consume. The subsidy payment was consumption household) is oftheprogram
subsidy of PhP500 given to lifeline users or those level equivalent to 1% of progressed,the
initiated in June 2008 consuming 100kwh or less of appeared to average annual income targetnumberof
to soften the impact electricitypermonth. be ineffective of poor households or beneficiarieswas
of rising cost of in 0.7% of the poverty raisedto6.8
electricity on poor The program has nationwide coverage distinguishing threshold. million
households. and was estimated to have benefited poor households(70%
some6.8millionhouseholds. households higherthanthe
from nonpoor original
as indicated estimate)witha
by the high corresponding
leakage rate budgetary
of 72%. requirementof
Likewise, the PhP3.4billion
exclusion rate (whichhas
appears to be alreadybeen
high(43%). releasedand
utilized).This
highlightshow
weak
information
systemstendto
increasethe
fiscalcostsof
theprogram.














14

Program Targetingandcoverage Leakage SizeofTransfer/ Budgetary


EstimatedBenefits implications
Kapit Bisig Laban sa KALAHI covers 4,583 barangays in the There is no 1) Cost savings on The Project,
Kahirapan (KALAHI) poorest 200 municipalities in 42 reported transport of since its 2003
Comprehensive and provinces nationwide. It has reached leakage since agricultural produce, launch, is one of
IntegratedDeliveryof 1,192,325 million households and an water procurement
it is easier to thelargestWorld
SocialServices estimated6.6millionpoorFilipinosas and consumption,
is a community ofJuly2010. target higher enrollment Bankfinanced
driven development communities and/or lower dropout and implemented
project launched in As designed, the project targets to than rates by the DSWD.
2003 that aims to the poorest municipalities using a households. 2) Additional income The Project costs
improve the quality of poverty mapping and targeting The for residents of the PhP9.3 billion
life in the poorest protocol (i.e., geographicallybased geographic communities who are from PhP5.1
communities by targeting) that was especially trained to implement
presence of billion in loan
developing peoples developed for the project. Said their subprojects. The
capacities to design, targeting protocol appeared to have the project is project was able to proceeds,
implement and performed well considering that the strongest in generate an estimate PhP1.6Bfromthe
manage local average poverty incidence in the Visayas and of PhP727 million Philippine
development KALAHI municipalities based on the Mindanao, additional income for government
activities that reduce small area estimate of poverty making up nonskilled workers counterpart and
poverty, and incidence in 2003 was 53% 47% and 37%, hired and PhP242 PhP2.6 billion in
strengthen their (significantly higher than the overall million for skilled
respectively contributions
participation in local averageof24%). ones.
governance. of the overall 3)Greater from the LGUs
area transparencywas and local
coverage, observedwithinthe communities.
shifting localgovernmentsince
development communityprojects
havebeenintegrated
toward the
inthelocal
areas where developmentplans.
poverty 4) Capacity building
incidence are activities and technical
more severe assistance provided to
and community members
widespread. emboldened them to
engage political
leaders and other
stakeholders.
SelfEmployment The program is open to marginalized/ So far, there ForSEAKI:A As of June 30,
Assistance Kaunlaran disadvantaged individuals/households are no maximumof 2010, 268 SEA
(SEAK) who are economically active poor, studies/ PhP10,000/individual/ Kabayans
aims to provide the willing to be organized as SEAK assessments comprised of 660
member,dependingon
poor with access to Association (SKA) and have no access pointing out successful SKAs
capital and help them to formal credit sources (banks, to leakages of theproject have been
develop their cooperatives,lendinginvestors,etc.). theprogram. requirements(non organized and
entrepreneurialskills. collateralandinterest provided capital
He/she must be at least 16 years old free). assistance of
and must have continuously resided PhP243 million
in the community for at least 6 ForSEAKII: for their
months prior to application and must expanded micro
signify to stay in the community for Formicroenterprise enterprise
atleast2moreyears. projects and
Loan = PhP10,000/ home
member improvement
and basic shelter
For Home construction,
Improvement Loan = benefiting about
PhP10,000/member 12,486families.

Forbasicshelter 2007: PhP43


million
Loan = PhP25,000/ 2008: 0 (as it
member continued to
operate on a
revolving fund
basis)
2009: PhP39
million

15

Program Targetingandcoverage Leakage SizeofTransfer/ Budgetary


EstimatedBenefits implications
Pantawid Pamilyang The poorest households in the The targeting Significant 2007:
PilipinoProgram municipalities are selected through a instrument improvementsin PhP50million
is a program that proxy means test. This test used in the healthandeducation
provides cash grants determines the socioeconomic 4Ps appears outcomeswith 2008:
topoorhouseholdson category of the families by looking at to have beneficiaries PhP298million
the condition that certain proxy variables such as performed increaseduseof
households should ownership of assets, type of housing, well in the healthandeducation 2009:
increase their education of the household head, pilot areas. In services. PhP5billion
investments in their livelihoodofthefamily,etc. these areas, Also,increased
childrens human the reported incomesand 2010:
capital. number of consumption. PhP10billion
cases of
inclusion 2011:
error was less PhP21billion
than 10% of
the selected
number of
beneficiaries.
The use of the
proxy means
test enforces
the credibility
of the
program and
reduces the
risks
associated
with political
interference
in selection of
beneficiaries.
Source:Manasan(2009)




























16

Annex2.PrioritybillsoftheAquinoadministration
A. Humandevelopment
AnActcreatingtheDepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment(DHUD),definingthe
mandates,powersandfunctions,providingfundstherefor,andforotherpurposes
An Act rationalizing the nightwork prohibition on women workers, thereby amending
Articles130and131ofPresidentialDecreeNo.442,asamended,otherwiseknownasthe
LaborCodeofthePhilippines
An Act enhancing the curriculum and increasing the number of years for basic education,
appropriatingfundstherefor,andforotherpurposes
AnActprovidingadefinitetargetingstrategyinidentifyingthepoor,amendingRepublicAct
No.7875,otherwiseknownastheNationalHealthInsuranceActof1995,asamended,and
forotherpurposes
AnActreorganizingtheNationalFoodAuthorityintotheNationalFoodCorporationandthe
Food Development and Regulatory Administration, redefining their powers, appropriating
fundsthereforandforotherpurposes
B. Infrastructuredevelopment
An Act further amending certain sections of RA No. 6957, as amended by RA No. 7718,
entitled An Act authorizing the financing, construction, operation and maintenance of
infrastructureprojectsbytheprivatesector,andforotherpurposes,appropriatingfunds
forthesaidpurpose,andforotherpurposes
AmendmentstoRANo.1936ortheElectricPowerIndustryReformActof2011
An Act rationalizing the economic regulation of water utilities, creating the Water
RegulatoryCommission,andforotherpurposes
C. Economicdevelopment
AnActofrationalizingthegrantandadministrationoffiscalincentivesforthepromotionof
investmentsandgrowth,andforotherpurposes
An Act instituting a National Land Use Act, providing the implementing mechanisms
therefor,andforotherpurposes
D. Sovereignty,security,andruleoflaw
An Act to establish the archipelagic sea lanes in the Philippine archipelagic waters,
prescribing the rights and obligations of foreign ships and aircrafts exercising the right of
archipelagicsealanespassagethroughtheestablishedarchipelagicsealanesandproviding
fortheassociatedprotectivemeasurestherein
AnActtodefinethemaritimezonesoftheRepublicofthePhilippines
AnActtostrengthenthemodernizationoftheArmedForcesofthePhilippines,extending
theimplementationofthemodernizationprogramoftheArmedForcesofthePhilippines,
instituting necessary reforms in the Armed Forces of the Philippines, amending for the
purposecertainprovisionsofRANo.7898,otherwiseknownastheAFPModernizationAct
andforotherpurposes
AnAct resettingthedateoftheregularelectionsfor electiveofficialsoftheAutonomous
Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), synchronizing the ARMM elections with the
synchronizednationalandlocalelectionsof2013,amendingforthepurposeRANo.9333,
entitled An Act affixing the date for regular elections for elective officials of the ARMM
pursuanttoRANo.9054,entitledAnActtostrengthenandexpandtheOrganicActfor
the ARMM, amending for the purpose RA No. 6734, entitled An Act providing for an
OrganicActfortheARMM,asamended,andforotherpurposes
An Act penalizing anticompetitive agreements, abuse of dominant power, and anti
competitive mergers, establishing the Philippine Fair Competition Commission and
appropriatingfundstherefor,andotherpurposes
AnActstrengtheningtheWitnessProtection,SecurityandBenefitProgram,amendingfor
thepurposeRANo.6981,otherwiseknownastheWitnessProtection,SecurityandBenefit
Actandprovidingadditionalfundstherefor
AnActprovidingforprotection,securityandbenefitsofwhistleblowers
AnActto provideforthenationaldefense ofthePhilippines,penalizingcertainviolations
thereof,appropriatingfundstherefor,andforotherpurposes
E. Goodgovernance
AnActinstitutingreformsinlandadministration
AnActtopromotefinancialviabilityandfiscaldisciplineingovernmentownedorcontrolled
corporationsandtostrengthentheroleoftheStateinitsgovernanceandmanagementto
makethemmoreresponsivetotheneedsofpublicinterestandforotherpurposes
An Act amending certain sections of RA No. 9184, otherwise known as the Government
ProcurementReformAct
AmendmentstotheAntiMoneyLaunderingAct
Source:www.gov.ph


ThisPolicyBriefwasprincipallypreparedbyMs.G.H.S.AmbatunderthesupervisionofSEPOsDirectorsand
theoverallguidanceofitsDirectorGeneral.

TheviewsandopinionsexpressedhereinarethoseoftheSEPOanddonotnecessarilyreflectthoseofthe
Senate, of its leadership, or of its individual members. For comments and suggestions, please email us at
17
sepo@senate.gov.ph.