You are on page 1of 38

EVERYTHING

KUBERNETES:
A PRACTICAL GUIDE
CONTENTS
3 INTRODUCTION

4 KUBERNETES BIRDS EYE VIEW HIGH LEVEL ARCHITECTURE

6 KUBERNETES BUILDING BLOCKS

6 THE BASICS BLOCKS

8 USING LABELS AND SELECTORS FOR FINE-GRAINED CONTROL

8 SERVICE DISCOVERY

9 3 STORAGE BUILDING BLOCKS

10 CHOOSING THE RIGHT BLOCK FOR THE JOB

12 IMPERATIVE VS. DECLARATIVE ORCHESTRATION

13 HANDS-ON: GETTING STARTED

14 INSTALLATION

18 LOGGING

19 MONITORING

19 WORKING WITH MULTIPLE CLUSTERS

21 HANDS-ON: DEPLOYING AN APPLICATION

33 DIY CLUSTER CONSIDERATIONS

35 SUMMARY

36 ABOUT STRATOSCALE

36 USING KUBECTL CLI


INTRODUCTION
Kubernetes is an open-source, container management deployment, but also for managing multiple containers
solution originally announced by Google in 2014. as a single entity for the purposes of scaling,
After its initial release in July 2015, Google donated availability, and so on.
Kubernetes to the Cloud Native Computing Foundation.
Since then, several stable versions have been released Being infrastructure agnostic, Kubernetes clusters can
under Apache License. be installed on a variety of public and private clouds
(AWS, Google Cloud, Azure, OpenStack) and on bare
For a developer, Kubernetes provides a manageable metal servers. Additionally, Google Container Engine
execution environment for deploying, running, can provide a deployed Kubernetes cluster. This makes
managing, and orchestrating containers across clusters Kubernetes similar to Linux kernel, which provides
or clusters of hosts. For devops and administrators, consistency across different hardware platforms, or
Kubernetes provides a complete set of building Java, which runs on almost any operating system.
blocks that allow the automation of many operations
for managing development, test, and production
environments. Container orchestration enables
coordinating containers in clusters consisting of multiple
nodes when complex containerized applications
are deployed. This is relevant not only for the initial

3 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


KUBERNETES HIGH
LEVEL ARCHITECTURE

NODE
A Kubernetes cluster consists of one or more nodes managed by Kubernetes. The nodes are bare-metal servers,
on-premises VMs, or VMs on a cloud provider. Every node contains a container runtime (for example, Docker Engine),
kubelet (responsible for starting, stopping, and managing individual containers by requests from the Kubernetes
control plane), and kube-proxy (responsible for networking and load balancing).

MASTER NODE
A Kubernetes cluster also contains one or more master nodes that run the Kubernetes control plane. The control plane
consists of different processes, such as an API server (provides JSON over HTTP API), scheduler (selects nodes to run
containers), controller manager (runs controllers, see below), and etcd (a globally available configuration store).

DASHBOARD AND CLI


A Kubernetes cluster can be managed via the Kubernetes Dashboard, a web UI running on the master node. The cluster
can also be managed via the command line tool kubectl, which can be installed on any machine able to access the API
server, running on the master node. This tool can be used to manage several Kubernetes clusters by specifying a context
defined in a configuration file.

4 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


Internet

Node

Kublet Proxy

Kubecti(CLI)

Docker
Master Node
Pod Pod

Authentication
API's Authorization
Container Container

Scheduler Controller Distributed


Manager Storage
Node
Scheduler

Kublet Proxy

Docker

Pod Pod

Container Container

5 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


KUBERNETES
BUILDING BLOCKS
Kubernetes provides basic mechanisms for the deployment, maintenance, and scaling of containerized applications. It
uses declarative primitives, or building blocks, to maintain the state requested by the user, implementing the transition
from the current observable state to the requested state.

THE BASICS

POD

A pod is the smallest deployable unit that can be managed by Kubernetes. A pod is a logical group of one or more
containers that share the same IP address and port space. The main purpose of a pod is to support co-located
processes, such as an application server and its local cache. Containers within a pod can find each other via localhost,
and can also communicate with each other using standard inter-process communications like SystemV semaphores
or POSIX shared memory. In other words, a pod represents a logical host. Pods are not durable; they will not
survive scheduling failures or node failures. If a node where the pod is running dies, the pod is deleted. It can then be
replaced by an identical pod, with even the same name, but with a new unique identifier (UID).

LABEL SELECTOR

A label is a key/value pair that is attached to A label selector can be used to organize Kubernetes
Kubernetes resource, for example, a pod. Labels resources that have labels. An equality-based selector
can be attached to resources at creation time, as defines a condition for selecting resources that have
well as added and modified at any later time. the specified label value. A set-based selector defines
a condition for selecting resources that have a label
value within the specified set of values.

6 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


CONTROLLER REPLICATION CONTROLLER

A controller manages a set of pods and ensures that A replication controller is responsible for running the
the cluster is in the specified state. Unlike manually specified number of pod copies (replicas) across the
created pods, the pods maintained by a replication cluster.
controller are automatically replaced if they fail,
get deleted, or are terminated. There are several
controller types, such as replication controllers or
deployment controllers.

DEPLOYMENT CONTROLLER REPLICA SET

A deployment defines a desired state for logical A replica set is the next-generation replication
group of pods and replica sets. It creates new controller. A replication controller supports only
resources or replaces the existing resources, if equality-based selectors, while a replica set supports
necessary. A deployment can be updated, rolled set-based selectors.
out, or rolled back. A practical use case for a
deployment is to bring up a replica set and pods,
then update the deployment to re-create the
pods (for example, to use a new image). Later,
the deployment can be rolled back to an earlier
revision if the current deployment is not stable.

SERVICE

A service uses a selector to define a logical group of pods and defines a policy to access such logical groups. Because
pods are not durable, the actual pods that are running may change. A client that uses one or more containers within
a pod should not need to be aware of which specific pod it works with, especially if there are several pods (replicas).

There are several types of services in Kubernetes, including ClusterIP, NodePort, LoadBalancer. A ClusterIP service
exposes pods to connections from inside the cluster. A NodePort service exposes pods to external traffic by
forwarding traffic from a port on each node of the cluster to the container port. A LoadBalancer service also exposes
pods to external traffic, as NodePort service does, however it also provides a load balancer.

7 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


USING LABELS AND SELECTORS FOR
FINE-GRAINED CONTROL
A Kubernetes controller, for example, uses a selector to define a set of managed pods so that pods in that set have the
corresponding label. A label is just a key/value pair that is attached to Kubernetes resources such as pods. Labels can
be attached to resources when they are created, or added and modified at any time. Each resource can have multiple
labels. For example:

release: stable
environment: dev

A label selector defines a set of resources by specifying a requirements for their labels. For example:

environment = dev
environment != live
environment in (dev, test)
environment notin (live)
release = stable, environment = dev

The first two selectors have an equality-based requirement, the third and fourth selectors have a set-based
requirement. The last selector contains the comma separator, which acts as a logical AND operator, so the selector
defines a set of resources where the label release equals stable and the label environment equals dev.

SERVICE DISCOVERY
Kubernetes supports finding a service in two ways: through environment variables and using DNS.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
Kubernetes injects a set of environment variables into pods for each active service. Such environment variables
contain the service host and port, for example:

MYSQL_SERVICE_HOST=10.0.150.150
MYSQL_SERVICE_PORT=3306

An application in the pod can use these variables to establish a connection to the service.

The service should be created before the replication controller or replica set creates a pods replicas. Changes made to
an active service are not reflected in a previously created replica.

DNS
Kubernetes automatically assigns DNS names to services. A special DNS record can be used to specify port numbers
as well. To use DNS for service discovery, a Kubernetes cluster should be properly configured to support it.

8 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


3 STORAGE BUILDING BLOCKS

VOLUME

A container file system is ephemeral: if a container crashes, the changes to its file system are lost. A volume
is defined at the pod level, and is used to preserve data across container crashes. A volume can be also used
to share data between containers in a pod. A volume has the same lifecycle as the the pod that encloses it
when a pod is deleted, the volume is deleted as well. Kubernetes supports different volume types, which are
implemented as plugins.

PERSISTENT VOLUME

A persistent volume represents a real networked storage unit in a cluster that has been provisioned by an
administrator. Persistent storage has a lifecycle independent of any individual pod. It supports different access
modes, such as mounting as read-write by a single node, mounting as read-only by many nodes, and mounting
as read-write by many nodes. Kubernetes supports different persistent volume types, which are implemented as
plugins. Examples of persistent volume types include AWS EBS, vSphere volume, Azure File, GCE Persistent Disk,
CephFS, Ceph RBD, GlusterFS, iSCSI, NFS, and Host Path.

PERSISTENT VOLUME CLAIM

A persistent volume claim defines a specific amount of storage requested and specific access modes. Kubernetes
finds a matching persistent volume and binds it with the persistent volume claim. If a matching volume does not
exist, a persistent volume claim will remain unbound indefinitely. It will be bound as soon as a matching volume
become available.

9 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


CHOOSING THE RIGHT BLOCK FOR
THE JOB
Designed as a simple building block; a replication selectors. From this perspective, a replica set is just
controllers only responsibility is to maintain the specified a more advanced version of a replication controller.
number of replicas. A replication controller counts
only live pods;, terminated pods are excluded. Other Using only pods and replication controllers
Kubernetes building blocks should be used together to deploy an application is, at least in part, an
with replication controllers for more advanced tasks. imperative form of managing software, because
For example, an autoscaler can monitor application- it usually requires manual steps. A Kubernetes
specific metrics and dynamically change the number of deployment is an alternative that enables
replicas in the existing replication controller. In addition, completely declarative application deployment.
a replication controller does not support scheduling
policies, meaning you cannot provide rules for choosing
cluster nodes to run pods from the managed set.

A replica set is another Kubernetes building block. The


major difference between it and a replication controller is
that replication controllers do not support selectors with
set-based requirements, while replica sets support such

SECRET CONFIG MAP

A Kubernetes secret allows users to pass sensitive A Kubernetes config map allows users to
information, such as passwords, authentication externalize application configuration parameters
tokens, SSH keys, and database credentials, to from a container image and define application
containers. A secret can then be referenced when configuration details, such as key/value pairs,
declaring a container definition, and read from directory content, or file content. Config map
within containers as environment variables or values can be consumed by applications through
from a local disk. environment variables, local disks, or command
line arguments.

10 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


JOB

A job is used to create one or more pods and ensure that a specified number of them successfully terminate.
It tracks the successful completions, and when a specified number of successful completions is reached, the
job itself is complete. There are several types of jobs, including non-parallel jobs, parallel jobs with a fixed
completion count, and parallel jobs with a work queue. A job should be used instead of a replication controller
if you need to spread pods across cluster nodes and ensure, for example, so that each node has only one
running pod of the specified type.

DAEMON SET NAMESPACE

A daemon set ensures that all or some nodes A namespace provides a logical partition of the
run a copy of a pod. A daemon set tracks the clusters resources. Kubernetes resources can
additional and removal of cluster nodes and adds use the same name when found in different
pods for nodes that are added to the cluster, namespaces. Different namespaces can be
terminates pods on nodes that are being removed assigned different quotas for resource limitations.
from a cluster. Deleting a daemon set will clean
up the pods it created. A typical use case for a
daemon set is running a log collection daemon or
a monitoring daemon on each node of a cluster.

QUOTA

A quota sets resource limitations, such as CPU,


memory, number of pods or services, for a given
namespace. It also forces users to explicitly
request resource allotment for their pods.

11 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


IMPERATIVE VS.
DECLARATIVE
ORCHESTRATION
Before getting to the practical steps of the Kubernetes A declarative approach for administrative tasks is
deployment, its important to understand the key intended to solve such challenges. With a declarative
approaches to orchestration. approach, an administrator defines a target state for
a system (application, server, or cluster). Typically, a
The classic imperative approach for managing software domain-specific language (DSL) is used to describe
involves several steps or tasks, some of which are manual. the target state. An administrative tool, such as
When working in a team, it is usually required that these Kubernetes, takes this definition as an input and
steps be documented, and, in an ideal case, automated. takes care of how to achieve the target state from the
Preparing good documentation for a classic imperative current observable state.
administrative procedure and automating these steps can
be non-trivial tasks, even if each of the steps is simple.

12 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


HANDS-ON:
GETTING STARTED
Minikube is an ideal tool for getting started with In the following instructions, Minikube is used
Kubernetes on a single computer. It enables running of to install a single-node Kubernetes cluster on a
a single-node Kubernetes cluster in a virtual machine. machine with 64 bit GNU/Linux (Debian or Ubuntu)
It can be used on GNU/Linux or OS X and requires and KVM. Refer to the Minikube documentation if
VirtualBox, KVM (for Linux), xhyve (OS X), or VMware you want to use an alternative configuration.
Fusion (OS X) to be installed on your computer. Minikube
creates a new virtual machine with GNU/Linux, installs
and configures Docker and Kubernetes, and finally runs a
Kubernetes cluster.

13 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


INSTALLATION

1. Install the kubectl command line tool locally:

$ curl -Lo kubectl \


http://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/\
release/v1.3.0/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl \
&& chmod +x kubectl \
&& sudo mv kubectl /usr/local/bin/

2. Next, install the KVM driver:

$ sudo curl -L \
https://github.com/dhiltgen/docker-machine-kvm/\
releases/download/v0.7.0/docker-machine-driver-kvm \
-o /usr/local/bin/docker-machine-driver-kvm
$ sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/docker-machine-driver-kvm

3. Install Minikube:

$ curl -Lo minikube \


https://storage.googleapis.com/minikube/\
releases/v0.6.0/minikube-linux-amd64 \
&& chmod +x minikube \
&& sudo mv minikube /usr/local/bin/

14 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


4. Start the Minikube cluster:

$ minikube start --vm-driver=kvm


Starting local Kubernetes cluster...
Kubernetes is available at https://192.168.42.213:8443.
Kubectl is now configured to use the cluster.

The Kubernetes cluster is up and running.


Lets start with a simple deployment using an existing image:

$ kubectl run hello-minikube \


--image=gcr.io/google_containers/echoserver:1.4 \
--port=8080
deployment hello-minikube created

$ kubectl expose deployment hello-minikube --type=NodePort


service hello-minikube exposed

5. Check that the pod is up and running:

$ kubectl get pod


NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
hello-minikube-2433534028-ouxw8 1/1 Running 0 4m

Running should appear in the STATUS field. If ContainerCreating appears instead,


wait a few moments, then repeat the last command.

15 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


6. Check that the service works:

$ curl $(minikube service hello-minikube --url)


CLIENT VALUES:
client_address=172.17.0.1
command=GET
real path=/
query=nil
request_version=1.1
request_uri=http://192.168.42.213:8080/
SERVER VALUES:
server_version=nginx: 1.10.0 - lua: 10001
HEADERS RECEIVED:
accept=*/*
host=192.168.42.213:31759
user-agent=curl/7.35.0
BODY:
-no body in request-

7. Execute the following command to open the Kubernetes


Dashboard in your web browser:

$ minikube dashboard

16 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


8. To stop the cluster (shut down the virtual machine and
preserve its state), execute the following command:

$ minikube stop
Stopping local Kubernetes cluster...
Stopping minikubeVM...

9. To start the cluster again and restore it to the previous state,


execute the following command:

$ minikube start --vm-driver=kvm

10. To delete the cluster (delete the virtual machine and its state),
execute the following command:

$ minikube delete

Note: There are other open-source tools, such as kubeadm, that simplify installation of
Kubernetes cluster in public clouds, on-premises virtual machines, and bare-metal servers.
However, there are still many things that are out of scope. For example, you still need
a reliable distributed block or file storage, you still need to think about HA, scalability,
networking and security. Sometimes, it is simpler to use Kubernetes as a Service.

17 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


LOGGING
Basic logging in Kubernetes behaves much like logging in Docker. There is a kubectl logs command that
will show you all the information written to stdout and stderr for a given container in a pod. If a pod has
only one container, there is no need to specify it explicitly, however when a pod has several containers
we need to add -c container to the end of the command. As with Docker, we can opt to follow
logs, to reduce the number of recent lines with --tail and we can filter them by date. Unlike Docker,
Kubernetes enables us to check the logs of a container that crashed using the --previous option.

The ability to keep the logs of a previous container is available as long as the pod it was run in remains
available. When a pod is removed, so are its logs.

Log rotation is performed by Kubernetes. The default values are daily rotation or 10 MB to avoid log files
taking up all the available disk space. Up to five rotations are kept for historical evidence. Remember that
only the last rotation is displayed with kubectl logs; if you want to access an earlier one, you must do so
manually.

Per our example with the Hello Minikube service, we can use kubectl logs hello-minikube-
2433534028-ouxw8 to view the access log containing our curl request.

All information so far concerns per-node log files. There are no cluster-level logging capabilities built into
Kubernetes, but there are some common methods that can be implemented for this purpose.

DEDICATED AGENT RUNNING ON EVERY NODE


In this approach, a logging agent is run on every node, preferably through a DeamonSet replica. A
popular choice in this space is fluentd. It can be configured with various backends among which are
Google Cloud Platform and Elasticsearch.

Fluentd even goes as far as to provide a ready to use DaemonSet YAML on GitHub. All that needs
to be done is edit its configuration to point at our logging backend.

DEDICATED CONTAINER INSIDE A POD


There are several use cases for this approach. The general idea is that a dedicated logging
component in each pod either writes logs to its stdout and stderr or delivers the logs directly to a
logging backend. With such a sidecar approach, we can aggregate all logs from different containers
in a pod to a single stream that can be accessed with kubectl logs or we can split logs of one
application into different logical streams. For example, Webservers access.log and error.log can each
be streamed by a dedicated container to its stdout, so we can check them separately with kubectl
logs $podname -c access-log and kubectl logs $podname -c error-log.

DIRECT LOGGING FROM AN APPLICATION


If the application running in a pod can already communicate with a logging backend, it is possible to
skip the Kubernetes logging options altogether. While direct logging may offer some performance
advantages and provide slightly better security (all data stored in just one place), it also prevents us
from using kubectl logs. In most cases, this approach is discouraged.

18 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


MONITORING
As Kubernetes containers are actually Linux processes, we can use our favourite tools to monitor
cluster performance. Basic tools, such as top or kubectl top, will behave as expected. Its also
possible to use solutions that are dedicated to Kubernetes. One such solution is Heapster. Heapster
aggregates events and data from across the cluster. It runs as a pod in system namespace. Discovery
and querying of resources is done automatically with data coming from a kubelet managing node.

Storage is configurable with InfluxDB and Google Cloud Monitoring being the most popular choices.
When building a DIY cluster InfluxDB with Grafana for visualization is the preferred choice. Using
it with Minikube requires two easy steps. First, enable the Heapster addon (minikube addons
enable heapster) by opening the dashboard with Minikube addons. Then open Heapster.

By default, dashboards are available for Cluster and for Pods, one for monitoring running nodes and
overall cluster utilization, the other for running pods. The information presented for pods includes
CPU usage, memory usage, network usage, and filesystem usage. It is possible to edit existing graphs
or add custom ones based on data exported by Heapster.

WORKING WITH MULTIPLE


CLUSTERS
So far, we have used kubectl to connect to only one cluster created by Minikube. But kubectl can
be configured to use multiple clusters and multiple contexts to connect to them. To check available
contexts, we use kubectl config get-contexts.

We can confirm that only one context and only one cluster is defined by kubectl config view. It should
look like this:

apiVersion: v1
clusters:
- cluster:
certificate-authority: $HOME/.minikube/ca.crt
server: https://192.168.99.100:8443
name: minikube
contexts:
- context:
cluster: minikube
user: minikube
name: minikube
kind: Config
preferences: {}
users:
- name: minikube
user:
client-certificate: $HOME/.minikube/apiserver.crt
client-key: $HOME/.minikube/apiserver.key

19 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


The config file used by kubectl is stored at ~/.kube/config. We can edit it with a text editor and
add another cluster, context and user. When ready, kubectl config get-contexts should show
our newly added context without marking it as current. This is the desired state:

apiVersion: v1
clusters:
- cluster:
certificate-authority: $HOME/.minikube/ca.crt
server: https://192.168.99.100:8443
name: minikube
- cluster:
certificate-authority: $HOME/.minikube/ca.crt
server: https://192.168.99.100:8443
name: secondkube
contexts:
- context:
cluster: minikube
user: minikube
name: minikube
- context:
cluster: secondkube
user: secondkube
name: secondkube
current-context: secondkube
kind: Config
preferences: {}
users:
- name: minikube
user:
client-certificate: $HOME/.minikube/apiserver.crt
client-key: $HOME/.minikube/apiserver.key
- name: secondkube
user:
client-certificate: $HOME/.minikube/apiserver.crt
client-key: $HOME/.minikube/apiserver.key

To switch context, we use kubectl config use-context secondkube. We can verify the
switch was successful again with kubectl config get-contexts. The marker for current should
have moved to the new context. All kubectl commands from now on will be executed in a selected
context (which in our example is exactly the same as the first one).

20 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


HANDS-ON: DEPLOYING
AN APPLICATION
In this example, we deploy the WordPress content management system with a MySQL backend. It is a classic two-tier
application, where the first tier is the application server (WordPress) that uses the second tier for data persistence (MySQL).

STEP 1. CREATE A KUBERNETES SECRET


As discussed above, Kubernetes secrets allow users to pass sensitive information, such as
passwords, database credentials, to containers. In the first step, we need to define a Kubernetes
secret that contains a database name, user, and password. It should also contain the root
password for MySQL.

Before creating a secret, we need to encode such information in Base64 format. Lets assume we
want to use the following values in our application:
app-db as a database name
app-user as a database user name
app-pass as a database password
app-rootpass as a database root password

Note that we need to provide a database root password to allow WordPress to create the
required database. To encode these values to Base64 format, we can use the standard base64
utility that is available in almost all Linux distributions:

$ echo -n app-db | base64


YXBwLWRi

$ echo -n app-user | base64


YXBwLXVzZXI=

$ echo -n app-pass | base64


YXBwLXBhc3M=

$ echo -n app-rootpass | base64


YXBwLXJvb3RwYXNz

21 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


We use the -n option to make sure that the new line symbol (\n) is not included in the
encoded value.

To define a new Kubernetes secret, create a new file, app-secret.yaml, with the following
content:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
name: app-secret
type: Opaque
data:
dbname: YXBwLWRi
dbuser: YXBwLXVzZXI=
dbpass: YXBwLXBhc3M=
dbrootpass: YXBwLXJvb3RwYXNz

Note:Kubernetes allows its building blocks to be defined using JSON and YAML formats. These
formats are quite popular now as a more lightweight alternative to XML. The idea behind XML,
JSON, and YAML is to provide a universal text notation to serialize data in both machine- and
human-readable form. In this example, we will use YAML.

In the app-secret.yaml file, we specified the required Kubernetes API version and the
data type to let Kubernetes know that we are defining a secret. In addition, the file defines four
keys (dbname, dbuser, dbpass, dbrootpass) with the corresponding values we encoded
above. Now we can create our Kubernetes secret using its definition in the app-secret.yaml
file:

$ kubectl create -f app-secret.yaml


secret app-secret created

Lets verify the secret creation:

$ kubectl get secrets


NAME TYPE DATA AGE
app-secrets Opaque 4 1m

22 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


STEP 2. CREATE A PERSISTENT VOLUME
Next, we will create a Kubernetes persistent volume to provide the underlying storage for our
MySQL database. To define a new persistent volume, create a new file, app-pv.yam, with the
following content:

apiVersion: v1
kind: PersistentVolume
metadata:
name: app-pv
labels:
vol: mysql
spec:
capacity:
storage: 1Gi
accessModes:
- ReadWriteOnce
hostPath:
path: /data/app

In this file, we use a HostPath volume, which will just pass a directory from the host into a
container for consumption. To specify that the persistent volume will be used for our application,
we added a label (vol: mysql) that can be used later in a selector.

Before creating the actual persistent volume, verify that the directory /data/app exists:

$ sudo mkdir -p /data/app

Now we can create our persistent volume:

$ kubectl create -f app-pv.yaml


persistentvolume app-pv created

23 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


Lets verify that the persistent volume is available:

$ kubectl describe pv/app-pv


Name: app-pv
Labels: vol=mysql
Status: Available
Claim:
Reclaim Policy: Retain
Access Modes: RWO
Capacity: 1Gi
Message:
Source:
Type: HostPath (bare host directory volume)
Path: /data/app
No events.

STEP 3. CLAIM A PERSISTENT VOLUME


For MySQL, we need to claim our previously created persistent volume. Create a new file, app-
pvc.yaml, with the following content:

kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
name: app-pvc
spec:
accessModes:
- ReadWriteOnce
resources:
requests:
storage: 1Gi
selector:
matchLabels:
vol: mysql

The label selector matchLabels is used to make the association to the persistent volume that
we created early. To create the persistent volume claim using its definition execute the following:

$ kubectl create -f app-pvc.yaml


persistentvolumeclaim app-pvc created

24 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


STEP 4. DEPLOY MYSQL
Now we will create a new deployment for MySQL using the existing Docker image. Create a new
file, mysql-deployment.yaml, with the following content:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: mysql-deployment
spec:
replicas: 1
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: mysql
spec:
containers:
- name: mysql
image: mysql:5.6
ports:
- containerPort: 3306
volumeMounts:
- mountPath: /var/lib/mysql
name: mysql-pd
env:
- name: MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD
valueFrom:
secretKeyRef:
name: app-secret
key: dbrootpass
- name: MYSQL_USER
valueFrom:
secretKeyRef:
name: app-secret
key: dbuser
- name: MYSQL_PASSWORD
valueFrom:
secretKeyRef:
name: app-secret
key: dbpass
- name: MYSQL_DATABASE
valueFrom:
secretKeyRef:
name: app-secret
key: dbname
volumes:
- name: mysql-pd
persistentVolumeClaim:
claimName: app-pvc

25 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


There is quite a lot of stuff happening in the above YAML. Lets break it down:
We are specifying a standard pods information, such as container name (mysql), image to
use (mysql:5.6), and exposed port to access (3306).
We are specifying the number of replicas (1) and attaching a label (app: mysql).
We are then mounting a volume to the /var/lib/mysql directory in the container,
where the volume to mount is named mysql-pd and is declared at the bottom of this
document.
We are also declaring environment variables to initialize. The MySQL image we are
using that is available on Docker Hub supports environment variable injection. The four
environment variables we are initializing are defined and used within the Docker image
itself. The environment variables set all reference different keys we defined in our secret
earlier. When this container starts up, we will automatically have MySQL configured with
the desired root user password. We will also have the database for WordPress created with
appropriate access granted for our WordPress user.

To create the deployment using its definition, execute the following:

$ kubectl create -f mysql-deployment.yaml


deployment mysql-deployment created

Lets verify that everything was created successfully:

$ kubectl get pv
NAME CAPACITY ACCESSMODES STATUS CLAIM
REASON AGE
app-pv 1Gi RWO Bound default/app-pvc
10m

$ kubectl get pvc


NAME STATUS VOLUME CAPACITY ACCESSMODES AGE
app-pvc Bound app-pv 0 5m

$ kubectl get deployments


NAME DESIRED CURRENT UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE
AGE
mysql-deployment 1 1 1 1
2m

26 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


STEP 5. CREATE A SERVICE FOR MYSQL
As we know, pods are ephemeral. They come and go, with each newly created pod receiving a
new and different IP address. To connect to a database, the WordPress application should know
its IP address. If the database container is ephemeral, then how should our application keep
track of the database servers IP addresses? We need an IP address that is decoupled from that
pod and that never changes, and this is exactly what Kubernetes Services offer. To define a
service for MySQL, create a new file, mysql-service.yaml, with the following content:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
name: mysql-service

spec: ports:
- port: 3306
protocol: TCP
targetPort: 3306
selector:
app: mysql

To create the actual service execute, the following command:

$ kubectl create -f mysql-service.yaml


service mysql-service created

Lets verify that the service is created and correctly mapped:

$ kubectl describe svc/mysql-service


Name: mysql-service
Namespace: default
Labels: <none>
Selector: app=mysql
Type: ClusterIP
IP: ...
Port: <unset> 3306/TCP
Endpoints: 172.17.0.3:3306
Session Affinity: None
No events.

$ kubectl get pods -o wide


NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP
mysql-deployment-... 1/1 RUNNING 0 30m
172.17.0.3

27 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


From the output above, we can verify the service was correctly mapped to the pod for our
MySQL deployment in that the Endpoints IP address for the service aligns with the IP address
for the MySQL Pod.

STEP 6. DEPLOY WORDPRESS


To define a deployment for WordPress, create a new file, wordpress-deployment.yaml, with the
following content:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: wordpress-deployment
spec:
replicas: 2
strategy:
type: RollingUpdate
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: wordpress
spec:
containers:
- name: wordpress
image: wordpress:4.5-apache
ports:
- containerPort: 80
env:
- name: WORDPRESS_DB_HOST
value: mysql-service
- name: WORDPRESS_DB_USER
valueFrom:
secretKeyRef:
name: app-secrets
key: dbuser
- name: WORDPRESS_DB_PASSWORD
valueFrom:
secretKeyRef:
name: app-secret
key: dbpass
- name: WORDPRESS_DB_NAME
valueFrom:
secretKeyRef:
name: app-secret
key: dbname

28 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


In this file, we are specifying standard pod information such as container name (wordpress),
image to use (wordpress: 4.5-apache), exposed port to access (80), and number of replicas (2).
We are also attaching a label (app: wordpress) to the pods replicas. One of the key things we
accomplish in the YAML above is the initialization of the environment variable WORDPRESS_
DB_HOST to a value of mysql-service. This is how we are tell the WordPress application to
access its database through the Kubernetes service we created in the previous step.

To create the actual deployment, execute the following command:

$ kubectl create -f wordpress-deployment.yaml


deployment wordpress-deployment created

Verify the deployment:

$ kubectl get deployments


NAME DESIRED CURRENT UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE
mysql-deployment 1 1 1 1 45m
wordpress-deployment 2 2 2 2 5m

Get a list of created pods:

$ kubectl get pods


NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
mysql-deployment-... 1/1 Running 0 45m
wordpress-deployment-... 1/1 Running 0 6m
wordpress-deployment-... 1/1 Running 0 6m

Make note of the name of one of the WordPress pods from the output above. Execute an
interactive shell within that pod:

$ kubectl exec -it wordpress-deployment-... bash

Lets check that the MySQL service can be resolved within the pod using the services name:

root@wordpress# getent hosts mysql-service


10.0.0.248 mysql-service.default.svc.cluster.local

29 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


The above output verifies that mysql-service can be resolved through DNS to the ClusterIP
address that was assigned to the MySQL service (your IP address may be different).

Now lets verify that WordPress is properly configured:

root@wordpress# grep -i db /var/www/html/wp-config.php


define(DB_NAME, app-db);
define(DB_USER, app-user);
define(DB_PASSWORD, app-pass);
define(DB_HOST, mysql-service);
...

The WordPress pod has configured itself using the environment environments injected into
container using the values from the Kubernetes secret we defined earlier.

STEP 7. CREATE A SERVICE FOR WORDPRESS


The final step is to expose the WordPress application to external users. For this, we again need
a service. In this step, we expose a port on the node running our application, and forward it
to port 80 of our container. This allows us to access the application, but it probably is not the
approach one would take in production, especially if Kubernetes is hosted by a service provider.
Kubernetes can integrate with load balancing services offered by platforms such as GCE and
AWS. If you are using either of those, then that would be an approach to take for using the load
balancing functionality offered by those platforms.

To define a service for the WordPress application, create a new file, wordpress-service.yaml, with
the following content:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
name: wordpress-service
labels:
app: wordpress
spec:
type: NodePort
ports:
- port: 80
nodePort: 30080
selector:
app: wordpress

30 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


To create the actual service using the definition from the wordpress-service.yaml file,
execute the following command:

$ kubectl create -f wordpress-service.yaml


service wordpress-service created

Verify its status:

$ kubectl describe svc/wordpress-service


Name: wordpress-service
Namespace: default
Labels: app=wordpress
Selector: app=wordpress
Type: NodePort
IP: ...
Port: <unset> 80/TCP
NodePort: <unset> 30080/TCP
Endpoints: ...:80,...:80,...:80
Session Affinity: None
No events.

31 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


STEP 8. TEST THE WORDPRESS APPLICATION
Open your browser and navigate to http://<nodeIP>:30080, where <nodeIP> is the address of
your Kubernetes cluster node. You can follow the installation wizard to get WordPress up and
running through the browser. Congratulations!

The following diagram shows all of the Kubernetes building blocks we defined and created for
our application:

Service

Selector

app=wordpress
Pod Secret

Container
Label
wordpress
app: wordpress

Pod

Container
Label
wordpress
app: wordpress

Service Volume Claim

Selector Label

app=mysql vol=mysql
Pod

Container
Volume
mysql

/var/lib/mysql Label
Label

app: mysql vol: mysql

In production, we may want to update the WordPress deployment increasing the number of
replicas to handle a high load for the application. We can easily do it manually, but the preferred
way in Kubernetes is to use auto-scaling feature. For the MySQL deployment in our example,
there is no simple way to increase the number of MySQL pods, because we cannot share the
same persistent volume between several MySQL processes: MySQL does not support that. To
scale the database and make it highly available we can use, for example, a Galera cluster in the
multi-master node. In this case, each Galera pod will use its own persistent volume and Galera
cluster will replicate its data between pods using its own protocol.

32 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


DIY CLUSTER
CONSIDERATIONS

What if you need a production ready Kubernetes When deploying a Kubernetes cluster in production,
cluster, but for some reason you cannot use the one should take care of several things to ensure the
existing cloud offerings, such as Google Container best possible outcome. High Availability of master
Engine? Kubernetes can be installed on a variety nodes helps minimize downtime and data loss as
platforms, including on-premises VMs, VMs on a well as eliminates single point of failure. Networking
cloud provider, and bare-metal servers. There are should be both robust and scalable to handle growing
several tools that allow installing production ready needs (e.g., The number of nodes in a cluster to handle
Kubernetes cluster on a variety of targets: more replicas). Finally, some users may want to take
kargo advantage of multi-site support to uniformly handle
kube-deploy geographically dispersed data centers.
kube-admin

HIGH AVAILABILITY
Possible cases of failure in Kubernetes clusters usually point to pods, nodes, and master nodes. Pod failures can be
handled by built-in Kubernetes features, so the main concern here is to provide persistent storage if needed. Node
failures can be handled by master nodes and require use of services outside of Kubernetes. For example, kubelet
talks to an external load-balancer rather than directly to clients; if the entire node fails, traffic can be load balanced
to the node with corresponding pods. Finally, the master controller can fail, or one of its services can die. We need to
replicate the master controller and its components for a Highly Available environment. Fortunately, multiple master
nodes are also accounted for in Kubernetes.

Furthermore, when it comes to monitoring the deployment, It is advisable that process watchers be implemented
to watch the services that exist on the master node. For example, the API service can be monitored by a kubelet. It
can be configured with less aggressive security settings to monitor non-Kubernetes components such as privileged
containers. On a different level is the issue of what happens if a kubelet dies. Monitoring processes can be deployed
to ensure that the kubelet can be restarted. Finally, redundant storage service can be achieved with clustered etcd.

33 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


SECURITY
First of all, direct access to cluster nodes (either physical or through SSH) should be restricted. kubectl exec allows
access to containersthis should be enough. Use Security Contexts to segregate privileges. Defining quotas for
resources helps prevent DoS attacks. Selectively grant users permissions according to their business needs. Finally,
consider separating network traffic that is not related (e.g., The load balancer only needs to see a front-end service,
while the back-end service has no need to contact the load balancer).

SCALE
Kubernetes allows for adding and removing nodes dynamically. Each new node has to be configured appropriately and
pointed at the master node. The main processes of interest are kubelet and kube-proxy. For larger scale clusters, a
means of automation is preferred, such as Ansible or Salt. If the cluster is running on one of supported cloud providers,
there is also an option to try the Cluster Autoscaler.

34 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


SUMMARY
Kubernetes is an open-source project that is well supported by community. It allows
application development to be completely infrastructure-agnostic and avoids vendor
lock-in.

Installing, maintaining, and manually monitoring a production-ready Kubernetes cluster


on premises is a difficult task. For the installation, high availability and networking
models should be chosen and properly implemented. A tool to manage nodes in the
cluster or to monitor the clusters and nodes health is also handy.

Keeping previous suggestions in mind, you should be able to roll out your own HA
cluster for Kubernetes. It takes some work, both in terms of planning and actual
execution. Planning carefully should save you much time later on when you start to
scale your services. However if you want to take advantage of Kubernetes features but
are not keen on maintaining your own cluster, Stratoscales Kubernetes-as-a-Service
may suit your needs perfectly.

35 Everything Kubernetes: A Practical Guide Stratoscale


ABOUT
STRATOSCALE
SYMPHONY
Stratoscale is the cloud infrastructure company, providing comprehensive cloud infrastructure
software solutions for service providers, enterprise IT and development teams. The companys
comprehensive cloud data center software, Stratoscale Symphony, can be deployed in minutes
on commodity x86 servers, providing an Amazon Web Services (AWS) experience with the ability
to augment aging VMware infrastructure. Stratoscale was named a Cool Vendor in Servers and
Virtualization by Gartner and is backed by over $70M from leading investors including: Battery
Ventures, Bessemer Venture Partners, Cisco, Intel, Qualcomm Ventures, SanDisk and Leslie
Ventures.

SIMPLE CREATION ONGOING MONITORING


Admins can create private clusters via Easily monitor cluster health and usage.
intuitive GUI or API.

MINIMAL LEARNING CURVE MULTI-TENANCY


Leverage Kubernetes GUI and maintain Kubernetes is transformed to offer a true
existing practices. multi-tenant service.
USING KUBECTL CLI
FOR SINGLE-CLICK MANAGEMENT OF KUBERNETES CLUSTERS

Symphonys fully managed Kubernetes-as-a-Service removes the operational barriers of adopting a


container-based strategy. Admins can leverage KubeCtl CLI or Symphonys intuitive GUI to create
Kubernetes clusters and easily monitor cluster health and usage.

Symphony keeps the clusters up and running according to defined sizes and provides network
access to cluster endpoints and node maintenance.

SYMPHONY: YOUR ON-PREM AWS-REGION

This simple example demonstrates how you can leverage the agility and simplicity of cloud method-
ologies within your on-prem environment. Symphonys service offers easy and single-click creation,
monitoring and management of Kubernetes clusters to ensure a smooth transition towards a con-
tainers-driven application strategy.

STEP 1. STEP 2.
ASSIGN STORAGE AND CREATE A NEW KUBERNETES
NETWORK FOR THE CLUSTER CLUSTER
Use KubeCtl CLI commands to allocate a Use KubeCtl CLI commands to create the
storage pool, network (VPC) and floating IP new cluster based on the required number
to the new Kubernetes cluster. of nodes and the parameters for each node,
including number of CPUs and memory.
The assigned floating IP will be used as the
clusters end-point.

STEP 3. STEP 4.
MONITOR KUBERNETES MANAGE AND EXTEND
CLUSTERS KUBERNETES CLUSTERS
Use KubeCtl CLI commands to continuously As needs and requirements evolve, use
monitor the clusters and check their status. KubeCtl CLI commands to easily expand
the cluster and increase the number of
Kubernetes nodes.
FOR SINGLE-CLICK MANAGEMENT OF KUBERNETES CLUSTERS

For more information, visit:


http://www.stratoscale.com

US Phone: +1 877 420-3244 | Email: sales@stratoscale.com