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History [ edit | edit wikitext ]

Main articles: Sweden's history , Swedish military history , Swedish history of

science and Sweden's economic history

Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden on June 6, 1523, a date which is now Sweden's national
day .

Portrait of Queen Kristina of Sweden, from 1661.

Since the inland ice pulled back, the Scandinavian peninsula was inhabited from the south of
future collectors and hunters in different generations. Agriculture made its entry between
4000 and 3200 BC. Individual metal objects are already rising around 3000 BC, but it is about
1800 BC. before bronze becomes so common we can talk about a bronze age . After being
used as a cheaper alternative to bronze, the iron becomes the main tool metal around 400-
500 BC. The first scriptural language, the runesis probably introduced in the 19th century BC,
but appears to have primarily a magical function. Only around 800 will runes be used more
often as a means of communication. At the same time, the first traces of a firmer social
organization begin to emerge. [ 23 ]
Sweden's Christianity in the 1000's occurred late, but without the conquest of foreign
power. The first historically veiled wreck is Erik Segersll , but it's a long time before the kings
get such power and influence that they can speak of them as rulers of a kingdom. During the
11th century, the king's power base shifted towards the gothic landscape . As a state,
Sweden's administration was expanded in the 13th century when landscapes and rikslags
were introduced, including by Magnus Eriksson .
The Kungakraft strengthened its grip during the 1300s. Upper Norrland's coastal country was
colonized and sworn. The Nordic countries united in the Kalmar Union in 1397. For several
reasons, this split up and after a civil war , Gustav Vasa was able to defeat the Danes in 1523
and take power in Sweden. The first parliamentary term is usually said to be the Arboga
meeting in 1435, although the kings have previously gathered councils of representatives
from the kingdom's mighty. The riksdag's function and power have subsequently varied
considerably; for a long time it was a stewardess day . Until 1680, the executive power was
shared between the king and the high council, leading to powerful nobles. In connection with
the reductionwas introduced in 1680 a monarchy. During the 17th century, Sweden was able
to become a European superpower through its hostile army. During the following century,
resources were lacking to retain all possessions. In 1809, the eastern northern hemisphere of
Sweden, which was largely equivalent to today's Finland , was lost to Russia .
As a response to the defeat of the Great Northern War , freedom began in 1719, which led to
the creation of constitutional monarchy, according to various constitutions 1772, 1789 and
1809, the last of which introduced several civil rights. During the Gustaf III government,
however, the king's power was strengthened temporarily. During the Napoleonic War, the
Swedes conquered Kiel since they conducted an attack from Swedish Pomerania. In 1814,
Denmark would actually hand over Norway to Sweden in exchange for the Swedish holdings
in Germany. In Norway, however, Sweden was not accepted, and the Eidsvoll
constitutionadded. Prince Frederick Frederick of Denmark was elected King. When Karl XIII
came home and heard this, Sweden attacked Norway. The war did not last long and resulted
in Karl XIII being elected to the Norwegian king, but also that Norway had to preserve the
constitution and that the two empires became formally equal. The new agreement was thus
different from the original Kiel agreement. After this, Sweden has not been the main part of
any war .
Industrialization in the 19th century came late to Sweden compared to Great Britain, but very
early compared to the world as a whole. The construction of railways from the 1850s was of
great importance. Companies in electronics and chemistry like LM Ericsson and Nitroglycerin
AB gained an internationally significant position towards the end of the century. During
the first world war Sweden was neutral.
Civilian political influence was gradually strengthened during the 19th century. A first voting
reform was decided in 1909, which included voting rights for all men, with graduated voting
rights, and a proportional voting system . In 1919, parliamentary decisions on universal and
equal voting rights were taken in Sweden after King Gustaf Vagreed to appoint Sweden's
government on the basis of the majority of the Riksdag in 1917. Equal voting rights were
applied for the first time in the Second Chamber Committee in 1921 , which led to a Social-
Democratic government under Hjalmar Branting. During the 1920s, the government changed,
but in 1932 the Social Democrats came to power and, in addition to the summer of 1936, the
party remained in power until 1976. During the Second World War's assembly government
and the 1950s coalition government with the current Center Party, however, the government
was divided with other parties.
Even during the Second World War , the Nordic countries hoped to be neutral, but this hope
was crashed by the Soviet Union's attack on Finland and Nazi attacks on Denmark and
Norway, which forced Sweden to pursue a pragmatic policy against the outside world. After
the end of the war, the coalition government was closed and a purely social democratic
government took office. During the 1950s and 1960s, major reforms were undertaken in the
field of social policy, and in the early 1970s, labor market reorganization was
implemented. The economic boom during these years made it possible for many to benefit
from an increasing living standard.
Swedish security policy was based on freedom of alliance in peace time aimed at neutrality in
the event of war. Later, however, it has been found that formal freedom of alliance did not
prevent close weapon-technical cooperation with NATO . However, Prime Minister Olof
Palme ran an offensive foreign policy criticizing the Vietnam warand apartheid in South
Africa .
In 1971, the former two-chamber anniversary was replaced by a single-family anniversary . In
1974 a comprehensive reform of the bases came. In the 1970s, the economy deteriorated
and the energy issue became relevant. The criticism of nuclear power led to the decision of
the Riksdag that no more nuclear power plants would be built.
The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the Soviet Union's fall in 1991 and the end of the cold
war led to a reassessment of the earlier majority opinion that Swedish alliance freedom
prevents closer Swedish participation in the European integration process. The Swedish
government therefore applied for membership of Sweden in the European Union (EU) after
joining EFTA since its establishment in 1960. Following negotiations, Sweden became a
member on January 1, 1995, following a majority of 52.3 percent in referendum on November
13 1994.
and extends over approximately 17 latitudes (latitudes) and 15 longitudes
(meridians). [ 24 ] The longitudinal difference corresponds to a 52-minute difference in solar
time (between Haparanda in the east and Strmstad in the