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An American National Standard

Designation: D 5685 05

Standard Specification for

Fiberglass (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin)
Pressure Pipe Fittings1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 5685; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope* D 2310 Classification for Machine-Made Fiberglass (Glass-

1.1 This specification covers fiberglass (glass-fiber- Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe
reinforced thermosetting-resin) fittings for use with filament D 2992 Practice for Obtaining Hydrostatic or Pressure De-
wound or centrifugally cast fiberglass pipe, or both, in sizes 1 sign Basis for Fiberglass (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced
in. through 24 in. for pipe manufactured to Specification Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe and Fittings
D 2996 or D 2997, or both. D 2996 Specification for Filament Wound Fiberglass
1.2 The following safety hazard caveat pertains only to the (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced-Thermosetting Resin) Pipe
test method portion, Section 7, of this specification: D 2997 Specification for Centrifugally Cast Fiberglass
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced-Thermosetting Resin) Pipe
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the D 3567 Practice for Determining Dimensions of Fiber-
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- glass (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting Resin) Pipe
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- and Fittings
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. D 4024 Specification for Machine Made Fiberglass
(Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting Resin) Flanges
NOTE 1The term fiberglass pipe as described in Section 3 of this F 412 Terminology Relating to Plastic Piping Systems
specification applies to both reinforced thermosetting resin pipe (RTRP)
F 477 Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for
and reinforced polymer mortar pipe (RPMP).
NOTE 2For the purposes of this standard, ploymer does not include Joining Plastic Pipe
natural polymers. 2.2 ANSI Standard:
NOTE 3There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard. B16.5 Steel Pipe Flanges, Flanged Valves and Fittings3
2. Referenced Documents 3. Terminology
2.1 ASTM Standards: 2 3.1 Definitions:
D 618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing 3.1.1 GeneralDefinitions are in accordance with Termi-
D 883 Terminology Relating to Plastics nology D 883 or F 412. Abbreviations are in accordance with
D 1598 Test Method for Time-To-Failure of Plastic Pipe Terminology D 1600, unless otherwise indicated. The abbre-
Under Constant Internal Pressure viation for fiberglass pipe is RTRP and the abbreviation for
D 1599 Test Method for Resistance to Short-Time Hydrau- fiberglass fittings is RTRF.
lic Failure Pressure of Plastic Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings 3.1.2 fiberglass pipetubular product containing glass
D 1600 Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Relating to fiber reinforcements embedded in or surrounded by cured
Plastics thermosetting resin. The composite structure may contain
D 2143 Test Method for Cyclic Pressure Strength of Rein- aggregate, granular or platelet fillers, thixotropic agents, pig-
forced, Thermosetting Plastic Pipe ments, or dyes. Thermoplastic or thermosetting liners or
coatings may be included.
3.1.3 reinforced thermosetting resin pipefiberglass pipe
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D20 on without aggregate (RTRP).
Plastics and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D20.23 on Reinforced
Plastic Piping System and Chemical Equipment. 3.1.4 reinforced polymer mortar pipefiberglass pipe with
Current edition approved Nov. 1, 2005. Published November 2005. Originally aggregate (RPMP).
approved in 1995. Last previous edition approved in 2002 as D568502.
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,, or
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*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

D 5685 05
3.1.5 reinforced thermosetting resin fittingfiberglass fit- conjunction with a pipe or fitting with a matching spigot
ting without aggregate (RTRF). section and a suitable adhesive. This joining method provides
3.1.6 reinforced polymer mortar fittingfiberglass fitting an interference fit over the entire length of the bond line.
with aggregate (RPMF). 4.5.2 Category 2Straight-taper adhesive-bonded joint fit-
ting manufactured with a tapered socket to be used with a pipe
4. Classification or fitting with an untapered spigot section and a suitable
4.1 This specification covers fiberglass fittings defined by adhesive. This joining method provides an interference fit at
type (method of manufacture), grade (general resin type), class the bottom of the socket.
(general liner type), catagory (configuration of joining system), 4.5.3 Category 3Straight adhesive bonded joint fitting
and pressure rating ( a single letter disignating the pressure manufactured with an untapered socket for use with a pipe or
class and method of manufacture). fitting with an untapered spigot and a suitable adhesive. This
4.2 Types: joining provides no interference fit.
4.2.1 Type 1Filament-wound fittings manufactured by 4.5.4 Category 4Butt and strap joint made by a contact
winding continuous fibrous-glass strand roving or roving tape, molding process which involves hand lay-up with glass-woven
either preimpregnated or impregnated during winding, onto a roving or chopped strand mat, or both, which is saturated with
mandrel, or a liner corresponding to the fitting shape. resin.
4.2.2 Type 2Compression molded fittings made by apply- 4.5.5 Category 5Flanged fittings are available as all
ing external pressure and heat to a molding compound that is outlets flanged or as flange-by-joint specified in this specifica-
confined within a closed mold. tion. Flanges are in compliance with Specification D 4024.
4.2.3 Type 3Resin transfer molded fittings manufactured 4.5.6 Category 6Elastomeric (gasket) sealed joints with
by pumping a thermosetting resin into glass reinforcements sealant manufactured in compliance with Specification F 477
that have been cut to size and clamped between matched for joints which have integral longitudinal restraint and do not
molds. require thrust blocking or external longitudinal restraint.
4.2.4 Type 4Centrifugally cast fittings made by applying 4.5.7 Category 7Elastomeric (gasket) sealed joints with
resin and reinforcement to the inside of a mold that is rotating seals manufactured in compliance with Specification F 477 for
and heated, subsequently polymerizing the resin system. joints which require thrust blocking or external longitudinal
4.2.5 Type 5Contact molded fittings made by applying restraint.
resin and reinforcement to a mold or to mitered filamentwound 4.6 Pressure RatingPressure rating shall be categorized
stock or centrifugally cast pipe stock. This procedure shall also by a single letter designation. Pressure designations are shown
cover spray-up fittings which are made by spraying resin and in Table 1. The pressure ratings are applicable for the tempera-
reinforcement on a mold or over mitered pipe wound stock. ture at which the fittings were tested and for lower tempera-
Contact molding includes both hand lay-up and spray-up tures down to 50F (46C). When agreed upon between
manufacturing processes. purchaser and manufacturer, pressure ratings determined by
4.2.6 Fittings of Type 1 through Type 5 which require thrust tests conducted following Practice D 2992 are acceptable.
blocking or external axial restraint when installed shall have 4.7 Designation CodeThe fitting designation code shall
the letter R appended to the type of designation. ( For consist of the abbreviation RTRF or RPMF followed by the
instance, a contact molded fitting requiring thrust blocking type, grade, and class in Arabic numerals and the pressure
when installed would be designated a type 5R.) rating category as a capital letter.
4.3 Grades:
NOTE 4An example is RTRF 21A2E. This designation describes a
4.3.1 Grade 1Epoxy-resin.
(Type 2) compression molded fitting with a (Grade 1) epoxy-resin without
4.3.2 Grade 2Polyester-resin. a liner (Class A), which is joined with a (Category 2) taper-to-taper
4.3.3 Grade 3Phenolic-resin. adhesive joining system and has a 200 psig (1380 kPa) pressure rating.
4.3.4 Grade 4Vinylester resin. NOTE 5Fittings with identical classification from different manufac-
4.3.5 Grade 7Furan resin. turers may not be interchangeable due to non-standardization of pipe or
4.4 Classes: socket diameter, socket length, taper angle, or combination thereof.
4.4.1 Class ANo liner.
4.4.2 Class BPolyester-resin liner (nonreinforced).
TABLE 1 Pressure Categories
4.4.3 Class CEpoxy-resin liner (nonreinforced).
4.4.4 Class DPhenolic resin liner (nonreinforced). Designation Pressure RatingA, psig (kPa)
4.4.5 Class EPolyester-resin liner (reinforced). A 25 (172)
4.4.6 Class FEpoxy-resin liner (reinforced). B 50 (345)
4.4.7 Class GPhenolic resin liner (reinforced). C 100 (690)
D 150 (1034)
4.4.8 Class HThermoplastic-resin liner (specify). E 200 (1380)
4.4.9 Class IFuran-resin liner (reinforced). F 250 (1724)
4.4.10 Class JVinylester resin liner (nonreinforced). G 300 (2068)
H 400 (2759)
4.4.11 Class KVinylester resin liner (reinforced). I 500 (3448)
4.5 Joint Categories (Method of Joining): J 1000 (6896)
4.5.1 Category 1Taper-to-taper adhesive-bonded joint fit- A
Pressure ratings are applicable only for the temperature at which the fittings
tings manufactured with a tapered socket to be used in were tested and for lower temperatures.

D 5685 05
5. Materials 7. Test Methods
5.1 Fittings manufactured in accordance with this specifica- 7.1 ConditioningWhen conditioning is required, and in
tion shall be composed of reinforcement embedded in or all cases of disagreement, condition the test specimens at 73.4
surrounded by cured thermosetting-resin. The composite struc- 6 3.6F (23 6 2C) and 50 6 5 % relative humidity for not
ture may contain granular or platelet fillers, thixotropic agents, less than 40 h prior to test, in accordance with Procedure A of
pigments, or dyes. Practice D 618.
5.2 The resins, fiberglass reinforcements, and other materi- 7.2 Test ConditionsThe tests may be conducted at ambi-
als, when combined into a composite structure, shall produce a ent temperature and humidity conditions. When controlled
fitting that will meet the performance requirements of this environment testing is specified, tests shall be conducted in the
specification. Standard Laboratory Atmosphere of 73.4 6 3.6F (23 6 2C)
and 50 6 5 % relative humidity. When elevated temperature
6. Requirements testing is specified, conduct the tests at the design temperature
6.1 WorkmanshipThe fittings shall be free of all defects 6 5.4F (3C).
including indentations, delaminations, bubbles, pin holes, for- 7.3 Dimensions and TolerancesMeasure fitting dimen-
eign inclusions, and resin starved areas, which, due to their sions in accordance with applicable documents and Practice
nature, degree, or extent, detrimentally affect the strength and D 3567. Measure flange dimensions with a micrometer or
serviceability of the fitting. The fitting shall be as uniform as vernier calipers, or other suitable measuring devices accurate
commercially practicable in color, opacity, and other physical to within 60.001 in. (0.02 mm). Diameters shall be determined
properties. by averaging a minimum of four measurements, equally spaced
6.2 Dimensions and TolerancesAll flanged fittings shall circumferentially.
conform to the center line to flange face dimensions, hole size 7.4 Pressure Tests:
and hole pattern, and tolerances of ANSI B16.5 short or long 7.4.1 Short-Term Hydrostatic Strength TestShort-term hy-
radius type, or otherwise as agreed upon between the manu- drostatic failure pressure tests to determine compliance with
facturer and purchaser. Fitting center line to end dimensions, 6.3 performed at ambient temperature in accordance with Test
taper angles, taper length, or combinations thereof, will vary Method D 1599 using specimens and sizes as described in
for non-flanged joining systems and the individual manufac- 7.4.3. Leaking past the gasket interface of flanged fittings and
turers shall be consulted for dimensions. Dimensions shall be elastomeric sealed fittings is permissible during this test,
measured in accordance with 7.3. provided the pressure is at least two times the rating when the
NOTE 6Fittings with short radii which are not in compliance with leak occurs. The bolt torquing sequence of Specification
ANSI B16.5 radius tolerances may be available. D 4024, Fig. 2 shall be used when testing flanged fittings.
Fittings without flanges shall be tested with the pipe they are to
6.3 Fittings and Connections Pressure Test Requirements
be used with joined to the fitting. Bending or shape restraint
Fittings, couplings, and connections shall meet the following
during the test is permitted to the extent applicable to its
qualification requirements when tested with restrained ends for
anticipated installed conditions. This information shall be
Type 6 fittings, and unrestrained ends for other type fittings, in
contained in the test report.
accordance with 7.4.1 for short term hydrostatic strength tests,
and 7.4.2 for cyclic or static tests. 7.4.2 Cyclic or Static Pressure Test:
6.3.1 Each type of component and its field-jointed configu- For cyclic pressure tests, the gage pressure at the
ration shall be capable of sustaining a short-time hydrostatic peak pressure of the cycle shall be not less than 2 times the
pressure, of at least four times its cyclic-rated pressure or three pressure rating of the fitting. The cycle amplitude pressure
times its static-rated pressure for 1 min without visible weeping shall be at least 80 % of the selected peak pressure.
or leakage. For static pressure tests, the gage pressure shall be
6.3.2 Each component shall meet or exceed the cyclic or no less than 2 times the fitting static pressure rating.
static-test requirements of 7.4.2. Test each component specimen as required above
6.4 Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)The Tg for each with unrestrained ends and in accordance with Test Methods
resin used, as determined by some thermal analysis method, D 2143 for cyclic tests, or D 1598 for static tests at the
shall be no less than a minimum statistically significant value components temperature rating.
established by the manufacturer. Samples shall be taken from Each component specimen must withstand 168 h for
manufactured fittings when thermal analysis testing is accom- static tests or 252,000 cycles for cyclic tests, without failure.
plished by differential-scanning-chlorimeter (DSC). Test in 7.4.3 Test Specimens and Sample Size Requirements for
accordance with 7.5. Pressure TestsTest specimens shall include at least one
6.5 Factory leak tests shall be conducted at a pressure of 1.5 fitting in each configuration, for example, 45 and 90 elbow,
times pressure rating and at a frequency determined by an tee, flange, coupling (includes integral coupling) etc., joined to
agreement between the purchaser and the seller. pipe sections at least 18 in. (0.5 m) long or 2 diameters,
6.6 For individual orders, only those additional test and whichever is longer, using the joining method, design, and
number of tests specifically agreed upon between the purchaser adhesive intended for field assembly. Specimen diameters for
and the seller need be conducted. test in each configuration shall include the maximum product

D 5685 05
size in each pressure class and for each method of manufacture. 8. Marking
In addition, smaller sizes in the pressure rating shall be tested 8.1 Mark each fitting with the following information:
as follows: 8.1.1 The designation ASTM D 5685 with which the
Product Size Range Nominal, in.A Test Size, Nominal, in. fitting complies,
1, 112 , 2, 212 , 3 3
4, 6 6
8.1.2 Identification of the fitting in accordance with the
8,10,12 12 designation code in 4.2,
14,16 16 8.1.3 Nominal fitting size,
In each range of size, the manufacturer may elect to test a smaller product size
8.1.4 Manufacturers name (or trademark) and product des-
to qualify only the smaller size. ignation, and
7.4.4 Requalification Tests for Fittings, Couplings, Connec- 8.1.5 Pressure rating (cyclic or static), psig.
tions, and AdhesivesThe qualification tests in 6.3 shall be 8.2 All required markings shall be legible and applied so as
repeated after any change in manufacturing process, construc- to remain legible under normal handling and installation
tion, or type of materials. practices.
NOTE 7Fiberglass fittings short-term hydrostatic strength at ambient 9. Keywords
temperature is not necessarily greater than its short-term hydrostatic 9.1 centrifugally cast; compression molded; contact
strength at all higher temperatures.
molded; degree of cure; epoxy-resin; filament-wound; furan-
7.5 Glass Transition TemperatureDetermine by using the resin; glass transition temperature; percent extractable mate-
procedure in Annex A1. rial; polyester-resin; pressure-rating; transfer molded


(Mandatory Information)


A1.1 Scope A1.5.2 Run the scan from room temperature to at least 22F
A1.1.1 This test determines whether the degree of cure of a (12C) above the expected glass transition temperature and no
fiberglass fitting test specimen meets the quality control re- more than 482F (250C).
quirements determined by statistical analysis of typical pro- A1.5.3 Obtain the Tg1(midpoint of the inflection in the DSC
duction products. curve).
A1.5.4 If the Tg is not within 9F (16C) of statistically
A1.2. Terminology
significant value, cool down the DSC and run another sample
A1.2.1 Definition: again from room temperature to 54F (30C) above Tg1 to
A1.2.1.1 glass transition temperaturethe midpoint of the obtain Tg2.
inflection temperature at the DSC curve (heat flow versus A1.5.5 The values Tg1 and Tg2 obtained with the test
temperature). sample should be compared to those statistically significant
A1.3 Apparatus values obtained from typical production product. The mea-
sured and typical values should be within 9F (16C).
A1.3.1 Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC).
A1.4 Test Specimens A1.6 Report
A1.4.1 SizeThe size of the specimen is limited by the size A1.6.1 Report the following information:
of the DSC sample pan. All specimens can be a chip or filed A1.6.1.1 Complete identification of the specimens, includ-
into a fine powder to provide easy weighing and uniform ing material, manufacturers name, and lot number.
contact with the pan. A1.6.1.2 Fitting dimensions, including nominal size, mini-
A1.4.2 LocationFor any given fitting, a sample should be mum reinforced wall thickness, and average outside diameter
taken 0 to 10 mils (0 to 0.025 m) from the outer surface, as well of reinforced wall. Unreinforced thickness (that is, liner) shall
as 0 to 10 mils from the inner surface. If the fitting has a liner, also be reported.
a specimen should be taken from the liner, as well as the inner
and outer edges of the overwrap. A1.6.1.3 Number of specimens tested and where the speci-
mens were taken from the fitting.
A1.5 Procedure A1.6.1.4 Heat-up rate for DSC initial temperature and final
A1.5.1 The maximum heating rate is 41F (23C)/min. The temperature for both scans.
Tg is dependent upon heating rate, therefore a consistent A1.6.1.5 Record glass transition temperature (inflection
heating rate must be used for all testing. value) for the first scan as Tg1.

D 5685 05
A1.6.1.6 Record glass transition temperature (inflection
value) for the second scan as Tg2, if applicable.
A1.6.1.7 Date of test.


Committee D20 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue D568502
that may impact the use of this standard.

(1) Corrected and revised Section 4 on Grades and Classes to (2) Eliminated reference to Percent Extractables test since this
conform to D 2310 and to provide distinction between viny- is no longer part of the referenced standard.
lester and polyester resins. (3) Revised basis of pressure test requirements in 7.4.2

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