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4 RULES TO MASTER PARA


COMPLETION GAUTAM
Posted by GP | Jul 14, 2014 | Academics, Preparing PURI
for CAT, Test Taking Strategies | 229 |
GP describes his
academic
performance
early in life as
pathetic. With
scores of 61% in
Xth and 65% in
XIIth, he was
always at the
bottom of the
class. For
Share this on WhatsApp students, he is
an aptitude
If a poll was conducted among CAT aspirants on the
guru who
most hated question type in English section, possibly
simpli es
Sentence Correction and Para Completion would top
fundamentals,
the charts. Unfortunately the prerequisite for doing
problem
well in both these question types would mean going
solving, and test
back in time and inculcating a good reading habit.
taking strategy.
You will rarely nd someone who has been reading
GP loves driving
regularly not doing well in these question types.
& has been part
Obviously, going back in time is ruled out and since
of Raid-de-
we are targeting CAT 2014, which is just 3 months
Himalayas o
away, develop a good reading habit is stupid
road adventure.
advice.
An IIM B
alumnus, GP is
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9/17/2017 4 Rules to Master Para Completion

We will look at grammar later but rst let us try and one of the core
resolve the issue of Para Completion because the founders of CL.
approach to tackle Para Completion questions can
be applied to critical reasoning and inferential
questions in RC passages and hence can impact 5-6
ARCHIVES
questions in the VALR section.

First let us understand how most of the Para Select Month


Completion questions are framed. Typically, the
question creator will take a short paragraph from a
book or an article and remove the last sentence and
your Para Completion question and the correct SUBSCRIBE
answer choice are ready. The only thing missing are
the three incorrect choices. Now creating three good, E-mail Address:
but incorrect, choices is not only hard work (who
wants to work hard?) but also requires the content
Unsubscribe
creator to think like the author, which is not easy, so
me
he/she will usually be able to create only one
good/close choice and two not so good choices. CATEGORIE
S
We need to hence remember that the correct answer All categories
choice in Para Completion is an extension of the
Academics
passage and is written by the same person who Advertorial
wrote the passage, so there have to be similarities Banking
between the paragraph and the correct answer
CAT
choice. If we are able to identify the similarities or CLAT
dissimilarities between the paragraph and the Counseling
choices we have tamed the monster. Identifying
General
similarities is usually more di cult than identifying Awareness
dis-similarities and it I have my 4 Rules to identify How to Use
the incorrect choices. Obviously eliminating 3
GPkafunda
incorrect choices will give us the answer. IBPS PO
IIFT
4 Rules to MasterPara Completion
Life
Experience
Rule 1: Scope
MBA
Scope loosely refers to the subject of the passage
Media
and the issues discussed in it. Scope of the correct
Mentions
answer choice should be the same as that of the
Mentorship
passage. For example, if the passage discusses the
Mentorship
bene ts of Nuclear Energy, choices discussing Solar
Preparing for
Power are unlikely to be correct. When a choice is
CAT
out of scope, it is discussing issues or subjects that
SBI PO
are di erent from those in the passage. Thus any
Slider
choice that is not in sync with the scope of
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9/17/2017 4 Rules to Master Para Completion

thepassage will be incorrect and should be SNAP


eliminated. Test Taking
Strategies
Rule 2: Scale XAT
Consider a passage on the outbreak of bird u in a
SUBSCRIBE
city, the correct answer choice will also focus on the ME
city, it will not signi cantly change the scale (or size)
of the problem. Thus any choice that extends the
bird u problem of the city to the country or reduces
it to a small part of the city is unlikely to be correct. RECENT
POSTS
In other words the scale (or size) of the
issue/problem will be similar in the paragraph
CAT
and the correct answer choice.
2017
Unplu
Rule 3: Tone gged
If the author of the paragraph has a favourable Sep 12,
2017 |
opinion on an issue then the correct answer choice CAT,
MBA,
should also re ect it. The tone of the passage and
Prepari
the correct answer choice has to be the same. If the ng for
CAT,
passage is laudatory, it is not possible for the
Test
correct answer choice to be critical. Taking
Strategi
es
Rule 4: Continuity
Just as Ganges ows from Gangotri to Rishikesh to
7
Varanasi and cannot reverse its direction, an issue
Rules
that has been discussed and closed in the paragraph to
will not be taken up again, remember from Rishikesh excel
Ganges can ow only to Varanasi and not to in CAT
QA
Gangotri. It is the last thought or issue that has to sectio
be taken forward and not something that is dead n
and buried. Sep 7,
2017 |
Academ
How to apply these 4 Rules? ics,
Mentors
hip,
Obviously you start by reading the paragraph and Mentors
hip,
going thru the choices. Check each choice for Prepari
similarity with the passage on account of Scope ng for
CAT,
(syllabus), Scale (size) Tone and Continuity ( ow). Any Test
choice that does not adhere to these four has to be Taking
Strategi
incorrect and eliminated. es
1. If you are able to eliminate 3 out of 4 choices the
remaining choice is the answer.
2. If you are able to eliminate 2 out of 4 choices,
compare the two remaining choices and the one
which is closer to the paragraph in terms of scope,
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9/17/2017 4 Rules to Master Para Completion

scale, tone and continuity is the answer. Are


3. If you are able to eliminate only 1 out of 4 choices, you
choosi
move on to the next question.
ng the
4. If you are unable to eliminate any choice right
obviously this need not be discussed. questi
ons in
your
To help you understand the application of these Mock
rules I have discussed 4 Para Completion question CATs?
below. After going thru these examples try applying Sep 5,
2017 |
these rules to Para Completion questions of Mock Academ
CAT past CAT papers. ics,
Mentors
hip,
These rules will also work for Summary and Prepari
ng for
Critical Reasoning questions and inferential CAT,
questions in RC passages. Test
Taking
Strategi
es

Application of 4 Rulesto a few questionsfor PGDBA


better understanding: -A
new
progra
Q1. Teaching creationism in American public schools m with
has been outlawed since 1987 when the Supreme a
Court ruled that the inclusion of religious material in promis
ing
science classes was unconstitutional. In recent years, career!
however, opponents of the theory of evolution rst Jul 19,
developed by Charles Darwin, have regrouped, 2017 |
CAT,
challenging science education with the doctrine of MBA
intelligent design, which has been carefully stripped
of all references to God and religion. Unlike
5 Ways
traditional creationism, which claims that God CLs
created the earth in six days, proponents of FreeZo
ne can
intelligent design say the workings of this planet are
help
too complex to be ascribed to evolution. There must you
have been a designer working to a plan that is, a practic
creator. _____________________ e for
CAT17
Jun 22,
(a) However, these kinds of teachings are 2017 |
unacceptable to the American public. Prepari
ng for
(b) However, there are many schools that are in CAT
favour of teaching traditional creationism to the
students.
(c) However, such beliefs are not substantial enough ADVERTISE
to convince the American courts to allow teaching MENT
the subject in its schools.
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9/17/2017 4 Rules to Master Para Completion

(d) However, the American government believes that


the students must have the knowledge of traditional
creationism, as well as, intelligent design.
(e) However, some believe that parents should
decide what subjects should be taught to their
children

Choice (a): Incorrect, change of scope, the


paragraph does not discuss the views of the
American public.
Choice (b): Incorrect, change of scope, the
paragraph does not discuss the views of the schools.
Choice (c): Could be correct, scope is view of
American courts, and the tone is the same as the
view is the same in another similar situation.
Choice (d): Incorrect, change of scope from view of
American Courts to views of the American CATEGORY
Government. SPECIFIC
RSS
Choice (e): Incorrect, change of scope from view of
American Courts to views of the parents.
Academics
(569)
Correct answer: Choice (c)
Advertorial
(371)

Banking (567)
CAT (1,089)

CLAT (456)
Q2. The Ninth Schedule was created by Jawaharlal
Nehrus government as a vessel to protect agrarian Counseling
(576)
reform legislation. Nehrus vessel became a
constitutional dustbin for Indira Gandhis and later General
Awareness
governments to provide immunity for any kind of (795)
legislation relating to elections, mines and minerals,
How to Use
industrial regulation, requisition of property, GPkafunda
monopolies, coal or copper nationalisation, general (637)
insurance, sick industries, acquiring the Alcock IIFT (789)
Ashdown company, Kerala Chitties Act, Tamil Nadu
Life
reservations of 69 per cent and so on.
Experience
_____________________ (591)

MBA (915)
(a) This misuse is only characteristic of the political
Media
situation in India.
Mentions
(b) Protection has become a veil for rampant (391)
corruption.
Mentorship
(c) No principle underlies this selection. (470)

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(d) Theoretically, all state and Union legislations lack Preparing


substance. for CAT
(1,056)
(e) The dustbin was of limitless capacity.
Slider (367)
Choice (a): Incorrect, scale (or scope) has changed
from Indira Gandhis and later Governments to SNAP (764)
entire political class. Test Taking
Choice (b): Incorrect, change of scope, corruption Strategies
has not been discussed in the paragraph and hence (887)

out of syllabus XAT (876)


Choice (c): Could be correct, it has a tone of
disapproval like the paragraph and it talks about all
kind of legislation (no principle) but introduces a new
concept principle and hence the scope is possibly
di erent.
Choice (d): Incorrect, scale has changed to
encompass all legislations and scope has changed by
including both state and the Union.
Choice (e): Correct on account of tone
(disapproving) and continuity (dustbin) and does not
have a problem of either scale or scope.

Correct answer: Choice (e)

Q3. The digital-storytelling movement started in the


early 1990s with performance artists such as San
Francisco-based Atchley. But the technique is just
beginning to take hold in the world of e-business. At
last falls national Digital Storytelling Festival in
Crested Butte, Colo., nearly half of the people signed
up represented corporations. The stories that
people are telling on the Web around corporate
brands are astounding, says Atchley. Knowledge is
best shared and remembered through a good story,
and companies are just starting to catch on to all that
this can mean.__________________

(a) If so, digital storytelling will see that computer


prices continue to plummet.
(b) If so, digital storytelling will link high-speed data
lines and more people to the Web.
(c) If so, digital storytelling will help companies to
know more than what they knew earlier.
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9/17/2017 4 Rules to Master Para Completion

(d) If so, digital storytelling will only become more


popular.
(e) If so, digital storytelling will only become less
popular.

Choice (a): Incorrect, change of scope Computer


prices out of syllabus.
Choice (b): Incorrect, change of scope High speed
data lines & web are not discussed in the paragraph.
Choice (c): Incorrect, change of scope The focus of
the paragraph is on digital storytelling and not on
how it will help companies.
Choice (d): Correct, on account of Scope &
Continuity. The focus of this choice is on digital
storytelling and also takes forward the impact of
interest of companies more popularity.
Choice (e): Incorrect, change of tone the
paragraph talks only of increasing popularity while
the choice is making digital storytelling less popular.

Correct answer: Choice (d)

Q4. No fewer than 70,000 workers would have been


needed to lug limestone blocks from desert miles
away to the building sites of the pyramids. Yet there
is little evidence that the pharaohs had to coerce
their subjects to leave their elds and families in
order to build a monument whose completion any
single worker would certainly never see. All people
apparently willingly participated in the pageant of
immortality-made-real. With no hope of a berth for
themselves in the tomb, the workers nonetheless
must have taken comfort from knowing that their
king, their earthly representative, would live on for
them in perpetuity.
(a) Here was a culture that would persist, just as its
pharaohs would live on in their silent palaces.
(b) The Egyptian hoi polloi became immortal by
proxy.
(c) King Tut and ended the brief experiment in
monotheism in favour of the older religion with its
promise of an afterlife.
(d) The solemn bearing of these great structures
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reminds people today of the way an entire culture


fashioned a collective immortality in astonishing
stone.

Choice (a): Incorrect, culture is not mentioned in


the paragraph, out of scope.
Choice (b): Could be correct on account of scope,
workers or common people, and continuity from last
statement.
Choice (c): Incorrect, on account of scale reducing
from Pharoahs in general to King Tut in particular
and the scope changing to religion.
Choice (d): Incorrect, scope is workers and not the
structures

All the Best


GP

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