""AD ADr2LVOLUME
A0922 3 8 2 1
PREFACE
Accession For
NTIS GRA&I
DTIC TAB
Unannounced fl
Justification.
Distribution/Q [
Availability Codes
Avail and/or &%ELECTE
Dist iSpo""NOV 28 1980
. Torque Coefficients
: .Valve in Pipe 3312
SValve in End of Pipe 3312/1
"," Sample Computation
"DiEscharge and Torque 3313
HowellBunger Valves Discharge Coefficients
'Four Vanes 3321
. Six Vanes 3321/1
Flap Gates  Head Loss Coefficients Submerged Flow 34o1
, Slope Coefficients
0 .0001 < S < 0.010 6101
0.01 < S < 1.00 E/1 6OEG
Trapezoidal Channels C k vs Base Width
.Side Slope 1 to 1 Base
Bse Width 0 toto200
Width 200 600Feet
Feet 6102
6102/
Base Width 0 to 50 Feet 6102/
Side Slope i/2 to 1  Base Width 0 to 200 Feet 6102/2
Base Width 200 to 600 Feet 6102/3
tBase
RetaguarSetin Width 0 to 50 Feet 6102/3
3"
177
M m B PsRevised
CORPS OF ENGINEERS
VOLUME 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chart go.,'
Revised 177
, C
'CORPS OF ENGINEERS
VOLUME 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Chart No.
SPECIAL PROBLEMS  700
Riprap Protection
Trapezoidal Channel . 60Degree Bend
Boundary Shear Distribution
Ice Thrust on Hydrauiic Structures 7031
Low.Monolith Diversion  Discharge Coefficients 704
711
Stone Stability
Velocity vs Stone Diameter
7121
.StormDrain Outlets  Energy Dissipaters
Stilling Well 7221
Impact Basin 7222
Stilling Basin 7223
StormDrain Outlets  Riprap Energy Dissipaters
Scour Hole Geometry
TW > 0.5 Do and < 0.5 D
Horizontal Blanket Lengtho of Stone Pr:.tection 7224
7225
Preformed Scour Hole Geometry 7226
D50 Stone Size
7227
Surge Tanks  Thin Plate Orifices  Head Losses
7331
Sevised 177
CORPSr.,OF ENGINEERS
,,V0LbE 2
TABLU OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Chart 'No.,'
Revised 177
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
3101 to ?101/2
i~FA
TOP OF CLAPOTIS
EQUATGATS
D 0 ~ OH~Hr AUSO OH N OH
ASPALLWA
AR0NCAR 1/
PAAMTE
THET30/ OF
CLAPOTIS, FT
a  A BOTTOM PRESSURE
PARAMETER, FT OF WATER
D  DEPTH OF WATER (STILL
WATER LEVEL TO BOTTOM), FT
H  WAVE HEKWHT, FT
A WAVE LENGTH,FT
CREST GATES
WNAVE PRESSURE
DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS
HYDRAULIC DE$IGN CHART 310 I
80 1.8
COTH COSH
:::60   .e i
:0
0u u
40 1.4
xx
TA16LE OF VALUES
D COSH2 COTH uD
0 1.000 00
0.1 1.204 1.796
0.2 1.898 1.177
0.3 3.366 1.047
0.4 6,205 1.013
0.5 11.574 1.004
0.6 21.659 1.001
0.7 4C.569 1.000
0.8 76.013 1.000
GIVEN:
Gated spillway as shown
Design wave length (A)  125 ft
Design wave height (H) = 6 ft STILL WATER
Still.water depth (D)  75 ft 4, '
REQUIRED: L ., ,
COMPUTE:
1. Pressure distribution
0. 75 2rD
1255 = 0.6; coth  A,
 
AJ 1.001 (Chart 3101/1)
3.14 x 62
ho . 125 x1.001 0.9 ft.
D 2rrD
=0.6; cash 21.7 (Chart 3101/1)
6
a =T=0.3 ft.
2.7
Effective pressure D+a = 75.0 + 0.3 = 75.3 ft.
I : CREST GATES1
WAVC PRESSURE
SAMPLE COMPUTATION
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 310 1/2
*V U. S. ARMY ENANCR V*TCRWAYS Z[XPC[RIMtNTSrATION, VICK$VRC. MsszssSpHEET
,pRItAR0 W OF"
IN I l Nl N~ J ll lll
I n~ll
I nll I I N I ll ~ J SHEET Inor S
(c) D, pth ofgate overoppin
1.epth . 81.9  (75.0 21.0 + 26.0) 1.9 ft.
TOP OF CLAPOTIS 0
TOP OF GATE .
BOTTOM OF GATE 2.
PRESSURE a
DISTRIBUTION0
BOTTOM OF 61.9
STRUCTURE 75.3 0
PRESSURE, FT OF WATER
62.4 ( 2;5.) 80
CREST GATES
WAVE PRESSURE
SAMPLE COMPUTATION
of HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 3101/2
PAEPAREO6Y U 3. ARMYENGIkSIS WA9*?ESAYSCXPCRIMT.4 STATION. VICK60URG. MIS3iSSIPPI tsEEG;0
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
Q = CA gH
where,
Q = discharge in cfs
C = discharge coefficient
2
A = area of orifice opening in ft
3111 to 3115
I
j curve used in the design of spillways. Chart 3112 illustrates the nec
essary computations to obtain the net gate opening and the angle 1 de
scribed in paragraph 2, for tainter gates mounted on spillway crests
shaped to X 1 .8 5 = 2H 085Y. All factors are expressed in terms of the
odesign head (Hd) The method shown is applicable to other crest shapes.
However, the accompanying design aids, Charts 3113 and 3114, apply
only to standard crests.
. 3111 to 3115
Ito
105
100T
85
0
4z   
J 47 
70     
50Z
75 OPNNSISHRECEFFCINT GATE

4 8:GAE WIDT
H~ ~
TO CETE GATE OPNNZYRUI
 OF DSG HR
 ~~~~~E
     
(fl 0 0 a 0u
0,+
z ~
I.~~
'n* I D I
a66
6 it
0 i
 q 661
+~ 4
,~
b0 n 0
Z
z : I Iw
m +
WO oz dZ 6 8.
0
W w F, ~
Uz ad 0L
al'~
4 Ro
D ' Z7,n
L.
a ,J W.,
0n a 0
 w
~* z
0 In
0 0
_
0d 0 0
~;h
gm~hi
z'
W~u
3 J
U ~,o'
>__
_ _
_
 ~I
CHcc31
1.0ii ii
06 . 02 0 02 04 060.8 1 12
0.2.59 . 00 . 5
IV~~~
1.7 014 I 5'
20d
0.2
TANE<GTSO
x~ wi
IV
T
0.0004 0.00
0.0007  000
00040800
00008
0.0010 0.0010
00008
 0003
0004 0,004
0.0052.0
0.003 0036
0007 000
0080
t 0.00 .
0 00 M.r ____X
025 Qc 001
(002 009
0.4 t 0.04_______
00020003 000 000 00' 002 003 05 07 00 02 03
0.05 0.0
TAINTE GTES ON
0 20 3.20
~ 000
0000
000
0000
000 000
LaJ
(/)I
2 000N 000 a
  H
I 'w Iq0~f
z It
CLC
0n 0 )o 0 0
0i a
4 0.I~J
0~O
~ Cu<
'y 0
u(A
W (
0J 0 9 I i
< i
0 1) w N
o I(Mc s o I
U' U qoo w >. N.
w *w
0 (n U,> 0 0E~
zLiI C
Z 0 Al dq
W 00
0 0 q~2
: CuII
0 0 0 0 0
U. N
0e W
U U U 1 0 0 N
U w' ?9C
(1D z U 0
0
j J
11 V3
1
CREST PRESSURES
5. The data presented in charts 3116 and 3116/1 show that crest
pressures resulting from normal design and operation practices are not con
trolling design fato6rs. For partial gate openings the expected minimum
crest pressures may range from about O.lHd for pools at design head to
about 0.2H d for heads approximating 1.3H. Gated spillways are presently
being built with 50ft design heads; so for an underdesigned crest, the
minimum pressure to be expected with gate control would be about 10 ft of
water. This pressure would increase to 5 ft if design head was the maxi
mum operating head. Pressures of these magnitudes should be free of cavi
tation. Periodic surges upstream of partially open tainter gates have been
observed for certain combinations of head and gate width. Criteria for
7. References.
0 0
0
>
o0
o a
00  CL L
W0
Iv SIXY
0q
OD 0 0 0
0n 00 00 0
o
'6 '00 0
00
o nn
0 0 0 003
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0_ ~0*4S~
0
000 0oo
ox x II II ow1,0
1.0. 0 w
0 Ow~
00
D L D
0 0
In 2n lEIIz I
0 0 0 0
0 0n
00
I0 0 00
~~0 0  0 00
~ OS3H NISS80
Gd 3H NIS30
CHART 3116
 0 U)
~0 0 0o
o  C
o1 0 0 W .. 1
ii 'a ov o 'D 0 c~J
0111 4J 4 2
1 0 0
00
(D
U .~
  4
CN 0 40 v N C) N .*J
  0 0 0 0 0
0 0
w w  ,NN (
A .8 .8  0
0 0 0 1
NI 0 0
oo
N O ? 001 J~
N f 01 011
0 Lil
In 0
0 0 D It I
0 0 0 0
00
7 'a
0 00
0~ 0
0 0 0 0 0 i0SXV~
N CHART 31101
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
SHEET 312
VERTICAL LIFT GATES ON SPILLWAYS
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
Cd / (2)
Q d 3 2 ! /
4. Analysis. The analysis of data taken from references 3 through1
H 312
Revised 168
as unity. Data from studies 6 ,7 with the gate seat located appreciably down
stream from the crest showed good correlation with data for oncrest gate
seat locations.
6. References.
312
Revised 168
1.0
0.9 . .
o.C, 
0.8" 0
0,7
0.4 !
4 0._
I
,o + FLAMING GORGE
S% ALCON
O GORGE HIGH
0
0 MAHONNG:
MAHONING: UPSTREAM GATE
DOWNSTREAM LOCATION
GATE LOCATION
0 BLUESTONE
ATE LIP EL
S H, H,=H,G O
CREST EL G^
SHEET 3201
CONTROL GATES
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
Q = C GO B
3201
4. Values from the suggested design curve are tabulated below
for the convenience of the designer.
10 0.73
20 0.73
30 0.74
4o 0.74
50 0.75
6o 0.77
70 0.78
80 0.80
3201
tt
70  RAIVR
LE LV ENRG
u~~~E    
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
3202 to 3202/3
Revised 1061 {
vertically upward. The experimental data on upthrust are of value in
checking the design for such a possibility. However, discharge coeffi
cients for the upstream and downstream gaps must be assumed to determine
whether a gate opening exists that could cause a practically dry well.
9. Pressure per unit area on top of the gate can be determined from
HDC 3202/2. The Fort Randall Dam data shown in the chart are based on
field and model measurements of gatewell watersurface elevations. The
Pine Flat and Norfork Dam data result from field measurements of bonnet
pressures at these structures. Details of clearances between the gates
be used in computation of the downthrust should include the area of the
gate within the gate slots, the area between the conduit walls and the
area of the gate top seal.
(2) _, Slide Gate Tests, Norfork Dam, North Fork River, Arkansas.
Technical Memorandum No. 2389, Vicksburg, Miss., July 1954.
3202 3202/3
to 1061
Revised
Gates, Fort Randall Dam, Missouri ver South Dakota. Technical
Report No. 2435, Vicksburg, Miss,, June 1956. '
(2
3202 to 3202/3
Revised 1061
P
BASIC EQUATION
it
P = hydraulic and gravity forces In tons
W= dry weight of gate in tons
A= cross.sectional area of gate in sq ft
w df= average downthrust per unit of area on
top of gate in feet of water
uf = average upthrust per unit of area on
sloping bottom of gate in feet of water
y= specific weight of water, 0.0312 ton
per cu ft
uf = UPTHRUST PER
UNIT OF AREA
DOWNPULL
F.
zw
0
U P./NE FLAT, PROTOTYPE
z
w
HZ,?07I
20MODELO
NOFRK
45 ~EoR
NORFORK TYPE B N
FORT
Iw , 2
I:
.*34 HYDRAULIC DESIGN~ CHART 3202/1
T
100\~J s.  ~ 
A~
KA
go
.so
z
50
a.
w 0,
  vMo
OR RADL
c (a R p
0.F 06 . 11 . r05 9
30 . 0 293
(9))MODEL
PINE14 FLA
3NROK0VRIALF AE
JOB CW 804 PROJECT John Doe Dam SUBJECT Vertical Lift Gates
COMPUTATION Hydraulic and Gravity Forces
COMPUTED BY MBB DATE 4/10/61 CHECKED BY CWD DATE 4/20/61
GIVEN:
Gate  Pine Flat type (HDC 3202/1)
Height (D) = 9.0
Width (B)  5.0
Average thickness (T) = 1.2 ft
Upstream gate clearance = 0.4 in.
Downstream gate clearance  1.5 in.
i
Y! Dry weight (W) 8 tons
Gate opening (G.) 3.0 ft
Discharge (Q)A 1200 cfs H, H
DETERMINE:
1. Energy head above conduit invert (H)
Gate opening (Go) percent
,x 100 =x 100 = 33.3
WiII ! 1 ISiiN1 i
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
SHEET 3203
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
Q=C G B 42gH
1> 3203
Revised 1061
A
TOP OF
CONDUIT
ID
0
BASICTIO
EQUATIO
 ONIE
z ARSO OE
H. :ERYGRD EE
0 (NETEE Co
TA0E4GTSI CNUT
DICARECOFICET
MYRUICDSGNCATl2
02 o. WE "G
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
Q = CIC2 Go B f~g
The coefficient (C,) depends on the vena contracta, the shape of which is a
function of the gate opening (GO), gate radius (R), trunnion height (a),
and upstream depth (h) for gate sills at streambed elevations. When the
gate sill is above streambed elevation, the coefficient also depends upon
sill height (P) and sill length (L).
3204 to 320Y
5. Hydraulic Design Chart 3207 is a sample computation sheet
6. References.
(1) Gentilini, B., "Flow under inclined or radial sluice gates  technical
and experimental results." La Houille Blanche, vol 2 (1947), p 145.
WES Translation No. 519 by Jan C. Van Tienhoven, November 1951.
(2) Metzler, D. E., A Model Study of Tainter Gate Operation. State Univer
sity of Iowa Master's Thesis, August 1948.
(3) Toch, A., The Effect of a Lip Angle Upon Flow Under a Tainter Gate.
State University of Iowa Master's Thesis, February 1952.
3 o
3201+ to 3207(
z
:U
1.08 c LEGEND
at  INTERPOLATED*
    
1.0  ERAGE POIT  
2 4 6 8 10
L/P       
jO7
4.6
00
60 0. 0
01
00.40
00 04 02 0. 0. to 2 1
h0.3
BASIC~ QATO
h/ =/.R
EESGNATITON0 HYDSICI
0s
DATA
2 4 8 a 10
LIP
0.7j
'00
00l . . 0..408
1.20
0.6C ~G
4'o
'0 &/R50.
C.A.T.320.
...........
DESIG
_________________'A_
DAICEINITION SKETC
a C, a GO VWES
z
112
II
1o: D P L
1. 8 Z
A  0o 
TOCHDA,'A
INTERPOLATED"
w I04 '
(   ' WTOCH, METZLER, AND GENTILINI
DATA
. X AVERAGE POINTS     
2 4 a 8 10
L/P
                6,1R0.05
~~08 ,
U
t
S0 0/0
I..z
07  2 0 ,
00
,0 8
OZ /
  .o
.=0
 ,    ..
00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14
ABASIC EQUATIONh/
S=C1 C2 Go B 2V ......
...... .... WE$"
T TAINTER GATE IN OPEN CHANNELS
,, DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
 a FREE FLOW
. &/R=O0.9
__________________ HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 3206
" DEFINITION SKETCH
iil~~lli,
I~fll ll{ll~l
vI
.lllltVV
l.T ltil{..,lll~l ~lll.{l CS 8CO
U. S. ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION
COMPUTATION SHEET
JOB CW 804 PROJECT John Doe River SUBJECT Tainter Gate in Open Channels
COMPUTATION Free Discharge for Gate Rating
COMPUTED BY MBB DATE 5/9/60 CHECKED BY RGC DATE 5/17/60
GIVEN:
Tainter gate installation as shown
Upstream depth (h) =15 ft
Gate opening (G.) =4 ft
Gate radius (R)  25 ft
Trunnion height (a) = 20 ft a
Bay width (B)  60 ft h ..
REQUIRED: =
Free discharge for gate rating C1 C2Go BV'9
COMPUTE:
1. Parameters
a/R  0.8, h/R  0.6, G./R = 0.16, L/P  4
 0.645
4. Discharge
QC1 C2 Go B 2/2j
 0.678 (4) (60) V64.4 x 15
= 5050 cfs
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
SUBMERGED FLOW
* where
Q = discharge, cfs
L = bay width, ft
0 CLG 0 G07g
Q = C LG
=
[wee__Q Cs~hs 2gh (3)
C = C(Go/h s)
G = gate opening
5. References.
(5) , Spillway, Hannibal Locks and Dam, Ohio River, Ohio and
West Virginia; Hydraulic Model Investigation. Technical Report
No. 2731, Vicksburg, Miss., June 1966.
8 . O=3"o
75FTREF 6 (PROTOTYPE)*
20 
* 5
=/
1LT, REF3 (MDL MODEL)
;*I 7 
I=IB FT, REF 5WLNO\EL)
G, I I I : Kl

....
"" 2M
T,?E oDE)
E  
0L 3i
5
4.
II
BASIC EQUATION
=C sLhs /' WMISSISS:PPI RIVER DAMS 2,5A,AND 26
V2
FLOW  
TAINTER GATES IN
DEFINITION SKETCH OPEN CHANNELS
DISCHARGE COEFFICIE'T
SUBMERGED FLOW
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 3208
p*Cp.Ev,~$AflN;ICC8*UMAfl~pE~,*S~A
O*C~IS~GSV$*~IWES 168
ISO
f LEGEND
I
SYMBOL
GATE OPENING1
(TROOYE
0 2
 A 4
10O 6
\_ \ _ _ _ _ 8 a__
a 10
8.0  v 42
4.04
G 0 0
15L  0.8491
0.15 02 03 04 067
0.0 08 01
Q=CLh. /r2iS
GATE VALVES
DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS
5. List of References.
3 d
l m w wAwf 1* ,t.A ,m lm
800.0 O
600.0
4000
2000
1000
oo 0 4IN
Goo___ v 16IN
 VALVE OPENING
0
80
~0
> 40 "I 
20
N
I"
4 IN
10 VALVE OPENING
08
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN
0
04 , '__1_ ,______
0 0 20 S0 40 50 to 70 80 90 100
VALVE OPENING IN PER CENT
HL
BASIC EQUATION 2
Kv= V /2q
WHERE
Kv VALVE LOSS COEFFICIENT GATE VALVES
HL  HEAD LOSS THROUGH VALVE
V AVERAGE VELOCITY IN PIPE LOSS COEFFICIENTS
NOTE
HDALCD3G HR 3
DATA ARE FOR VALVES HAVING SAME DIAMETER AS HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 330I
PIPE AND FOR DOWNSTREAM PIPE FLOWING FULL
WEE 8 57
1.2.
4C  
I*
I'J
02 . ~
0 20 40Go010
VALVE OPENING IN PER CENT
WHERE
C :VALVE DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT
A .AREA BASED ON NOMINAL VALVE DIAMETER
H*'ENERGY HEAD MEASURED TO CENTER LNE OF
CONDUIT IMMEDIATELY UPSTREAM FROM VALVE
NOTE.
DATA ARE FROM USBR TESTS FOR FREE FLOW
FROM 8TO 12INCHDIAMETER GATE VALVESGA EV L S
AT DOWNCTREAM END OF CONDUIT OF SAMEGA EV L S
NOMINAL DIAMETER AS VALVEFRE
LO
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 330I/I
WES 657
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
3311 to 3313
4. Application. A sample computation for torque is given in Chart
3313. Final computations should be based on the recommendations of the
valve manufacturer at which time friction torque and seating torque data
should be considered.
5. List of References.
(3) DeWitt, C., "Operating a 2hin. butterfly valve under a head of 223
ft." Engineering NewsRecord (18 September 1930), pp 460462.
(4) Dickey, P. S., and Coplen, H. L., "A study of damper characteristics."
Transactions, ASME, vol 64, No. 2 (February 1942).
(6) Keller, C., and Salfemann, F., "Aerodynamic model tests on butterfly
valves." EscherWyss News, vol IX, No. 1 (JanuaryMarch 1936).
(7) McPherson, M. B., Strausser, H. S., and Williams, J. C., Jr., "Butter (
fly valve flow characteristics." Proceedings, ASCE, paper 1167, vol
83, No. HYl (February 1957).
3311 to 3313
28
4dH
2.6 H H
VI. AI V 2
. 0
2.4 MCPHERSON
AH = HIH2
DEFINITION SKETCH
GADEN
20 +. 
w 1.4
0
12 LEGEND
0: :  0 McPHERSON4"
0 McPHERSON 6"
1.0___ Y' McPHERSON4" WITH DIFFUSOR
1.0 0 COLLEVILLE
 GADEN DISK A
\   . GADEN DISK B
DICKEY &COPLEN DISK I (AIR)
0  ARMANET (CONVERGING)
0 4 o a.
02 
O0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
BASIC EQUATION
2
Q  C o o1)V(eV
WHERE. BUTTERFLY VALVES
Q DISCHARGE IN CFS
Co  DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
D VALVE DIAMETER IN FT VALVE IN PIPE
2
9 GRAVITY CONSTANT"32 2 FT/SEC
AH PRESSURE DROP ACROSS THE HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 3311
VALVE IN FT OF WATER
w$ 6o56
1.4
1.3
. MCPHERSON
2
A H H I+V 1 /2 9
DEFINITION SKETCH
10 GADEN
0.9 !ARMANET
U .6
oLEGEND
5  ' G..XOEINCkE' 
0W
FLO 0 MCPHERSON A"
FREI '' + DEWITT
GADEND
04 OADEN DiSK 8
0 4 ARMANET (CONVERGING)
SUMERED FLOW
0 Mc PHERSON4"
oCa ICA
COEFFICIENT
00
1  AE DS
o o0 0 3 40 50 60 70 80 90
OPEN VALVE OPENING IN DEGREES NEN) CLOSED
BASIC EQUATION
o. CQD 2 V'&
WHERE BUTTERFLY VALVES
O DISCHARGE IN CFS DSHRECEFCET
C0 *DSRECO EFICEN DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
O *VALVE DIAMETER IN 'T VALVE IN END OF PIPE
2
9 GRAVITY CONSTANT322FT/SEC
&H TOTAL ENERGY HEAD IN FT OF WATER HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 331 I/I
UPSTREAM OF VALVE
WES 858
0.70   
" 0.65 I Hj H2
i ii V 
  4  &Pz(HIH 2 )V
0.5   "=SPECIFIC WEIGHT OF FLUID
DEFINITION SKETCH
; 050
b 0.45
GADEN
0\35K ARMANET
0 ELLER S SALZMAtNI
. I VALVE SHAPES
w 0 OAR TESTS)
', ~~~ARMANET
'O. VR/G
" ~0.
I015'
0.10
0.05 
0 '0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
OPEN VALVE OPENING IN DEGREE3 (0) CLOSED
BASIC EQUATION
/
W THCTDP BUTTERFLY VALVES
WHERE'
"\b
4. 0.14
II
0.12 V D
'4    AP(H,+V,2/2 9 )
S011   ^Vs SPECIFIC WEIGHT OF FLUID
0.
DEFINITION SKETCH
0.10     
0.09  
 GADEN
0.08
Z ARMANET
9a VALVE SHAPES
007 DEWITTCOMPUED
o ('SHAPE UNKNOWN)
00 6\GADENDISKA
I_ //
003 /   
0.02~ 
03c.  
 

4) ~~~~~~~001.
0.00

0 0 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 60 90
OPEN VALVE OPENING IN DEGREES (c) CLOSED
BASIC EQUATION
T'CrD 3 P BUTTERFLY VALVES
WHERE:
T  TORQUEINFTLB TORQUE COEFFICIENTS
C TORQUE COEFFICIENT VALVE IN END OF PIPE
D =VALVE DIAMETER IN FT
AP  TOTAL ENERGY HEAD AT UPSTREAM HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 3312/I
SIDE OF VALVE IN LB/SQ FT
WES 454
%,Z
U. S. ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION
COMPUTATION SHEET
GIVEN:
L ASSUME:
COMPUTE:
3. Hydraul ic torque (T) for Q 600 cfs and ax 360. From
Chart 331.2, torque coefficient (CT) for Gaden.Disk A
valve open 360  0.10.
T  CT D3 A P (Chart 331.2)
Where A P. (H 1 H)yAHy
T 0.10 x64 x 180 x62.5 72,000 ftlb
Repeat comnputations for other assumed discharges to determine discharge and hydraulic torque curves.
BUTTERFLY VALVES
SAMPLE COMPUTATION
DISCHARGE AND TORQUE
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 3313
WE3
s56
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
HOWELLBUNGER VALVES
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
3321 to 1/1
SUG"E CRE 7
    
0.    
      
I I
LEEN
uus
0
U
I A
SLEEVE TRAVEL
DIAMETER
BASIC EQUATION
Q=CA2gHe HOWELL BUNGER VALVES
WHERE
C =DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
A=AREA OF CONDUIT IMMEDIATELY UPSTREAM FOUR VANES
FROM VALVE IN SQ FT
tz
DO
SLEV TRAVNL
QHeTOLYPBE WATA2GA ,D :0
VALVES
1!j
A
SHEET 3401
FLAP GATES
HEAD LOSS COEFFICIENTS
I
1. Flap gate head losses can be determined by the equation:
V2
L 2g
where
44
3401
J
4.00
0.60
zA
IIII
0.40
, 4~~002l I
w
0
 , I I I
0 . LEGEND
0 18IN. GATE
 ~ A 24 N GATE
0 0 3OIN. GATE
    DATA ARE FROM "HYDRAULIC TESTS OF
CALCO AUTOMATIC DRAINAGE GATES"
004 HOEA LOS FT  ,  BYFFA NAGLER,ThE TRA TI,STATE
UNIVERSITY OF IOWA,VOL 27,FEB 1923.
D=CNDI DIMTEF
I
EQUATIONS
2
K H = V
. ... S a 0
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
SHEET 5341
LOCK CULVERTS
LOSS COEFFICIENTS
1. The head loss across a lock culvert valve can be determined from
the equation:
HL = K V2/2g
where
3. Data Sources.
(2) St. Anthony Falls Lower Lock Models l and 7. Unpublished data com
puted by U. S. Army Engineer District, St. Paul, Minnesota, under
CW 820, December 1953.
(3) McNary Lock Model, Test 1, Run 1C. Unpublished data computed by
U. S. Army Engineer District, St. Paul, Minnesota, under CW 820,
December 1953.
1 5341
(5) McNary Lock Prototype, Run 9. Unpublished data computed by U. S. Army
Engineer1957
tests.rays Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss., from November
i
4I
I{
5341
60C  PRLESSURE
400___R
HlL
300RAO
0 7= DEFINITION SKETCH
0C  
40  
C4
0.3
A o~oil 
0.2 00 .400 . . . 0 . . .
WHER LOCKCULNRT
INSBCH FTEOFWATE
MOE 7,FLINIAV
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
LOCK CULVERTS
RECTANGULAR SECTION
29
where
C = pressuredrop parameter
C (2)
6. References.
(2) Silberman, E., The Nature of Flow in an Elbow. Project Report No. 5,
St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, prepared for David Taylor Model Basin, December 1947.
(4) Addison, H., "The use of bends as flow meters." Engineering, vol 145
(4 March 1938), pp 227229 (25 March 1938), p 324.
(6) Wattendorf, F. L., "A study of the effects of curvature on fully de
veloped turbulent flow." Proceedings, Royal Society of London,
Series A, vol 148 (February 1935), PP 565598.
I SECTION AA

LOCATION OF MINIMUMSETO
 PIEZOMETRIC
 NEAD
!C
'I vi
PLAN
ENCRG_.Gy
GRA6.NT
CRSSpo4,
 ... I
SLEGEND
I  
0
D0  2 6 2~ ,o1 ,2
2gp
R/C
EQUATIONS
29
WHERE'
N PEZOMETRC HEAD FROMFTPRESSURE LOCK CULVERTS
GRADIENT EXTENSION,
U
',V * AVERAGE VELOCITY, FT PER SEC
FT
PRESN
PIEZOMETRIC HEAD, 2
RECTANGULAR RE
SECTION
Hg1 = MINIMUM
ACCELERATIONGRAVITATIONAL, FT PER SEC MI MU BE D P S UR
Temperature = 50 F I
Average conduit pressure measured from " F
pressure gradient extension (H) = 10 ft
REQUIRED:
HI = minimum pressure (in ft) inside of bend. PRESSURE PROFILE
=
HI min minimum permissible bend pressure (ft).
HmIn = minimum permissible average conduit pressure (in ft) to prevent cavitation (V= 20 fps).
Vmax = maximum permissible average conduit velocity (in fps) to prevent cavitation (H = 10 ft).
COMPUTE:
1. R/c z 10/5= 2 5. Minimum permissible average conduit pressure
=
2. CI 2.30 for R/c = 2 (Chart 5342) head (Hm in) to prevent cavitation (V = 20 fps).
3. Minimum bend pressure (H,) Hmin  HI min
=C
H HI V2/2g
V2 /2g P H.j,  (17.8)
________  2.30
202/64.4
10  Hi = 2.30
,02/64.4 2.30 Hmin = 2.3 (400/64.4)  17.8 = 14.3  17.8 = 3.5 ft
TRAPEZOIDAL CHANNELS
1. Hydraulic Design Charts 610i to 6107 are design aids for reduc
ing the computation effort in the design of trapezoidal channels having
various side slopes from 1 to 1 to 3 to 1 with uniform subcritical or
supercritical flow. It is expected that the charts will be of value in
preliminary design work where different channel sizes, roughness values,
and slopes are to be investigated. Certain features of the charts were
based on graphs prepared by the Los Angeles District, CE. Charts 6101 to
6107 can be used to interpolate values for intermediate side slopes.
2. Basic Equations. Manning's formula for open channel flow,
pj
1
1.486 A S 2 R2/3
n
C = 1.486 SI/2
n n
Ck = AR2/3
Chart 6101 and 1/1 show values of the factor, C , for slopes of 0.0001
to 1.0 and n values of 0.010 to 0.035. Charts 9102 to 4/11 show
values of the geometric factor, Ck , for base widths of 0 to 600 ft and
depths of 2 to 30 ft. Chart3 6105 to 7 show values of critical depth
divided by the base width for discharges of 1,000 to 200,000 cfs and base
widths of 4 to 600 ft.
610i to 6107
Revised 559
c. With the required Ck value, suitable channel dimensions
can be selected from charts 6102 to 4/11.
61o1 to 6107
Revised 559
00020 ..........
o00010
0000 1 1tl I f II
0000
48S   L
n 
0.0006S 001
U.U
....
.... ....
100
080 .... . .0.0 0
0.60 ...
020 V
I AU~
FClIti OF 1
FO(M L
cr.1480S
n .. ..
0.0.0S < .0
H0R04CDSGNCAT 1/
002C ~4 E$2I
6 6
1  
0 20
40 60 80 1 10 1 14 10 0 20
 EET bL BA WI IN
25 I ID
I SLP TOI
20RUI EIG HR 1
~ ~ 2
  ~ ~ E 4
20 1
VqAIm Im
"'so
200 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0
BAEWDH NPE
n / +A
WH0
A~AREA
R100ALI ADU
I SID LP TO
wo!U 
.9.14
IK
I I5 IDTTH INIFT I
WHERE 
REA AA    
R~~~~~~~
RASTAEOIDLCANLHYDRAULIC
.99
1v5  
I T'
44
        
      
z 0  2
< 
0 
20  0 0 80  0 00
 4 6 0

 A WITHIFE
oL +
SID SL35I T
HYRUIuIS~~C4R 1/
   
A"
7111 20W t 'l
[ilIIII I iii I
I I
IT
I ~ ~
  ~
T b B S WIT I
SID
SLOPE
BASE WIDT III.TO
0TO50FEE ..
~ kbHYDRALIC DSIGNCART6
55
IA WIT IT FEETI
A REA 1
C_Ar
+  
IIT
7YRUI DEIG
o1/ CHART
       W 4
137
2~12
o # 4 t ~ I T I
rT 4
it If 4 4
Hil
00
I19
z 1.
+
Dt
0I
2
C~AR A
WHERETRAPZOIDL CHNNEL
AREAif
~J
ITI
R~~HYDRAULIC
RAISCiVtAS IT
SID SLOP 2 O
, BASE ITH0T50FE
46 
HDA ICDSG CHR
F2
60/
Tl T
t~tjt 
+ 4
:T5
2C 11 I: { +~iI
Tr
C ~ E _______
0 ~ ~40 ~60 ~ 8+0 20
_0
~ J 2

0 10 8 0
BASE
WIDT INFL
C,=AR1/4
WHERE 
b '
  I '
4,><,cDSG HR i~/
t44 ,F
~200
I n 4v
4
t t t r
t T
4  
(41
00
120
0C +Ar +I~
; ~ i;:~
.5f
200 300
25 30 00450 100 550 60
BA4WDH NFE
CI1A00/
WHERE
A AREA
R HYDAULICRADIU
J
uj7 _
TRPZIALCANL
.K VS BAEWIT
SIESLP 2TT
ti RALI + E~NCA /
t ~ S9~
44
13
12
WHER TRPZODLlCANL
<  SD L P * T
~7T
Y. 7 DALCDSGNCAT603
uE 25
KT
T 4.
40 i
All
20 b 0 10 10 10 t010 8 0
1E BAS WIDT IH
It 2i_'
~~0 SIDE SL PE2 .
HYR1LCDSG HR I/
.iS 
iiv
200
4 4 Hf
fli t 
"I
II:
200~
30 ~~ 35t0 5 0 ~~
515 0
BASE
N IDTH AEE
11
C~=AR 2/
WHERE i 1
A 4AE
R~~~~ HYRUItRDU
/7
7 TRAPEZ'oIDLCANL
TK VS ASWDT
x t,
10 ,
WE 95
AV J
4__4
ii fT
_____
3L
 If 14 +1
  ~
TIM~ ~
I z 'ii~
v k4Ji"tJ
21 Wl
t:;
Hf ~ 1,4
4Ir
5 5
I
o~j 5i 0 S 2 210344
44 SID SLP TO
4 4
t YRU EIN HR 1/
  WES SS
70 4 ;t27
4 4
50
0~ .
20
44
It
zT
j~
200 5) 30 35 400 450 00 50 60
BASE
IDTH N FE T
CKA
2/3 +t
WHERE
SIDE SLOP 3t I f
It
'44
41 .1
t'
CT
AX ARE
0 HRA
 CESG
CAR4/
I1
Ji        
I:z
1000R~ I 00 F
BASI FORMULA:
0303
3/2 0bZ~ 0
0 lo
oEIG
OrA~ HYRALI
Au 610
Ii o5
010 +___W
3000
E
1000.1 eqo
o' 2 II o I 11. 1 1 1 1 11  1. e
lilf
0 500e
o
SM 1,
lo it ,r ooo
0 1
o e
o4
o' o
owk o'o '0' f lo
03004 I,
   I I .+ 1 to
I  oo I to0
o'
o.
0 to 50
o
o' o
oo ol 601 lite
ooo I lo
o.ooo o 10 oo
o 100
dI
Oil
< Ul
Id 00
p <
RE de  o
.* 'Ile to
oo, ol, "IX o 
led 0030 do o'ir oo I
o 00
00
IX T K' .0 o o 00 oo 01 +
BASIC FORMULA:
3/, ( b ZDc )3
Q DC b 2ZDc
TRAPEZOIDAL CHANNELS
f CRITICAL DEPTH CURVES
z 0
SIDE SLOPE ILTO
2 I
b
HYDRAULIC DES:rN CHART 0105/1
43 ES 954
_j
AA
11 '
1000
i
000 2 02 0 000 0
DICHRE3N0000F
'4
dd
o  b
'1., 0YDR UL0 01 SIN C ARo1
<E 25
oo 7
44
DIC1RE00000 F
BASICORMULA
030 T H Tt RTCLDPHCRE
Z%7v
4 V.  SID SLPE 2TOt
HYRUIoEIN HR 1/
o41 I$
j
.~; t
1.00 d4A
050'
03 e: m11
Ip U
4o'
'.o4
4.;o
00CHR10N 00 F
BASI FORMULA:
(b* .4)
oeL bo2Zf ll IL I'm11
5/3
q  cyo
where
1 2
1.486 S ,#
n
6108 to 6109/11
Revised 5/59
b. Threedimensional flow. For all channels, Charts 6109
through 6109/11 can be used in the manner described in
paragraphs 3a, b, and c, Sheets 6101 to 6107. Critical
depth can be obtained from Chart 6108.
2 1.38
5 117
10 1.07
15 1.05
25 1.03
where
b = channel width in ft
d 2 = twodimensional flow depth in ft
d 3 = threedimensional flow depth in ft.
6108 to 6109/1i
Revised 5/59
 ~ F
0 LI F OD
[ 0n
00 00
0io
00D
F)
0
0)
0 0 0
U_j
J
o
(,r
HAP~~~CHR
Tit108 0 c
55
0P
            
0
I
030 4 0 8 0 2 4 S S 0
U. * A11M LT I E
BA0 QUTO
2
25 A ~
WHERE
A RE 0
> ~ HDALCRDU
20_ T P CANLFLOW
BSE4WIDT
CK VS
0 ~~~ 0 80 ~
to 10S W2TH
40 O010 TO20 FT 0
RYRUI DHYDIULNCHARTIUS
WES 356
~  ~  '
zL
185d
44
0
     
120
Ld
20<5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0
j 8
< AI EQATO
> Ce d
WHERE 4L~ T:  e
A:lAiEA
I2 IIYRAUIC ESIN
  
CART61010
5 3z
th
II
44
z5
0 51
I
Il
44 +T.4 4r
10i 0 403
BASEID~H0 V 0 T
t~A~L~
I111 . <18.$ HYRAUIC DSZ,' CHr~r610/4t
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
DROP STRUCTURES
LB = CL VE (1)
623 to 6241
structure is designed to have a tailwatercritical depth ratio between
1.25 and 1.67. This results in a strong ground roller, a confined,
strong and stable surface roller, and a depressed secondary roller down
stream. Curved, upstream abutment walls are recommended for narrow
channels to help prevent concentration of the flow. For wide channels
with flow width 2 20 times the depth, rectangular abutments are satisfac
tory. Stilling basin training walls should be sufficiently high to pre
vent the tailwater returning over the walls into the stilling basin.
Wing walls at the end of the basin are not recommended. The Thannel
edge should be recessed as indicated in HDC 623.
4 6
6. SAFType Drop Structures. The SAFtype drop structure '
(HDC's 624 and 6241) is recommended for designs having large unit dis
charges and drop heights. The basic layout is shown in HDC 624. The
primary controlling parameter in this design is the location at which
the upper nappe of the falling jet impinges on the stilling basin floor.
This is a function of the total fall of the jet and the depth of the
tailwater. Dimensionless curves for determining the impact location of
the upper nappe on the basin floor are shown in HDC 6241.
where LB equals basin length. HDC 624 graphically defines the distance
Xa , Xb , and Xc . Numerical values of Xb and Xc are obtained
from the following equations:
Xb = 0. c (3)
Xc = 1.75d (4)
These tests also showed that optimum basin performance occurs when the
baffle pier width and spacing effect a 50 to 60 percent reduction in
flow width and the minimum tailwater depth is not less than 2.15d,
623 to 6241
8. Design Discharge. Design discharge for the drop structure
Q eL3/ (8)
where
The length L of the weir should effect optimum use of channel cross
section upstream. A trialanderror procedure should be used to balance
the crest height and width with the channel cross section.
10. References.
6
623 to 6241
(7) U. S. Army, Office, Chief of Engineers, Engineering and Design;
Hydraulic Design of Flood Control Channels. Engineer Manual
EM 111021601, Washington, D. C., 1 July 1970.
 623 to 6241
M la
~~ 4
_
__
a. S2
ZC VZf V)w
U) W
  ( )1 a
1. 0
ww
   It s.  '
/ I
z )
0m
V w
u (A U)
I  r
*t4.
zs, zz
J u.
111111 11 11 1I 11 I
tlW
r I
0
~V~A   77
E
V FLOOR SLOC/S.F] NDSILL.
.LONGIrUONAL SILL
HALF PLAN
NAPPE
>PPER J~EOR
La
.4lY~
NOTE'
H =HEAD ON WEIR= *(dc) CENTERLINE SECTI ON
ho =VELOCITY HEAD
d1a =TAILWATER DEPTH
dc. =CRITICAL DEPTH OVER CREST
h =HEIGHT OF DROP
h =HEIGHT OF END SILL
L@=LENGTH OF STILLING BASIH=Xa +Xb+X.
X 0 =HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM CREST TO
INTERSECTION OF UPPER NAPPE AND
STILLING BASIN FLOOR
Xb=HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM INTERSECTION OF
UPPER NAPPE AND STILLING BASIN FLOOR TO
SUBCRITICAL
UPSTREAM FACE OF FLOOR BLOCKS OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Xc =HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM UPSTREAM FACE
OF FLOOR BLOCKS TO END OF STILLING BASIN SAFTYPE DROP STRUCTURE
REDRAWN FROM FIG 10, REFERENCE 4. BASIC GEOMETRY
01
NOTE:
dic=CRITICAL DEPTH OVER CREST
h, =HEIGHT OF DROP
h' HEIGHT O END SILL
Xa=ORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM CREST
TO INTERSECTION OF UPPER NAPPE
AND STILLING BASIN FLOOR
TAILWATERDISTANCE
Yt=VERTICAL SURFACE FROM
(Tt IS CREST TOSUW
POSITIVE C I CA
WHEN TAILWATER SURFACE IS ABOVE
THE CREST, NEGATIVE WHEN TAILWATER
SURFACE IA BELOW CREST)
OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
SAF TYPE DROP STRUCTURE
REDRAWN FROM FIG. 2, REFERENCE 4
SHYDRAULIC JET IMPACT
DESIGN LOCATION
CHART 024I
WES 773
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS
V C
where
V = mean channel velocity, ft per sec
=
C Chezy resistance coefficient which is a function of Reynolds
number and relative roughness of channel
631 to 6312
Revised 168
f= 8Rsg
e V
The use of this form of the Reynolds number is recommended in the ASCE
task force report.4
6. Basic Data. The plotted data in Chart 631 are for concrece
lined channels. Both tranquil and rapidflow data are presented. The
tranquilflow data were computed from U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Ex
periment Station (WES) laboratory tests in brushZdconcete flumes 6 ,7
and from field tests results compiled by Scobey.o,9 More recently ob
tained U. S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR)1 O and Italian l l field data have
also been included. These data were selected on the oasis of accuracy of
flow measurements and conditions of concrete channel lining. Tests at the
University of Iowa 12 indicate that the energy loss in flows having Froude
numbers greater than 1.6 becomes a function of the Froude number and den
sity and size of roughness elements. Additional energy loss is caused by
instability of the flow. The plotted data points based on prototype tests
1 3
at the Fort Randall and Fort Peckl" spillway chutes are foi rapid flow
with Froude numbers exceeding the stability criterion. These data repre
sent the only known available measurements at Re numbers approaching 108.
631 to 6312
Revised 168
7. Suggested Design Criteria.
Average
k s , ft Concrete Surface Finish
o.oo6 18yearold, 10ftwide rectangular aqueduct.
Troweled sides and floatfinished bottom
(ref 9)
0.002 Laboratory rectangular and trapezoidal chan
nels, brushed concrete finish (refs 6 and 7).
Field channels, smooth, troweled cement
finish (refs 8, 9, and 11)
(Continued)
4 631 to 6312
Revised 168
Average
ks,,, ft Concrete Surface Finish
0.003 10 to 20yearold, 8 to 50ftwide trape
zoidal channels constructed with modern rail
mounted slip traveling forms (ref 10)
0.005 Screedfinished spillway chute blocks with
transverse joints at 20 to 25ft intervals
(refs 13 and 14)
9. References.
X 631 to 6312
i." Revised 1.68
 j
(4) Progress Report of the Task Force on Friction Factors in Open Channels,
"Friction factors in open channels." ASCE, Hydraulics Division,
Journal, vol 89, HY 2, paper 3464 (March 1963), pp 97143.
(12) Rouse, H., Koloseus, H. J., and Davidian, J., "The role of the Froude
number in openchannel resistance." Hydraulic Research, Journal of
the International Association for Hydraulic Research, vol 1, No. 1
(1963), pp 1419.
631 to 6312
Revised 168
,~ii
m OLV N CLO
2 (,
R___ P 0 0 0 0
o0 0
0 0
*4 0 ~ 0 0
0 0
00
0
0 00 0
00
(Y
Ari
N 0 c
k2
a 0g
Ii
2UU r,
~ a
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O N 0J 
0 I'I
N CHART 6IF
w Lii
(~ ~ z~UC
N, U w
N(U
+Fx2Z L
m
H..
w
u~Itli
0w 0OrI
**SARE mY h4uRWTAASIPtUM
ZH (U h 3
wn
GIVEN: REQUIRED:
Concretelined channel Equivalent roughness k5
Shape, trapezoidal Chezy C
Invert slope (S)= 0.0004 Base width B
Flow depth (D) 12 ft Fraud* No. < 0.85
. Side slope = I on 2 Check Manning's n
2 Water temperature " 60 F
Discharge (Q)= 15,000 cfs
Construction, railmounted traveling forms
From
From tabulation
Chart 001.1,of equivalent
v = 1.22 x roughness
10 5 ft 2/sec(par.
at 7b(1),
60 F Sheets 631 to 631.2), k, 0.003 ft
* TRIAL COMPUTATIONS
SArea 74 x 12
Hydraulic radius R = Wetted Perimeter = =
8.57 It
r = (16.9) (8.57)
RiR* 4VR =4 47 0
4.75 x 107
5
1.22 x 10
S 2860 C = 148 (Chart 631)
R 4(9.33)(9.83) 3.0 x
1.22 x 105
R 9.3 =
 . 3280 C 149 (Chart 631)
V  149 .83 0.0004 9.34 9.33 ft/sec
{ 3.
Check Fro,;de No. (F)
and Manning's n
COMPOSITE ROUGHNESS
EFFECTIVE MANNING'S n
3/2 2/3
neff = (Horton or Einstein) (2)
Er(n'3/2A) 2/
1~
4 eff (Colebatch) (3)
A and P are the channel flow subareas and wetted perimeter segments,
respectively; n is the respective Manning roughness coefficient for each
segment considered.
where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the bed and bank wetted perimeters,
respectively. The terms are further defined in the sketch in Hydraulic
Design Chart 6314/1.
7. References.
CIc
0.040   040
0.
0.03  0.034
0.03 0.032
0.030 0.030
nl 0.028 .  * 0 .028 OR
fleff
0.02( 0.028
CONSTRUCTON LIN
0.04 0.024
0.022 0.02 2
0.020 0.020
0.1 0 .018
0 .0 0 001
0.014/ 0.014
0.0 2 .02 2
EFFETIV MANINGS
n(EQUTIO 4)NOTE: GRAPH BASED ON FIGURE 8, REF 4
n.2?' P, +2 n3 2/3
of P,+2P,
WHERE.
nl, =BED ROUGHNESS
nl2 = SIDE SLOPE ROUGHNESS
nfi= EFFECTIVE ROUGHNESS
Pz= SIDE SLOPE WALL LENGTH
P,= BOTTOM WIDTH
OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
COMPOSITE ROUGHNESS
EFFECTIVE MANNING'S nl
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 6314
WE$ 16$
1.0
d
0.40
z+
0,30~ ~ ++AILAIIIIIII
~ Wp L. 1
Pd~T~OPE CANNL LO
COPSIERUGNS
WETDPEIEEoRLTO
A3 HYRALI DEIG CHR
WE 14
At,*tIO.r S.A~V ICK.JR. SIS,$J~p
1215*TIWAYStXRI~gNTr~tIN.
5 0
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
SHEET 6601
CHANNEL CURVES
SUPERELEVATION
(1)
gr
where
y= the rise (superelevation plus surface disturbances) in water
surface between the channel center line and the outside wall, ft
C = a coefficient depending upon flow Froude number, channel shape,
and curve geometry
V = average channel velocity, fps
W = straight channel watersurface width, ft
g = acceleration of gravity, ft/sec 2
r = radius of curvature at center line, ft
66oi
Channel Curve Coefficient
Type of Flow Shape Geometry C Value
Tranquil Rect Simple 0.5
Tranquil Trap. Simple 0.5
Rapid Rect Simple 1.0
Rapid Trap. Simple 1.0
Rapid Rect Spiral transition 0.5
Rapid Trap. Spiral transition 1.0
Rapid Rect Spiralbanked 0.5
+. Curve Design.
=  (2)
min gy
= 0.09W (3)
' m6o
6601
c. Invert banking. Invert banking maintains flow stability in
curved channels and when used with spiral transitions results
in minimum total rise in water surface between the channel
center line and outside wall. It is limited to channels of
rectangular cross sections. The invert is usually banked by
rotating the bottom about the channel center line. The in
vert along the inside wall is depressed by 6y below the
centerline elevation with a corresponding rise along the
outside wall. The banking upstream and downstream from the
curve should be accomplished linearly in accordance with the
spiral transition lengths determined from equation 3 of
Sheets 6602 to 6602/4. Wall heights on both sides of banked
curves are usually designed to be the same as the wall height
of the straight channel. Banking of trapezoidal channels is
not practicable. Such channels should be designed wherever
possible to have long radius curves resulting in minimum
superelevation.
5. References.
t p 4o6588.
660l
 20
Is 4
CT
0I 10 202 0 fi 5 15
AEROW LOCITY
TRNQI
W"S9T
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
SPIRAL TRANSITIONS
RAPID FLOW
A = n 2 81 (1)
where
th
As = total central angle at the n arc of the spiral, sec
n = number of arc lengths of 12.5 ft each
81 = central angle of the first arc, sec
L 1.82 W1 (2)
66o 6602/4
where V and y are the velocity and flow depth, respectively, computed
using a minimum resistance coefficient (Chart 631) and
surface width.
W is the water
(
5. Banked Curves. The minimum spiral length recommended by Gildea
and Wong 5 for banked curves is:
L = 3OAy (3)
where Ay is the rise in water surface between the channel center line and
the outside wall. Use of this criterion will not usually result in free
drainage of a channel banked by rotating the invert about the centerline
elevation.
6602 to 6602/4
4
10. References.
(1) U. S. Army Engineer District, Los Angeles, CE, Hydraulic Model Study,
Los Angeles River Improvements, Whitsett Avenue to Tujunga Wash, July
1949.
(3) U. S. Army Engineer District, Los Angeles, CE, Modified Spiral Curve
Tables, June 1948.
14
i 6602 to 6602,/h
jI
.CANEL IHSIRUACRVE
I
(Z2AA
L~~~~
I2 =S) S IN DEGREES
c 5725
x
L Y~
51 I
LIIN SECONDS2
n281 (./
n7
..
........ Y ~ht
. $tQrKtU
...... O.tISP
.. ....... y ~* 70
\ L
0 0!
11
, \ /

/
(r + 01)  (r +0 2 ) COSI
TS2 SINI + h2
WHERE
X  r SIN As!
h 2 = X2  r SIN AS2
O 1 = Y!  r(1  COS Ast)
02 = Y2  r(1  COS As2)
f .,f
,ft Y, ft Lft
L, = t X, ft Yf
CURVED CHANNELS
SPIRAL CURVE TABLES
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 6602/2
(SHEET I OF 5)
,lWES 1.70
L, f. r, tXf Y, ft n L, ft r, ft Xft
X, Yjf
CURVED CHANNELS
SPIRAL CURVE TABLES
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 6602/2
(SHEET 2 OF s)
on_ L,
X," ft ft r, ft n L t Y, ftf ,f ,f
CURVED CHANNELS
SPIRAL CURVE TABLES
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 6602/2
(SHEET 3 OF 5)
WEI$ 970
al Lft ftX ft Y, f n L, ft r ft Y X, ft Yft
CURVED CHANNELS
SPIRAL CURVE TABLES
7'' HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 6602/2
4 (SHEET 4 OF 5)
*I~Att,.,UAAMYInGNLI
C~tAW(NTSTAONV~5~S5R M~lhSI*1WES
.*(A.AS *70
~ft
, ft =T Xf Y, f.L. n. I, t t ______ Y. ft
CURVED CHANNELS
SPIRAL CURVE TABLES
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 6602/2
(SHEET 5 OF 5)
Wf  lEs
GIVEN:
S Design Q 15,000 cfs
Channel width W= 50 ft
Invert slope S= 0.005
Curve deflection angle I 45 deg
Channel shape rectangular
Design controls  Sheets 631 to 6312, par 7b(2)
Capacity Curve geometry
Equivalent roughness k. 0.007 ft 0.002 ft
Depth y 11.26 ft 10.33 ft
Velocity V 26.65 fps 29.05 fps
Critical depth dc 14.0 ft 14.0 ft
Froude No. 1.40 1.59
REQUIRED:
Spiral (minimum length) and simple curve (minimum radius) geometries with invert banking
COMPUTE:
a. Simple curve radius (min)
4V2W 4(29.05)2(50) = 507.42 ft (Eq 2,Sheet 6601)
rmin = gy (32.2)(10.33)
n r 8n*
nL X Y
(ft) (f t) 0 , 11 (ft) (ft)
CHANNEL CURVE
EXAMPLE COMPUTATION
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 6602/3
(SHEET I OF 2)
EXfA
NIpARtO 6VV S ARMYENGINEI ITtRWAY5  STATION,
 IMI9 SIPP
VICKSI1UIRG.
sIN WE. 170
Sx
e. Simple curve geometry (use r 620 ft)
(1) Central angle 0 (Chart 660.2)
0= I  =45  2(0201840 ")
= 45  (04*3712011) = 400221401
(2) Curve length L c (Chart 6602)
"
I  2 As)
L57.2958 (402240 ) (620)
c 57.2958
40.38 (620) 436.95 ft
57.2958
f. Total curve length L c
LT = 2L + Lc = 2(50) + 436.95 536.95 ft
CHANNEL CURVE
EXAMPLE COMPUTATION
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 6602/3
(SHEET 2 OF 2)
S*P
$ARMY
=m~
m vIN ~ tCC
M rAtt . S .X I ~t
$tA~
N v, C. $S uR , M, $$IS
,?O SiPP WES 9 . 70
(r OPLEGHTWAL rop
PROWILER SURFAAL
EXISTIN
WALLINER
ENTRANC 4PLAN5
EXI
CURVEL SECIION
7
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
SHEET 7031
RIPRAP PROTECTION
7031
guide for defining the location and extent of these areas in simple channel
bends. The boundary shear ratios should be less than those sh6wn in Chart
7031 for bends with smaller deflection angles or with larger ratios of
bend radius to watersurface width (r/w).
5. References.
(1) U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Hydraulic Design
of Rock Riprap, by F. B. Campbell. Miscellaneous Paper No. 2777,
Vicksburg, Miss., February 1966.
7031
we
1K z
z
W
 0
WW 0g JI
,' ~I20
2w wIw
C) X
0 1 (n 2J{
NL0
'8~w
II D
0 In
w210
eV2w
v oV <o .
t
V HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
t SHEET 704
ICE THRUST ON HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
, P4 3. hourly
ft and The ice thrust curves in HDC 704 are for ice thicknesses up to
air temperature rises of 5, 10, and 150 F. Separate curves
are presented to show the effects of lateral restraint and solar radiation.
The expected ice thicknesses, air temperature rise, and possible snow
blanket thickness are dependent upon geographical location and elevation
above sea level. In the region of chinook winds rapid air temperature
Srises can occur. The U. S. Weather Bureau has recorded a 49OF rise in two
minutes at Spearfish, S. Dak. When the ice sheet is confined by steep
banks close to the structure, spillway piers, or other vertical restric
tions, the criteria for complete lateral restraint should be used. The
direct effects of solar energy on the thrust are eliminated when the ice
sheet is insulated by a blanket of snow only a few inches thick.
4. References.
7o4
S20
20
NO LATERAL
COMPLETE LATERAL
ARESTRAINT
12
12
88
4 
0
24 . 24
+Ct
12
12

A
a8
, 0 I 2  3 4O0 I Z 3 4
ICE THICKNESS IN FEET
ICE THICKNESS IN FEET
SOLAR ENERGY CONSIDERED
ICE THRUSTS ON
HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 704
;........ .......
WE3 061
+lnC A ( YU I A M K I C. WTA AI ~
g Y $ , M K U AG WM Ip
WCS oe
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
SHEET 711
ALOWMONOLITH DIVERSION
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS
3 /2
Q = Cf  2 KH)
711
5. Applicqtion. The suggested design curves given in HDC 711 should,
serve as guides for estimating diversion flows over low monoliths. In
cases where the headdischarge relation may be critical, a more exact rela j
tion should be obtained by hydraulic model investigation. A model study of,
proposed lowmonolith diversion schemes for Allatoona Dam 7 was made because
of critical diversion requirements.
6. References.
i
3.4
3.2
26
_0a.lLOW FREE
ANDSE ONK/DSAER('CiAKAENS
CwORN ET' 
1.0
 (ROUND CREST)___
b. SUMEGE FO
TEXT.
01
00 0.. .
07
06
.i.;.5
02
HYDRULCHESINCARL
CRES
(SHARPS
STONE STABILITY
V = C 2g ( w) (D)l/2 (1)
where
V = velocity, fps
C = a coefficient
2
ft/sec
g = acceleration of gravity,
3
Y = specific weight of stone, lb/ft
s
3
Yw = specific weight of water, lb/ft
D = stone diameter, ft
7121
Revised 970
Y
Y
AV
C \2g ]1/2l/
7121C
Revised 970
J (2) The upper limit of W 5 0 stone should not exceed the
AV weight that can be obtained economically from the quarry
or the size that will satisfy layer thickness require
ments as specified in paragraph 6c.
(4) The upper limit of WlO0 stone should not be more than
five times the lower limit of W5 0 stone, nor exceed the
size that can be obtained economically from the quarry,
nor exceed the size that will satisfy layer thickness
requirements as specified in paragraph 6c.
(5) The lower limit of Wl5 stone should not be less than one
sixteenth the upper limit of WlO0 stone.
(6) The upper limit of W15 stone should be less than the up
per limit of W 5 0 stone as required to satisfy criteria
for graded stone filters specified in EM 111021901.
(7) The bulk volume of stone lighter than the W15 stone
should not exceed the volume of voids in the revetment
without this lighter stone.
7. References.
(1) Shelford, W., "On rivers flowing into tideless seas, illustrated by
~ 7121
Revised 970
Water, Leningrad, 1932. Translated by A. Dorijikov, U. S. Army En
gineer District, Eastport, CE, Maine, 1935.
(6) U. S. Army Engineer District, Portland, CE, McNary Dam  Secc',d Step
Cofferdam Closure. Bonneville Hydraulic Laboratory Report No. 511,
1956.
7121
Revised 970
z >f
.0
WmW
0
Z~
S U
03
in3C r , MWi
w  oSnAw
I cc0
!Y> A W u 1,w
. Z
0 0
HIM
I
1 0
HILL HI I IIL
0 su
HIM I z w 0(
HI I
D
p
0 0 I~0 I
0 0 0l 0T 0T 0 0I I  N(
Hil0 0 HI V 00 0
00,
iq
bJ w __
~M
IdAIINW4U 3N.LS
91 'HOI3 <
C.U/87
. ~~ ~ ~
.0
w
4. HDC 7221 shows the relation between storm drain diameter, well
diameter, and discharge. Designing for operation beyond the limits shown
in HDC 7221 is not recommended. Intermediate ratios of stilling well
drain pipe diameters within the limits shown in HDC 7221 can be computed
using the equation given in this chart.
7221 to 7223
tests also showed that optimum energy dissipation for the design flow 4
occurs with the tailwater midway up the hanging baffle. Excessive tail
water should be avoided as this causes flow over the top of the baffle.
D50 = D
=3
if
where
7221 to 7223
D = depth of flow in outlet channel, ft
V = average velocity in outlet channel, ft
2
g = gravitational acceleration, ft/sec
10. References.
7221 to 7223
l
I
BASIC EQUATION
WHERE'
Dw  STILLING WELL DIAMETER, FT
Do  DRAIN DIAMETER, FT
Q  DESIGN DISCHARGE, CFS
0.6
iJ
>1 1
0 0.4 
) J
z 3:
0
I,.UJ
w0
U.<w
0
iIs / _

INVERT. '
R
HOP
WES 773
0
wUNSATISFACTORYD
w
00
0 2 D 20 5 00 20 500 1000
DISCHARGE Q, CFS
BASIC EQUATION
w=13FOR Q S21
3o \)
2 5
) Do2.5
WHERE.
W =BASIN WIDTH, FT
Do= DRAIN DIAMETER, FT
Q =DESIGN DISCHARGE, CFS
V, PIPE VELOCITY, FPS
Iii
LiI Fi SEC 
ir CA
'VIf
0 EL
'Q'V~
1ON ~ EC
c <
STILLING BASIN DESIGN
H= (W) cdz(W)
WES 773
Iv
..
0,,
0
Io
,,0
0D
,..," U N S A T IS FA C T O RY
Ir
WDISCHARGE Q 9.5
BASIC EQUATION
WHERE:,
ENDSILL LENGTH, FT
DO= DRAIN DIAMETER, FT
O DESIGN DISCHARGE, CFS
RECTANGULAR
STILLING BASIN
HALFPLAN
L0a N
WING
TRAPEZOIDAL
WING Z$
STILLING BASIN
HALFPLAN
'1 SIDEWALL
_ I~z
9d
1
sm C  . 71(t0 .125)
o D2 (1)
0
D 0 375
(t) ] (2)
DD
sm (t.5 (3)
o
00
V 2
I 
0
C~(Q) (.375)]
7224 to 7227
where
TW Equation No.
o 1 2 3 4
>0.5 4.1o 0.74 0.72 0.62
6. References.
7224 to 7227
go LOW ,,ORIGINAL GROUND LINE,
0 1.000FTDIAMETER CULVERT
A 0 0333FTDIAMETER CULVERT
0.4 A0224FTDIAMETER CULVERT
Ds
0.1 A
DIMENSIONLESSCENTERLINE PROFILE
04x
DsA
0
D'. .6
TW > O.5D 0
04
DS0. 01 06 04 02 0 0 0) 6 0 .
Ws~ISANE
(&L FOM .DIME ATIONLSS FETERLN PCOFRHOILEMER
SCU7ETF
DsMXIU
z owd
zz
00
SF6
2 z
0 ZJ s
<~ 5
~z
L II
U.
Xo 04 <f
8l oa
>00 i a..
0 .
0Iz 0:
0 rK
10ON3 o 3D0 7 N3J
7ON 3
PLAN
SECTION AA
WES 773
r/
o., I,
./
0.1
0.02 ,
0.0
0.01 _ _ ,t" 00oH ZOTPROTECTION
ORTYPE
0 0.'.....o
0C
AL LANET
0.0125 O.0DoDEEP PREFORMED
/ / SCOUR HOLE
V 0.0021
BASIC EQUATION
Do 4/3
DSO=,
Do TW I(Dol!)
WHERE*
Dso= MINIMUM AVERAGE SIZE OF STONE, FT
Do = DIAMETER OR WIDTH OF STORM DRAIN, FT
Q = STORM DRAIN DISCHARGE, CFS
TW= TAILWATER DEPTH ABOVE DRAIN INVERT, FT
A..
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA
SHEET 7331
SURGE TANKS
HEAD LOSSES
1. Thin plate orifices are often used in surge tank risers to re
strict the flow during loadon and loadoff operations. Computation of the
head losses through these orifices is of interest in the design of surge
tanks.
3. HDC 7331 presents a head loss coefficient curve for thin plate
orifices in tees. The head loss coefficient is based on the combined tee
and orifice head loss. Indri's data shown in this chart indicate that a
single curve is applicable to load onload off turbine conditiong. Also
shown in jh~s chtirt are head loss coefficient curves by Weisbach(3) and
Marchettikl) for thin plate orifices in straight pipe. These curves indi
cate that the location of the orifice with respect to other disturbances
affects the head loss.
V2
H= Ko
0 2g
where
7331
5. References.
(1) Caric, D. M., "Tehnicka hydraulika."
(1952).
Gradevenska, Knjiga, Belgrad (
(2) Indri, E., "Richerche sperimentali su modelli di strozzature per pozzi
piezometrici (Experimental research on models of constrictions for
surge tanks)." L'Energia Elettrica, vol 34, No. 6 (June 1957), PP
554569. Translation by Jan C. Van Tienhoven, for U. S. Arvy Engineer
Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Translation No. 603, Vicksburg,
Miss., April 1960.
(3) Weisbach, J., Untersuchungen in den Gebieten der Mechanik und
Hydraulik. Leipzig, 1945.
:, 733i
3000
2000
LEGEND
6 INDRI DOWNWARD SWING
100 0 INDRIUPWARD SWING
600 MAi9CHETT/____
300
00
0 30 456
30
202
dd
EQUAINTIOIONTC
2
2
HL  oj
WHERE
HL HEAD LOSS ACROSS ORWICE, FT SURGE TANKS
KQHEAD LOSS COEFFICIENT
V VELOCITY IN PIPE, FT PER SEC THIN PLATE ORIFICES
HEAD LOSSES
HYDRAULIC DESIGN CHART 733I
WES 1061
(PAMN ..........
!CICIKSUCCSCS
*,C'A~~t. ECA'E*V