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INS Vikrant (R11)

HMS Hercules (R49)" redirects here. For other ships Royal Navys peacetime requirements. Instead, the carri-
of the same name, see HMS Hercules. ers were modernized and sold to several Commonwealth
For the ship currently under construction, see INS nations. The ships were similar, but each varied depend-
Vikrant (2013). ing on the requirements of the country to which the ship
was sold.[5]
INS Vikrant (for courageous) was a Majestic-class air- HMS Hercules, the fth ship in the Majestic class, was
craft carrier of the Indian Navy. The ship was laid down ordered on 7 August 1942 and laid down on 14 Octo-
as HMS Hercules for the British Royal Navy during ber 1943 by Vickers-Armstrongs on the River Tyne. Af-
World War II, but construction was put on hold when ter World War II ended on 2 September 1945, she was
the war ended. India purchased the incomplete carrier in launched on 22 September 1945, and her construction
1957, and construction was completed in 1961. Vikrant was suspended in May 1946.[1] At the time of suspension,
was commissioned as the rst aircraft carrier of the In- she was 75 per cent complete.[6] Her hull was preserved
dian Navy and played a key role in enforcing the naval and, in May 1947, she was laid up in Gareloch o the
blockade of East Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani War Clyde. In January 1957, she was purchased by India and
of 1971. was towed to Belfast to complete her construction and
In the later years, the ship underwent major rets to em- modications by Harland and Wol. Several improve-
bark modern aircraft, before being decommissioned in ments to the original design were ordered by the Indian
January 1997. She was preserved as a museum ship in Navy, including an angled deck, steam catapults, and a
Cue Parade, Mumbai, until 2012. In January 2014, the modied island.[7]
ship was sold through an online auction and scrapped in
November 2014 after nal clearance from the Supreme
Court. The Indian Navy is currently constructing its rst 2 Design and description
home-built carrier, also named INS Vikrant, with the new
carrier scheduled to be commissioned by the end of 2018. Vikrant displaced 16,000 tonnes (16,000 long tons) at
standard load and 19,500 t (19,200 long tons) at deep
load. She had an overall length of 700 ft (210 m), a beam
1 History and construction of 128 ft (39 m) and a mean deep draught of 24 ft (7.3
m). She was powered by a pair of Parsons geared steam
turbines, each driving two propeller shafts, using steam
See also: 1942 Design Light Fleet Carrier provided by four Admiralty three-drum boilers. The tur-
bines developed a total of 40,000 indicated horsepower
In 1943 the Royal Navy commissioned 6 light aircraft (30,000 kW) which gave a maximum speed of 25 knots
carriers in an eort to counter the German and Japanese (46 km/h; 29 mph). Vikrant carried about 3,175 t (3,125
navies.[1] The 1942 Design Light Fleet Carrier, com- long tons) of fuel oil that gave her a range of 12,000
monly referred to as the British Light Fleet Carrier, was nmi (22,000 km; 14,000 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16
the result. Serving with eight navies between 1944 and mph), and 6,200 mi (10,000 km) at 23 knots (43 km/h;
2001, these ships were designed and constructed by civil- 26 mph). The air and ship crew included 1,110 ocers.[6]
ian shipyards as an intermediate step between the full- The ship was armed with sixteen 40-millimetre (1.6 in)
sized eet aircraft carriers and the less expensive but Bofors anti-aircraft guns, but these were later reduced
limited-capability escort carriers.[2] to eight. At various times, its aircraft consisted of
Sixteen light eet carriers were ordered, and all were Hawker Sea Hawk and Sea Harrier (STOVL) jet ght-
laid down as what became the Colossus class in 1942 ers, Sea King Mk 42B and HAL Chetak helicopters,
and 1943. The nal six ships were modied during con- and Breguet Aliz Br.1050 anti-submarine aircraft.[8]
struction to handle larger and faster aircraft, and were re- The carrier elded between 21 and 23 aircraft of all
designated the Majestic class.[3] The improvements from types.[9] Vikrant's ight decks were designed to handle
the Colossus class to the Majestic class included heavier aircraft up to 24,000 pounds (11,000 kg), but 20,000 lb
displacement, armament, catapult, aircraft lifts and air- (9,100 kg) remained the heaviest landing weight of an
craft capacity.[4] Construction on the ships was suspended aircraft. Larger 54 by 34 feet (16.5 by 10.4 m) lifts were
at the end of World War II, as the ships were surplus to the installed.[7]

1
2 3 SERVICE

The ship was equipped with one LW-05 air-search radar, ters. The primary concern of Naval Headquarters about
one ZW-06 surface-search radar, one LW-10 tactical the operation was the serviceability of Vikrant.[14] When
radar and one Type 963 aircraft landing radar with other asked his opinion regarding the involvement of Vikrant in
communication systems.[10] the war, Fleet Operations Ocer Captain Gulab Mohan-
lal Hiranandani told the Chief of the Naval Sta Admiral
Sardarilal Mathradas Nanda:

3 Service ...during the 1965 war Vikrant was sitting


in Bombay Harbour and did not go out to sea.
The Indian navys rst aircraft carrier was commissioned If the same thing happened in 1971, Vikrant
as INS Vikrant on 4 March 1961 in Belfast by Vijaya would be called a white elephant and naval
Lakshmi Pandit, the Indian High Commissioner to the aviation would be written o. Vikrant had to
United Kingdom .[7][11] The name Vikrant was derived be seen being operational even if we didn't y
from the Sanskrit word vikrnta meaning stepping be- any aircraft.
yond, courageous or bold. Captain Pritam Singh Captain Gulab Mohanlal Hiranandani, [14]
was the rst commanding ocer of the ship, which
carried British Hawker Sea Hawk ghter-bombers and
French Aliz anti-submarine aircraft. On 18 May 1961,
Nanda and Hiranandani proved to be instrumental in tak-
the rst jet landed on her deck. It was piloted by Lieu-
ing Vikrant to war. There were objections that the ship
tenant Radhakrishna Hariram Tahiliani, who later served
might have severe operational diculties that would ex-
as admiral and Chief of the Naval Sta of India from
pose the carrier to increased danger on operations. In
1984 to 1987. Vikrant formally joined the Indian Navys
addition, the three Daphne-class submarines acquired
eet in Mumbai (formerly Bombay) on 3 November
by the Pakistan Navy posed a signicant risk to the
1961, when she was received at Ballard Pier by then
carrier.[14] In June, extensive deep sea trials were carried
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.[6]
out, with steel safety harnesses around the three boilers
In December of that year, the ship was deployed for still operational.[lower-alpha 1] Observation windows were
Operation Vijay (the code name for the annexation tted as a precautionary measure, to detect any steam
of Portuguese India) o the coast of Goa with two leaks. By the end of June, the trials were complete and
destroyers, INS Rajput and INS Kirpan.[7] Vikrant did Vikrant was cleared to participate on operations, with its
not see action, and patrolled along the coast to deter for- speed restricted to 14 knots.[15]
eign interference.[12] During the Indo-Pakistani War of
1965, Vikrant was in dry dock retting, and did not see
any action.[7] 3.1 Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
In June 1970, Vikrant was docked at the Naval Dock-
yard, Mumbai, due to many internal fatigue cracks and Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
ssures in the water drums of her boilers that could not As a part of preparations for the war, Vikrant was as-
be repaired by welding. As replacement drums were not
available locally, four new ones were ordered from Britain
and Naval Headquarters issued orders not to use the boil-
ers until further notice.[13] On 26 February 1971 the ship
was moved from Ballard Pier Extension to the anchorage,
without replacement drums. The main objective behind
this move was to light up the boilers at reduced pressure,
and work up the main and ight deck machinery that had
been idle for almost seven months. On 1 March, the boil-
ers were ignited, and basin trials up to 40 revolutions per
minute (RPM) were conducted. Catapult trials were con-
ducted on the same day.[14]
The ship began preliminary sea trials on 18 March and re- Vikrant's Sea Hawk squadron ashore during the December 1971
turned two days later. Trials were again conducted on 26 Indo-Pakistan war
27 April. The navy decided to limit the boilers to a pres-
sure of 400 pounds per square inch (2,800 kPa) and the signed to the Eastern Naval Command, then to the East-
propeller revolutions to 120 RPM at the bow and 80 RPM ern Fleet. This eet consisted of INS Vikrant, the two
astern, reducing the ships speed to 14 knots (26 km/h; Brahmaputra-class frigates INS Brahmaputra and INS
16 mph). With the growing expectations of a war with Beas, the two Petya III-class corvettes INS Kamorta and
Pakistan in the near future, the navy started to transfer its INS Kavaratti, and one submarine, INS Khanderi. The
ships to strategically advantageous locations in Indian wa- main reason behind strengthening the Eastern Fleet was
3.1 Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 3

to counter the Pakistani maritime forces deployed in sup- cises were conducted in the presence of the Flag Ocer
port of military operations in East Bengal.[15] A surveil- Commanding-in-Chief of the Eastern Naval Command.
lance area of 18,000 square miles (47,000 km2 ), conned From Vishakhapatnam, Vikrant set out for Madras for
by a triangle with a base of 270 mi (430 km) and sides maintenance. Rear Admiral S. H. Sharma was appointed
of 165 mi (266 km) and 225 mi (362 km), was set up in Flag Ocer Commanding Eastern Fleet and arrived at
the Bay of Bengal. Any ship in this area was to be chal- Vishakhapatnam on 14 October. After receiving the
lenged and checked. If found to be neutral, it would be reports that Pakistan might launch preemptive strikes,
escorted to the nearest Indian port, otherwise, it would be maintenance was stopped for another tactical exercise,
captured, and taken as a war prize.[16] which was completed during the night of 2627 October
In the meantime, intelligence reports conrmed that Pak- at Vishakhapatnam. Vikrant then returned to Madras to
resume maintenance. On 1 November, the Eastern Fleet
istan was to deploy a US-built Tench-class submarine,
PNS Ghazi. Ghazi was considered as a serious threat to was formally constituted, and on 13 November, all the
ships set out for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. To
Vikrant by the Indian Navy, as Vikrant's approximate po-
sition would be known by the Pakistanis once she started avoid misadventures, it was planned to sail Vikrant to a
remote anchorage, isolating it from combat. Simultane-
operating aircraft. Of the four available surface ships,
INS Kavaratti had no sonar, which meant that the other ously, deception signals would give the impression that
three had to remain in close vicinity 510 mi (8.016.1 Vikrant was operating somewhere between Madras and
km) of Vikrant, without which the carrier would be com- Vishakhapatnam.[18]
pletely vulnerable to attack by Ghazi.[16] On 23 November, an emergency was declared in Pak-
On 23 July, Vikrant sailed o to Cochin in company with istan after a clash of Indian and Pakistani troops in East
[18]
the Western Fleet. En route, before reaching Cochin on Pakistan two days earlier. On 2 December, the East-
26 July, Sea King landing trials were carried out. After ern Fleet proceeded to its patrol area in anticipation of
the completion of the radar and communication trials on an attack by Pakistan. The Pakistan Navy had deployed
28 July, she departed for Madras, escorted by Brahma- Ghazi on 14 November with the explicit goal of target-
putra and Beas. The next major problem was operating ing and sinking Vikrant, and Ghazi reached a location
[19][20]
aircraft from the carrier. The commanding ocer of the near Madras by the 23rd. In an attempt to deceive
ship, Captain (later Vice Admiral) S. Prakash, was se- the Pakistani Navy and Ghazi, Indias Naval Headquar-
riously concerned about ight operations. He was con- ters deployed Rajput as a decoythe ship sailed 160 mi
cerned that aircrew morale would be adversely aected (260 km) o the coast of Vishakhapatnam and broadcast
a signicant amount of radio trac, making her appear
if ight operations were not undertaken, which could be [21]
disastrous. Naval Headquarters remained stubborn on the to be Vikrant.
speed restrictions, and sought conrmation from Prakash Ghazi, meanwhile, sank o the Visakhapatnam coast un-
whether it was possible to embark an Aliz without com- der mysterious circumstances.[20] On the night of 34 De-
promising the speed restrictions.[17] The speed restric- cember, a mued underwater explosion was detected by
tions imposed by the headquarters meant that Aliz air- a coastal battery. The next morning, a local sherman
craft would have to land at close to stalling speed. Even- observed otsam near the coast, causing Indian naval of-
tually the aircraft weight was reduced, which allowed sev- cials to suspect a vessel had sunk o the coast. The
eral of the aircraft to embark, along with a Seahawk next day, a clearance diving team was sent to search the
squadron.[18] area, and they conrmed that Ghazi had sunk in shallow
waters.[22]
The reason for Ghazi's fate is unclear. The Indian Navys
ocial historian, Hiranandani, suggests three possibili-
ties, after having analyzed the position of the rudder and
extent of the damage suered. The rst was that Ghazi
had come up to periscope depth to identify her position
and may have seen an anti-submarine vessel that caused
her to crash dive, which in turn may have led her to bury
her bow in the bottom. The second possibility is closely
related to the rst: on the night of the explosion, Rajput
was on patrol o Visakhapatnam and observed a severe
disturbance in the water. Suspecting that it was a subma-
rine, the ship dropped two depth charges on the spot, on a
position that was very close to the wreckage.[19] The third
An Aliz anti-submarine aircraft takes o from INS Vikrant possibility is that there was a mishap when Ghazi was lay-
ing mines on the day before hostilities broke out.[22]
By the end of September, Vikrant and her escorts reached Vikrant was redeployed towards Chittagong at the out-
Port Blair. En route to Visakhapatnam, tactical exer-
4 5 SCRAPPING

break of hostilities. On 4 December 1971, the ships Sea 3.3 Squadrons embarked
Hawks struck shipping in Chittagong and Coxs Bazar
harbours, sinking or incapacitating most of the ships During her service, INS Vikrant embarked four
present. Later strikes targeted Khulna and the Port of squadrons of the Naval Air Arm of the Indian Navy:
Mongla, which continued until 10 December, while other
operations were own to support a naval blockade of East
Pakistan.[23] On 14 December, the Sea Hawks attacked 4 Museum ship
the cantonment area in Chittagong, destroying several
Pakistani army barracks. Medium anti-aircraft re was
encountered during this strike. Simultaneous attacks by
Alizs continued on Coxs Bazar. After this, Vikrant's
fuel levels dropped to less than twenty-ve percent, and
the aircraft carrier sailed to Paradip for refueling.[24] The
crew of INS Vikrant earned two Maha Vir Chakras and
twelve Vir Chakra gallantry medals for their part in the
war.[20] INS Vikrant preserved as a museum ship in Mumbai with aircraft
visible on the ight deck

Following decommissioning in 1997, the ship was ear-


marked for preservation as a museum ship in Mumbai.
3.2 Later years Lack of funding prevented progress on the ships con-
version to a museum and it was speculated that the ship
would be made into a training ship.[31] In 2001, the ship
was opened to the public by the Indian Navy, but the
Government of Maharashtra was unable to nd a partner
to operate the museum on a permanent, long-term basis
and the museum was closed after it was deemed unsafe
for the public in 2012.[32][33]

5 Scrapping

A Sea King helicopter with INS Vikrant

Vikrant did not see much service after the war, and was
given two major modernisation retsthe rst one from
1979 to 1981 and the second one from 1987 to 1989.[25]
In the rst phase, her boilers, radars, communication sys-
tems and anti-aircraft guns were modernised, and facili-
ties to operate Sea Harriers were installed.[26] In the sec-
ond phase, facilities to operate the new Sea Harrier Ver-
tical/Short Take O and Land (V/STOL) ghter aircraft Vikrant being scrapped at Bombay
and the new Sea King Mk 42B Anti-Submarine War-
fare (ASW) helicopters were introduced. A 9.75-degree In August 2013, Vice-Admiral Shekhar Sinha, chief of
ski-jump ramp was tted.[25] The steam catapult was re- the Western Naval Command, said the Ministry of De-
moved during this phase.[7] Again in 1991, Vikrant un- fence would scrap the ship as she had become very dif-
derwent a six-month ret, followed by another fourteen- cult to maintain and no private bidders had oered to
month ret in 199294. She remained operational there- fund the museums operations.[34] On 3 December 2013,
after, ying Sea Harriers, Sea Kings and Chetaks un- the Indian government decided to auction the ship.[35]
til her nal sea outing on 23 November 1994.[25] In the The Bombay High Court dismissed a public-interest law-
same year, a re was also recorded aboard.[7] In January suit led by Kiran Paigankar to stop the auction, stat-
1995, the navy decided to keep Vikrant in safe to oat ing the vessels dilapidated condition did not warrant her
state.[25] She was laid up and formally decommissioned preservation, nor were the necessary funds or government
on 31 January 1997.[27] support available.[36][37]
5

In January 2014, the ship was sold through an online auc- [4] Hobbs 2014, p. 185.
tion to a Darukhana ship-breaker for 60 crore (US$9.4
million).[38][39][40] The Supreme Court of India dismissed [5] Hobbs 2014, p. 199.
another lawsuit challenging the ships sale and scrapping [6] INS Vikrant R11. www.bharat-rakshak.com. Archived
on 14 August 2014.[41] Vikrant remained beached o from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 8
Darukhana in Mumbai Port while awaiting the nal clear- November 2016.
ances of the Mumbai Port Trust. On 12 November 2014,
the Supreme Court gave its nal approval for the car- [7] Hobbs 2014, p. 203.
rier to be scrapped, which commenced on 22 November
[8] INS Vikrant (R11) History, Specs and Pictures. Mil-
2014.[42] itary Factory. Archived from the original on 8 November
2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.

6 Legacy [9] Indian Naval Aviation Air Arm & its Carriers. Team
BHP. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016.
Retrieved 23 November 2016.
In memory of Vikrant, the Vikrant Memorial was un-
veiled by Vice Admiral Surinder Pal Singh Cheema, [10] Chant 2014, p. 187.
Flag Ocer Commanding-in-Chief of the Western Naval
[11] Bajaj V A bike made of INS Vikrants metal Launch-
Command at K Subash Marg in the Naval Dockyard of
ing on February 1. The Financial Express. 26 January
Mumbai on 25 January 2016. The memorial is made 2016. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016.
[43]
from metal recovered from the ship. In February Retrieved 26 January 2014.
2016, Bajaj unveiled a new motorbike made with metal
from Vikrant's scrap and named it Bajaj V in honour of [12] Brigadier A. S. Cheema. Operation Vijay: The Libera-
Vikrant.[11][44] tion of 'Estado da India' Goa, Daman and Diu. USI of
India. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016.
The navy has named its rst home-built carrier INS Retrieved 11 December 2016.
Vikrant in honour of INS Vikrant (R11). The new car-
rier is built by Cochin Shipyard Limited, and will displace [13] Hiranandani 2000, p. 118.
40,000 t (44,000 short tons).[45] The keel was laid down
in February 2009 and she was launched in August 2013. [14] Hiranandani 2000, p. 119.
As of December 2016, the ship is being tted out and is [15] Hiranandani 2000, p. 120.
expected to be commissioned by the end of 2018.[46]
[16] Hiranandani 2000, p. 121.

[17] Hiranandani 2000, p. 122.


7 In popular culture
[18] Hiranandani 2000, p. 123.
The decommissioned ship featured prominently in the [19] Hiranandani 2000, p. 143.
lm ABCD 2 as a backdrop while it was moored near
Darukhana in Mumbai.[47] [20] Till 2013, p. 171.

[21] Hiranandani 2000, p. 142.

8 Footnotes [22] Hiranandani 2000, p. 145.

[1] The A1 boiler was completely blanked o due to serious [23] Roy 1995, p. 165.
problems.[13]
[24] Hiranandani 2000, p. 139.
[2] French Alouette III light helicopters were produced in In-
[25] Hiranandani 2009, p. 151.
dia under license by Hindustan Aircraft Limited (HAL)
as Chetaks.[29] [26] Hiranandani 2000, p. 276.

[27] Hiranandani 2009, p. 152.


9 Citations [28] Hiranandani 2009, p. 154.

[1] HMS Hercules. Fleet Air Arm Archive. Archived from [29] Hiranandani 2009, p. 158.
the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January
2012. [30] Hiranandani 2009, p. 157.

[2] Konstam 2012, p. 46. [31] Sanjai, P R (14 March 2006). INS Vikrant will now be
made training school. Business Standard. Archived from
[3] Hobbs 2014, pp. 199200. the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
6 11 EXTERNAL LINKS

[32] Sunavala, Nargish (4 February 2006). Not museum but 10 References


scrapyard for INS Vikrant. Times of India. Archived
from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 4 Febru- Chant, Christopher (2014), A Compendium of Ar-
ary 2014.
maments and Military Hardware, Routledge, ISBN
[33] Warship INS Vikrant heads for Alang death. Times of 978-1-134-64668-5
India. 30 January 2014. Archived from the original on 9
March 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014. Hiranandani, Gulab Mohanlal (2000), Transition to
Triumph: History of the Indian Navy, 19651975,
[34] Naik, Yogesh (10 August 2013). Vikrant museum to be Lancer Publishers LLC, ISBN 978-1-897829-72-1
scrapped as Navy readies new carrier. Mumbai Mirror.
Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Re- Hiranandani, Gulab Mohanlal (2009), Transition
trieved 13 August 2013. to Guardianship: The Indian Navy, 19912000,
[35] Govt to auction decommissioned aircraft carrier INS Lancer Publishers LLC, ISBN 978-1-935501-66-4
Vikrant. First Post India. 4 December 2013. Archived
from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 4 De- Hobbs, David (2014), British Aircraft Carriers: De-
cember 2013. sign, Development & Service Histories, Seaforth
Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4738-5369-0
[36] Sunavala, Nargish (3 February 2014). Not museum but
scrapyard for INS Vikrant. Times of India. Archived Konstam, Angus (2012), The Aviation History,
from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 4 Febru- Books on Demand, ISBN 978-3-8482-6639-5
ary 2006.
Roy, Mihir K. (1995), War in the Indian Ocean,
[37] Crushing museum dreams, court says INS Vikrant must
Lancer Publishers, ISBN 978-1-897829-11-0
be scrapped. Mumbai Mirror. 24 February 2014.
Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Re- Till, Georey (2013), Seapower: A Guide for the
trieved 23 February 2014. Twenty-First Century, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-136-
[38] Dismantling Vikrant begins. Indian Express. 21 25555-7
November 2014. Archived from the original on 26 April
2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
[39] INS Vikrant, Indias rst aircraft carrier, sold to ship- 11 External links
breaker for Rs 60 crore Archived 2014-11-23 at the
Wayback Machine., 9 April 2014, The Economic Times, Mission Vikrant 1971: A search for our heroes
access date 29 August 2014.
Sons of Vikrant by Bajaj
[40] Not museum but scrapyard for warship Vikrant. Times
of India. 3 February 2014. Archived from the original on
28 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
[41] Activists move Supreme Court over Sale of INS Vikrant
to Ship Breaker. Bihar Prabha. 14 August 2014.
Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved
9 April 2014.
[42] Indias rst aircraft carrier slips into history. Times of
India. 22 November 2014. Archived from the original on
23 November 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
[43] Vikrant Memorial at trac Island near Lion Gate. In-
dian Navy. Archived from the original on 10 November
2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
[44] Bajaj V: A Bike Made with INS Vikrants Scrap un-
veiled. eHot News. 2 February 2015. Archived from the
original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
[45] Comparison of Chinese Aircraft Carrier Liaoning and
Indian INS Vikrant. The World Reporter. Archived from
the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 5 February
2017.
[46] Indias rst indigenous aircraft carrier to be inducted in
2018. Times of India. Archived from the original on 19
December 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
[47] Varun poses before INS Vikrant. Bollywood Bazaar.
Retrieved 15 May 2016.
7

12 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


12.1 Text
INS Vikrant (R11) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/INS_Vikrant_(R11)?oldid=801886668 Contributors: The Epopt, Angela, David
Newton, HarryHenryGebel, Bloodshedder, Bobblewik, Gdr, Piotrus, Rich Farmbrough, Guanabot, Martpol, Srbauer, IndianCow, Gi-
raedata, Idleguy, Anthony Appleyard, Joshbaumgartner, Calton, Marathi mulgaa, Skyring, Axeman89, LukeSurl, Bellhalla, TomThe-
Hand, Kralizec!, GraemeLeggett, Allen3, Marudubshinki, Rjwilmsi, L1CENSET0K1LL, Lzz, Guptadeepak, Million Little Gods, Los688,
Rsrikanth05, Hawkeye7, Nick Thorne, Saberwyn, Premkudva, Sardanaphalus, SmackBot, Setanta747 (locked), Jkp1187, Hmains, Hiber-
nian, Martin Blank, Jahiegel, Rhollenton, OrphanBot, Britmax, Easwarno1, Curly Turkey, ThurnerRupert, Srikeit, Sambot, John, Simon-
graham, Shyamsunder, Mr Stephen, Vikasapte, Clarityend, Haus, CmdrObot, The ed17, AshLin, Cydebot, Aldis90, Nick Number, DPdH,
Smartse, Ekabhishek, MER-C, Chanakyathegreat, KuwarOnline, Grievous Angel, Magioladitis, Parsecboy, Jllm06, Puddhe, Felix Stem-
ber, The Anomebot2, BilCat, Dharmadhyaksha, Timothy Titus, CommonsDelinker, Mjb1981, KylieTastic, Cosnahang, GrahamHardy,
Deor, VolkovBot, Zul32, Oshwah, Davehi1, Sankalpdravid, Andy Dingley, Abhijit borude, Lightmouse, Aumnamahashiva, Sitush, Randy
Kryn, Martarius, MBK004, Orpy15, Rockfang, Sturmvogel 66, Shem1805, Dank, Dave1185, Toyokuni3, Numbo3-bot, Lightbot, Takashi
kurita, The Bushranger, Legobot, Drpickem, Yobot, AnomieBOT, McLaud9404, Ulric1313, Crecy99, Saroshp, Sandip90, Xqbot, Gunjan
verma81, AustralianRupert, Mittal.fdk, Ahmed Nisar, Gonzolito, Skcpublic, FrescoBot, D'ohBot, DrilBot, HRoestBot, Ravivasista, Taurgo,
FormerIP, PlyrStar93, Full-date unlinking bot, Joydeep ghosh, Trappist the monk, Diannaa, Sarastro1, Generalboss3, Sayowais, Tamizi ts,
RGS, Anir1uph, Demiurge1000, Gauti-90, HandsomeFella, ClueBot NG, Dnewell78, Strike Eagle, BG19bot, Anant2506, Ninney, Peace-
maker67, NemesisIII, Gylatshalit, Ubermenschst, Anurag2k12, Magentic Manifestations, Steinsplitter, Evano1van, Tototo30, Pvpoodle,
TFA Protector Bot, Muthuppandy pandian, Monkbot, Filedelinkerbot, Aparida1295, Llammakey, ICRao, FACBot, Augustabreeze, Kr-
ishna Chaitanya Velaga, IM3847, Robsweet1975, MBlaze Lightning, MB, Adamgerber80, Pavanrd, Norsemanmick, Hyperbolick, Home
Lander and Anonymous: 81

12.2 Images
File:Civil_and_Naval_Ensign_of_France.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Civil_and_Naval_
Ensign_of_France.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: created by User: David Newton
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main Contributors: Here, based on: http://manuelbelgrano.gov.ar/bandera/creacion-de-la-bandera-nacional/ Original artist: Government
of Argentina
File:Flag_of_Brazil.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Origi-
nal artist: ?
File:Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg Li-
cense: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Zscout370
File:INAS_300_insignia.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/INAS_300_insignia.jpg License: CC BY
2.5 in Contributors: http://indiannavy.nic.in/naval-fleet/indian-naval-air-squadrons Original artist: Indian Navy
File:INAS_310_insignia.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/INAS_310_insignia.jpg License: CC BY
2.5 in Contributors: http://indiannavy.nic.in/naval-fleet/indian-naval-air-squadrons Original artist: Indian Navy
File:INAS_321_insignia.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/INAS_321_insignia.jpg License: CC BY
2.5 in Contributors: http://indiannavy.nic.in/naval-fleet/indian-naval-air-squadrons Original artist: Indian Navy
File:INAS_330_insignia.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/INAS_330_insignia.jpg License: CC BY
2.5 in Contributors: http://indiannavy.nic.in/naval-fleet/indian-naval-air-squadrons Original artist: Indian Navy
File:INS_Vikrant_(R11)_launches_an_Alize_aircraft_during_Indo-Pakistani_War_of_1971.jpg Source: https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/INS_Vikrant_%28R11%29_launches_an_Alize_aircraft_during_Indo-Pakistani_War_of_
1971.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 in Contributors: http://indiannavy.nic.in/sites/default/files/8_evol7.jpg Original artist: Indian Navy
File:INS_Vikrant_(R11)_with_a_Sea_King_helicopter_during_Indo-Pakistani_war_of_1971.jpg Source: https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/INS_Vikrant_%28R11%29_with_a_Sea_King_helicopter_during_Indo-Pakistani_war_of_
1971.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 in Contributors: http://indiannavy.nic.in/sites/default/files/8_evol4.jpg Original artist: Indian Navy
File:INS_Vikrant_being_scapped.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/INS_Vikrant_being_scapped.
jpg License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Adam Cohn Original artist: Adam Cohn
File:INS_Vikrant_circa_1984_carrying_a_unique_complement_of_Sea_Harriers,_Sea_Hawks,_Allouette_&_Sea_King_
helicopters_and_Alize_ASW.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/INS_Vikrant_circa_1984_carrying_
a_unique_complement_of_Sea_Harriers%2C_Sea_Hawks%2C_Allouette_%26_Sea_King_helicopters_and_Alize_ASW.jpg License:
CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Admiral Arun Prakash (retd.) Original artist: Arun Prakash
File:Indian_Navy_Sea_Hawk_aircraft_during_1971_Indo-Pakistani_war.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/b/b7/Indian_Navy_Sea_Hawk_aircraft_during_1971_Indo-Pakistani_war.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 in Contributors:
http://indiannavy.nic.in/sites/default/files/8_evol6.jpg Original artist: Indian Navy
File:Naval_Ensign_of_Australia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Naval_Ensign_of_Australia.svg
License: Public domain Contributors: Renamed from File:Royal-Australian-Navy-Ensign.svg Original artist: Unknown<a
href='https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
8 12 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

File:Naval_Ensign_of_India.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/Naval_Ensign_of_India.svg License:


Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: Original upload by Denelson83, most recent version by Fry1989.
File:Naval_Ensign_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Naval_Ensign_of_
the_United_Kingdom.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Naval_Jack_of_Canada.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Naval_Ensign_of_Canada.svg Li-
cense: Public domain Contributors: Based on Image:Flag of Canada.svg and an image at the World Flag Database in conjunction with
Royal Canadian Navy. Original artist: Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence
(vectorised by Sodacan)
File:Vikrant_Museum_Ship.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Vikrant_Museum_Ship.jpg License:
CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Skyring

12.3 Content license


Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0