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IMPACT OF COMMONWEALTH YOUTH GAMES ON PUNE CITY
By Rajkumar Agrawal-211005 Kinjar Desai-211028 Rucha Gujrathi- 211044
PGP ACM 21st Batch (2007- 2009)
A Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the Academic requirements of the Post Graduate Programme in Advanced Construction Management (PGP ACM)
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH
I/We declare that the research thesis entitled “Impact of Commonwealth youth games on Pune city” is the bonafide work carried out by me/us, under the guidance of Prof. Smita Yadav, further we declare that this has not been previously formed the basis of award of any degree, diploma, associate-ship or other similar degrees or diplomas, and has not been submitted anywhere else.
Rajkumar Agrawal PGP ACM 21st Batch (2007-2009) NICMAR Pune
Kinjar Desai PGP ACM 21st Batch (2007-2009) NICMAR Pune
Rucha Gujrathi PGP ACM 21st Batch (2007-2009) NICMAR Pune
This is to certify that the research thesis entitled “Impact of Commonwealth youth games on Pune city” is the bonafide work of Mr. Rajkumar Agrawal, Mr. Kinjar Desai, and Mrs. Rucha Gujrathi in partial fulfilment of the academic requirements for the award of Post Graduate Programme in Advanced Construction Management (PGP ACM). This work is carried out by him/them, under my guidance and supervision.
Prof. Smita Yadav
Counter Signed by Head ACM
NICMAR for their guidance and constructive suggestions throughout the thesis work. Smita Yadav. (Rajkumar Agrawal 211005) ACM 21 (Kinjar Desai 211028) ACM 21 (Rucha Gujrathi 211044) ACM 21 . Nandkishor Jagtap assistant engineer. Faculty members for their help & cooperation in doing our project work.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a privilege on our part to express profound sense of gratitude to Prof. for the kind cooperation in carrying the thesis work. We wish to acknowledge the co-operation and contribution extended by various organizations in the course of the study. We would like to thank Mr. We wish to thank my friends for their endless help. in charge of ACM. JNNURM. We would like to acknowledge Dr. & other officials. We would like to extend my sincere thanks to NICMAR-Pune. Anil Agrawal. who provide us all the related information for study.
many with inconclusive answers. and have the ability to transform it. You can have roads and stadiums without the Common wealth youth games. Pune hosted the third largest multi-sporting event in the world. and not just an elite minority. parking provisions and pedestrianisation schemes which was prepared few years ago for major overhaul of Pune roads. the mega event attracted youth from 71 countries. It also includes the various reasons for which projects delayed. To prepare itself for this. congested road stretches for the city and presently undertaken road expansion and construction of flyover. the city had planning a major overhaul of its urban infrastructure as well as its sporting facilities. study is conducted to determine the particulars for implementation of an elevated road projects at strategic intersections. Can the financial requirements for such an event be possible to generate? Is the amount spent on such events worth it? One must remember that the funds that typically go into supporting these events are public funds and therefore should benefit society at large.’ In this thesis. Had the event lead to rampant and unchecked development. possibly unplanned? Is the infrastructure created beneficial post-event or will it remain under utilized? was the city’s infrastructure able to bear the strain of additional visitors that flooded the city during such an event? Does the event proved to be a hindrance to the city’s residents during the event? Did the event actually proved to be a boost to the domestic sports scene? There are numerous questions that arise from such events.ABSTRACT In October 2008. or at least a large portion. is its impact on the urban scenario. to carefully study all the pros and cons of such an event. . Two months from now. Thesis also includes the status report of various urban infrastructure projects after the completion of the CYG. with particular relevance in this thesis. Some other questions that arise out of such events. Connectivity to the areas where these games are going to take place is a major issue of concern. signal synchronization. The thesis raises some hard questions that need to be answered before one can conclude that such an event has a positive effect on the host community. with tens of thousands of visitors descending upon the city. and not fall into the trap of making it an issue of ‘national pride. like Pune is. These events happen in a city once in a decade or maybe even less. However it is important for a prospective bidder of international sporting events. intersection improvement schemes. but you generally cannot have the Common wealth youth games without new roads and stadiums. subways and tunnels.
Urban renewal or regeneration has been a theme in many such events in the past and appears an important one in the CYG games as well.Yet India is still a poor country. This is because it gives an opportunity to . In the run up to the Football World Cup 2006. The CYG is going to be the first mega-event hosted by the city since the 1993 National Games. the city is planning a major overhaul of its urban infrastructure as well as its sporting facilities. the theme of football as a unifying religion has been played up numerous times in the media.’ (Gibson. and a handful of gifted individuals. some hard questions that need to be answered before one can conclude that such an event has a positive effect on the host community. our performance is yet to match international standards. India comes last by an enormous margin.Introduction In 2008. Indians have performed quite miserably on the world stage. Even after the 1982 Asian Games. The games have the ability to transform the city’s urban landscape and at the same time may simply be an extremely expensive. that is. ranked 127 out of 177 in the Human Development index and therefore. J.1998) Sporting events have now indeed become ‘spectacles. the FIFA World Cup and other such events. an obsessive subject. can give the host community a lot of exposure. To prepare itself for this. (The last large event held in Pune was the 1993 National games) and have the ability to transform it. These events happen in a city once in a decade or may be even less. Is the amount spent on such events worth it? One must remember that the funds that typically go into supporting these events are public funds and therefore should benefit society at large. a gap of nearly 15 years.’ and with over 5 billion viewers expected for the 2006 World Cup. which gave a dramatic boost to sports facilities in the country. and not just an elite minority. Sports is now a very passionate and among many. India however still remains to make its mark on the world as a sporting nation. Pune hosted the largest multi-sporting event in the world. With the exception of cricket. H. Academicians even postulate that ‘religious pilgrimages of the past have been replaced by modern pilgrimages to such spectacles as the Olympic Games. or at least a large portion. If one was to examine the last Olympics medal tally by population. with tens of thousands of visitors descending upon the city. population divided by number of medals.
Some questions that arise out of such events.improve the infrastructure and appearance of the host city. among other things: 1. J. The focus area of the games this time is going to be in Balewadi. 2001). Baner where the games village and venues was located. with particular relevance in this thesis. and also gives global media exposure meaning that the image of a city can be transformed in the eyes of viewers. the city wishes to. Thus two of the professed aims of the games are to improve the welfare of the citizens of the city through improving facilities and promoting investment in the city. is its impact on the urban scene. o What are new urban projects are coming to the city? o Comparing the actual completion with the planned completion of different projects? o What are the hurdles for completion for projects and the reasons? . Stimulate economic growth and development. formerly an industrial area that had been suffering low growth and degradation. Residents of the area are hoping for a transformation. The urban landscape Pune too. This was certainly true of Barcelona. which successfully rid itself of its traditional manufacturing city image when hosting the 1992 Olympics (Brown. 2. is set to change dramatically with many infrastructure projects being pushed through. In Pune for the games. it states that through the games. Improve city infrastructure. Manchester used the 2002 Commonwealth games as a tool to revive East Manchester. A and Massey.
but you generally cannot have the Common wealth youth games without new roads and stadiums. Our interest here is to study” IMPACT ON CITY” hosting the Games. subways and tunnels. The former are those benefits which are only attained if the Common-wealth youth games are held. and Common wealth youth games merchandise sales fit into this category. Many of the other touted benefits of the Common wealth youth games. direct benefits such as ticket sales.Impact of Commonwealth Youth Games on urban development of PUNE City. such that it is said that the Common wealth youth games will “leave a legacy” of improved housing and transit infrastructure. The ‘impact’ of the Common wealth youth games can be subdivided into Event Benefits and Infrastructure Benefits. Every project has an impact on the city’s infrastructure. . What does it mean to “host the hallmark event”? For the purposes of this thesis. Plainly. Connectivity to the areas where these games are going to take place is a major issue of concern. such as ‘improved roads’. “Hosting the hallmark Games” is the act of inviting world-class athletes. television crews. parking provisions and pedestrianisation schemes which was prepared few years ago for major overhaul of Pune roads. and which justifies the costs involved. In this thesis. congested road stretches for the city and presently undertaken road expansion and construction of flyover. It is important to note here that it is not only legacy creation that is important. You can have roads and stadiums without the Common wealth youth games. Common wealth youth games tourism. intersection improvement schemes. in overall urban infrastructure development and the problem faced during the execution. but is an array of associated public projects. and ‘better housing’ can be had without ‘inviting the world’. The benefits of all of these associated projects are often ascribed to the Common wealth youth games. and tourists to your city for a specified duration to compete. The Common wealth youth games do not consist of a single project. study is conducted to determine the particulars for implementation of an elevated road projects at strategic intersections. and thus should be considered as ‘Infrastructure Benefits’. ‘national pride’. but creating a legacy which is beneficial to host community post games.PROJECT SCOPE: To study . signal synchronization.
Methodology: MPACT OF Data collection ON UNE ITY Proposed Projects Literature study Projects completed Projects delayed Delay analysis Impact Positive impact Negative Impact Conclusion .
The vehicle operating ratio in April 2005 was less at 75% compared to 93% for Mumbai’s BEST. the population of the city has increased four times whereas the vehicle population has increased 87 times and the road length has increased by only five times. Against the Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT) norms of 37 buses per lakh population. the road and transportation infrastructure has to not only meet the existing demand but also cater to the demand that will be generated by the increasing population. In the absence of reliable and extensive public transportation systems. PMC’s fleet falls short by over 250 . In the last four decades.Pune Infrastructure 1. More than 50% of the 837 strong bus fleet of Pune Municipal Transport is more than 10 years old. The existing public transportation system would fall short while catering to the rising demand. With the projections indicating that PMC would have a population of about 45 lakhs by 2021 and 57 lakhs by 2031. Only 15% of the vehicle kilometers travelled in the city is accounted for by public transportation. the local population has been increasingly resorting to personal ownership of vehicles to meet their mobility requirements. Traffic and transportation The road infrastructure has not expanded in tandem with the increase in the number of vehicles in the city.
.buses considering the city’s present population.46% area of the city. There are more than 12. 4.04% area for transportation and circulation in the development plan. further.46% or about 10. The Comprehensive Traffic Transportation Plan (CTTP) study observed that there has been a sharp fall in the number of passengers using PMT buses. Only about 25% of the entire road length in the city -. and nearly 25% reduction in the average passengers travelling by PMT buses per day. about 30% of the population and more than 53% of the households in Pune own a two-wheeler. existing rolling stock needs to be replaced. Hyderabad. However. as observed by CTTP.4 sq.Bangalore. The total number of registered vehicles has grown at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8 per cent.048. The total length of roads in the city is 1800 km including about 50 km of National Highways and State Highways. of the city’s land is utilised for the provision of roads. from 572. The CTTP study indicated that only 4.671 to 349. km. As per the CTTP study. Chennai and Ahmedabad. Pune possibly has the highest vehicle ownership pattern at more than 400 vehicles per 1000 population in comparison with its peer group cities -. road network in added areas need to be factored into this calculation.5 lakh registered vehicles in Pune as on date.the majority of which are accounted for by the highways -possesses a road width greater than 24 m. falls far short of the proposed 13.
800.00 258.00 - .00 2% 69% 15% 15% 100% B Other Agencies Roads 50.00 1.No.00 1.00 258.202.00 - Grand Total 1. A 1 2 3 4 Surface Type Municipal Roads Concrete Black-Topped WBM Gravel and Earthen Total Lengths in Kms Lengths (Kms) Percentage 32.S.750.
this is well above the desired norm. the supply level is in the range of 100140 lpcd. Road length covered by the distribution network is 68%. markings. The problem of lack of civic sense towards traffic and poor travel behaviour is compounded by the lack of coordination among agencies involved in planning and providing for traffic and transportation. • • • • Absence of functional hierarchy of road network results in inter-mixing of local and regional traffic. . Narrow roads in the central and core areas of the city with restricted capacity add to congestion problems. channel islands. 2. The newly added areas are currently being catered to by tankers. The elevated storage capacity is at 22%. The public transport system is inadequate. Parking demands are largely unmet owing to a lack of organised on-street parking facilities. hence the reservoirs have to be filled more than three times in a day. which implies almost 100% coverage of the developed areas including slums. street name boards and other street furniture constitute an important problem. Inadequate grade separation leads to travel delays and threatens road safety. which is lower than the desired norm. • • • • • Only 40% of the roads have footpaths and most of the existing ones are encroached upon by informal activities and street hawkers. Poor road surface quality and absence of appropriate safety and visibility enhancement parameters like signage. In most cities.The following are the key issues regarding planning and provision for traffic and transportation in Pune. There is an absence of access control measures and other such traffic management measures on the arterial roads. Water supply The service levels with regard to water supply are fairly good in Pune with a gross supply of over 260 lpcd and a net supply of 182 lpcd (accounting for 30 per cent distribution loss).
of which 187 km. The following are the key issues with regard to the sewerage system. Sewerage and sanitation The total length of sewer network is 975 km. PMC should move towards providing 100% house service connections and metered supply to all houses. in the added areas. • Though the current coverage in terms of road length is 54%. it is estimated that about 80% of the population is covered as all developed areas have access to UGD. energy cost is considerably high (about 60%). Thus the river water gets polluted and this leads to water-borne diseases. • • • It is estimated that about 30% of water is lost in distribution. the system coverage in terms of house service connections is poor at just 21% of total property tax assessments. The current system covers about 54 % of the total road length. . Equitable distribution is an issue that has to be addressed by refurbishing the old distribution network and covering the newly added areas. 3.The following are the key issues with regards to the water supply system in Pune. • Almost one-third of the total sewerage generated remains untreated and is disposed off into the Mula-Mutha river. This also includes newlylaid. an energy audit needs to be conducted for all pumping stations and corrective measures should be implemented to reduce the O &M cost. are the truck mains. Hence. it is observed that 90%of the developed area has access to UGD covering about 80% of the population. • While the water supply levels are reasonably good. sewer mains of 380 km. But this gap needs to be covered as and when development takes place in the added areas. Of the total operation and maintenance (O & M) cost of water supply. Though the current coverage of the sewerage network is 54%. thus reducing the net per capita supply to 182 lpcd.
4. markets. restaurants. the gap would be only 143 MLD. about 150 tonnes of waste are removed by rag pickers for recycling. Solid waste management The primary sources of solid waste in Pune city are local households. • • Pune has only 44% tertiary drains against a desirable norm of about 130%1. Storm water drainage The drainage system of Pune comprises rivers.208 rag pickers have been authorised to segregate waste at five of its 18 Ghantagadis. The following are the key issues with regard to storm water drainage system in Pune. large lakes.• Though at the current level of water losses. assuming PMC would be able to minimise losses at 15% of supply. which is assigned to a private operator appointed by the PMC on pay and use basis by the respective hospital. except untreated bio-medical waste. the compost is then supplied to farmers free of cost. about 600 tonnes of waste are composted using the EM technology. 5. Presently. the shortage in sewerage treatment capacity is only 239 MLD. Except during the rainy season. Pune is the first city in India to implement this technology. 4. the generation is reduced to about 800 tonnes. these rivers get untreated sewage and other wastes of the city. PMC has no financial commitment in this regard. natural channels and roadside drains. hotels. and hospitals. In addition to the PMC staff. Mutha and MulaMutha River and the major lakes are Katraj. The total quantity of waste generated per day is about 1000-1200 tonnes (approximate generation per capita per day is 360 grams). commercial establishments. The major rivers that flow through the city are Mula. There is significant silting and obstructions in the primary and secondary drains. Pashan and Model Colony Lake of Shivajinagar. only about 650 tonnes have to be collected and disposed by PMC. The PMC is responsible for collection and transportation and disposal of all solid waste generated in the city. Thus. . Due to the segregation of dry and wet waste at the sources and the adoption of the decentralized system of disposal.
operation and maintenance of streetlights in the city. PMC conceived appropriate strategies to fill these gaps in its areas of management. The majority (99%) of the streetlights are 70W. Following this study of different aspects of the city’s infrastructure and the lacunae therein. which is fairly good in comparison to the norm of 30 meters. For a total road length of about 1. The electricity department of PMC is responsible for installation. As Pune has natural slopes and the general terrain is sloping. repairs. There are about 1. The study would need to identify drain improvement and augmentation requirements based on rainfall patterns. . 150W and 250 W sodium vapour lamps. in the PMC limits.00. their intensity and local flooding characteristics. 6.800 km. to drain rainwater and protect road surface from deterioration.which hampers the natural flow channels. the average spacing of streetlight poles works out to about 18 meters. drainage requirement may not be that high.200 street light poles in Pune city. it is advisable to have drains at least on one side of the roads. Pune needs to undertake a comprehensive storm water drainage master plan study before implementing any drainage system. replacement. But. only one per cent of streetlights are high mast lights. Street lighting The provision and maintenance of streetlights is an obligatory function of the Municipal Corporation.
Pune Planned & Actual Completion .
) Bangalore as technical Consultants. There was thus a need to establish and improve the connectivity between the above mentioned locations.A study on City Mobility plan (CMP) is also undertaken by Corporation with the help of I L F S Waste Management and Urban Services Delhi as Program Manager and Wilbur Smith Associates (Inc. A cloverleaf junction has been proposed at one location on the important Nagar road. To control the traffic at busy junctions in the city. Also need was felt to improve the overall circulation of traffic within the city. railway stations and ST stands. BRT corridors were proposed at different locations. Pune city sport center is located at Nehru Stadium and Sanas Ground which are also at a considerable distance from the main stadium as well as the airport. It has been observed that at any intersection about 15% of the total numbers of vehicles are bicycles. In recent years. Area Traffic Control System (ATCS) has been proposed City Mobility Plan: . decongest the road stretches for the city and presently undertaken road expansion and construction of flyover. the two railway stations and three ST stands. multiplexes and malls storming its cultural landscape. Hundreds of athletes from the Commonwealth countries competed in categories of sports. Also the number of pedestrians is very high on all the roads.Planning and design criteria The Commonwealth Youth Games were held in Pune in October 2008. pedestrian schemes in addition to BRTs and other mass transport system like Mono rail or metro rail. intersection improvement schemes. Connectivity to the areas where these games are going to take place is a major issue of concern. In order to reduce the travel time and congestion in the city. with hotels and restaurants. Along with this. three tunnels and four flyovers were proposed at various locations. This report (CMP) will help in determining the particulars for implementation of an elevated road projects at strategic intersections. theatre and world food. In addition number of officials and thousands of spectators from within and outside the country visited Pune during the games period. This necessitated the road improvements at 11 locations. Hence pedestrian schemes have been proposed. subways and tunnels. parking provisions. that's one aspect that has already gained a fair bit. A city needs more than just its basic civic infrastructure to qualify as a world city. These games were held in the Balewadi Stadium. This stadium is located far away from the airport. It is very important to ensure the safety of the pedestrians. . signal synchronization.
IMPROVEMENT WORKS SUGGESTED IN THE CITY FOR THE COMMONWEALTH YOUTH GAMES With a view to prepare the Pune city fully for hosting the Commonwealth Youth Games in 2008. a number of infrastructure projects were undertaken. The following are the broad categories under which the various projects were undertaken: • • Projects undertaken by the CYG Green Council/Committee Projects undertaken by PMC / JNNURM .
which is also the organizing committee of the Commonwealth Games to be held in Delhi in 2010. The aim. replace high-intensive sources with low intensive ones and offset the consumption with renewable sources. reduce usage of power. projecting the Pune games as environment-friendly games.Projects undertaken by the CYG Green Council Early this year. Agenda OF Green Games : CYG green council had planned a four-pronged approach to manage consumption of carbonintensive energies during the games. . the CYG organizing committee. was to avoid use of : • • • • carbon-intensive energies. signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP).
with the ride-and-return-cycle project. the road and transportation infrastructure has to not only meet the the demand that will be generated by the existing demand but also cater to increasing population. . TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION Transportation The road infrastructure has not expanded in tandem with the increase in the number of vehicles in the city. the population of the city times whereas the vehicle population has increased 87 times increased by only five times. street signs and furniture 53 km of footpaths 200 new civic buses and another 300 buses on hire 200 km of storm water drains and reinstating of electrical wires under pavement blocks. Remote-controlled traffic signals Development of Heritage Sites.Projects undertaken by Green Games Committee ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° waste and water management forestation anti-litter campaign sustainable transport. In the last four decades. With the projections population of about 45 lakhs by 2021 and 57 has increased four and the road length has indicating that PMC would have a lakhs by 2031. Projects undertaken by the PMC: ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° Bus rapid transport system or BRT Beautification of the Pashan and Katraj lakes A bio-diversity park at Baner Better streetlights. rainwater harvesting no plastic at Balewadi extensive tree plantation offset of green energy with the help of MEDA.
the city requires a massive transportation system.58 km) and the works are started. raised platforms for safe & rapid boarding and alighting. The total length of Cement Concrete roads is about 20 km. Twelve roads in the city are identified as the arterial roads. . • The balance 2 corridors measuring 5. (non-asphalted) occupying 5% of the land area in the city.96 square kilometres. In this Scheme the buses operated in physically segregated exclusive lanes in the road called busways & may use high capacity buses. clean secure & comfortable bus stands.55 km PMC has issued the work orders for 21 corridors (51.97 km are in the tendering process and will be awarded by February 2008 • All the above works are targeted to be completed by September 2008 BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT) CORRIDORS Bus rapid transport system or BRT is a bus priority scheme to improve the capacity & efficiency of present bus services.With a present population of over 30 lakhs and the area of 243. which are presently undergoing transformation in the form of cement concretization. Figure 6 Road type detail PROPOSED PMC has identified a total of 23 corridors for strengthening and improvement in view of the CYG 2008 • • Total length of CYG corridors is 57. (asphalted) and 100 Kms. option of pre boarding fare collection clear & prominent information display & signal priority at intersections. The PMC has an estimated road length of around 750 Kms.
Sangamwadi new bridge to Sancheti Hospital. Sancheti hospital to University junction and hotel Green Park to Balewadi Stadium crossing the Westerly Bypass and road from Balewadi to Westerly Highway from Baner. Typical sections for BRT routes having different widths have been shown below: . Nehru road and old Mumbai Pune road have also been proposed for BRT. BRT corridors have been proposed from Airport junction to Vishrantwadi chowk on Alandi road. Airport road to Deccan college road via Hot mix plant. Bajirao road. Shivaji road.PROPOSED The principal routes considered for the project are: Road corridors between – Airport to Balewadi Stadium This will include the entire stretch of road from Airport road to Ramwadi octroi post. In addition to the above.
BC 70% complete. Two cross drainage works are in progress. DBM & BC complete. Compound wall for 350 m. Paving blocks under flyover(75%) & cross duct work Completed.Concreting for slab culvert is 50% complete.PQC. DBM completed. S.DBM work (75%) & cross duct work is in progress. Telephone duct. Golf Club Compound wall construction & storm water work in progress. electric duct work in progress. water line work in progress. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 80% work is completd. Storm water complete.(85%) Up to Govt. Excavation work . Work of SWD.Footpath with block 70% complet. PQC 95% & Mastic asphalt work 90% completed. GSB work in progress. MB. Poultry Farm to Harris Bridge k) Shivaji Road All work items are completed. poultry farm PQC completed.D.PQC for 800m complete. Utility duct in progress.. Water line for 800m is completed. is complete. storm water drainage line is in progress (80%). Crosscut. 13 l) Nehru Road . foothpath work. 11 12 Stormwater line work completed 90 % . 95% storm water complete. Footpath work in progress. Poultry Farm j)Govt. final asphalt layer is pending.DBM for 600m length is completed.W.Actual completed: 1 2 a)Airport to Ramwadi Jakat Naka b)Sancheti hospital to university chowk c)Hotel green park to balewadi stadium crossing westerly bypass d)Airport Junction to Vishrantwadi chowk e) Kalyani nagar junction to Alandi road f) Air port Road to Deccan College via Hot Mix Plant gi)Baner Gaothan to Balewadi Gaothan gii) Balewadi Gaothan to Westerly bypass h)Bajirao Road i)Sancheti Hospital to Govt. Further work in progress. telephone duct work is in progress. DBM work (95%).DBM completed. Land acquisition problem. Foothpark work 90% completed. Water supply line complete.
Sangam Bridge Harris Bridge. Kakasaheb Gadgil Bridge Shivaji Bridge. • • • • • • • • • • Chhatrapati Rajaram Bridge Yashwantrao Chavan Bridge Bridge near Balgandharva Dengale Bridge Fitzgeerald Bridge (Yerwada Bridge) S. PROPOSED Following locations are suggested for flyovers: (1) (2) (3) (4) On Nagar road from Sadalbaba Durgah to HSBC bank On old Mumbai-Pune Highway near new Sangamwadi bridge Elevated bridge adjacent to CID office connecting river side roads Bridge connecting Mahatma Gandhi garden to Chima garden Construction of tunnels In order to avoid the congestion on the roads leading from various parts of the city to the Balewadi stadium. it is necessary to construct tunnels at three different locations. (1) International convention centre (ICC) to Pashan (2) Baramati Hostel to MIT (3) Sahakar Nagar to Hingne Khurd on Sinhagad road .BRIDGES IN PUNE CITY First Bridge in Pune City built by Nanasaheb Peshwe and formally known as “Lakdi Pool” was reconstructed as Arch Bridge in the year 1949 –50 by Pune Municipal Corporation. M. the Pune Municipal Corporation took up the following bridge projects over Mula–Mutha River which has been successfully completed. In order to cater to the needs of growing urbanisation and communication. Joshi Bridge.
It is essential that a good networking of roads exists between the above. The following are the major road improvement projects that have to be undertaken in the city: (1) Road from Pune station to Mahatma Gandhi road ( via Sadhu Vasvani chowk and Golibar Maidan junction to 7 Loves junction and Shankarsheth junction to Nehru stadium (2) Shivajinagar to Ganeshkhind road (3) Pune station to RTO junction (4) Pune station to Fitzgerald bridge (Bund Garden junction) (5) Link from S.ROAD IMPROVEMENTS FOR CONNECTIVITY A large number of road improvement schemes are required to be undertaken in the city in view of the Games. As a result it is imperative that road improvement projects should be undertaken at the earliest with a view to prepare Pune for the upcoming Games. Also.P college to Peshve Park and Heerabag to Saras Baug (6) Nehru Stadium to Simla office chowk (7) Fergusson college road from Good Luck chowk to Agricultural college junction (8) Sancheti Hospital to Sangam Bridge (9) Kamgar statue to Shivaji statue (10) Sanas statue to Dandekar bridge (11) Roads surrounding Sanas ground . the S. the railway stations.T stands and the Balewadi stadium are located in different parts of the city. linkages from the above locations with the city sports centre comprising of the Sanas sports ground and the Nehru stadium is also important. Dignitaries and visitors coming from different parts of the country as well as from abroad will be using these routes within the city. The Airport. Sports persons.
BC work for 450m is complete.(55%) DBM work in progress. Footpath work in progress.T. 3 c) Fergussion Collage Road 4 5 6 d)Sancheti hospital to sangam bridge e) Kamgar statue to shivaji statue f) Pune station to M.G. Excavation for crosscut is complete. All work items are completed.Shankar sheth junction to nehru stadium) g) Shivaji Nagar to Ganeshkhind Road h) Pune station to R.Foothpath work 85% complete. Mastic work is 100% completed.BC & foothpath work on both side for 300m length is complete. Storm water drain. footpath & BC 80% complete. DBM work for 300 m length is completed. DBM completed for 500 m length. Excavation & crosscut is completed. work in progress.P. Storm water line 60% & Footpath work 70% complete.road(via sadhu vaswani chowk Golibar junction to seven loves flyover.junction i) Pune station to fitzgaraldBridge j) S.O. Foothpath work & telephone line work is in progress. Mastic asphalt work is in progress. median const. SWD line work in progress. SWD in progress. stormwater work for 300m is completed. DBM 95% complete.Collage to Peshve park 7 8 9 10 .Actual completion: 1 2 a) Sanas Ground Surrounding Road b) Sanas statue to Dandekar Bridge DBM & Mastic work is completed. stormwater line work & BC 95% complete. crossduct work. DBM complete for part length.BC in progress. Cross ducts are completed. DBM Completed (100%).
The idea is to remove the impedance in the flow of fast vehicles thereby increasing their travel speed.26 0. Such segregation was to be achieved by setting aside and reserving a part of the carriageway on wide roads exclusively for the operation of this mode.00 e) Kamgar statue to shivaji statue d)Sancheti hospital to sangam bridge c) Fergussion Collage Road b) Sanas statue to Dandekar Bridge a) Sanas Ground Surrounding Road 0.00 1.Collage to Peshve park i) Pune station to fitzgaraldBridge h) Pune station to R.4 2.junction g) Shivaji Nagar to Ganeshkhind Road 0.00 7.T. independent. 8‐Nov 8‐Feb j) S.09 0.00 0.35 1.P.15 f) Pune station to M. It is thus very essential to provide safe. about 15 % of the vehicles are cycles. The benefit of the project was quantified in terms of direct and indirect benefits.00 0.11 7.00 0.23 0. The roads provided for segregation of cycle traffic from the fast vehicular traffic. saving in .00 5.Actual completion for Road amount in Cr.00 8.30 0. fuel saving. It has been observed that out of the total number of vehicles at any intersection.33 1.64 7.O.43 1. Direct benefits represented the benefit in travel time.road(via sadhu … 0.00 4.7 2. The project has covered a total length of 66 km and 247 links on the road network in Pune.38 0.00 Pedestrian / Non-motorized transport schemes Cycle tracks The study on cycle network emphasized the need of the independent cycle network in Pune city.89 2.56 0. less pollution.G. safety.00 3.00 6.11 0. obstruction-free routes for the cyclists.
Fitzerald Bridge. etc. The importance of good pedestrian facility design not only applies to development of new facilities. Puram chowk to Saras Baug. 2 3 4 . Gulibar Chowk Hadapsar Proposed Pedestrianisation at Moledina Hall. Work not started. Walking Plazas have also been proposed on Laxmi road. Santosh Hall on Sinhgad Road. Karve Road at Dashbuja to Paud Phata. Shaniwarwada to Vishrambaug wada. Tulshi Baug.acquisition cost. Work not started. Vivekanand Chouk. but also to the improvement and retrofitting of existing facilities for pedestrian use. Locations like Rajaram Bridge. road during the Games period on Laxmi road. The indirect benefits included the reduction in the cost of wear & tear of fast vehicles and buses. Sanas Statue to Dandekar Bridge. Pune Station Strengthening of existing Pedestrians Paths ( Bottle Necks Of Link Roads) New Pedestrian’s areas in commercial 20 nos. Maharishi Sindhe Bridge. Viz:. Shivaji road.Laxmi Road. Work not started. Tulshi Baug. roads surrounding Sanas ground etc. Based on present study it can be inferred that pedestrians are performing a large portion of the trips in Pune In order to quantify the pedestrian vehicle conflict pedestrian surveys were carried out at 18 mid-block counts and 32 intersections. Cycle tracks have been proposed on roads from Dengle Bridge to Shinde Bridge. Maharana Pratap road. Dengle Bridge and Sangam Bridge also have high pedestrian traffic. A location such as Ahmednagar Road near Fatima School has shown extensive road usage by pedestrians. Kanhere road. Bajirao road and Tilak road. etc. A few of the locations have heavy cross movement of pedestrians throughout the day. Traffic management measures such as enforcing one way traffic has also been proposed on Kumthekar road. and safer routes for children. Pedestrian schemes Pedestrians are an integral part of every community’s transportation system. Shivaji Bridge. Works are of subways on main road & will be started after Commonwealth Youth Games.G. Bibwewadi Junction. Shaniwar Wada to Vishram baug wada. Pedestrian schemes have been proposed on the lines of M. reduction in the cost of maintenance of road network. 1 Gunjan Chowk.
CIVIL WORKS A total of 122 no. The system will be able to recognize buses and afford them priority. the traffic congestion in the city is increasing alarmingly. provision of channelizers. •Synchronized Signal System • Traffic Regulations Enforcement by Video Camera • Priority for Public Transport Vehicles • Emergency Response Unit • Automated Traffic & Parking A total number of 45 junctions in the city have been identified for the ATCS. As a consequence.Traffic Control: With introduction of on an average 500 vehicles per day. Bund-Garden Chowk etc. Sancheti Chowk. This system will control all traffic signals in Pune. fixing of railings. This will include provision of footpaths at junctions. LED conversion system and Loop Detectors/Controllers. Parnkuti Chowk. etc. both at junctions and mid-block pedestrian crossings. average speeds on the city roads are greatly impaired and range between 15 km/hr to 35 km/hr. Pareehar Chowk. Wadia College Chowk. Improvement of these junctions will aid in minimizing the conflicting points at the junctions and thereby effecting smoothening of traffic at these junctions. of Junctions have been identified for civil works. Balgandharva Chowk. ATCS involves fixing of 5 cameras per junction. provision of BSNL connections. Some of the important junctions which are proposed for civil works improvements are . all junctions will be linked and thus the signals can be set to minimize travel time. Alaka Chowk. These include Gunjan Theater Chowk. About 60% of Pune Municipal Corporation roads in the heart of the city are congested whereas remaining 40% roads in the fringe area have relatively lower traffic volumes. PROPOSED A “State of the Art” Area Traffic control system (ATCS) is proposed. In effect.
Land acquision problem. Market yard chowk. Work started. Jedhe chowk. Nal stop chowk. Land acquision problem. Simla office chowk. Work started. Work started. etc.M Road Land acquision problem.Trimix & retaining wall complete. Golibar maidan chowk. Tukaram paduka chowk. .no 105 Moledina Hall Revenue Colony Wadgaon Budurk Ram Wadi PMC Buliding Bopodi Naka Savarkar Bhavan Parvati Alka Talkies Kothrud PMT Depot J.University junction. Khandojibaba chowk. Balgandharva chowk. Land acquision problem. Chaphekar chowk. Work is in progress. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Baner S. Dnyaneshwar paduka chowk. Work started. Work nearly complete. Work in progress.
They are likely to visit various places of attraction within the city.HERITAGE AND EXCURSION FACILITIES Development of sites from tourist point of view A large number of tourists from different places within the country and from outside are expected to visit Pune during the Games period. restored and renovated up to certain permissible level to attract more tourism and researchers in the city. the popular tourist interest points or locations and the historical monuments should be preserved. . The heritage structures. This will include the heritage buildings located in different parts of the city and the tourists spots located within and near Pune.
Pune Municipal Corporation has prepared a proposal to extend the sanitation services to the new areas. and Mahabaleshwar would be developed as the excursion points by introducing the activities and facilities at these places are supporting the weekend enthusiasm and adventure sports for the thrill and change seeking people. Thrills for Weekends at various picnic Spots These locations include: a) Mulshi Backwater b) Khadakwasla c) Bhushi Dam.Excursion facilities for surrounding scenic beauty spots The spots like Mulshi. Temple Areas. Bhugaon. Lonavla Renovation of Historical SEWERAGE & DRAINAGE After the addition of the new 23 villages within the Pune Municipal Corporation limits. a) Khadakwasla Backwater b) Mulshi Back Water c) Bhugaon Arrangements for Adventure Sports. Sinhgad. The proposal is given under development . Monuments. Lonavala. Museum This will include the following: a) Lal Mahal b) Kelkar Meusum c) Nana Wada d) Saras Baug Ganpati Temple e) Vitthal Mandir off Sinhagad Road Arrangement for On-Going Places Viz: Transportation Facilities The following are the tourist attraction spots which are most likely to be visited by the tourists during the Games period. Development.
One pipe culvert is completed 2nd in progress. . Wiman nagar work 50% completed. BM.plan for the newly added 23 villages keeping in view the expected high pressure on the sewerage & drainage infrastructure during the event period. corridors and maintaining the ambience of the city. This will include the cleaning of roads. chandan nagar in progress.R & D gate to Pune PMC limit. Other Projects: 1 2 Baner Road Subway Sangamwadi Approch road 95% work is completed. DBM is completd. Work started. WMM. printing listing of the projects is revised and certain projects will be completed before the event of Commonwealth Youth Games 2008. Defense land not transferred to PMC. For 800m GSB. 3 4 Nagar Road Subways (4 Nos) New Alandi Road.
Delay Analysis .
four were not been materialized as the PMC was not able to procure land for them at Baner. Kalyaninagar junction to Alandi road was been completed just about 30 per cent. . However.A story of delays and missed deadlines About two years ago. including airport to Ramwadi octroi post. The plan involved widening. Hotel Greenpark to Balewadi stadium and airport junction to Vishrantwadi chowk. the deadline was later extended to August 15 when the pace of work slowed down for one reason or the other. only less than 50 per cent work was been completed on these roads in the month of August. Work on Shivaji road. While it was announced that the work would be completed by June 30. Although priority was given to the roads leading to Balewadi complex. even when less than 60 days were remaining for the inauguration of the Games. when the pune Muncipal Corporation (PMC) announced its plans to strengthen the city’s infrastructure in view of the Commonwealth Youth Games (CYG). Wadgaon. MP and chairman of CYG's organising committee and municipal commissioner had announced that detailed project reports and plans for strengthening the road projects were completed and work would begin soon thereafter.although the work order was given on January 24. Nehru road and Bajiroa road was only 50 per cent complete. Sancheti hospital to university chowk. 2008. According to details of status of road works in month of August. citizens were excited about the brand new look the city would wear. Similarly. resurfacing of 10 link roads and developing parking lots and pedestrian facilities. In September last year. out of the 12 parking lots. some roads like the Sancheti hospital to Harris bridge just 20 per cent work was completed . the civic body was struggling hard to meet the deadline which were postponed twice. near Alka theatre and near Bopodi octroi post. concretisation and beautification of 13 main roads. municipal commissioner then announced that the projects will be completed by the end of September.
Land acquisition was not done by the normal procedure but it was acquired by the mutual understanding between land owner and City officer to speed up the procedure of acquisition. Baner Balewadi gaothan road came to stand still due to land acquisition. which was not supported by the land acquisition officers and department. As per normal land acquisition procedure it takes 3 years to take possession of land but time may reduce in urgency clause it takes only 24 hrs. Various projects not started due to land acquisition problems like terminal facilities at Baner terminal facility Wadgaon Budurk Ram Wadi Alka talkies And all the road projects are delayed due to land acquisition problems. Land acquisition: Land acquisition is the major reason for delays in project which tend to over run time and cost major reason for which delays occur are • • • • Land records are not updated Resistance by the tenants Delays occur due to processing of proposals Dispute due to the ownership of the land According to plan the land should be acquired in 1 week but above mentioned reasons duration extents to 3 months. .Main reasons for delays • • • • Land acquisition/ defense land acquisition Coordination between various government bodies Under ground utilities Design Problem 1. Compensation was offered in 3 ways • TDR • FSI • Payment in demand draft according to land value Allotment F S I and T D R to each party took time to get possession of land.
2. Also. bodies are involved for granting the permission for work. Also there were disputes in drawings and there was lack of co ordination between contractors and consultants which causes delay in decision of changing the working drawing and thus cause the project to delay by 10 days. The planned time for relocating or removing the Utilities was 7 days but it took about 90 days for the concern department to do the same. These departments also take time for removing and shifting their amenities from one place to other which causes considerable delay in the project. were involved. various delays occurred due to delay in shifting various utilities which was not shown in tender document and in which various other department like Water Supply department. Because of many IT companies nearby contractor found Fiber optic cables of private companies buried underground which cannot be moved without prior information and thus delay to the project. Maharashtra State Electric Board etc. . Like: In Banner. Design problem: Design of Baner subway delayed due to not availability of design steel sections so they have to change there design. Co ordination between Government bodies: There are various govt. 3. Contractor found a water Pipeline while excavating which took considerable time to shift and thus delay occurred. NHAI has taken 2 months for granting the permission to build the subway on NH 4. Underground utilities: Various underground utilities were found which was not shown in the plan and which adds extra work for the contractors and took major time to shift the same from the existing place because of which delay took place. 4. due to lack of coordination between them results in the delays the project. Like: Baner subway project delayed due to time taken by the NHAI for granting the permission. This was because of shear lack in co ordination.
7 km in asphalt.5. 300 meter interlocking blocks and the remaining stretch of 1. On September 2. The work has been started for the same. but it has again created a huge traffic problem and congestions for the residence of baner and Balewadi. the entire road will be concretised. . While it was announced that the work would be completed by June 30.5 km cement.that after CYG. Effects of delay : completion of Baner road in 3 different materials. the deadline was later extended to August 15.2. the PMC officials decided to carry the work in three patches . which was further extended to a week before the games start date. The officials had promised . MP and chairman of CYG's organising committee Suresh Kalmadi and municipal commissioner Pravinsinh Pardeshi had announced that detailed project reports and plans for strengthening the road projects were completed and work would begin soon thereafter. The PMC claims that the delay in the dead lines were due to land acquisition and rains. To start the vehicular movement on the road before October 11.The civic administration finally admitted that they would not be able to complete concretisation of the Baner road before September 30. In September last year.
under the much hyped Green Games. The work has been pending for want of necessary permissions from the defence authorities. cantonment board.6. CNG Supply 50 CNG Buses were proposed for the CYG . as the proposed line goes from plots of land owned by the defence ministry. railways and the state government. The Maharashtra Natural Gas Limited (MNGL). . the pipeline has to be laid. near Chinchwad. The CNG supply would be from the Chinchwad mother station initially to about eight to ten retail outlets (petrol pumps) in Pune and PimpriChinchwad. has its mother station ready at Chikhali. a joint venture of Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) and Bharat Petroleum Company Limited (BPCL). But for this to happen.
NEW DELHI.CASE STUDY – ASIAD GAMES. 1982 .
By 1982. New Delhi. There had been a change of government in-between and a lot of political turmoil had plagued the country in those years. hotels and the Games Village in a span of 20 months. flyovers. along with build numerous stadiums. the largest ever Asian Games. the games had grown manifold with 33 nations and nearly 4600 athletes and officials participating in 21 sports and 147 events. second only to the Summer Olympics. The games were an announcement to the world that India had arrived. Political Compulsions The 1982 Asiad almost didn’t take place at all. Though India had won the bid to host the games in 1976. and there was little importance g i v e n t o p la n n i n g n o r ms a n d r e g u l a t i o n s . interestingly in many arenas far removed from sport. Buildings like the player’s building and the roof of the Talkatora swimming pool weren’t completed on time. The games seem to have a very deep felt impact on the country as a whole. The first edition of the Asian Games had been held in 1951 with eleven participating nations and six competitive sports. Indira Gandhi was back in power. It is therefore nearly impossible to get an accurate picture of . and the little that does remain is scattered among the tens of government organizations that dealt with the event. Here paper focuses on impact of the game on urban development of Delhi. New Delhi: Let’s go back to History! 1982 saw the return of the Asian Games to its original home. The 1982 Games was the first time after independence that the country was playing host to an international event of this magnitude. Despite various shortcomings. though other effects will also be discussed later in the paper. by 1980 no work had even started and the Games surely looked doomed. The city was to be prepared to host the largest event it had ever experienced. and she along with her son Rajiv Gandhi. The games had grown to be the second largest sporting event in the world. the Asian Games Special Organizing Committee (SOC) was able to pull it off is highly commendable.Asian Games 1982. development was haphazard and short sighted. made it her personal mission to pull off a successful games. The world’s attention was about to be focused on the city and it was not going to disappoint. In 1980. There i s l it t l e infor mat ion pertaining to the Asian Games available in the public domain.
the total expenditure on the games, though estimates seem to place it at between Rs 710,000 Million, (Lin, S. G. and Patnaik, N. 1982), a sum a nation as poor as India could hardly afford. At the same time, revenues were almost negligible. The SOC made about Rs 60 million through ticket sales, donations and franchising revenue, a sum not even enough to cover the operational costs of Rs 150 million. Foreign tourists, who were supposed to enter the city in the thousands, never materialized. Only an estimated 200 arrived, leaving hotels and restaurants empty.
Economics and planning were often put aside as all trumpeted the notion of ‘International prestige and patriotic fervour’. The Games had become an emotive issue, and anyone raising questions about it was unpatriotic and a traitor. One notices this patterns in such events worldwide, where the supporters and organizers of such events make it a nationalistic issue whereby, even when what is at stake is billions of dollars.
No queremos goles, queremos frijoles (we do not want goals, we want beans) was painted on a Mexico stadium during the Football World Cup in 1986 (Andreff, W. n.d.). That statement in some way reflects the scenario in India in 1982 as well. The nation was still a heavily protected and closed economy, reeling under babudom and unable to shake off the ‘Hindu’ rate of growth.
“Hypocrisy and cynicism are even more evident than usual in New Delhi. The crores being spent on Asiad, The Asian Games of 1982, stand out in sharp relief against the real requirements of the people... The twisted values involved in advertising the luxuries and choice of expensive dishes available in five star hotels when millions are in search of food... descriptions of spacious air-conditioned suites each fitted with colour television sets... and other luxuries, appear side by side in the newspapers with grim reports of near famine conditions in large parts of the country.”
The famine conditions were not very far from the sight of the capital city itself. The construction spree that took place required workers, lakhs of them, with over 1.5 lakhs workers working on sites directly related to the games, with many more on other construction projects. These workers were often paid lower than minimum wages, and forced to live in temporary jhuggies that a large majority never moved out of. Homeless people also reported that harassment increased, as there was a need to
‘clean up’ the streets for the Asian Games, when the Bombay Prevention of Begging Act was used liberally to remove many hundreds of people forms the streets of Delhi (Speak, S. E. n.d.)
Any old timer in the city will tell you that it was in 1982 that Delhi finally began to ‘develop’. The build up to the games saw an unprecedented construction spree in the city with stadiums, the games village, hotels, flyovers and roads, even Pragati Maidan being built, all with 1982 as the deadline. The skyline of the city literally changed overnight. Very few records remain on the public domain of the actual details of the construction that took place during that period, and few, if no, studies seem to have been conducted on the Games’ impact.
The construction at the time can be broadly categorized into four groups: 1. Stadiums- the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium was the centerpiece of the games, being the venue for the opening and closing ceremonies and athletics. The other major stadiums built at the time were the Talkatora Stadium, the Indira Gandhi Indoor stadium and the Yamuna Velodrome. One notices that with the exception of the National Stadium, which was an earlier construction, most of the venues for the 1982 Games were new constructions.
2. Asiad Village- The Games village, where all the participating athletes and officials were to stay was a large project developed in the Siri Fort area.
3. Hotels- A number of hotels came up at the time like the Kanishka, the Mughal Sheraton and the Taj Palace. 4. Roads and Flyovers-The city’s love for flyovers began with the Asian Games when four flyovers were built to facilitate smooth movement of traffic between the venues and the Games village.
The unprecedented nature of the construction meant that the Master Plan, a broad outline for the planned development of the city, was largely sidelined in the name of ‘National prestige.’(Baviskar, A. 2005) Normal planning procedures for land use changes and development were largely sidelined and nationalistic fervour meant they often won in the
face of opposition from critics. The other aspect which meant that planning was often put on the back seat was the fact that the entire infrastructure for the games were largely built in the last 2 years leading up to the games, and not the 4-6 years that a country normally takes to prepare itself for an event of this size (Sisodia, M. K. S. 2005). Internal unrest and infighting had meant that the development of infrastructure had been left right to the last minute.
Legacies: Condition and Usage
Though thousands of crores were spent at the time to develop world-class stadiums, the construction undertaken for the games was largely of a shoddy and poor quality, reflecting t h e h a s t e i n w h i c h th ey w er e b u i lt . The P l ay er ’ s b u il d in g w as n e v er completed, nor was the roof of the Talkatora swimming pool. The retracting roof of the Indira Gandhi indoor stadium hailed as a technological feat never worked effectively and even after numerous repairs, the roof still leaks. An international Badminton competition in the 1990’s was disrupted due to water leaking in. The main stadium, built on the banks of the Yamuna is actually tilting on one side. The Delhi High Court also sealed the main portion of the stadium, as it does not fulfill fire safety norms (Venugopal, A. 2005). The adjoining Yamuna Velodrome is in a pathetic state with the velodrome full of cracks and bumps, and more often visited by snakes and rats than humans. The Nehru Stadium too is crumbling and bad maintenance means that even though new tracks were laid recently, they are already in disrepair. Utilisation of these stadiums has also not been very high. Bad maintenance has meant that they cannot be used for high profile international events and even domestic events are not held very often. The stadiums do serve as training grounds for the Sports Authority of India (SAI) but the fact remains that these stadiums have not been used to capacity since 1982. The stadiums are used more often for Bollywood events or political rallies than sporting events. Recently the only high profile international event that the famed J.N. Stadium has been used for is the Half Marathon where it was the starting and end point! There are some hard questions that must be answered about the ‘legacy’ that such events create. Numerous stadiums were built in ’82 but not a single one has been maintained appropriately and therefore none of them has been used effectively. It is quite apparent that these stadiums are simply given a facelift in the run up to an event but otherwise left in a state of disrepair. This also means that the domestic athletes training there
was running out of space and this region seemed perfect for development. though privatization. which had been growing rapidly. The necessary development provided by the games in South Delhi just accentuated the impact of the games on urban infrastructure. These hotels hardly ever rose above occupancy rates of 40%. The area where the village was developed. The Players' Building wasn't finished on time and remained uninhabited for 15 years. 1985). mostly propped up by government and PSU conferences filling up rooms. Siri Fort. like the new Shangri-La has saved some from complete ruin. easing congestion and quickening transit times. The broader roads and flyovers were welcome additions to the cities crumbling infrastructure at the time. by noted architect. was originally a Master Plan green but at this time was reallocated for the use of the village. in the Siri Fort area. South Delhi was a region that had already begun development.do not have up to the mark facilities. The government hotels are mostly in a sorry state. which was envisaged as a VIP complex meant for senior officials and visitors during the games. Three of the four flyovers developed at the time. The development of this site probably had the largest urban impact on the city due to its correlation with the development of South Delhi. It provided the region with broad roads and flyovers for swift movement of traffic and other infrastructure as well such as water. Sewa Nagar and Oberoi flyovers were in south Delhi. electricity and other civic amenities. The complex was taken over as government housing post-event. the Moolchand. soon becoming a much-coveted address among government and PSU officials. The hotels built at the time were largely government owned and operated. The state of government hotels need not be enumerated here but it is widely accepted that they were mostly money losing ventures. Raj Rewal. The core of the Asian games was the village that was developed by the DDA. The design of the Games village. R. They were however biased in their location as they were all built with the purpose of serving the . The other large residential complex built at the time was the Player’s Building. The city. but it was only after the 1982 games that this region gained importance. was considered a great success and revolutionary in its ‘cluster’ approach to housing (Rewal. till it was reborn as the Delhi Secretariat.
D. which were originally planned to be green open areas for the city. were encroached upon. The duration of the games also saw a rise in the lead concentration in the air. This comment is very true in the Indian context where construction often takes several years with no end in sight. Mukharjee. Unfortunately little research seems to have been undertaken at the time. roads which are now the lifeline of the city. U. Singh. flyovers and hotels would have taken place even without the games. were developed at the time. increasing pollution and causing imbalances by rampant. B. In the build up to the games there was a decision taken to broadcast the games in colour. 1986). One pertinent implication of such event in Indian context is that it sets a deadline for projects.. . all the projects like roads.. S. it’s just that they would have taken 10 years instead of the 2 that they did. This is even more apparent when seen in the context of advent of colour television. The ring road is today virtually stopping less with almost all traffic lights on the route being eliminated through flyovers. In the words of a senior DDA official.’82 games. The effect of an event of this magnitude on the environment can be quite detrimental. an up gradation that might have otherwise taken years. One can point out however that certain areas. The games were able to fix a date before which the project must be completed which ensured that construction did not slacken. meaning that they were not located in the most congested places which needed them most but on routes which the athletes would take between stadiums and the games village. Also further portions of the Ridge area. The four flyovers built at the time also led to tens more being built during the ‘80s and ‘90s drastically easing congestion even in the face of ever increasing numbers on the road. probably due to the rise in automobiles on the roads at the time (Boralkar. a no build zone. The ring roads too were further broadened at the time. B. unchecked development. This gave DD the impetus to almost overnight upgrade their existing technology to support this.
and receive below minimum wage pay. speaking in the Parliament on the President's Address. increasing the population of the city from 55 lakhs to 65 lakhs (approx. the government took a tough stand. Some of the interesting impacts are enumerated below. lakhs of workers entered the city. S. No Sikhs were allowed to proceed towards Delhi and all means of transport were monitored.N. the Chief Minister of Haryana took an exceptionally strong stand. He warned the government.Social Impact The Asian Games was in some senses a landmark event in the country with far reaching implications.. it will owe much to the foolish short-sightedness of Bhajan lal. (Subramaniam. the Khalistan movement was already well under way. not allowing the movement of Sikhs in the state. In an attempt to highlight their condition. Bhajan Lal. God forbid. In a landmark case.government sentiment among the Sikhs. a tool often used by concerned citizens now. SourceDunnu Roy) in a span of a few years. which most of them never moved out of. the Asiad can be seen as a major factor in the rise of anti. the Asiad worker’s case (Peoples’ Union for Democratic Rights Vs. The games had an impact on areas as diverse as the Khalistan movement to the judicial process in the country to television broadcasting. the Supreme Court allowed what has now become known as Public Interest Litigation (PIL). filed by the People’s Union for Democratic Rights (PUDR). the Khalistan movement catches on." Thus in some ways. even those with reason to travel to Delhi were roughed up. further embittering them. rounding up Sikhs all over the country and in the capital. In an attempt to counter this. 1999) Thus one of the first PIL’s. AIR 1982 SC 1473). protest marches were scheduled in Delhi during the games. Many Sikhs. was filed on behalf of the Asiad . These workers were forced to stay in cheap temporary housing. "Was it ever realized that in so doing the government embittered thousands of Sikhs and played into the hands of Akali extremists by confirming their charge of governmental discrimination against the Sikhs? If. C. In the construction frenzy that preceded the Asian Games. By 1982. warned that the country would have to pay a heavy price for the treatment meted out to Sikhs during the Asiad. Union of India. Khushwant Singh.
M R and Student Group. the government directed DD to air the games in colour. 2005). then. and the National Informatics Centre (NIC). a big policy change in those protectionist days. To promote the games. The Supreme Court held that a person who provides service to another for less than the minimum wage renders forced service. The court ruled.. This case was seminal in the context of the minimum wages act as it held a person receiving less than minimum wage. This ruling was very important in the workers fight against exploitation. now the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports. and ensured that non-payment of minimum wages would be considered a serious offence and will be viewed as a violation of the Constitution of India. the body responsible for providing network backbone and e-Governance support to Central. and also allowed the import of colour TVs. The Asian Games also led to the setting up of the Department of Sport. the labour or service provided by him clearly falls within the scope and ambit of the word `forced labour'. ‘beggar’ within the meaning of Article 23 of the constitution.e. "Where a person provides labour or service to another for remuneration which is less than minimum wage. One of the most visible effects of the Asian Games was the advent of colour television.".workers.. i. . All labours w er e rewarded with less than the minimum wage. constitute forced labour and violate the Constitution of India (L. a bonded labourer. Sreenath.
or they might finally put the city. with some smart marketing. Popular perception tells us that the Asian Games was an unmitigated success. Do they do more harm than good is not a question that has been answered conclusively. as many of the benefits derived are intangible ones. as well as examines previous events and tries and learns from their mistakes. may just follow in those footsteps. studying its unique characteristics. and the country. . The world over there is a serious re-think taking place among city officials as well as academics about the way to go about these events. on the world map. Pune’s citizens have a right to know about the benefits that such events can have to the city. Closer analysis tells us that it was not so simple. and that is that Pune is otherwise too a rapidly growing city.CONCLUSION Introduction: One can see that at least on paper. However it is also necessary to keep one thing in mind. They may bring in a new era where transportation problems. but need to be informed of the downsides as well. a dynamic economy and an integral part of India’s growth engine. this means that it would be wrong to place the causation of all infrastructure and urban development onto the Commonwealth youth Games. In the past couple of years Pune is growing dynamically in every possible sector. The Commonwealth youth Games. A large amount of it would probably have taken place anyway. However it has yet to be conclusively shown that these events are beneficial as well and it is crucial to examine each event independently. the city is all set to transform itself by the time it plays host to the Commonwealth youth Games. the games just gives it a geographical bias and a deadline. The present plan for the Commonwealth youth Games may be a recipe for an ecological and financial disaster. water problems. are no longer an issue or they might increase the burden on an already overloaded system. perennial problems in the city.
which in turn will increase tourism in future Pune cities development was already planned under JNNURM. which was the major concern of the PMC. it’s just that they would have taken 10 years instead of the 2 that they did. with maximum workers working on sites directly related to the games. but because of CYG the work got speeded up as it got a deadline. World class sports facilities are now available to the citizens of Pune. is solved to maximum extent with up coming of flyovers on the major roads of Pune. Subways for pedestrians . who were facing problems crossing busy traffic junctions. Traffic congestion problem. New proposals are made for sewage lines in city. Pune municipal corporation has done a detail study of the past (4 decades) and projection of future (till 2031) population in Pune city. The heritage places in and around Pune which were neglected till date. with many more on other construction projects. To certain extent due to these events the sky line of the city has started to change. • • The event does not only improve sports infrastructure. • • • • • • • • • All the projects like roads. got new life and attention. The construction spree which is taking place required workers. but in the long run will help India to hold such international sporting events. flyovers and hotels would have taken place even without the games. The complete infrastructure development that is going on currently is been planned accordingly.Impact of C Y G Positive impact: • For the revised CDP for Pune city in the contest of CYG. The Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) launched a major drive against encroachments on footpaths and roads across the city The drive had been initiated to relieve chronic spots of congestion and also remove hurdles to the widening of major roads on account of the Commonwealth Youth Games. thousands of them. the only point there is to see that these changes are long term or short sighted. . but overall infrastructure of the city. such as road development projects.
per day . are already dusting the houseful boards to be placed outside their hotels." Negative impact: • A number of BRT projects have been considered under JNNURM. Balewadi. About 3. The committee is targeting 40 colleges and top 10 IT companies in Pune. Real-estate price increased in the surrounding areas. • Commonwealth Youth Games (CYG) organising committee kick-started its programme on electronic waste (e-waste) management.000 per room. E-waste is fast emerging as a serious environment issue in cities with the IT sector booming. Hotels near Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex. the games venue. But as of now. no labour camp provision from PMC. • • • • Thousands of labours are coming in city. The move has been made in view of increasing congestion due to road-side parking by motorists. There is no proper connectivity between these routes. Joining them are many apartment owners who have hiked their rents by 15-20% in the last month. with all developmental projects in the city taken up on an environmentally-sustainable model. with a major chunk coming from the IT sector. and the major problem arises at traffic signals. where people get confused between regular and BRTS routes. In the current scenario the work is been delayed and the cost of construction projects has increased due to the abrupt increase in labours rates due to the political issue created between maharashtrians and north Indians and maharashtrians made the north Indian labours to leave this place. But the corridors that are considered here are those which are not considered under the Phase .I of JNNURM but are of utmost important for the Commonwealth Youth Games.• Commonwealth Youth Games (CYG) held in the city were a “Green Games” event.000 and Rs3. and are planning to charge those who wish to rent them between Rs2. • • Road-side parking fee hiked. these routes are major cause of accidents in the city.600 tonnes of e-waste is waiting to be disposed off. The ingenious ones have converted their flats into service apartments. in the hope of jobs in the construction sector. Due to land acquisition of road widening many people have to migrate to another place.
such major aspect was neglected by PMC. which became a cause of delay. • Operation and maintenance cost A detailed calculations of the O and M costs that are likely to be incurred by the PMC over a period of time. feasibility . So a contractor or a vendor would not require going to various departments to take necessary permissions. Even though the games were taunted as green games . • Environmental impact analysis A detailed environmental impact assessment (EIA) was not carried out for the projects to be executed for the Commonwealth youth games. stating that government can acquire any land for the betterment of the public and the city in case of national events and there would be no objections from pubic against such acquisitions.Recommendations • To Overcome the Problem of Land Acquisition : One of the major cause of delay in meeting the deadlines for the games was land acquisition . • Overcome Lack of Coordination: There was a major communication gap between various government departments. A detail plan for the same should have been worked out before hand. . monitor and schedule the entire project in the specific time frame. • Appoint a Project Management Team A project management team should have been appointed to plan . cost over run. • Appointment of Project Management Consultancy A PMC should have been appointed to look in to the issues such as. The work would have become easy and the pace would have increased. Same is the case with stadium infrastructure.For such national events some amendments should be made in the land acquisition act(LAA). Weekly meetings should be conducted to review the progress. A one point decision system should have been in place. has not being worked out as yet. Quality of work.a sub act should be introduced under the LAA. so that finance would not have been a major concern for maintenance of this massive infrastructure. and to provide alternative recommendations and solutions.
No alternative proposals were framed for the proposed projects. central and state government but proper fund management and financial analysis was not seen. It is essential to avoid a duplication of the projects as PMC has already forwarded phase-I of the detailed project report for various infrastructural projects under JNNURM. • Structural solutions and alternative proposals PMC had undertaken a detailed study and had finalized the projects for the Commonwealth youth games. If this would have been taken in to consideration projects like.T stands and the area near the city sports centre.• Economic and financial analysis was neglected. S. . Railway stations. The grants were easily available for the development from Jnnurm. The projects proposed are exclusively with a view to upgrade the infrastructure in the area of the main Balewadi stadium and the Airport.Cycle track for the city would have seen the light of the day.
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