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W. R. EVANS

MEMBER AIEE

finding the roots of the characteristic equation by a n

extension of concepts now associated with the frequency-

case, a n d then calculates the corresponding value of gain

K. Knowing the roots permits the over-all transfer function

of the system of Figure 1 to be expressed as:

response method. T h e roots describe the natural response ft, 1

of the system, a n d knowing them permits a solution for

Bt (l-*Ai)(l-*/r,)(l-#/r,)

any input. Consider a simple single-loop system, shown in

Figure 1, for convenience in developing a physical picture. For each root r a term of the form A^ ^ can exist in t h e

t

T

With the feedback loop open a n d a sinusoidal signal transient response. For a step input the amplitude A t

/5

is given by transform theory in a form which corresponds,

shifted in phase angle a n d attenuated in amplitude as to a product of vectors from all other roots to the given

given by the open-loop transfer function KG(s) = A" G (s). M M

root. Similarly, the over-all frequency response c a n b e

0{8) for s =jco. If the frequency were of the value to

pictured as a product of vectors from all roots to points-

cause a 180-degree phase shift a n d the gain were then along the jco axis. I n a multiple loop system, the inner

selected for unity amplitude ratio, closing the feedback loop is solved first so that it m a y be replaced by a direct

loop would supply the error signal from the feedback signal function.

so that a natural oscillation would be sustained. Lowering Synthesis for a given control system can involve any one

the gain would cause the oscillation to d a m p out, during of four operations: selecting loop gain, changing given

which interval a damped sine wave e" e must be propa

vt jat

poles or zeroes, adding new poles or zeroes, or adding n e w

gating itself around the loop. A n extension of the transfer

function concept, admittedly n o t obvious, is that the phase

shift a n d attenuation of such a d a m p e d sine wave from

error to feedback is obtained simply by substituting the

complex number s = +7' into the function KG(s).

Thus one c a n find the natural response of the system by

finding the values of s which make KG(s) = 1.

T h e graphical technique for computing this function is

explained for the example by reference t o Figure 2.

(8)

=A*(l+ris)(l+r *)

2 (1)

1 (2)

to a point which is pictured moving freely over the complex

s plane. T h e phase angle of a vector 1 +ns is the same as Figure 2. Single-loop root l o c u s

amplitude is the ratio of line lengths from the pole to the

s point a n d the origin respectively. T h e locus of roots is loops. I n the root locus method, these operations a r e

the p a t h of values of s which make the total phase shift achieved respectively by selecting the position of a root

180 degrees; a point on the locus is a root if gain is selected along a locus, changing the position of given poles or zeroes,,

such that the amplitude ratio around the loop is unity. adding new poles or zeroes, a n d sketching a new root locus

Special parts of the locus such as intervals along the real plot. Other applications a n d development of the method

axis a n d the point of crossing the jco axis are found by in are believed to be great. Thus the classic problem of

finding the zeroes of n-th degree polynomial can be solved

spection a n d the remainder of the locus then sketched.

by successively combining two terms into one, using the

Note that the roots emerge from the open loop poles for

root locus to find the values of the variable which make the

zero loop gain a n d move out along the locus as indicated

ratio of t h e terms equal t o 1 . Multicoupled systems

by the arrows as loop gain is increased. O n e usually selects

involve block diagrams in which intercoupling effects

the desired position of the dominant roots, r a n d r in this x 2

appear as signals being transmitted between loops. Such

systems can be solved by isolation of loops or considering

6& . the effect of each coupling successively.

1

* * tS)

Digest of paper 50-11, "Control System Synthesis by the Root Locus Method,*' recom

mended by the A I E E Committee on Feedback Control Systems and approved by the

Of AIEE Technical Program Committee for presentation at the AIEE Winter General

Figure 1. General

IT A (s) Meeting, N e w York, . Y., January 30-February 3, 1950. Scheduled for publication

block diagram of a in AIEE Transactions, volume 69, 1950.

single-loop system W. R. E v a n s is with North American Aviation, Inc., Downey, Calif.

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