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PROFESSOR OF MUSIC

INDIANA UNIVERSITY

fiva.-- ...--...---- . __... ".. _.. _

~ u_- m .mm._. _ _....... _

SAXOPHONE HIGH TONES

A systematic approach to the extension of the range of all the Saxophones:


Soprano, Alto, Tenor and Baritone
Eugene Rousseau
Copyright 1978 Etoile Ml1sic. Assigned ro MMB Music, Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA. All rights
reserved. International protection secured under UCC, Buenos Aires and bilateral copyright treaties.
No part of this publication may be reprodl1ced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted-in any form
or by any means now known or later developed-without prior written permission except in the case of
brief quotations embodied in critical artides and reviews.

Caver Design: Carl Simpson


Ml1Sic Al1tographer: A. Snesrud
Photos: F. Satoh
Third Printing: August, 1998
Printer: Publishers Express Press, Ladysmith, Wisconsin
PRINTED IN USA
ISBN: 1-58106-005-X

For further information, contact:

MMB Ml1sic, Ine.


Contemporary Arts Building
3526 Washington Avenue
Saint Louis, MO 63103-1019 USA

Phone: 314531-9635; 800543-3771 (USA/Canada)


Fax: 314531-8384
E-mail: mmbmusic@mmbmusic.com
Website: www.mmbmusic.com
PREPACE

The possibilities for differences in the kinds of expression utilized in playing the saxophollC are

perhaps as varied as the range of capabilities exhibited by the instrument' s countless performers.

That the saxophone, this youthful member of the wind family, is already wellestablished as an

insttumem of enormous potential goes almost without saying. 1'he list of esteemed saxophonists

throughout the world, (:"ncompassing a11 manner of musical styles and tastes, is irnrnense, and growing

steadily. Musical literature';;{or the instrument inc1udes original and transcribed works from virrually

every era of musical history, with the contemporary composers .. happily, to an increasing degree -

conrinua11y discovering its abundant resources.

Among the many facets of the saxophone's evolution is the one to which the present book addresses

itself, namely: harmo7lics, or overtones -- those high tones aboye the norrnal range. A keen and

widespread interest has fOl many years been exhibited by players, teachers, and composen in the

extension of the saxophone's range upward, beyond the normal #= or =t:~-= Indeed, the

aurhor himself shares in this intentness, which has been the rnainspring for the pages that follow.

April, 1978

AUTOGRAPHY; A. SNESRUD

PHOTOGRAPHY: F. SATOH
BIOGRAPHY

Eugene Rousseau, one of the great saxophonists of the world, enjoys


the unique ability of being at home in a variety of musical styles. Since
his highly successful recital debut in New York's Carnegie Hall, he has
had engagements as a soloist and guest lecturer across the United States
and throughout the world, inc1uding Canada, Europe, Africa, Australia,
and J apan. Among these are appearances with the Gordon MacRae
Show and Woody Herman's Third Herd.
Of his numerous solo recordings, Rousseau's most notable is the first
undertaking of its kind, an album devoted entirely to saxophone solo and
orchestra, Concertos lor Saxophone (Deutsche Grammophon 2530 209).
A disc of the Eugene Rousseau Saxophone Quartet for Golden Crest
Records will be released later this year (1978). Inc1uded in his
publications are a two-volume Method lor Saxophone (Kjos), and 27 solos
published individually for the alto, tenor, and baritone saxophones
(Belwin-Mills) .
In recent years Eugene Rousseau has devoted much of his time and
energy to the acoustical aspects of saxophones and saxophone
mouthpieces. He is chief advisor to the Yamaha Corporation for
saxophone research and development and is currently President of the
North American Saxophone Alliance. He holds the Ph.D. degree from
the University of Iowa, where he was a pupil of Himie Voxman, and has
been Professor of Music at Indiana University since 1964.
5

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface 3

Fingering Chart: normal range 6

The Embouchure 7

Closed Tube t!xercises 8

Acoustics and Venting 13

The Technique of Overblowing Sixths 19

Bridging the Registers ~ 26

Beyond the Sixths ' 31

Fingering Chart: high tones (soprano, alto, tenor, baritone) 34

Chromatic Scales ~ 38

Major Scales: one octave ,42

Major Scales: extended range 43

Major Arpeggios : 47

Minor Scales, Harmonic: one octave 48

Minor Scales, Harmonic: extended range 49

Minor Arpeggios 53

Minor Scales, Melodic: one octave 54

Minor Scales, Melodic: extended range 55

Whole-Tone Scales 59

Augmented Arpeggios 60

Diminished Scales 61

Diminished Arpeggios 63

Exereises in Thirds 65

Pentatonie Scales 66

Artieulating the High Tones 69

6
FINGERING CHART FOR THE NORMAL RANGE
by
EUGENE ROUSSEAU

A# B~ B c c# D~

O.K. 1&
#~

~BP
&uI
U"

.B
-


#-
I

;c~
~o

c.
c. i
c.
c.

Fingerings shown are for lower notes.
For upper notes add octave key.
Left Thuw..b,
I~

LSK = Left Side Key D D# E~ E F


RSK = Right Side Key
O.K. = Octave Key 1& :t4 1: t:
I I
: :


, i



EP.

a
io
o

@) 1977 NeU A. KJo. MII.;c Co., Publi.her, Park Ridge, mino l.

A11 Right. Reserved Internltlonl. Copyris"t Secllred Printed in U.S.A.

Thll cIIIrt 1I exlrllCted lrom lhe Eugene ~OlI_U Methodl lor BeXOphOllll (2 Vol'I.), pubUlhed by KJOS. UHd by permllllon.
7

THE EMBOUCHURE

The requisite for accomplishing harmonics or overtones on the saxophone is a good tone. In turo,
the accomplishment of a good tone on the saxophone, as on aH wind instruments, necessarily depends
upon a proper embouchure.

While the scope of this book does not include those elements of playing normaHy associated with
beginners, it is nonetheless essential that one have a thorough understanding of the fundamentals of
the saxophone embouchure before attempting to achieve any high tones above the normal range of the
instrumento These fundamentals are as follows: .

(1) Curllower lip slightly over teeth.


(2) Keep chin in a natural position.
(3) Form 'ah "00" shape (as in saying coo) with the mouth and lips.
(4) Form a circular shape with the mouth (the lower lip should appear somewhat bunched).
(5) Place mouthpiece alone in the mouth, with top teeth resting solidly on the top of the mouthpiece.
(6) The round, "00" shape should now give solid support aH around the mouthpiece.

To determine the propor amount.of mouthpiece needed in the mouth, as well as the strength of the
roundness and bite, the test ~ to blow on the mouthpiece alone to attain the concert pitch shown
below. Always play this test arfortissimo leve!.

alto tenor britone soprano

lf the pitch produced on the mouthpiece alone is higher than indicated in the staff aboye, direct the
air stream down, remembering always to keep the embouchure solid. lf the pitch on the mouthpiece
alone is too low, direct the air stream up. In either case, p.ever loosen the embouchure, which should
remain solid at aH times, while the air does its job properly:

THE HARMONIC SERIES

Each tone produced on a. wind instrument is comprised of several tones, a phenomenon known as
the harmonic series. Although not heard as the principal tone, sorne harmonics -- in varying degrees
of strength _. are present when the principal tone is sounded. The main tone, or fundamental tone, is
the strongest of these severa! tones, and is the pitch that isheard. Each of the other tones is caHed a
harmonic, or overtone, terms quite familiar to any saxophonist interested in high tones aboye the
normal range.

- -

Copyright 1978 Etolle Musie, Ine. Bloomlngton, Indiana

AII Rlghts Reserved. Internatlonal Copyright Seeured. Prlnted In U.S.A.

By changing the embouchure and air pressure it is possible to bypass the fundamental, thereby
causing one of the harmonics to be heard as the main pitch. For this purpose the saxophone
embouchure needs to be stronger than normal (a stronger circle), with slightly more reed exposed'
within the mouth. This should be realized by a very slight forward movement of the jaw, rather than
taking more mouthpiece into the mouth.

The air pressure must be increased as the higher harmonics are attempted, the effect being a

smaller quantity of air put to use. This technique will equatt: with a higher pitch on the mouthpiece

alone, following the testing procedure described on page 7.

The following series of tones, the harmonic series, may be practiced on all of the saxophones in the

manner indicated. It will be evident that, (1) the harmonics work less well as one ascends to the

higher fundamentals -. B, C, C#, etc., and, (2) the c10sed tube harmonics are more difficult on the

soprano, o~g to its short tube.

CLOSED TUBE EXERCISES


Diamond.shaped notes indicate fingering to be used.

~ i~ f~~-sl

i~. f~~-:I

~.~~~:I

~~. ~~@-:I

17

~ ... ~ '111 ~ ... 1 'iI

1
lo O. ~ o" LI ~ ~ ~
" ~ ~ C7
10

-*1 ~, ~=w ~ t

ffif"
.==-~ F!$"t:l ~:; i ,.

~(-j-' ~ ~=sj~11

" ' .

~. ~ Iq .'

~--; 8(-' ~ sstd


~~~~~W~J ~ ] !ll
W!~---i: _ & m
(l~ ~--~--
~~j ~~~i=r4=tt

12
13
ACOUSTICS AND VENTING

In acoustical terms, a vibrating air column produces a tone on a wind instrument, although this
column of air does not vibrate uniformly throughout its length. The point at which it vibrates most
vigorously is called an anti-node, while the point of minimum air motion is called a node.

'<:='
I

:<=L:-~
I I
I ,

t_~I
I I
I I I
I I
Node I Node Anti.node Nod,
Anli-node

When a wind instrument sounds its fundamental tone, also known as thefirst mode 01 vihration, the
length of tubing involved is made up of one unit that contains one node and one anti-node. Two nodes
and two anti-nodes are required to produce a tone one octave higher.
"",

~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~--

Position oF lower octave key in relation to anti-nodes oF each


tone. Ideally. the octave position should coincide with the
anti-node.

The example below indicates the approximate position of the saxophone's two octave holes. Ideally,
the octave hole position should coincide with the ami-node, an arrangement that would demand an
extensive series of octave holes, a highly impractical proposition. Thus, a number of compromises
becomes necessary in building a saxophone. .

;:.. ""'
~~' E~~t~.~

" '~'! g~)


lower octave hale upper octave hale
(approximation)

As discussed earlier, it is not only possible to derive more than one tone from tlle same basic
fingering, but often highly desirable.. Many times the smal1, yet vital1y necessary adjustment is
simply the opening of a key. This slight opening, when employeo to produce overtones, may be
referred to as a vent, and the process itself as venting. Almost al1 saxophones possess two vent ttlbes,
commonly cal1ed octave keys.
14

1. upper octave key


(upper vent tube - UVT)
3. fundamental tones

4. octaves produced with lower


octave key (LVT)

5. octaves produced with upper


octave key (UVT)
2. lower octave key

(1bwer vent tube - LVT).

3.

The most common example of venting, other than the uSe of the octave keys, occurs with key F*,
sometimes designated the F auxiliary key, or /ronl F key. This key is usually used in conjunction with

fronlF key key F

the fingering for =f2::= ,and most commonly used for the interval ~ The #= thus

produced does nol result as an ovenone of i SI: , however, but rather of i + Therefore,
~ is derived from ;.. by using the F key as a vento

demo nstrare d by one person playing +..


On most saxophones the F key op'ens to a distance greater than necessary. This can be
~_~, while a second pers on ope ns LSK 3 the equiv alent of
the normal front F opening. Continuing to play, LSK3 is lowered until barely open. While the quality
4
of i = may change to sorne degree, it nonetheless continues to sound. This technique will be
refined and used extensively in the pages that follow.

"'See fingering chart, page 4, for the basic saxophone fingerings and key designations.
15

As LSK3 assumes the troe function of a vent key, a conflict between it and the lower octave key
(LVT) is created. As a consequence, a successful approach to the use of LSK3 as a vent tube is most
often made by eliminating entirely the use of the upper octave key. At this point the performer should
use a small flat object (paper, old reed, etc.) of approximately 0.25mm thickness (ca. 11100 inch) to
hold LSK3 open. With LSK3 open in this manner, and with the octave key not being used, the
following series may be played on alto or tenor.

~R ~3 ~~ 4
'iJ:
Al 2

~ I ij.
RSKl
f?!
Bis +RSKl
~.
+ RSKl
~
"",
'" note fingered, and with LSK30pen ca. 0.25mm.
o = note to be produced

BEGIN EACH TONE WITHOUT TONGUING.

1. tlat on most tenors


2. extremely tlat 'on most tenors; not useable
3. usually the equivalent of F/I on tenor
4. usually the equivalent of G on tenor

While the above is almost always the easiest way to begin these high tones, the same approach with
the octave key should also be practiced, as this will be. nearer to actu... l. performance conditions.

~!
t~~ ... -
-e- JZ ~

@ 1- [+ P'" -- ~
I 11 ~
RSKl Bis + RSKl +RSKl

Remember that both of the above examples are designed to be an aid in the development of a
facility for the high tones. As these exercises are mastered, the fingerings normally used in
performance on the alto may also be practiced, as shown below.

o.k. o. k. o. k. o. k. o.k.
*{~ *{~ *{~ *{~ *\~
e e e o o
o o o
e
o
o
** o
o
o ~ RSK 1 e RSK 1
o
-~ RSK 1
o o o o o
* Index finger position is on Key F, which automatically closes~ e
o
** G# key may be necessary on sorne altos. o
16

The recommended fingerings for the tenor are as follows:

~ .R.. 4.e. 3ft:


-
~ I ~ 1I

o.k. o.k. o. k. o.k. o.k.

F F F F

O O O O

"",

O
O
O
O
O
O

O
O
O
O
RSK 1
O
O
O

RSK 1 ~ RSK 2
O O O O O

Ir is possible to adjust key F~o that its opening is decreased, enhancing its function as a vent key,
without causing any adverse effect (see photo). Indeed, many of the author's pupils have made this
adjustment themselves with highly favorable results (see photos).

For the soprano saxophone, unlike the alto and tenor, RSK3 is used for a vent key in the following
series of tones.

f~
~
-.J2.
te :t
-- -
6- I ~.
RSKl
f$.'
Bis + RSKl
~.
+R8Kl
I
= note fingered, and with RSK3 open ca. O.25mm.
o = note to be produced.

BEGIN EACH TONE WITHOUT TONGUING.

As with the alto and tenor, the same series with the octave key should also be practiced.
17

~
.Q..

g+t ~.a.
~
- g~~
!
4-

~ E ~

RSKl ,Bis +RSKl + RSKl


The fingerings for soprano normaIly used in performance may al so be practiced, as shown below,

3r ~
-- t~ ~
t~
~ 11 11 I ~ ~
"',
o. k. o.k. o.k. o. k. o.k.
: LSK 3 ~ LSK 3 ~ LSK 3
G# O O
O bi S O
- O O
~ RSK 3
O O
RSK 3 RSK 1 RSK 1 RSK 1
O O O O

O O O O O

Additionally, if your soprano has key F you may use the following:

~j2 t~
--
~ ~
3r
--
! ~ ~ ~ ~
o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k. o. k.

F F F F F

O O O O
O

O O

O O O O

O
O
O
O
O
O
RSK 1 RSK 1
O

O
O
RSK 1
O O O O O

For the baritone a slightly different pattern emerges; RSK 1 is used as the vent key.
A i~
= note fingered, and with RSK 1
o = note to be produced. ~~~-~I~~~~,~I . Bis

Baritone fingerings normally used in performance may now be pracced.

o.k. o. k. o. k. o.k. o.k.


F F F
O

O

O


O

O
O O O
-o-RSK 1
O

o O' .RSK 1 oRSK2



O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
18

wM! y~
.'~""~~~:I

19

THE TECHNIQUE OF OVERBLOWING SIXTHS

The necessity and practicality of venting having been discussed, it is now appropriate to outline the

technique of overblowing sixths. The nature of the saxophone's tube, being sharply conical, lends

itself to a relatively easy production of sixths beginning with~ and continuing chromatically
to ~ (%', the result being the production o/i~-';;'-..t.-(rii, or ~B';;:;'1-1~-(i)', in the case of the
baritone.

The great value of this technique is three-fold: (1) as an aid for the development of a facility in
"', .

playing high tones; (2) as a marvellous way in which to develop embouchure and air control; (3) as an

enormous help in enhancing the saxophone tones in the range,~ f~""""'~

The initial attempts at ove1:blowing sixths may prove unsuccessful, although the method IS easler
than one might first imagine. The following guidelines will be helpful:
p 8"a--, I..:t 8...a-~.,

(1) Begin with 1: -:il: , or ~ jf-lt: ,which, for many players are often the easiest combinations.

(2) More mouthpiece inside the mouth will aid in, producing the sixths, but it is a crutch that must
not be used in playing music.

(3) Do not tongue any tones in these exercises, since the tongue _. for the very purpose of achieving
the high tones -- is not in its normal position for tonguing.

This is not to suggest that the high tones cannot be articulated. Tonguing In the aboye-normal
range, however, is a complex matter, and is treated separately (see pages 69-71).

Further, it must be said that the soprano, alto, and tenor saxophones will overblow at a major sixth,
while the baritone overblows at a minor sixth. Generally speaking, the harmonics are easiest to
produce on the largest saxophone and, conversely, most difficult to produce on the smallest one.
Thus, the soprano pIayer will, with rare exceptions, experience the grestest challenge among
saxophonists attempting to extend the range.

For alto, tenor, and soprano:

Bl/a"r- ...
9"4 -- ... ,... 8114.--.,

l:!= {-e- .L .IZ. ~

! = note fingered o = note to be produced

811a--..

Slf4-- ... 8"&--"


~
- f~
.1 .iL
- t:!: 4t~
~ ( I

For baritone only:

8""--'" 8"'---" 8"4--""

t..- :!. ~j2. ~1" ~~


j ~-e--
ij
8"4 -- ... ~
8"4 --,
~.L
eua--...
~.Q.
:!: ~~ - - R.

! I

20

For alto, tenor, and soprano:


8114 ---., 811a.-... B~a.-... Be., 618"" 13 114.,

W~~~-
22
eVl-- - ---, Bva.------...,

MJ ~ rt ,M, I - ~ t @ , t!tf:1

.lVl_'~~4
~==~ B"-' 8<l-,

-........

8'Q-, 8va-., BY'l--.

~. ~~ ~_bt ~ AA~' ,~

> '

~ t ~~I - i' ~
(~,
f pf :gi:' f ;.

~ Et8i'I_'~ r ~:gi: ~t

81Q-'"I 8V'\.--. 8V4-.,

~ ~ -1 ~ r tf gt' 14
I
8"'l-., eVQ-, 8va-,

~ ~-l lt ~~. tll

ava - - - - _ - _ -,

~ ~ ,.. ,@f~~

-, ~-~ i-' :1
23
24

.JI.. eua -...,


~. ,~j

2S
For baritone only:
27

Use the frootF Key for aH examples 00 this page.

29

Use the front F Key for aH examples on this page.

=fea e ~~

~Ca@j~~t~

ica~s~

30 Use the front F Key for al! examples on this page.

. ~ I

t~1
, . .
~I

~.I

~~~.~I

~~~!

fe .~~ ~~~~~. ~

31

BEYOND THE 5IXTH5

After gaining a familiarity with overblowing a sixth higher, the procedure may be expanded to
inelude a fourth higher, yielding the following:

note fingered
o = note to be produced

.1\ .:t: .L
- ~.
- -- .L
- -
"'~

8va.- - - - - ----- - - ---- --- - - - - - - - - - -:---,


) 'loe- ~ ~ It~ .Q
- ~~
~

ElVa.- - -- - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~--,
> ~g ~
-
Sl
-- tE :St
-- -
,

..
In the case of the baritone saxophone, the pattero becomes:

J' I:t- . .- -- .L
- -

, 8v~ --- -
-fr
---
~~
- -- - -- - --
-'2
'--

:it:
- ---
~~
--- - ---,
-.J:L
8va.- - - - ------- - - - - - - - ------ ------- - -..,
~ .Q
fe "3t
i')
.J2.
- ~
- - - --

8'a

For tones above, and ineluding ~ t ,


it is usually necessary for most players to make a
significant embouchure change. The amount of lip over the lower teeth is greatly decreased, the exact
amount to be determined by each performer through daily practice. The reason for such a small
amount of lip cushion in the extreme high tones is due to the tremendously high frequencies, and the
corresponding need for increasingly faster vibrations of the reed itself.
32

For alto, tenor, and soprano:

:~-~-iif~:-Mit~~-;-'Jitif ~. 7 '.

BVa. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -.., BVa. - - - - - - - ..,

~:J> t 'q%' t' ., l' ., t .q: i t } l} t '}" ~ :.


't

ella.. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -, 8Vt - - - - - - - -,

~. ~t ~ t" ,r' J @' ~r ~ l ~ kd ~ f 7 i' III

~ eU~--T=---~--f:-:---~" 8va.---
F ---, .. '
~,lh.,1 J{.,@tfl h!Ihi ,:.

8ua.. - - ,- - - - .., BIJa. - - - - - - - -,

W 't1 11' .ti( ~I' ~f ~, ~ Id ,A' 't tj


/;" r--r:-t:---T-:-t-' ~ r--r-~-'t
!it 1ft a!lr ~f @}j , 1.
!! '1 ij t EII

~. ~!ti.., a
8Va.- - - - - - - - - - - ..,

!lir ., ~
SI/a.- - - - - , B"~ - - - - - ..,

f I
f;fI~-- - - - - - - --, 8"8..-----., 6"a-----.,

W' '1' ~ ~r '11" '1 ~':.: t I


- - - - - - ----, eva.--- - -, - - -...,

k=ff' ~ f' 'l~.


6~'-- 81/~-

't ~. ? I

33

eva.. - - - - - - - - - - ..., sva.- - - - - , euaL- - - - ,

ffl' Al ~ ~. II ~. ~ ~ .~! '1

tt=f ~8-:-"-~i~ ~ ~'~~t I

~' ;~~-:-a~~f.'~ ~~.~711

34

FINGERING CHART FOR THE HIGH TONES

FOR SOPRANO, ALTO, TENOR, AND BAR/TONE SAXOPHONES

by

EUGENE ROUSSEAU

There exists no "complete" fingering chan for the aboye-normal range of the saxophone, nor can

there ever be one. Moreover, there is no one fingering in this range that is the correct one. In the

chan be!ow, therefore, no attempt has been made to inelude al1 known possibilities, many of which

often prove redundant. The central purpose of the .fingerings given is to offer choices among those

that have, countless times, passed successful1y the acid test of performance by both the author and his

pupils. Each player, in order to achieve a reasonable leve! of proficiency in performing the high tones,

must ultimate~ decide upon the combinations of fingerings that work best for him. Final1y, it must be

stated emphaucal1y that (1) success in playing the high tones wil1 come only if and when the

embouchure and air usage are correctly understood and, (2) any and al1 fingering combinations should

be first practiced repeatedly without playing.

SOPRANO

~Ok F
ok ok
F
ok ok
F
ok ok
F
ok ok
o
I
I
I
O
I
I
I
O
1, :LSk 3
O
I
I
O

1* ~G# O O O O ~ I -.9.J3b
O
o ~Rsk 3
O
O
~Rsk 3 ~Rsk 1 ~Rsk 1 ~Rsk 4
I
I
o o O O O O O O Eb e
*Add G# if flat

Ii'--- - --~
o
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -:#.q
- - - - - ------ ..
.~ ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
F F
o
o o Ibis
~Lsk 3
olb'15 lb'15
0.
o
O
~Lsk 3 I
o
--- ~ O O ~ O o
I Rsk o o I o
o ~Rsk 1 oRsk oRsk oRsk ~Rsk 1 ~Rsk 1 oRsk
o o o o 1.4 1 .4 o 1.4
o o o

---------- --------- - - -
:l. ... - ~
-if - - - - - -4 - .

ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
o o o o o o oLsk o
O I o I I Lsk 1 I Lsk I
I 1.2 I 1.2.3
O
I I Bb I ---!-..


I
~Rsk 1 ~Rsk 2 ~Rsk 2 I ~Rsk 2 ~Rsk 2 ~Rsk 2
O o o o Eb o Eb o Eb o Eb

The symbols and letters used In this chart are explalned on page 6.
ALTO 35

ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
F F F F
,
,, F
,
F
,
o
,

o
,

o o
,

o
o 'bis
o
,

o
o
o
,
*
o o o o o o
o o oRsk 1 7sk 4 --;RSk 1 ,Rsk 1 oRsk ,Rsk 1 oRsk 1
o o o o o o o 1.4 o o

o o~\ o o o o o o o

*atld G# if f1at

8.'(~ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _
------------------------------------
-#"-(

ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
,o,
,
o
,

,'Lsk ~LSk
1 Lsk ~Lsk
2

,
Lsk
, Bb , , ,
o
-, -'
,o o 1.2
o
o
~Rsk
2

,
,
,,

,,
o
~RSk
2

,
o
o , o o o o
o o , o o o o ,
Eb o

""4----------"jjj

ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
,
o ,
0Lsk o 0Lsk ~Lsk

,
o
oLsk o ,
o oLsk
o
o o 1.2
o
o
o o
o 1.2.3 o o 1.2.3 o o ,o o 1.2
o
~Rsk 3 ~Rsk 2 ~Rsk 3
o Rsk ,

o o ,
o
o o 0
34
o o o
o o o o o o o Eb o ,
Eb o

!!'- - - - - - - ----------_.
b~
*0

ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
,
o
oLsk
,
o
oLsk
o
, ~Lsk ~Lsk ~Lsk 1
o
, o
oLsk
_0_
o
o 1.2
o
o -.2.......1 2 3
o -.2.......1 2 3
_0_ , , o 1.2
o
~Rsk
3
~Rsk 2 ~Rsk
3
,

o o
oRsk
o ,
o
~RSk 3

o
o o o o o o 3.4
o
o o
o o
36

TENOR

~ ok ok
F
ok
F
ok
F
ok ok
F

ok

F
o o o
,
o 'bis 'bis
o
o o o
o * o o o o
o
,
o o o o o o
o
o
(J'
o
oRsk Rsk
o , 4
~Rsk 4
o
oRsk ~Rsk ,
o
oRsk oRsk 2 o
oRsk
o o o o ' o o o o ',4 o o ',4
*Add G# if f'at

J'lt . - - - -. - - - - 't\)
-_.------ _. - -- ------- - -- - "--ti - - - - -
:1+ ~
-d-

ok
o

ok
o

ok
o

.G#
ok
o
.Lsk

ok
.'
,Lsk
ok
o
oLsk

ok
o
.Lsk 2

ok
o
oLsk
--' ,2
ok

o
-'- , -'-

o
o o o o
~Rsk 2
,
oRsk 2 o

o o o
o o o o o
Eb
ewa .-
Q. - -
- -.D-
t/t1

~ ok ok ok ok
F

ok ok ok ok ok ok
o
oLsk o o
oLsk
o
o
o
oLsk
o
o
~Lsk , o

o o ~Lsk
~,,2 o ----' ,2,3 _0_ ---' ,2,3 o o o ',2
...!.-
o
oRsk 3
o
o
o
oRsk 3
o
o
o
oRsk
o
o
o
o
o
.Rsk 4 o o
o o o o o 3,4 o o o , Eb o
,~--- ---._. _.- - ---- ------ ... --- - --------- .. - - -- --
"11- 4- ::11# -- ~- -.

ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
Lsk Lsk o o o o
o
..JL,,2 o ~ ',2,3
---
oLsk
---' ,2,3 o oLsk , o
oLsk
--- ..JL. o ',2
~Rsk 3 o ~Rsk 3 o Rsk
0
34
o
o o
o o
o o o o o ' o o
o o
37
BARITONE

, ~

ok
F
12

ok
F
ok
F
ok
:#~

ok
F
ok ok
-(J

ok ok
r#~

ok

O o O I O
o Ibis I I I


I I I I o o o o
o o
o
o o I o o I o

I ",""o oRsk Rsk


o ~Rsk 1 o
Rsk
o ~Rsk , ~Rsk , ~Rsk 2
o o o o o o o o o o

~!_-- ---------- --.-- - -- - -- - - - ------- -- - --


---- ..- - ..#~
1jb -(J

rN-(f .i2 ~

ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
I
I
o

o
.Lsk
o
oLsk J
o
oLsk
o
I Lsk 2
o
oLsk
I
o
o .
oLsk
o 1,2 o 1,2 o ',2,3
-.!-G# -.!-G# o o
~Rsk 2
o
o
o
o
I o
o
o
o
Rsk 2
o ~RSk 3
o
o ~Rsk 3
o o o I o o o o o o

t~ .. ., _
#~--- - - - - #- - --- -.- -.D. - - -

ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
I
I

o o

o
o ~Lsk , ~LSk 1 ~Lsk 2
o
Lsk o
-......,,2
....!-G# -.!- ..JL -
~Rsk 2
o
o
o
oRsk 2 ~Rsk 2

~Rsk 2
o
o
o
o
I e o o o
o o o o

._-------------..--

ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok


o o o o o o o
oLsk ~Lsk 1 ~LSk 2

oLsk o oLsk .Lsk
o 1,2 o 1,2,3 --1,2 ',2
o o I


~Rsk 3 ~RSk 2 ~RSk 3 ~Rsk 2 o ~RSk 3 ~Rsk 3
o o o o o o o

,

6\t4,- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -..,

jeA " ,~
~.,

CM s..-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --...,
'1
"9
39

~G "4

8va. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -.,

~e~ . '4
e~----------------------------------~

'4

.
~
. . . ~~. _. - --~

. , I

~L. 8Vt
~ ~ .. "
_ JJ. Il. 1l..
. jJ. .a-~~-
...
r- 71 -:
.
---

. ., l

41

8Uc1 ---

~.t-~.l" I ~ L~ ~t~'~ ,.r. ',r.1 c.lJ


IL''''''.' ;'I;;I--~ .L~
bt. (;\

.Ior:~,."":- ."" ....Ior ':~: ...y'


~1r .:~ ~
'"
. ~ ... :~.: :: I:~ :~.

'..; ...
.,."
;_:~~~ ~
:~I." ...'
t
'o.'
'.1'"
f.
~:~l._ ~~
,

-
42 MAJOR SCALES: ONE~O~CT:..;.:.:AVE~_--=- _

~ea~~~

!te Qn~~:1

c~~~~

~CQ~~sl

" . ~ ~
~Ca---:":I

.~ e~~-t

MAJOR SCALES: ~
EXTENDED RANGE

~Ca' .
~ BVa,----------- , ~

- ---R "' 112. I


t ~

~
~an_

~
----H ~ IIz.

, ,~. 7 ~

44

.Cs

.Car

__- - - - - - - H . --... . "2~ I


~ ,~~. il

~el1'
~ II~ I
~,~.y

45

.
_C B~ ... ---'" ~

8Va.- - - - - - - - -~.,
- -
~

fiea
;;-,P ,

,,1 Ilz.1
~ "'~. iI
8~.

"~ I

. . . !~. B

46

- --
l~ JIr
-------
_......:-: ~~. ~
t~:r:: r ~ .:~
~ ~~: ... - ~ ...
-
- - -
-.L I ....... "1'.....

sva.-- - .- - - . -,

",.rt I
f , - :.
v)-- - - - --,
48 M1NOR SCALES, HARMONIC:
ONE O:~:'::':'------:-;#:---------=---::-~ -----~

~ca"~~~:1

",-- Bva--- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --~

, eaM~:1

,,-- 6"4--- - --- _. -- ---- - -- -------- ...,"

~:I
49

,..-- B"a.,--- - - - - - - - - - - - - ------~

HCan(~
.MINOR SCALES, HARMONIC: E~NpEP RANGE

IIz. I
~~. j ~
50

8-----~-----, <

~---H. ~ 11 4 I
? I
---- ---- - ------...,,
t ~~., =:-.
-
IJ,
~ G .... ~~.
"'
~

~
-
....
- - ....1'.... .,.04
-
.~ / ~ . ~--
~'
. .

--------II';;-.----~~
t 11 2. .I
~ ......... .-... .. .--.......
- 1T-.o' .-.. -
51

. &"a.-- - - - - - . . . - - - - - -
.----+----
~
=

_------Rl.-.- - - -
53
MINORARP

~Ca.t4
54
MINOR SCALES, MELODIC: ONE OCTAVE

~c#~8~~:1

.ea :1
.~c~

e ;=:~

~c_

=
~e~
; :1

~cM~~;1

55

MINOR SCALES, MELODIC: EXTENDED RANGE

--e-va.----:--~---------'-:-~~
~eahC_

_ ---w. "' 112. I

~~7~

7 ~

56

&va.- - - - - - - - - -

1M
~------'---===----'I

2.. I

8~--------------+~ __
) c:::;~+.. .J~+.. _ ~
-

" r- -
--------+'~~.f"~-=~~~~=iii-'" z.
--
,..
...-t
LW~"'.

.,...
_
..........

I

.,.
...L ...11
57
ev'a- -- ---- - - - - --

IILI
..., . ,~. '1

Bva.----- - - - - - - - - -

----H. r 112. I
~,~. ,~
6~----------------~ ,

~C

. 1;
58

~va,-- - - - - --

WsSM

~;; vr

~. I
'l :~. 1 ~
BVa, - - - - - - .

!:d
~Je aua

~.r~.
_r1.8U--~' Ilz. l
~~=_~~ t- I _ 13
r-::
Sl/a. - - - - ' - .,
~C~
~(tl ",.,? twa. - - - - - - - - -- - -- --, ---........

.. I "
59

=tWH:~~~th7b~ ~O
fea~~

O I

bt~~~
tC aJt_
. :=be: I

-~-8'""""11i,-------~-----....... =9- I

~-
$~.
ca4~~PJ2
_ " L
I

~--~--------------------------~--~.~ I

~:i:
jea~ I

~ I

:B I

=~~~~.~~
~eaQ_ I

(:::-8",~a).-~-------,-~-;(f;::"c::;tJ};---';----_--1 r.

" 2..


AUGMENTED ~~-----:-~=-----------::::-.....

ARPEGGIOS / ' ~ 11. ,.... (,) \

.
r2,- 0\'4--- --,
1) ~J~:~.u. ~. !.:~.J!. ~J!. ~ ~
...
f'

- " 17,~
~CD)
) .,.,-------"" . .~ J:~ e~~ ---J~~ -1 : r:~ .~
~

Ir , ..

11. I ~ lila
-
61

~ 8Q - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----,(ftXD)~

~C

11. 11 l.
63

BV~ - - - - - --~--- -~--- -----,Q"~ ~

~e
"'...... ".-P

8vl , - - - - - - - - - - - -~-.....,

e~-------- -

11. ti <..
64

12.

sva.-- --~--- --
65
EXERCISES IN THIRDS

~~

~ ~ ~
~

b_ k .~~ ~~,. _ ti. ~~H- .~~ !':'


~ b.-L.~:~ .~T'. '.~:~ :~:~ :~"':~ :~I ~.JF:r. .~. ~. :: ~:I: :~: 1: : ~v: ~ :1:1 ~-"
'11
66
PENTATONIC SCALES

~~ :~
, l , ~ -ll ::l~ ..!~ -:f;
...- -~
:1- :1=
-~ -1

.. 1t ~lo'
I 1 I

BVa. - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

;f#A _
h _ _~ \1

----------~---,.--~~;;a_;:::====~=:-:::::"
B"a,.- - ----

.am~Et=tf I
(e1l4\ - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
67

~-------- -,
~~ ~ II

~c~ ~. --~

(sv)-- - - - - ,
68

" l.
Tsv)-
.:~
-
+ ... ......
- I

8~---------------

(e v, - - - - - - .,

8 Va. - ----- - - - - --
69

ARTICULATING THE HIGH TONES

When the above-normal tones are played, a proportionally smaller quantity of air is uscd as rhe
frequency of vibration increases. In other words, as one plays higher the air stream becomes
increasingly smaller.

This phenomenon accounts for the unusual feeling inside the mouth that the performer experiences
when first playing high tones. It has often been described as ap "open throat", an unfortunate term
for more ,than one reason. In the first place, ambiguity often takes place in the mind of a saxophonist,
or any wind player for that matter, who, for the first time is told to keep an "open throat". What is
being referred to is the inside of the mouth and throat, and its shape while playing, although it is
impossible to see any of these shapes and functions! Even in recent studies using the technique
of fluoroscopy, the consideration of tongue position, throat opening, etc... while they may ostensibly
be observed an4 estimated -- must, in the final analysis, be translated ioto language that will produce
a meaningful resulto

Secondly, in order to have the finer air stream required to emit the high tones successfully, even
fluorosc.opic ~tudies disproye, t~~ !l?tion th~t .the throat ~ust be open. Thus, the concept of
mouthp1ece pltches (see page 7) 1S vIrtually lOd1spensable, SlOce the player can relate the feeling of
embouchure and air to a real pita/ level on the mouthpiece alone.

The tongue position and throat opening do change as one proceeds into the above-normal saxophone
range. Because of this, the tongue is not in a position ordinarily used when tonguing tones in the
saxophone's normal range. Therefore, the player who is first attempting the high tones will
instinctively use the tonguing technique known to, him by the countless hours of conditioning
experienced by him. When this is done the result is almost invariably that no high tones will respondo
This is why many of the examples and exercises in this book bear instructions to BEGIN EACH TONE
WITHOUT TONGUING.

Inasmuch as the tongue position is different for producing the high tones, it will also be differeot for
articulating them. The following guidelines for tonguing in the abovenomal range will be helpful.

(1) Produce the desired tone without tonguing it.


(2) Repeat the aboye until the tone is started clearly.
(3) Start the tone again by tonguing it.
(4) Practice starting the tone, alternating it by tonguing and not tonguing.
(5) The tongue, while used for articulation, must remain as near as possible to the position
necessary for high-tone production.
(6) Repeat the aboye working toward the goal of increasing the speed of articulation in the high-tone
range.

At this poiot, any and all of the preceding pages of studies may be repeated using vanous
articulations.
70

~',' ,J' ,i" y


.

lfI' ,. ;,.,f' !

f I

~.. P b

~ I

J'1l ~ d',f ~
l I

~:,-if::t'-:-~

B"a,-- - - - -- ------ -------- ---- ------- - --- -- - -------,

~~~I
8'fCl- - - - - - .- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - _

~f,l~ f=r~r ~
ava. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

. /teR=fLI
~~-,-~~:r~-

~-~'fl
~'7-r,-d~:j'-7-
sva. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,