0 views

Uploaded by Davi Raubach Tuchtenhagen

kino kinop

- Multiple Degrees of Freedom
- Chapter 3 Rolling Motion
- ieeebf90f96b-b666-20130730122643
- bx_refinement Manual.pdf
- DRM Solutions
- 107_76409_Session Wise Problems (1) (1)
- Modal Analysis Spreadsheet
- Sway and Roll Motion of a Buoy
- Review of Mechanical Vibrations
- Sep11 2012 Striptheory Heave
- basics of unit1 cs.doc
- Heidelberg - Schwarz - NonlinearDynamics
- NX Nastran Dynamic Analysis
- Review of Mechanical Vibrations
- Math questions
- 1. Mathematics - IJMCAR- Vibration Control of a Cantilever Beam of Varying Orientation Subject to Parametric and Direct Excitation
- Pendulum Underdamped System
- I-12-432
- Engineering Acoustics Course Notes
- STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC (1).pdf

You are on page 1of 28

by Peter Wolfenden

Introduction

This article is an elementary treatment of the physics of sound. It requires no background

in physics, but the reader is assumed to have studied calculus, trigonometry, and linear

algebra. An appendix is provided for those readers who are unfamiliar with differential

equations and/or who need to review their trigonometry identities.

The first section defines sound and gives a qualitative description of its properties.

Doppler shifting and sonic booms are explained, and the concept of linearity is introduced.

Linearity is more fully explained on mathematical terms, and non-linear systems are

dismissed as too horrible to include within the scope of this article. ((A somewhat complex

explanation of resonance in harmonic oscillators concludes the section.

The third section describes how the simple systems analyzed in the second section may be

extended into the continuum. The mathematics associated with such an extension are

quite laborious, and the reader is given an instructive taste of tedium.

The fourth section uses the ideal string model to derive the one-dimensional homogeneous

wave equation. This equation is then applied to the hypothetical propagation of sound

through air in a one-dimensional universe. Higher dimensions are extrapolated from the

one-dimensional case with some hand-waving, and an argument using energy

conservation is given to explain why sound loses intensity with increasing distance from

its source in 2 and 3 dimensions, but not in 1 dimension.

The fifth section is an introduction to Fourier analysis, an important signal processing tool.

Section I

In the most general sense, sound is the propagation of density waves through some

medium. The medium most commonly encountered by most human beings is air, but

sound also travels through water, rubber, steel, and tofu. In fact, most homogeneous

substances conduct sound. The density waves are typically created by the vibration of

some object immersed in the medium, such as a string, membrane, or chamber. The waves

propagate outwards from their point of origin, and set up sympathetic vibrations in other

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 1 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

microphones. The speed at which density waves travel through a given medium depends

entirely on the physical properties of the medium, and is independent of the manner in

which the waves are produced.

This last property is remarkable, and should not strike the reader as obvious unless he or

she has studied wave phenomena. After all, we know from everyday experience that

velocities are additive. Imagine, for example, that while driving down I-95 at 60kph, a

strange and arguably homicidal individual pitches a baseball forwards at 60kph with

respect to her/his windshield. At the instant of release (before air resistance reduces the

ball's speed), the ball is moving forwards at120kph with respect to the road, and 180kph

with respect to the windshield of a vehicle coming towards her/him at 60kph in the other

lane. (fig 1)

Naturally, if the ball were pitched backwards instead of forwards at 60kph with respect to

the car, it would move with zero horizontal velocity respect to the road. So it would fall

straight down, bounce, and come to rest (provided that the road is perfectly flat and level,

and the ball has no spin).

But waves, and sound in particular, behave differently. The noise produced by a car's

engine, which takes the form of density waves travelling through air, does not travel

forwards from the front bumper any faster than it travels backwards from the rear bumper.

In air of homogeneous sea-level density, sound travels at about 1,210 kilometers per hour

regardless of the velocity of its source. But a moving vehicle chases the sound leaving its

nose and runs away from the sound leaving its tail. This causes the sound waves to pile up

ahead of the vehicle and stretch out behind. (fig 2)

This is the commonly observed Doppler effect, which to a stationary pedestrian causes an

observed drop in the pitch of a blaring car horn as it zooms by. The faster the car moves,

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 2 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

the more the sound moving forwards is squeezed and the more the sound moving

backwards is stretched, and the greater the observed drop in pitch.

But how do we know that the rise in pitch is not due to additive velocities, as in the case of

the baseball? If sound wave velocities were additive, the sound waves leaving the front

bumper would be moving faster than those leaving the rear, and an observer on the

ground would sense them going by faster, and notice a rise in pitch.

But there are two experiments you can perform to convince yourself that the speed of

sound is constant. Unfortunately both require rather specialized equipment, so most

people rely on published results. First, you can set up a long, flat racetrack somewhere out

in the Midwest, and arrange to have a microphone at one end record the instant at which it

hears a pistol shot fired by the driver of a fast car. If the driver and microphone have their

watches synchronized, and they try the experiment at various speeds, they should find

that the time lapse between the shot being fired and the shot being heard depends only on

the distance between the car and microphone at the moment when the shot is fired, and

not on the speed at which the car is travelling.

The second experiment involves moving (flying, usually) at the speed of sound, which is

about 1210 kph at sea level on a windless day. If a vehicle moves at the speed of sound, the

noise produced by its engine is added to itself repeatedly at the front bumper, creating an

extremely loud noise called a sonic boom. The many relatively small waves of sound

produced by the humming (or roaring, or singing, or whatever) of the engine are squeezed

together into one big shock wave which builds in intensity as the vehicle cruises along at

1210 kph while making noise. This is why aircraft try to make the transition from subsonic

to supersonic speed or vice versa as quickly and as far away from population centers and

avalanche areas as possible.

But sound waves within the limits of reasonable pitch and volume (unlike sonic booms)

have some nice properties that make the mathematical analysis of sound particularly

rewarding. One of the most important of these properties is linearity, which may

described as follows: The effect on an eardrum or microphone when the first note of a

symphony is played is the same as the sum of the individual effects of each instrument on

the eardrum or microphone. This means that two separate recordings of two separate parts

"added" together in a mixer give the same result as a single recording of the two parts

played together.

Similarly, a differential equation is linear if any number of solutions to the equation may

be added together to form another solution to the equation. This may not seem relevant to

the reader unless she has studied physics, but the next section is an attempt to make it so.

We shall see how some basic physical systems may be described by a simple set of

mathematical equations, and how the solutions to those equations describe the ways in

which the system may behave. In particular, we shall see that solutions to the equations for

systems that obey Hookes Law are linear.

The simplicity with which linear "mixing" may be described mathematically has made it

relatively easy to build machines, which manipulate sound electronically. But had nature

made sound non-linear, it would be quite difficult to build speakers, and it would

probably have been necessary to invent quite powerful computers before building

anything like a recording studio.

Section II

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 3 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

The next few pages will be an introduction to the nature of (idealized) physical vibration.

This section, though perhaps not obviously relevant to music, should provide a good

foundation for the derivation of the wave equation in section 4. We begin with Hooke's

law and a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator.

Let our simple harmonic oscillator system consist of a spring of length L attached at one

end to an object of mass M and at the other end to an immovable object (see fig 1).

At this point we will make some simplifying assumptions about our system, namely:

1) The object with mass M is perfectly rigid (so it won't wobble or shake).

2) The mass moves without friction or air resistance back and forth in a perfectly straight

line, as though it were sliding along a track aligned with the axis of the spring. This makes

it possible to express the position of the moving mass in terms of a single coordinate, x.

The above assumptions are made with the technical equivalent of artistic license. Since

they greatly simply the system while preserving much of the essential nature of physical

oscillation, they are useful for purposes of explanation, and introductory physics texts

almost invariably use them. Real behavior may be more precisely simulated using more

complicated models, but the associated differential equations are more difficult to solve.

Since the objective of this section is to cover only the basic concepts of harmonic

oscillation, we will consider only the simplest scenario.

If the system is at rest and there are no unbalanced forces, then the system will remain at

rest indefinitely, and is said to be at equilibrium. This happens only when the spring is at

its favorite, or equilibrium length and the mobile mass happens to have zero velocity. The

mass is then at a certain position along the x-axis which we will label x0.

(fig 2)

If we displace the mass by pulling or pushing it to the right or left, the spring is distorted,

and like most stable physical objects it seeks to regain its original shape (provided we

didn't crush, break, fold, spindle, mutilate or otherwise permanently affect the spring). The

spring's resistance to distortion creates a restoring force in the direction opposite to the

displacement.

For an ideal spring, the restoring force is given by the following linear relationship, called

Hooke's Law:

F = -k * (x - x0)

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 4 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

Note: on the x-axis, positive values of x lie to the right of x0 and negative values of x lie to

the left.

This means that the force with which the spring resists being distorted is directly

proportional and opposite in sign to the displacement of the spring from its equilibrium

position. The constant of proportionality "k" is called the spring constant, and it tells us

how "stiff" our ideal spring is (the larger k is, the larger the restoring force for a given

displacement).

The spring in our simple harmonic oscillator is an ideal spring with spring constant k. So if

at equilibrium our mobile mass is located at x0 on the x-axis, then the displacement from

equilibrium is (x - x0), and by Hooke's Law we know that the restoring force exerted by

the spring is the following function of x : F(x) = -k * (x - x0).

What happens to this restoring force? A stretched ideal spring pulls both ends inwards

with equal force, and a squashed ideal spring pushes both ends outwards with equal force.

The immovable object is unaffected by any and all forces, so there is no motion at that end

of the spring. The mobile mass, however, experiences an acceleration given by Newton's

equation Force = Mass*acceleration, or F = ma. Before we actually solve the differential

equation of motion for this harmonic oscillator, let's take a look at the potential and

kinetic energy associated with a given displacement of the mass from equilibrium.

Work = Force*dx, which (neglecting friction) for the spring = (k*x)dx = kx2/2. This is the

work required to draw the mass a distance x away from equilibrium. Do not be disturbed

by the fact that the work has a positive sign regardless of the sign of x. The spring resists

equally in both positive and negative displacements from equilibrium, and work is a scalar

quantity, so it is reasonable to expect positive work done in moving a distance -x when

the mass is displaced to the left of x0. This work is stored in the spring and becomes

potential energy, since it can be used again to perform work. The spring does an amount

of work equal to kx2/2 in moving the mass back from a displacement x to equilibrium. In

the absence of outside forces, this work goes into the kinetic energy of the mass. The

kinetic energy of an object with mass m is mv2/2. So if we draw the mass away from

equilibrium by x, thereby putting kx2/2 into the potential energy of the spring, and then

release the mass, the potential energy in the spring is transferred to the kinetic energy of

the object as the mass is pulled back towards equilibrium. The velocity of the mass when it

reaches equilibrium should then be x(k/m)1/2, in the direction opposite to the original

displacement x. The momentum of the mass then carries it beyond equilibrium, and the

spring does an amount of work = kx2/2 to bring it to rest again at -x. This cycle repeats

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 5 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

itself over and over, as the energy is transferred from the spring to the mass and back

again, until friction dissipates the energy and the mass comes to rest.

We expect the mass to move back and forth, but how will it move back and forth? Or, as

physicists say, how does the system evolve in time? We can determine this precisely by

looking at the equations that gave us the energy diagram. Acceleration is simply the

second derivative with respect to time of position. So if we take the displacement of the

mass from equilibrium to be some unknown function of time x(t), and equate the force

exerted by the spring with Ma, we get the following differential equation for x(t):

Mx'' = -k(x-x0)

If we introduce a new quantity X = (x - x0), then X(t) = (x(t)-x0), and we can rewrite the

above differential equation : as:

MX'' = -kX

or X'' + (k/M)X = 0

If we introduce another new quantity w = (k/M)1/2, we can again rewrite the equation :

It is easy to verify that X(t) = Acos(wt) is a solution to the last equation (where A is an

arbitrary constant), and likewise X(t) = Asin(wt). Physically this means that the mass

moves back and forth (oscillates) sinusoidally with an amplitude which is arbitrary but

does not change in time. The period of this oscillatory motion, or the amount of time

required for the mass to complete one cycle is 2/w (throughout this tutorial we will use

radians rather than degrees- appendix), and the frequency of the oscillation, or the

number of cycles per second, is w/2. Note that the motion is isochronous, which is

simply to say that the frequency does not depend on the amplitude. This makes harmonic

oscillators useful as timekeepers, since they don't (in theory) slow down as they lose

energy. Of course, no perfect harmonic oscillators exist, but some crystals (like those in

many chronometers) vibrate very nearly perfectly.

Now we will make use of the definition of linearity to get more solutions to our

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 6 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

solution. A linear combination of mathematical objects, such as vectors or functions, is a

sum, where each term is multiplied by a constant. For example, if v1, v2, and v3 are

functions of t, then all linear combinations may be written in the form A*v1 + B*v2 + C*v3,

and a specific linear combination might be v1 + 2*v1 + (.1)*v3 (where A=1, B=2, C=.1), or

just v2 (where A=0, B=1, C=0), or even 0, where all coefficients are zero.

Let's say that X1 and X2 are two arbitrary solutions. In other words:

X1'' + w2X1 = 0 and X2'' + w2X2 = 0, so obviously A*X1 and A*X2, where A and B are

arbitrary constants, are also solutions (derivatives, being linear operators, don't affect

coefficients). Is (AX1+BX2) also a solution?

(AX1 + BX2)'' = AX1'' + BX2'', and w2(AX1 + BX2) = w2AX1 + w2BX2, therefore

So (AX1 + BX2) is a solution. It follows that any linear combination of solutions to our

differential equation is a solution.

So how does this help us? We know two solutions, X1 = Acos(wt), and X2 = Bsin(wt). We

can therefore write a solution of the form : X = Acos(wt) + Bsin(wt). It turns out that this

new X is a general solution to our differential equation, which means all solutions can be

written in this form. This is because the sine and cosine functions are linearly

independent, which should sound familiar if the reader has studied linear algebra. Two

vectors, v1 and v2, are linearly independent if the only way to make the linear

combination Av1 + Bv2 = 0 is to make A = B = 0. Similarly, two functions of a single

variable x, f1(x) and f2(x), are linearly independent if the only way to make Af1 + Bf2 = 0

for all x is to make A and B zero. So, in fact, two functions are linearly dependent (ie not

linearly independent) only if one is a constant multiple of the other. This is also true for

vectors. Obviously, sine and cosine are linearly independent, since their zeros don't

coincide.

To show that Acos(wt) + Bsin(wt) is a general solution requires some facts taken from the

study of ordinary differential equations. First, a differential equation (in one variable, say

x) of order n has at most n linearly independent solutions. Given n linearly independent

solutions to our nth order diff. eq., all solutions may then be written as some linear

combination of these n linearly independent solutions. The n linearly independent

solutions span the solution space of the equation, in much the same way as a set of basis

vectors span geometric space. (If these assertions strike the reader as particularly offensive

or interesting, a book on ODEs might be worthwhile) Sine and cosine are linearly

independent, and our harmonic oscillator differential equation is of order 2, therefore X =

Acos(wt) + Bsin(wt) is a general solution. Of course, there are infinitely many general

solutions. Why? Because cos(wt + p1) and cos(wt + p2) are both solutions, and are linearly

independent as long as p1 and p2 do not differ by an amount = n*(/2), where n = (0, 1, 2,

...). This means we have an infinite number of linearly independent pairs of solutions to

our differential equation, and each pair corresponds to a general solution of the form :

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 7 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

Our general solution can be rewritten once more (using trig identities from the appendix)

as :

X = Dcos(wt + ),

In general, when we solve a second order differential equation, we expect two arbitrary

constants. The first form of our general solution had A and B, which were perfectly

legitimate, but amplitude and phase are more geometrically intuitive to most people.

The initial conditions (abbreviated as IC), or the position and velocity of the mass at t=0,

determine the amplitude and phase of oscillation. If our system has a mobile mass with

mass = (1 kg) and a spring with spring constant = (1kg/sec2), then w = (1/sec), and the

period = 2sec. Our general solution is X = Dcos(t + ), where D and remain to be

determined.

If, for example, we hold the mobile mass stationary at a distance of 3 meters to the right of

the equilibrium position and then release it at t=0, we can specify both constants in the

following manner:

X'(t) = -Dsin (t + ), and X'(0) = 0, because the mass is stationary at t=0, therefore -Dsin()

= 0, and we conclude that either D=0 or =0 or both.

X(t) = Dcos(t + ), and X(0) = 3 meters, so D cannot be zero, and must therefore be zero.

So X(0) = Dcos(0) = D = 3 meters, and we have specified both constants. Amplitude = 3

meters, and phase = 0. The frequency is 1 Hz, so we may predict the behavior of the

system for all t>0. The mass will come to rest at t = 0, , 2, ... and x = 3m, -3m, 3m, ... and

will have velocity equal to -3m/sec, 3m/sec, -3m/sec at t = /2, 3/2, 5/2, ....

(picture here)

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 8 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

If, on the other hand, we hold the mass at a distance of 1 meter to the left of the

equilibrium position and give it a leftward velocity of 2 meters per second at t=0, the mass

will oscillate with amplitude=... (is this second example really necessary?).

It is also sometimes useful to abstract the notion of force to mean the first derivative

(minus sign) with respect to distance of energy. In our system, distance is simply

displacement from equilibrium, and energy is simply the potential energy stored in the

spring when it is stretched or squashed. So if we define a potential function U(x) = -

(F(x))dx to represent the energy stored in the spring for a given displacement of the mass,

then F(x) = -d(U(x))/dx. And for our system we know F(x) = -k(x), so U(x) = k(x) dx =

k(x)2 + C. The arbitrary constant C coming from the integration is the energy of the

system at equilibrium, which is zero since we defined our potential as energy stored in the

spring. So U(x) = k(x)2.

We are now in a position to verify that our oscillator is a conservative system. The kinetic

energy of our system is given by T = (1/2)mv2, and is also a function of x. So the total

energy of the system as a function of position is T + U = (1/2)m(X')2 + (1/2)k(X)2 , and we

can substitute our solution in for X : X = Dcos(wt + ), X' = -Dwsin(wt + ), to get :

= (1/2)mD2(k/m)sin2(wt + ) + (1/2)kD2cos2(wt + )

= (1/2)kD2(sin2(wt + ) + cos2(wt + ))

= (1/2)kD2

Of course, a harmonic oscillator need not consist of a spring and mass of the sort

illustrated in our diagrams up to this point. The only things required for an oscillator are a

mass of some kind and a linear restoring force of some kind. For example, the spring could

apply a torque (rotational force) to a moment of inertia (rotational mass) rotating about a

fixed point. If the magnitude of the torque increases linearly with respect to the magnitude

of the angular displacement, the rotation will be harmonic, and we expect a plot of theta vs

time to be a sinusoid. This is precisely the case in an old fashioned speedometer, as

illustrated: (fig 6)

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 9 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

q = Acos(wt) + Bsin(wt), or

q = Csin(wt+), where w = (k/I)1/2

Our look at the 1-D harmonic oscillator section ends with a brief look at resonance.

Resonance is a dramatic increase in the vibrational amplitude of a harmonic oscillator

which occurs when a periodic driving force with similar frequency is applied to the

oscillator.

Mathematically, we can express this new situation in terms of a new differential equation

(let's assume for the moment that the driving force is sinusoidal):

equations lets us write the general solution to an inhomogeneous differential equation as a

linear combination of two independent pieces. One piece is the solution to the

corresponding homogeneous equation, and the other is any particular solution to the

inhomogeneous equation. The hardest part of solving an inhomogeneous equation is

generally finding a particular solution.

Try: x = D*cos(ht+p),

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 10 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

G = (k*D - h*h*m*D), h = y, p = Z.

x = (G/(k - y*y*m))*cos(yt+Z)

Note that k = w*w*m, so if y=w, which happens when the driving force and the oscillator

have equal frequencies, (k-y*y*m) = 0, and (G/(k-y*y*m)) becomes infinite.

For y close to w, (G/(k-y*y*m)) is large, because the two cosine terms have periods which

are nearly equal, their sum "beats" as the two waves slide in and out of phase. The closer y

gets to w, the slower and louder the beats become.

For the moment we have no way of proving that this resonance effect should also be

observed for non-sinusoidal periodic driving forces, but the following physical argument

should make sense. The sum of kinetic and potential energy for an undriven simple

harmonic oscillator remains constant if there is no dissipation due to friction. When the

driving force pushes the oscillator in the direction it is already moving, the speed of the

mass increases and kinetic energy is added to the oscillator. Likewise, when the driving

force opposes the motion of the oscillator, the oscillator loses energy.

If the periodic driving force has a frequency unequal to that of the oscillator, the phase of

the driving force with respect to the oscillator will itself change in time, and have a

frequency equal to the difference between the driving and oscillating frequencies. The

actual numerical value associated with relative phase depends on the choice of origin, but

we know the beat frequency and therefore the period of the relative phase.

The phase regions in which energy is added and taken from the oscillator also depend on

the nature of the driving force, but the sum over a whole phase period must be zero. If, for

example, the energy of the oscillator increases while the phase is between 0 and , then the

energy must correspondingly decrease while the phase is between and 2. But if the

driving frequency is made to approach the oscillator frequency, the phase frequency

approaches zero, and the oscillator gains and loses increasing amounts of energy over

increasing lengths of time. If the driving frequency matches the oscillation frequency, three

things may happen. If the relative phase of the oscillator and driver (which is now fixed

since the phase frequency is zero) is such that the energy of the oscillator is increasing, the

oscillator will go on gaining energy until it explodes or its spring loses its linearity. If the

relative phase is such that the energy is decreasing, then the oscillator will slow down,

reverse direction, and gain energy steadily until the oscillator breaks down. Finally, if the

relative phase is sitting on a boundary between the phase regions where the driver adds

and subtracts energy, there is no energy change at all, and the oscillator goes chugging

along forever without traumatizing the spring. There are two such boundaries. One

corresponds to the oscillator and driver moving in perfect tandem, so the spring does no

work at all. At the other boundary, the center of the spring remains fixed while the mass

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 11 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

and the driving force push and pull symmetrically on the ends.

(picture here)

When a driving frequency happens to match the frequency of an oscillator, the chances of

the relative phase being on one of the magic boundaries is essentially zero. So eventually

the oscillator begins to vibrate with an increasing amplitude. If the oscillator is nonlinear,

its energy will generally peak somewhere and bounce around unpredictably (this is

currently a "hot" topic in engineering). If the oscillator has some damping mechanism to

drain away energy it may just hum to itself, like the floor when a downstairs neighbor hits

a certain note on her bass. But in some cases, such as the infamous crystal wine glass, the

oscillator will reach a critical vibrational amplitude and self-destruct.

So why are harmonic oscillators important? Our spring/mass scenario seems pretty

contrived, but harmonic oscillator behavior is observed in a wide variety of physical

phenomena. This is simply because in every stable physical configuration (a solar system,

a molecule, or a piece of tofu) there is a restoring force of some kind tending to pull the

system back to equilibrium. If we can describe the system in terms of one coordinate

(radial displacement or squashedness), the motion of the system following a disturbance

which displaces the system from equilibrium is oscillatory. If the restoring force is a

complicated function of displacement, the oscillations will in general NOT be harmonic.

But for small displacements, we can often approximate the restoring force using Hooke's

Law (should I be explicit here and work through a simple example, like a pendulum

with a rigid arm?). So for most simple systems, small amplitude vibrations are harmonic.

Unfortunately, in general things are not usually so simple. Most interesting physical

systems behave not like single oscillators but like many coupled oscillators. In fact, the

physical systems which will be of greatest interest to us as musicians behave this way. So

to study the (ideal) vibrating string, membrane, and air column, we will need some more

math.

Section III

Before we look at continuous systems, it may be instructive to take a quick look at the

nature of coupled oscillations.

Let's imagine a system consisting of two of the ideal spring-mass oscillators discussed in

section 1 connected by a third ideal spring. For simplicity, let's make the system one-

dimensional, and establish a good set of coordinates.

A good set of coordinates describes all possible states of the system with maximum

efficiency. A state of the system is simply a certain position or configuration with a certain

velocity or motion. For example, if we wanted to establish a general set of coordinates for a

system consisting of three particles moving in a plane, we could use three-dimensional

Cartesian coordinates to describe the position and velocity of each particle in space. We

would have x-position, y-position, z-position, x-velocity, y-velocity, and z-velocity as

functions of time for all three particles. It would, however, be more efficient simply to

consider the plane to which the particles are confined, and use two-dimensional

coordinates. If we also know that the motion of each particle is confined to the perimeter of

a circle with radius R in the plane, then we can use a polar coordinate system with its

center at the midpoint of the circle to describe the state of the system yet more efficiently.

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 12 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

(illustration) With the coordinates of a particle given by (R,q), and R being fixed, the

position of each particle may be completely specified in terms of the single coordinate q.

The velocity of the particle may be expressed as R* q', where q'= v is the angular

velocity of the particle. The coordinates q1 q2 q3 are the most efficient way of

describing the state of our three particle system, and therefore comprise a good coordinate

system. The minimum number of coordinates needed to describe all the allowable states of

a system is also known as the number of degrees of freedom of the system. A good

coordinate system has exactly as many coordinates as the physical system it describes has

degrees of freedom. The three-particle system just described has three degrees of freedom,

and a completely free particle in 3 dimensions can only be described in terms of a

coordinate system with at least three coordinates, so it, too, has three degrees of freedom.

For our two-mass, three-spring system, we have two moving parts. Since both masses are

confined to move in one-dimension, the system has two degrees of freedom, and our good

coordinate system therefore has two coordinates. Let x1 be the position of m1 and x2 be

the position of m2 (illustration). The system has an equilibrium position that may be

found by balancing all forces. If we assume for simplicity that all three springs are at

equilibrium length when the system is at rest, it is convenient to measure x1 and x2 as

displacements from equilibrium. We may then calculate all forces acting on the masses in

terms of their displacements using Hooke's law. Finally, we can write a system of

differential equations by equating force with acceleration.

In the case of the harmonic oscillator there is only one differential equation, because that

physical system has only one degree of freedom. With two degrees of freedom we shall

find two differential equations, and with n degrees of freedom we would find n

differential equations. The two which we will find for our coupled oscillator system cannot

be solved independently, so they constitute a system of equations. The systems of

equations which represent oscillating systems of reasonable complexity are seldom

actually solvable. But harmonic oscillators are a special case, and systems of such

oscillators can almost always be solved using techniques from linear algebra. We expect,

given n degrees of freedom, to find 2*n linearly independent solutions (since the equations

are second order). These are arranged in pairs which may be combined to give n linearly

independent solutions, each with a phase factor. (recall how the single oscillator had two

independent solutions which were combined to form a single solution with a phase factor)

These independent solutions are called normal modes, and each one has a characteristic

frequency.

Without further ado, let's actually set up and solve the system for our coupled oscillators.

(here we go)

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 13 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

(using F=ma:)

We are particularly interested in the eigenvectors of the above matrix. The eigenvectors

turn out to correspond to the normal modes of the system, and the associated eigenvalues

correspond to the frequencies of the normal modes. The eigenvalue equation for our

matrix may be written in the following form:

and y = cx/(l - d). Setting the y terms equal gives the following quadratic in l : (l - a)

(l - d) = cb, or l2- (a+d) l + (ad-cb) = 0

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 14 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

So for this system we have two frequencies () corresponding to two normal modes (). So

we can write a general solution to the system in the following manner: ()

In general we expect the number of normal modes to get larger and larger as the number

of degrees of freedom of the system increases, and for the motion of the system to get more

and more complicated. For a system with n degrees of freedom we must solve an nth

degree polynomial in order to get the eigenvalues of the characteristic matrix. For n larger

than two this can be difficult, and for n larger than four it can be impossible without the

use of numerical techniques like Euler's method.

So, though we could build a crude model of a vibrating string using springs and masses,

and take a look at the limiting behavior of the system as the masses get smaller and

smaller and there are more and more of them in a given interval on the x axis, it would

probably be easier to start afresh.

Section IV

The last three sections of this article have been devoted to the treatment of oscillation in

systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. Such systems are said to be "discrete".

In this section, we will extend our analysis of oscillation to "continuous" systems, in which

oscillations and waves are one and the same. And, at last, we can hope for some insight

into the nature of sound.

First we will derive the wave equation in one dimension using an idealized elastic string

model. Then we will look at solutions to the wave equation.

It is easy to become confused by the many ways in which the idealized string model seems

familiar, and the rather unfamiliar ways in which it is used. When confronted with the

notion of a string, most people think of a violin (or guitar) string, which is fixed at both

ends and which produces different notes (or harmonics) depending on how its length is

shortened (by fingers or kaepas) and its vibrations are driven (by plucking or bowing). The

wave equation will, in fact, give us a picture of such behavior when we clamp the ends,

and we will see where the harmonic series comes from. But equally important is the notion

of an infinite string, which has at most one end clamped (but still keeps tension somehow),

and has no harmonics, properly speaking. This seemingly absurd notion is actually quite

valuable in that it gives us a model for elastic media, and we shall see that "wave packets"

propagate along the infinite string in a manner analogous to the way bursts of noise travel

through air. Fortunately, both models use the same equation, which will now derive.

For the derivation we will use a simple one-dimensional model, consisting of a perfectly

elastic string suspended in space. It is possible to extend the derivation to higher

dimensions, and find an equation describing the behavior of a vibrating membrane, or

even a solid. But such a derivation is extremely involved, and is beyond the scope of this

tutorial.

We will, at this point, make a number of assumptions about the string and its behavior

which reduce the complexity of the problem considerably. Though these assumptions are

not generally valid in the real world, they preserve the essential features of harmonic

vibration and make theoretical life much more pleasant than it would be otherwise :

1) The string has perfect and uniform elasticity. "Perfect elasticity" means that a segment of

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 15 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

the string will obey Hooke's law if stretched, and "uniform elasticity" means that the

"spring constant" of a given segment is the same for any other segment of equal length,

regardless of its location. Note that if a segment of length s has spring constant k, a

segment of length b*s will have spring constant k/b. If this seems non-obvious, try playing

with a rubber band. It is harder to stretch a short piece than a long piece. To see why this is

so, imagine two identical pieces of length s and spring constant k placed end to end,

forming a segment of length 2s. Displacing one end of the long segment by a given

distance x stretches both constituent pieces x/2, so the restoring force is the same as

for a single piece stretched by x/2. So a double-length segment has a spring constant

half that of its constituent pieces. The same argument can be extended to show a segment

of length b*s has a spring constant of k/b.

3) The equilibrium position for the string is a straight line, which for convenience we will

call the x axis, and all displacements from equilibrium are transverse (perpendicular to the

string's length). So if we were to make a mark at some point along the string's length and

set the string vibrating, the mark would be confined to move in the plane perpendicular to

the string's equilibrium position at that point. We can, of course, imagine stretching the

string longitudinally (that's how we test its stretchiness, after all), and we could even set it

vibrating longitudinally. In fact, we could derive the wave equation with this sort of

vibration, and ignore transverse motion entirely. The point is that we want to isolate one

dimension of the vibration, so as to be able to write a simple function describing the state

of the string.

To make things as simple as they can possibly be, we assume that all displacements are all

confined to a single 2-dimensional plane, and any motion of the string is likewise

constrained. So a mark on the string actually moves back and forth in a straight line

perpendicular to the string's equilibrium position at that point.

This purely transverse motion makes it possible to express the displacement of the string

as a function of one variable. We will represent our string by the formula y = f(x), where y

is the displacement of the string from equilibrium at x. (figure 1)

4) The string is unaffected by all external forces, such as gravity and viscous drag, and has

no internal forces save its own stretchiness (described by Hooke's law below). The string

therefore has no internal friction or internal source of mechanical energy. Note that rubber

bands do NOT behave this way. When you stretch them, they warm up and lose tension.

5) The slope of the string at any point along its length is never large.

It is of no concern to us at this point if the ends are fixed or if the string is infinitely long.

For now we will confine our attention to a small segment of the string, sitting between x

and (x + x) along the equilibrium axis of the string. It does not matter what x and x

are, since this segment is supposed to be completely general (Joe segment). If we can work

out what the string looks like at an arbitrary value of x and x, then we have described

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 16 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

The slope of the string segment is described by two angles, one for each endpoint. q1 is

the angle between the positive equilibrium axis of the string and a vector (with a leftward

horizontal component) tangent to the string at the left endpoint. q2 is the angle between

the positive equilibrium axis of the string and a vector (with a rightward horizontal

component) tangent to the string at the right endpoint.

1) Since the displacement of the string is transverse, all velocities and accelerations must

therefore also be transverse. So the net horizontal force on the string segment must be zero.

2) There must be a constant horizontal tension all along the string, because the horizontal

forces at each end of an arbitrary string segment must be balanced. If, for example, the

horizontal tension were greater at point A than at point B, the horizontal forces on the

string segment connecting A and B would be unbalanced, and the segment would be

drawn towards point A. This contradicts the requirement that an arbitrary string segment

have balanced horizontal forces, so the string tension at A and B must be equal. Let's call

this uniform horizontal tension T'.

3) Given the slope of the string at each endpoint of our arbitrary segment, we can break the

string tension T into horizontal and vertical components at each end, as shown in (figure

3).

At x, the left endpoint, we have a horizontal force given by Tcos(q1) and a vertical force

given by Tsin (q1). Likewise at (x+x), the right endpoint, we have a horizontal force

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 17 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

component Tcos (q2) and a vertical component Tsin (q2). The horizontal forces are

assumed to be opposite (since presumably q1 is between /2 and 3/2, while q2 is

between -/2 and /2).

Setting the horizontal components of the two forces to sum to zero gives:

This equation reflects the requirement that there be not longitudinal motion.

The net vertical force on the string segment is the sum of the endpoints:

F = Mass*acceleration

= (r(s))*((y/t)/t),

where r = mass/unit length, s=the actual length of the string segment, (which for large

angles q1and q2could be considerably more than x) and ((y/t)/t) is the

transverse acceleration of the segment.

Geometrically, -tan(q1) is equivalent to the slope of the string at x, and tan(q2) is the

slope at (x+x), so we can write:

Note that we are using partials (/x) instead of derivatives (d/dx) because y is a function

of two variables : x and t. The slope of the string at (x,t) is y(x,t)/x, and the velocity at

(x,t) is y(x,t)/t.

for s, and dividing through by x, we get:

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 18 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

As x goes to zero, the left size approaches the derivative of y/x with respect to x

(which is really the second partial of y with respect to x) Taking the limit of the above

equation as x goes to zero gives us:

________________________________________________________

This, as advertised, is the homogeneous wave equation. It is second order and linear, so we

can actually solve it (convince yourself that the equation is linear by taking two arbitrary

solutions y1(x,t) and y2(x,t) and showing that a linear combination is also a solution). If,

after solving the homogeneous wave equation, we find ourselves at a loss for fun things to

do, we can add a driving force to the string and solve the resulting nonhomogeneous form

of the wave equation. But for now let's concentrate on solving the homogeneous form.

In the case of the infinitely long string, the homogeneous solution will give us some

insight into how waves propagate through elastic media, and in the case of the string fixed

at two points we will be able to derive the harmonic series.

Section IV.5

The general solution to the partial differential equation utt = c2uxx may be found by using

a change of variables. Our goal is to find u as a function of x and t. To do this we find the

characteristic coordinates of the pde in terms of x and t, and substitute them for x and t.

Our pde will then be in its simplest form, and hopefully solvable. The characteristic

coordinates of a pde are solutions to the associated characteristic equation, which is

generally of an order less than the pde itself.

Note: at this point I am assuming the reader understands the difference between partial

differentiation with respect to a variable and regular differentiation. Also, the chain rule is

assumed known : d(F(u,v))/dx = (F/u)(du/dx) + (F/v)(dv/dx). See the appendix for

further explanation.

Fortunately, in the case of second order two-variable pdes, there exists a simple formula

(found in all introductory pde textbooks) for the characteristic equation. First we rewrite

our partial differential equation utt = c2uxx in the general form for pdes of this type:

(let's put in an (illustration) with the square root done properly, here)

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 19 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

The two roots (c in the case of our pde) correspond to two differential equations which

may be solved to get two characteristic coordinates.

1) dx = cdt

2) dx = -cdt,

The arbitrary constants introduced in the integration are the characteristic coordinates, =

x - ct and = x + ct.

ux = u(/x) + u(/x) = u + u

= u + u + u + u = (u + 2u + u)

plugging everything in :

= -4c2u

with no dependence on will be zero if differentiated with respect to f. Since the variables

and are independent, any function of the variable only will be zero if differentiated

by . Therefore y() = 0, and u = 0 as required.

constant introduced in the integration, is an arbitrary function of . F() = 0, so u =

y() as required.

If we let Y() = y()d, then we get u(,) = Y() + F().

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 20 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

So the general solution to the wave equation consists of two arbitrary functions of x

moving (or propagating) at speed c in opposite directions along the x axis.

Note that the second derivatives with respect to x and t of both arbitrary functions must be

well defined, so Y and F must be continuously differentiable in x and t. A solution

picked at random might not be continuous, so we must be careful. A random solution also

might not satisfy the physical constraints which allowed us to derive the equation in the

first place. The only real danger here, provided that Y and F are continuously

differentiable, is that the solution might not have small slopes. For the moment, let's not

worry about the magnitude of the slopes associated with solutions. If we find that a certain

solution has dangerously large slopes, we can simply multiply it by a scaling factor to

bring all the slope magnitudes into line without changing the nature of the solution. In

fact, the illustrations in this section will exaggerate slopes so as to make the shape of the

string more clear.

We may now construct any and all solutions to the wave equation on an infinite string out

of arbitrary functions. At this point, a few examples may be as helpful.

But how to deduce the shape of the string given initial conditions?

If, at some t which for convenience we will call 0, we know f(x) to be the transverse

displacement of the string from equilibrium, and g(x) to be the transverse velocity of the

string, then we have:

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 21 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

__________________________________________________________

Combining this last expression with equations 1 and 2 gives us, for 1:

And for 2:

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 22 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

Which is our general formula for the position of the string at time t given its position and

velocity at t=0. Note that to obtain velocity of the string we need only to differentiate the

above expression with respect to t (do this). And if the functions f(x) and g(x) are given for

t10, simply replace t with t-t1 in the equations.

Boundary Conditions

What happens if we fix the position of one end of the string, say by attaching it to an

immovable object? (illustration) Imagine a string extending out to infinity on the left, and

fixed to an infinitely massive and rigid (and non-gravitating) mass on the right. At the

boundary between the string and the mass (which we may for convenience place at x=0)

the position and velocity of the string are fixed at zero, but the slope may vary. The only

way to fix the slope at the boundary is by introducing some stiffness into the string, which

would violate our elasticity assumption. If a wave packet Y(x-ct) is incident from the left

on the boundary at x=0, every force (transverse) which the packet exerts on the boundary

is exactly matched by the inertia of the infinite mass, which opposes motion. We could

simulate this effect by extending the string to infinity on the right, and having another

wave packet F(x+ct) which is Y(x-ct) flipped backwards and upside down and

incident from the right on x=0. (illustration) As the two wave packets pass through each

other, they exert exactly equal and opposite transverse forces on the point x=0, and the

point remains fixed just as though the infinite mass had been there. The wave packets then

continue onwards, Y(x-ct) moving off towards x=+ and F(x+ct) towards x=-. So it is

as though the incident packet is reflected and inverted by the point x=0.

Another type of boundary permits an end of the string to slide transversely without

friction on a track (picture). When an incident wave packet hits this type of boundary, it

finds no resistance since the force which normally must be exerted to get the string to

move from its equilibrium position is gone (there being no more string). The slope of the

string at this type of boundary is always zero, (though near the boundary the string may

have nonzero slope), but the transverse position of the end may vary. (the only way to get

a nonzero slope at the boundary is to have some friction) We may simulate this type of

boundary by extending the string to infinity on the right as we did before, and introducing

another wave packet which is simply the mirror image of the original. (picture) The two

packets meet at x=0, and preserve zero slope at x=0 as they pass through each other. This is

because as mirror images they exert transverse force in the same direction. After crossing

x=0, the two packets continue to propagate in their respective directions, so it is as though

the incident packet has been reflected. (illustration)

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 23 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

Now for the case of the string fixed at both ends, we can look at the problem in two ways.

First, we can think of any displacement along the length of the string as a moving wave,

which will be reflected back and forth between the fixed boundaries. This makes sense if,

as in the previous examples, the displacement is a clearly localized "wave packet" over the

time interval of interest. If, however, the displacement involves a large portion of the

whole string at once (a plucked cello string, for example), then this approach becomes

confusing. If the string just vibrates back and forth, no moving wave packets are clearly

visible. But as it turns out, if two periodic waves with the same period are moving in

opposite directions towards each other, a standing wave is created wherever they cross.

For example, let's take two sine waves with period=2. Let Y(x-ct) be sin(x-ct) and let

F(x+ct) be sin(x+ct). So u(x,t) = Y(x-ct) + F(x+ct) = sin(x-ct) + sin(x+ct). We could at

this point plot u(x,t) on a computer and get some pictures (possible illustration). But let's

do things mathematically first.

u(x,t) = 2sin(x)cos(ct)

This is not quite a solution to utt = c2uxx , but we can make it one by adding a phase factor

of -/2 to cos(ct) to get cos(ct-/2), or sin(ct). This means setting the clock back /2c

seconds, which shouldn't cause any problems. u(x,t) = 2sin(x)sin(ct) is a solution to the

wave equation, but it doesn't propagate to the right or left. The time dependence is

expressed in the sin(ct) factor, which simply causes the amplitude of the sine wave to

oscillate from -2 to 2 and back again every 2/c seconds. The period of the x dependent

term is 2, so the sine wave crosses zero at 0,,2,3,... regardless of t. These points where

u(x,t) is always zero are known as nodes. If we hold a standing wave fixed at two of its

nodes, the vibration should not be affected, and we have a solution to the case of a

vibrating string fixed at both ends.

Or instead we can go back to the wave equation and use linearity to construct a general

solution for the fixed string. This is analogous to the procedure we used to find a general

solution for the simple harmonic oscillator.

Let's take the case of a string of length L fixed at both ends. Let the leftmost end be located

at x=0 and the rightmost end at x=L. It is easy to show that u(x,t) = Asin(w1t)sin(2x/L) is

a solution to utt = c2uxx , where A is an arbitrary constant and w1 = c(2/L) is the

frequency (in radians per second in time) of the sin(w1t) term. Looking at the sin((2x/L)

term, we see that period in x is 2, sin(0)=0 and sin(2)=0. So u(0,t)= 0 and u(L,t)=0 for all t,

and the ends remain fixed as required.

(illustration)

Notice that we can get a similar solution simply by halving the period of the sin(2x/L)

term, or doubling its frequency (in radians per unit length) to get sin(4x/L). This also

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 24 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

keeps the ends fixed, since sin(4)=0. But we have to double the frequency of the sin(w1t)

term to satisfy

utt = c2uxx.

(c(2/L)).

number of solutions, each with a different frequency.

(illustration)

For a given n, the nodes are spaced L/n apart on the x axis, and the frequency of the

vibration is 2L/cn cycles per second, or Hz. So notice that the solutions associated with

negative values of n (-1,-2,-3,...) correspond to the positive n value solutions after t = L/cn

(half a period in time) has passed.

We may easily demonstrate that these solutions are linearly independent. And since the

wave equation is linear, any linear combination of solutions of the form

Asin((c2n/L)t)sin((2n/L)x) will also be a solution.

In fact, these linearly independent solutions are the nomal modes of the vibrating string.

The frequency (in time) of the normal mode associated with n=1 is called the fundamental

frequency, and the frequency of the nth normal mode where n>1 is known as the nth

harmonic. (harmonic series)

(Show that these may be constructed using two moving waves, added to make a standing

wave - use pictures from the plot program)

Now talk about media, energy conservation as we increase dimensionality and how that

accounts for the drop in volume as distance from sound source increases.

Derive the wave equation in 2 and 3 dimensions, making no attempt to describe the

solutions, but hinting that they also obey the general criteria for linearity and are therefore

fourierizable in some way.

Appendix

section on differential equations which includes some basic calculus review.

Trigonometry Review:

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 25 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

Differential Equations:

followed by a variable name in parentheses : f(x), g(y), or u(z), for example. The variable

names themselves are, of course, not important. They are significant only insofar as they

are associated with the definition of the function. If, for example, we know that f(x) = -

sin(x), then we know then f(6321.02) = -sin(6321.02), and f(y) = -sin(y). So if we made a plot

of f(x) against the x-axis, it would look exactly the same as a plot of f(w) against the w-axis.

Functions of several variables are written similarly, but with a list of variables separated by

commas inside the parentheses : v(x,y,z), u(t,s), f(l,m,n,o,p). It is important that the

variables be distinguishable from one another, and that they be in a well defined order. But

otherwise, the names are arbitrary. For example, if u(x,y,z) = sin(x)*cos(y) + z, we know

that u(a,b,c) = sin(a)*cos(b) + c, and u(z,x,b) = sin(z)*cos(x) + b. Obviously, u(a,b,x) is not,

in general, the same as u(x,b,a) (but setting u(a,b,x) equal to u(x,b,a) and solving for a,b,

and x might well produce an interesting locus of points).

The domain of a function is the set of all values which may be "plugged in" to the function

to produce a legal value.

For example :

2) the domain of tan(x) is the set of real numbers minus the set of zeros of cos(x) :

(numbers of the form /2 + n*, where n is an integer). The function tan(x) is undefined for

values of x which corresponds to zeros of cos(x), so these points are not included in the

domain of tan(x).

The range of a function is the set of all values which may be produced by plugging values

into the function.

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 26 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

For example :

range.

(picture)

Continuity:

given any two points p1 and p2 in the domain of g, the value of g at p1 differs from the

value of g at p2 by no more than epsilon*d, where epsilon is some fixed number over the

whole range of g, and d is the distance between the points p1 and p2.

Differentiation is an operation defined for a function of a single variable. For example, the

derivative of f(x) is d(f(x))/dx, or f'(x), and the third derivative of f(x) is

d(d(d(f(x))/dx)/dx)/dx, or d3f(x)/(dx)3, or f'''(x). Higher derivatives than third are often

written with a parenthesized number in the exponent : f(4)(x) = f''''(x). But since f is a

function of one variable, it doesn't really matter what name we give it. In fact, the (x) is

sometimes omitted entirely. In this case, f' and f'' and f(8) are understood to mean

differentiation with respect to the single variable which is used in defining f.

Partial differentiation:

variable is relevant to the differentiation. For example, if g is a function of a, b, and c, the

expression g' is ambiguous. g' could refer to differentiation with respect to a, b, c or some

linear combination of a, b and c.

Consider a continuous function u of two variables, and imagine a surface in 3-space (with

coordinate axes x, y, and z) by assigning the value u(x,y) to the z coordinate above each

point (x,y) in the xy plane. The continuity of u guarantees that the surface will be

unbroken, and will not shoot off to infinity anywhere.

(picture)

1) Define a straight line in the xy plane somewhere, and call it the k axis. If the line is

described by y = mx + b, we can parameterize the line in terms of variable k this way:

x(k) = k

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 27 de 28

Wolfenden Article 15/09/17 09:22

y(k) = b + mk

z(k) = 0

So each real number k corresponds to a point on the k axis with x, y, and z coordinates

given by the above parametric equations.

This k axis in the xy plane corresponds to a curve on the surface u, which is the projection

of the k axis up or down along the z axis onto the surface u(x,y).

(picture)

If k is a number describing a point somewhere along the k axis, we may then take the

values of x and y generated by the parametric equations and plug them into u :

u(x(k),y(k)). And since the curve on the surface of u is now expressed entirely in terms of

k, we may write the curve as u(k).

https://people.finearts.uvic.ca/~aschloss/course_mat/MU207/wolfenden_article.html Pgina 28 de 28

- Multiple Degrees of FreedomUploaded byShafeeq Shabaz
- Chapter 3 Rolling MotionUploaded byAmir Hazim
- ieeebf90f96b-b666-20130730122643Uploaded byjopiter
- bx_refinement Manual.pdfUploaded bypapardellas
- DRM SolutionsUploaded byCésar Tapia
- 107_76409_Session Wise Problems (1) (1)Uploaded byßñęhâ Șmìlęÿ
- Modal Analysis SpreadsheetUploaded bytanha56313955
- Sway and Roll Motion of a BuoyUploaded byRupesh Kumar
- Review of Mechanical VibrationsUploaded byJose Alejandro Mansutti G
- Sep11 2012 Striptheory HeaveUploaded bysibanandarms
- basics of unit1 cs.docUploaded byAnji Badugu
- Heidelberg - Schwarz - NonlinearDynamicsUploaded byIonutbs
- NX Nastran Dynamic AnalysisUploaded byNagrajThadur
- Review of Mechanical VibrationsUploaded byMario Sitorus
- Math questionsUploaded byJames Mellan
- 1. Mathematics - IJMCAR- Vibration Control of a Cantilever Beam of Varying Orientation Subject to Parametric and Direct ExcitationUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Pendulum Underdamped SystemUploaded byJitender Yadav
- I-12-432Uploaded byRasheed Yusuf
- Engineering Acoustics Course NotesUploaded by王龙
- STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC (1).pdfUploaded bykyle
- GATE 2005Uploaded byNikhil Batham
- CorrectionsUploaded bySuhailUmar
- RLC Circuit Transient Response SolutionsUploaded byAaron Mueller
- SDOFUploaded byAravind Kumar
- 35 EE394J Spring11 Synchrophasor April 29 2011Uploaded bykgskgm
- NssUploaded byPradyumna Nahak
- Dist MassUploaded byYerith Villarreal Cuentas
- Abstract and Work PlanUploaded byborkarsd007
- Nonlinear vibrationUploaded byMohdQasim
- g 024036041Uploaded byresearchinventy

- JoieUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- dcfichero_articulo.pdfUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- ActivaciónUploaded byJulio Castillo
- STOCKHAUSEN - Electronic and Instrumental MusicUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- sobre os limites do corpoUploaded byLorena Travassos
- Release7 InstallationNotes MACUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- Inharmonique CommentsUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- Davi-Raubach-Catarse-do-catador.pdfUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- MATERA ENVIAR CHAO DE OUTONO - CONCURSO - MAIN2019.pdfUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- RISSET - Inharmonique comments.pdfUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- momomoUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- GUIGUE - Momentos de almeida prado 4052-21477-1-PB.pdfUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- njnUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- Mate - - Main2019Uploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- MikrophonieUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- A Imaginação EscutaUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- MARTIN-BARBERO, Jesús - Dos meios às mediaçõesUploaded byTucandeira Underline
- eronaUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- intertextural interactionUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- Hermosa - The Accordion in the 19th. CenturyUploaded byAnabela Silva
- HandbooUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- 1Bela BartokUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- 3-7643-7677-5_4Uploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- Vagionne1996aUploaded by1111qwerasdf
- score paperUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- Live Elektronik RepertoireUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- Bichos Do Brasil CifraUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- CompLecture1.pdfUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen
- DiÃ¡logos-com-o-Som-Vol1-Ebook.pdfUploaded byWilliams Martins
- RUST - Musical Acts and Musical Agents- theory, implementation and practice.pdfUploaded byDavi Raubach Tuchtenhagen

- ELL701_LinAlg-1Uploaded byHeather Cleveland
- Mathematics (Introduction to Linear Algebra)Uploaded byshilpajoseph
- Barnett R. A. & Fujii J. N. - Vectors (1963).pdfUploaded byIxtana
- maths notes 1Uploaded byMohanah Jayakumaran
- Essential Physics 1Uploaded byMuhammad Iqrash Awan
- Lecture Notes 15 Dec 2014Uploaded byClaudiu Harton
- linear_algebra.pdfUploaded byLudipo
- Linear Systems Lecture 3Uploaded byPui Ho Lam
- Linear Algebra notesUploaded byalijazizaib
- Question of Life: How many dimensions do we live in?Uploaded bySamuel Ramna Lie
- (Excellent) Ray Theory Characteristics and AsyptoticsUploaded bymavric444
- vtf_0910.pdfUploaded byMiley Rox
- LADWUploaded byFrancisco Benítez
- chap3Uploaded byKhmer Cham
- Vector Space Over F2Uploaded byAnonymous 8b4AuKD
- Real Vector SpaceUploaded byFauzliah Mohd Saleh
- Vectors Mathematics 50 QuestionsUploaded byAditi Mahajan
- Vector Spaces WorksheetUploaded byMuthuPabasara
- Ch8.pdfUploaded by王大洋
- Mat Lab Project 1Uploaded byAngela
- L - Introduction to Compressive SensingUploaded bypaivensolidsnake
- Vektor pdf.pdfUploaded byIfan Irfiandi
- 020 Advanced Engineering MathematicsUploaded byBobi Guau
- Basis MATLABUploaded byUsman Faarooqui
- Linear AlgebraUploaded byNikola Nikolic
- MatricesANDVectors_V2016.1Uploaded byteja09347
- linear algebraUploaded byusman4
- linear algebraUploaded byUday Kumar Mulaka
- te2401-part1Uploaded byJami Burnett
- AlgebraUploaded byRobertBellarmine