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2.

Transac onal Theories:


The theory of transactions fits better than trait theories, because
it explained why the same leader was successful at times, and not
at others.
There are three types of leaders:
1. Authoritarian : determinesallpolicies,setallworkassignmentsandtask
oriented.
2. Democratic: shareddecisionmakingpowerswithsubordinates.
3. Laissezfaire: allowedfreedomforindividualsandgroupdecisionmaking,
providedinformationwhenrequested.
Groups with democratic leaders were most satisfied and productive
Groups led by authoritarian leaders were very aggressive and were the least
satisfied, but they were highly productive
Groups with laissez faire leaders showed low satisfaction and low production
3. Con ngency Approaches
The contingency approaches assert that
different leadership styles will differ in their
effects in different situations so there is no
one best way.

Thecontingencytheoriesstress:
1. Thetype,structure,size,andpurposeoftheorganization
2. Theexternalenvironmentinwhichtheorganization
functions
3. Theorientation,values,goalsandexpectationsofthe
leader,hissuperiorsandsubordinates.
4. Theexpertofprofessionalknowledgerequiredofthe
position
Contingency Theories of Leadership (cont.)

The Fiedler Model


Proposesthateffectivegroupperformance
dependsuponthepropermatchbetweenthe
leadersstyleofinteractingwithfollowersandthe
degreetowhichthesituationallowstheleaderto
controlandinfluence.
The Fiedler Model

Assumptions:
Acertainleadershipstyleshouldbemosteffective
indifferenttypesofsituations.

Leadersdonotreadilychangeleadershipstyles.
Matchingtheleadertothesituationorchangingthe
situationtomakeitfavorabletotheleaderisrequired.
The Fiedler Model

Leastpreferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire


Determinesleadershipstylebymeasuringresponsesto18pairsof
contrastingadjectives.
Highscore:arelationshiporientedleadershipstyle.
Lowscore:ataskorientedleadershipstyle.
Situational factors in matching leader to the situation:
Leadermemberrelations.
Taskstructure.
Positionpower.
The Fiedler Model
Contingency Theories of Leadership
(cont.)
Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership Theory
(SLT)
Amodelaimstoprovideapracticalwayforaleadertodecide
howtoadapthisorherstyletothetask.
Arguesthatsuccessfulleadershipisachievedbyselectingtheright
leadershipstylewhichiscontingentonthelevelofthefollowers
readiness.
Acceptance: leadershipeffectivenessdependsonwhether
followersacceptorrejectaleader.
Readiness: theextenttowhichfollowershavetheabilityand
willingnesstoaccomplishaspecifictask.
Leadersmustgiveupcontroloverandcontactwithfollowersas
theybecomemorecompetent.
Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership
Theory (SLT)
Modelfocusesonfourleadershipstyles:
Createsfourspecificleadershipstylesincorporating
Fiedlerstwoleadershipdimensions:
Telling: hightasklowrelationshipleadership.Thetellingstyle
makesthedecisionandtellsthegroupwhattodo.
Selling: hightaskhighrelationshipleadership.Thesellingstyle
makesthedecisionbutexplainsthereasons.
Participating: lowtaskhighrelationshipleadership.The
participatingstyle asksthemembersofthegroupwhattodo,but
makesthefinaldecisions.
Delegating: lowtasklowrelationshipleadership. Thedelegating
styleletsthemembersofthegroupdecidewhattodo.
Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership
Theory (SLT)

Four stages of follower readiness


(willingness):
R1: followersareunableandunwilling.
R2: followersareunablebutwilling.
R3: followersareablebutunwilling.
R4: followersareableandwilling.
SummaryoftheSituationalLeadershipModel
Applying the Situational Leadership Model
Contingency Theories of Leadership
(cont.)
PathGoal Model
Statesthattheleadersjobistoassisthisorher
followersinattainingtheirgoalsandtoprovidedirection
orsupporttoensurethattheirgoalsarecompatible
withthoseoftheorganization.
Dependingonthesituation,leadersassumedifferent
leadershipstylesatdifferenttimes:
Directiveleader.
Supportiveleader.
Participativeleader.
Achievementorientedleader.
PathGoal Model