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The garden city movement is a method of urban planning that was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United
residences, industry, and agriculture.

Inspired by the utopian novel Looking Backward and Henry George's work Progress and Poverty, Howard published his bo
house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres (2,400 ha), planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks a
population, another garden city would be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satell

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Early development
Howards To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform sold enough copies to result in a second edition, Garden Cities of T
agreed the overcrowding and deterioration of cities was one of the troubling issues of their time. He quotes a number of
an alternative to working on farms or crowded, unhealthy cities.

To build a garden city, Howard needed money to buy land. He decided to get funding from "gentlemen of responsible pos
TCPA), which created First Garden City, Ltd. in 1899 to create the garden city of Letchworth. However, these donors woul
speculation. Howard tried to include working class cooperative organisations, which included over two million members,
concessions to his plan, such as eliminating the cooperative ownership scheme with no landlords, short-term rent increas
The garden city movement is a method of urban planning that was initiated in 1898
by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom. Garden cities were intended to be
planned, self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts", containing
proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.

Inspired by the utopian novel Looking Backward and Henry George's work Progress
and Poverty, Howard published his book To-morrow: a Peaceful Path to Real
Reform in 1898 (which was reissued in 1902 as Garden Cities of To-morrow). His
idealised garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres (2,400 ha),
planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six radial
boulevards, 120 ft (37 m) wide, extending from the centre. The garden city would be
self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be
developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of
a central city of 58,000 people, linked by road and rail.
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Early development

Howards To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform sold enough copies to result in
a second edition, Garden Cities of To-morrow. This success provided him the support
necessary to pursue the chance to bring his vision into reality. Howard believed that
all people agreed the overcrowding and deterioration of cities was one of the
troubling issues of their time. He quotes a number of respected thinkers and their
disdain of cities. Howards garden city concept combined the town and country in
order to provide the working class an alternative to working on farms or crowded,
unhealthy cities.

To build a garden city, Howard needed money to buy land. He decided to get funding
from "gentlemen of responsible position and undoubted probity and honour". He
founded the Garden City Association (later known as the Town and Country Planning
Association or TCPA), which created First Garden City, Ltd. in 1899 to create the
garden city of Letchworth. However, these donors would collect interest on their
investment if the garden city generated profits through rents or, as Fishman calls the
process, philanthropic land speculation. Howard tried to include working class
cooperative organisations, which included over two million members, but could not
win their financial support. Because he had to rely only on the wealthy investors of
First Garden City, Howard had to make concessions to his plan, such as eliminating
the cooperative ownership scheme with no landlords, short-term rent increases, and
hiring architects who did not agree with his rigid design plans.
In 1904, Raymond Unwin, a noted architect and town planner, along with his partner
Barry Parker, won the competition run by First Garden City Ltd. to plan Letchworth,
an area 34 miles outside London. Unwin and Parker planned the town in the centre
of the Letchworth estate with Howards large agricultural greenbelt surrounding the
town, and they shared Howards notion that the working class deserved better and
more affordable housing. However, the architects ignored Howards symmetric
design, instead replacing it with a more organic design.
Letchworth slowly attracted more residents because it was able to attract
manufacturers through low taxes, low rents and more space. Despite Howards best
efforts, the home prices in this garden city could not remain affordable for blue-
collar workers to live in. The populations comprised mostly skilled middle class
workers. After a decade, the First Garden City became profitable and started paying
dividends to its investors. Although many viewed Letchworth as a success, it did not
immediately inspire government investment into the next line of garden cities.

In reference to the lack of government support for garden cities, Frederic James
Osborn, a colleague of Howard and his eventual successor at the Garden City
Association, recalled him saying, "The only way to get anything done is to do it
yourself." Likely in frustration, Howard bought land at Welwyn to house the second
garden city in 1919. The purchase was at auction, with money Howard desperately
and successfully borrowed from friends. The Welwyn Garden City Corporation was
formed to oversee the construction. But Welwyn did not become self-sustaining
because it was only 20 miles from London.

Even until the end of the 1930s, Letchworth and Welwyn remained as the only
existing garden cities. However, the movement did succeed in emphasizing the need
for urban planning policies that eventually led to the New Town movement.

Garden cities
Howard organised the Garden City Association in 1899. Two garden cities were built
using Howard's ideas: Letchworth Garden City and Welwyn Garden City, both in the
County of Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom. Howard's successor as chairman
of the Garden City Association was Sir Frederic Osborn, who extended the
movement to regional planning.

The concept was adopted again in England after World War II, when the New Towns
Act caused the development of many new communities based on Howard's
egalitarian ideas.

The idea of the garden city was influential in the United States. Examples are:
Residence Park in New Rochelle, New York; Woodbourne in Boston; Newport News,
Virginia's Hilton Village; Pittsburgh's Chatham Village; Garden City, New York;
Sunnyside, Queens; Jackson Heights, Queens; Forest Hills Gardens, also in the
borough of Queens, New York; Radburn, New Jersey; Greenbelt, Maryland;
Buckingham in Arlington County, Virginia; the Lake Vista neighborhood in New
Orleans; Norris, Tennessee; Baldwin Hills Village in Los Angeles; and the Cleveland
suburbs of Parma and Shaker Heights.

Greendale, Wisconsin is one of three "greenbelt" towns planned beginning in 1935


under the direction of Rexford Guy Tugwell, head of the United States Resettlement
Administration, under authority of the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act. The two
other greenbelt towns are Greenbelt, Maryland (near Washington, D.C.) and
Greenhills, Ohio (near Cincinnati). The greenbelt towns not only provided work and
affordable housing, but also served as a laboratory for experiments in innovative
urban planning. Greendale's plan was designed between 1936 and 1937 by a staff
headed by Joseph Crane, Elbert Peets, Harry Bentley, and Walter C. Thomas for a site
that had formerly consisted of 3,400 acres (14 km2) of farmland.

In Canada, the Ontario towns of Don Mills (now incorporated into the City of
Toronto) and Walkerville are, in part, garden cities, as well as the Montreal suburb of
Mount Royal. The historic Townsite of Powell River, British Columbia and the
Hydrostone district of Halifax, Nova Scotia are recognized as National Historic Sites of
Canada built upon the Garden City Movement. In Montreal, La Cit-jardin du
Tricentenaire is a classic form of Garden City located near the Olympic Stadium. All
streets are cul-de-sacs and are linked via pedestrian paths to the community park.

In Peru, there is a long tradition in urban design that has been reintroduced in its
architecture more recently. In 1966, the 'Residencial San Felipe' in the district of
Jesus Maria (Lima) was built using the Garden City concept.

In So Paulo, Brazil, several neighbourhoods were planned as Garden Cities, such as


Jardim Amrica, Jardim Europa, Alto da Lapa, Alto de Pinheiros, Jardim da Sade and
Cidade Jardim (Garden City in Portuguese). Goinia, capital of Gois state, and
Maring are examples of Garden City.

In Argentina, an example is Ciudad Jardn Lomas del Palomar, declared by the


influential Argentinian professor of engineering, Carlos Mara della Paolera, founder
of "Da Mundial del Urbanismo" (World Urbanism Day), as the first Garden City in
South America.

In Australia, the suburb of Colonel Light Gardens in Adelaide, South Australia, was
designed according to garden city principles. So too the town of Sunshine which is
now a suburb of Melbourne in Victoria and the suburb of Lalor also in Melbourne
Victoria Australia. The Peter Lalor Estate in Lalor takes its name from a leader of the
Eureka Stockade and remains today in its original form. However it is under threat
from developers and Whittlesea Council. Lalor:Peter Lalor Home Building
Cooperative 1946-2012 Scollay, Moira. Pre-dating these was the garden suburb of
Haberfield in 1901 by Richard Stanton, organised on a vertical integrated model from
land subdivision, mortgage financing, house and interior designs and site
landscaping.

Garden city ideals were employed in the original town planning of Christchurch, New
Zealand. Prior to the earthquakes of 2010 and 2011, the city infrastructure and
homes were well integrated into green spaces. The rebuild blueprint rethought the
garden city concept and how it would best suit the city. Greenbelts and urban
greenspaces have been redesigned to incorporate more living spaces.

Garden city principles greatly influenced the design of colonial and post-colonial
capitals during the early part of the 20th century. This is the case for New Delhi
(designed as the new capital of British India after World War I), of Canberra (capital
of Australia established in 1913) and of Quezon City (established in 1939, capital of
the Philippines from 194876). The garden city model was also applied to many
colonial hill stations, such as Da Lat in Vietnam (est. 1907) and Ifrane in Morocco
(est. 1929).

In Bhutan's capital city Thimphu the new plan, following the Principles of Intelligent
Urbanism, is an organic response to the fragile ecology. Using sustainable concepts,
it is a contemporary response to the garden city concept.

The Garden City movement also influenced the Scottish urbanist Sir Patrick Geddes
in the planning of Tel Aviv, Israel, in the 1920s, during the British Mandate for
Palestine. Geddes started his Tel Aviv plan in 1925 and submitted the final version in
1927, so all growth of this garden city during the 1930s was merely "based" on the
Geddes Plan. Changes were inevitable.

The Garden City movement was even able to take root in South Africa, with the
development of the suburb of Pinelands in Cape Town.

In Italy, the INA-Casa plan - a national public housing plan from the 1950s and '60s -
designed several suburbs according to Garden City principles: examples are found in
many cities and towns of the country, such as the Isolotto suburb in Florence,
Falchera in Turin, Harar in Milan, Cesate Villaggio in Cesate (part of the Metropolitan
City of Milan), etc.
In the former Czechoslovakia, all industrial cities founded or reconstructed by the
Bata Shoes company (Zln, Svit, Partiznske) were at least influenced by the
conception of the Garden city.

The Epcot Center in Bay Lake, Florida took some influence from Howard's Garden
City concept while the park was still under construction.

Singapore, a tropical city has over time incorporated various facets of Garden city
concept in its town plans to try and make the country a unique City in a Garden. The
country starting incorporating concepts in its town plans in the 1970's to ensure that
building codes and land use plans made adequate provisions for greenery and nature
to become part of community development, thereby providing a great living
environment. In 1996, National Parks Board was given the mandate to spearhead the
development and maintenance of greenery and bring the island's green spaces and
parks to the community.

Garden suburbs
The concept of garden cities is to produce relatively economically independent cities
with short commute times and the preservation of the countryside. Garden suburbs
arguably do the opposite. Garden suburbs are built on the outskirts of large cities
with no sections of industry. They are therefore dependent on reliable transport
allowing workers to commute into the city. Lewis Mumford, one of Howard's
disciples explained the difference as "The Garden City, as Howard defined it, is not a
suburb but the antithesis of a suburb: not a rural retreat, but a more integrated
foundation for an effective urban life."

The planned garden suburb emerged in the late 18th century as a by-product of new
types of transportation were embraced by a newly prosperous merchant class. The
first garden villages were built by English estate owners, who wanted to relocate or
rebuild villages on their lands. It was in these cases that architects first began
designing small houses. Early examples include Harewood and Milton Abbas. Major
innovations that defined early garden suburbs and subsequent suburban town
planning include linking villa-like homes with landscaped public spaces and roads.

Despite the emergence of the garden suburb in England, the typology flowered in
the second half of the 19th century in United States. There were generally two
garden suburb typologies, the garden village and the garden enclave. The garden
villages are spatially independent of the city but remain connected to the city by
railroads, streetcars, and later automobiles. The villages often included shops and
civic buildings. In contrast, garden enclaves are typically strictly residential and
emphasize natural and private space, instead of public and community space. The
urban form of the enclaves were often coordinated through the use of early land use
controls typical of modern zoning including controlled setbacks, landscaping,
materials.

Garden suburbs were not part of Howard's plan and were actually a hindrance to
garden city planningthey were in fact almost the antithesis of Howard's plan, what
he tried to prevent. The suburbanisation of London was an increasing problem which
Howard attempted to solve with his garden city model, which attempted to end
urban sprawl by the sheer inhibition of land speculation due to the land being held in
trust, and the inclusion of agricultural areas on the city outskirts.

Raymond Unwin, one of Howard's early collaborators on the Letchworth Garden City
project in 1907, became very influential in formalizing the garden city principles in
the design of suburbs through his work Town Planning in Practice: An Introduction to
the Art of Designing Cities and Suburbs (1909). The book strongly influenced the
Housing and Town Planning Act of 1909, which provided municipalities the power to
develop urban plans for new suburban communities.

Smaller developments were also inspired by the garden city philosophy and were
modified to allow for residential "garden suburbs" without the commercial and
industrial components of the garden city. They were built on the outskirts of cities, in
rural settings. Some notable examples being, in London, Hampstead Garden Suburb,
the Sutton Garden Suburb in Benhilton, Sutton, Pinner's Pinnerwood conversation
area and the 'Exhibition Estate' in Gidea Park and, in Liverpool, Wavertree Garden
Suburb. The Gidea Park estate in particular was built during two main periods of
activity, 1911 and 1934. Both resulted in some good examples of domestic
architecture, by such architects as Wells Coates and Berthold Lubetkin. Thanks to
such strongly conservative local residents' associations as the Civic Society, both
Hampstead and Gidea Park retain much of their original character.

However it is important to note Bournville Village Trust in SW Birmingham UK. This


important residential development was associated with the growth of 'Cadbury's
Factory in a Garden'. Here Garden City principles are a fundamental part of the
Trust's activity. There are very tight restrictions applying to the properties here, no
stonewall cladding, uPVC windows, and so-on.
Howard's influence reached as far as Mexico City, where architect Jos Luis Cuevas
was influenced by the Garden City concept in the design of two of the most iconic
inner-city subdivisions, Colonia Hipdromo de la Condesa (1926) and Lomas de
Chapultepec (1928-9):

In 1926, Colonia Hipdromo (a.k.a. Hipdromo de la Condesa), in what is now


known as the Condesa area, including its iconic parks Parque Mxico and Parque
Espaa
In 1928-29, Lomas de Chapultepec

The subdivisions were based on the principles of the Garden City as promoted by
Ebenezer Howard, including ample parks and other open spaces, park islands in the
middle of "grand avenues" such as Avenida Amsterdam in colonia Hipdromo. One
unique example of a garden suburb is the Humberstone Garden Suburb in the United
Kingdom by the Humberstone Anchor Tenants' Association in Leicestershire and it is
the only garden suburb ever to be built by the members of a workers' co-operative;
it remains intact to the present. In 1887 the workers of the Anchor Shoe Company in
Humberstone formed a workers' cooperative and built 97 houses.

American architects and partners, Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin
were proponents of the movement and after their arrival in Australia to design the
national capital Canberra, they produced a number of Garden Suburb estates, most
notably at Eaglemont with the Glenard and Mount Eagle Estates and the Ranelagh
and Milleara Estates in Victoria.

Criticisms
While garden cities were praised for being an alternative to overcrowded and
industrial cities, along with greater sustainability, Garden cities were often criticized
for damaging the economy, being destructive of the beauty of nature, and being
inconvenient. According to A. Trystan Edwards, Garden cities lead to desecration of
the country side by trying to recreate country side houses that could spread
themselves; however, this wasn't a possible feat due to the limited space they had.

More recently the environmental movement's embrace of urban density has offered
an "implicit critique" of the Garden City movement. In this way the critique of the
concept resembles critiques of other suburbanization models, though author
Stephen Ward has argued that critics often do not adequately distinguish between
true garden cities and more mundane dormitory city plans.
It is often referred to as an urban design experiment which is typified by failure due
to the laneways used as common entries and exits to the houses helping ghettoise
communities and encourage crime; it has ultimately lead to efforts to 'de-Radburn'
or partially demolish American Radburn designed public housing areas.

When interviewed in 1998, the architect responsible for introducing the design to
public housing in New South Wales, Philip Cox, was reported to have admitted with
regards to an American Radburn designed estate in the suburb of Villawood,
"Everything that could go wrong in a society went wrong," "It became the centre of
drugs, it became the centre of violence and, eventually, the police refused to go into
it. It was hell."

Legacy
Contemporary town-planning charters like New Urbanism and Principles of
Intelligent Urbanism originated with this movement. Today there are many garden
cities in the world, but most of them have devolved to dormitory suburbs, which
completely differ from what Howard aimed to create.

In 2007, the Town and Country Planning Association marked its 108th anniversary by
calling for Garden City and Garden Suburb principles to be applied to the present
New Towns and Eco-towns in the United Kingdom. The campaign continued in 2013
with the publication in March of that year of "Creating Garden Cities and Suburbs
Today - a guide for councils". Also in 2013, Lord Simon Wolfson announced that he
would award the Wolfson Economics Prize for the best ideas on how to create a new
garden city.

In 2014 The Letchworth Declaration was published which called for a body to
accredit future garden cities in the UK. The declaration has a strong focus on the
visible (architecture and layout) and the invisible (social, ownership and governance)
architecture of a settlement. One result was the creation of the New Garden Cities
Alliance as a community interest company. Its aim is to be complementary to groups
like the Town and Country Planning Association and it has adopted TCPA garden city
principles as well as those from other groups, including those from CabannesRoss
booklet 21st Century Garden Cities of To-morrow.

New garden cities and towns


British Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne announced plans for a new
garden city to be built at Ebbsfleet Valley, Kent, in early 2014, with a second also
planned as an expansion of Bicester, Oxfordshire. The United Kingdom government
announced further plans for garden towns in 2015, supporting both the
development of new communities in North Essex and support for sustainable and
environmentally-friendly town development in Didcot, Oxfordshire. A "Black Country
Garden City" was announced in 2016 with plans to build 45,000 new homes in the
West Midlands on brownfield sites.

On 2 January 2017, plans for new garden villages, each with between 1,500 and
10,000 homes, and garden towns each with more than 10,000 houses were
announced by the government. These smaller projects have been proposed due to
opposition of "urban sprawl" in the garden city projects, as well as such quick
expansion to small communities. The first wave of villages to be approved by
ministers are to be located in:

Long Marston, Warwickshire


Oxfordshire Cotswold, Oxfordshire
Deenethorpe
Culm, Devon
Welborne, Hampshire
West Carclaze, Cornwall
Dunton Hills, Essex
Spitalgate Heath, Lincolnshire
Halsnead, Merseyside
Longcross, Surrey
Bailrigg, Lancashire
Infinity Garden Village, Derbyshire
St Cuthberts, Cumbria
North Cheshire, Cheshire

The approved garden towns are to be located in:

Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire
Taunton, Somerset
Harlow & Gilston, Essex-Hertfordshire