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HTML / XHTML Quick Reference This document: http://www.utoronto.


Element Description and Browser Support
Key to this Figure
<html> ... </html> Bounds of HTML or XHTML document
<head> ... </head> Document head (document meta data) HTML Version
<base /> Base URL for the document (i.e., original URL)
<isindex /> Simple search interface (use form instead) <tag> Standard elements
<link /> Relationship(s) to other resources (e.g., style sheets) <tag> Netscape/Microsoft
<meta /> Document meta-information (e.g., for search engines) extensions – avoid if possible
<script> ... </script> Inline script program (e.g., JavaScript, VBscript) <tag> Deprecated -- avoid if
<style> ... </style> Style sheet rules [IE3+, NN4+, OP3.6+] possible
<title> ... </title> Document title (contains text only, no markup)
<body> .. </body> Document body (contains what gets displayed) Element Tag Rules
<address> ... </address> Address information <tag> ... </tag>
<blockquote> ... </blockquote> Block quotation Element has content, and the
<center> ... </center> Center element contents (use div instead) end tag is mandatory.
<div> ... </div> Block division of document <tag /> Element is empty.
<hn> ... </hn> Headings, from h1 to h6
<hr /> Horizontal rule or divider Element Content Rules
<p> ... </p> Paragraph Right hand elements must be
<pre> ... </pre> Preformatted text (preserve white space characters) inside indicated left-hand
<form> ... </form> Fill-in form element.
<keygen /> Create encrypted key to identify user [NN3+, OP3.6+]
<button> ... </button> Advanced input button [IE4+, NN6] Left hand element can
<fieldset> ... </fieldset> Grouped set of input elements [IE4+, NN6] contain the indicated right-
<legend> ... </legend> Label for a fieldset [IE4+, NN6] hand elements.
<label> ... </label> Label for an input [IE4+, NN6]
<input /> General input element (text, checkboxes, etc.) frameset is an alternative to
<select> ... </select> Selectable list of items the body element
<optgroup> </optgroup> Group of option elements in a selectable list [No
<option> ... </option> Item in list (inside select or optgroup) Browser Support Descriptions
<textarea> ... </textarea> Multi-line text input area Elements are supported by essentially
<dl> ... </dl> Glossary or description list all current browsers unless a list of
<dt> ... </dt> Term in list browsers is given in square brackets
<dd> ... </dd> Term description after the description. If such a list is
<ol> ... </ol> Ordered list (., numbered) present, then only the listed browsers
<li> ... </li> List item support the element. The following 2-
<ul> ... </ul> Unordered list (e.g., bulleted) letter notation is used to describe
<li> ... </li> List item these browsers:
<dir> ... </dir> Directory-style listing (use ul instead)
<li> ... </li> List item IE Internet Explorer
<menu> ... </menu> Menu list (use ul instead) NN Netscape Navigator
<li> ... </li> List item OP Opera
<table> ... </table> Tabular content (columns and rows) LY Lynx
<caption> ... </caption> Table caption WT WebTV
<colgroup> ... </colgroup> Define groups of columns [IE4+, NN6]
<col /> Set column properties [IE4+, NN6] ... followed by a browser version
<tbody> ... </tbody> Group rows making up table body [IE4+, NN6] number. This may then by followed by
<tfoot> ... </tfoot> Group rows making up table footer [IE4+, NN6] a '+' sign if the element is also
<thead> ... </thead> Group rows making up table header [IE4+, NN6] supported by subsequent versions of
<tr> ... </tr> Table row (preferably inside thead,tbody or tfoot) that browser
<td> ... </td> Table content -- data
<th> ... </th> Table content -- header (row or column description) For example:
<multicol> ... </multicol> Multi-column text [NN4 only]
IE4+ Supported by Internet
<frameset> ... </frameset> Frameset document (replaces body element) Explorer 4 and greater.
<frame /> Defines frame content (using a URL) NN4 Supported by Navigator 4,
<frameset> ... </frameset /> Subdivides a frame into additional frames but not by Navigator 6.
<noframes> ... </noframes> Alternate content ( if frames not supported)
<body> ... </body> a body (containing, in turn, regular body content)

Last Update: 7 November 2000 1/2 The XHTML 1.0 Language and Design Sourcebook
Copyright © 1996-2000 Ian S. Graham
HTML / XHTML Quick Reference This document:


Inline (Inclusion) Elements Inline (Physical Markup) Elements

<audioscope /> Display audio chart [WT only] <b> ... </b> Bold face
<applet> ... </applet> Inline program (applet) <blackface> ... </blackface> Extra bold [WT only]
<param /> Parameter for applet <bdo> ... </bdo> Bi-directional override [IE4+, NN6]
<img /> Inline image <big> ... </big> Bigger
<iframe /> Inline frame [IE3+, NN6] <blink> ... </blink> Blinking [NN1+ only]
<embed /> Embed arbitrary data <font> ... <font> Change font properties
<noembed> ... </noembed> Markup alternative to embed <i> ... </i> Italics
<noscript> ... </noscript> Markup alternative to script <marquee> ... </marquee> Scrolling text [IE3+ only]
<object> ... </object> Embed data and/or data handling <nobr> ... </nobr> No line break
program/applet [IE4+, NN4+] <s> ... </s> Struck-through [Not by Opera]
<param /> Parameter for object <small> ... </small> Smaller
<span> ... </span> Inline text block [IE3+, NN4+, OP3.6+]
Inline (Character-like) Elements <strike> ... </strike> Struck-out
<br /> Forced line break <sub> ... </sub> subscript [NN3+, IE3+, OP3.6+, WT]
<spacer /> Horizontal and/or vertical spacer <sup> ... </sup> superscript [NN3+, IE3+, OP3.6+, WT]
[NN4+ only] <tt> ... </tt> Fixed-width/monospace
<wbr /> Word break <u> ... </u> Underline
Inline (Meta-Information) Elements Inline (Logical Markup) Elements
<basefont /> Set base font properties
<abbr> ... </abbr> Abbreviation [NN6, OP4]
<bgsound /> Background audio [IE3+ only]
<acronym> ... </acronym> Acronym [IE4+, NN6, OP4]
<map> ... </map> Client-side imagemap <cite> ... </cite> Citation
<area /> Region of map <code> ... </code> Typed code
<script> ... </script> Script program for browser <dfn> ... </dfn> Definition
<server> ... </server> Script program to run <em> ... </em> Emphasized
on server [Netscape servers only] <kbd> ... </kbd> Keyboard input
<q> ... </q> Inline quotation [IE4+, NN6, OP4]
Netscape Layer Elements [NN4 only]
<samp> ... </samp> Sample text
<layer> ... </layer> Overlay presentation layer <strong> ... </strong> Strongly emphasized
<ilayer> ... </ilayer> Overlay layer (relative positioning) <var> ... </var> A variable
<nolayer> ... </nolayer> Alternative for non-layer
browsers Special Markup: Inserted/Deleted Content
Inline - Hypertext Anchors <del> ... </del> Deleted content [IE4+, NN6, OP4]
<a> ... </a> Hypertext anchor <ins> ... </ins> Inserted content [IE4+, NN6, OP4]

NOTE on Lynx Browser Support.

Lynx is a text-mode browser that does not render inline images, and that can generally only display text using one font (with, in some cases,
reverse video, boldface and underlining). Thus many inline text-formatting styles are not possible with Lynx. If you want pages to work with lynx,
you want to avoid inclusion, character-like (except br) and special markup elements, and restrict yourself to only simple physical/logical elements
(e.g., em, strong). You will also want to avoid table elements, and framesets.


Inclusion Elements If they can take content (many, like img, cannot), they take content appropriate to their
context (i.e., text or inline markup if they are themselves inline, block markup if they are a
Character-like & Meta- Generally allowed inside any non-empty block or inline element that can appear inside the
Information body (see also preceding page).
Netscape Layer Elements Can contain almost any inline element or any element that can be placed inside the body
element (see preceding page) -- they cannot appear in the document head.
Physical/Logical Text Markup Can contain text or any of the other inline or special markup elements described above
Hypertext Anchors Like physical or logical inline text markup, but cannot contain additional anchor elements.
Special Markup Can contain text or almost any block or inline element, or any element that can be placed
inside the body (see front cover)

Last Update: 7 November 2000 2/2 The XHTML 1.0 Language and Design Sourcebook
Copyright © 1996-2000 Ian S. Graham