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THUMB RULES
Particulars
PIPING PRESSURE DROP : For Raynold's no 2100 to 106
EQUIVALENT LENGHTS for Pressure drop in the system
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FLOW OF STEAM THROUGH PIPE 41, 12 & 2" only
ALLOWABLE VELOCITIES FOR PROCESS FLUIDS
SONIC VELOCITY CALCULATION
PERMANENT HEAD LOSS THROUGH ORIFICE
VENTURI Pressure Drop
FLOW RECTANGULAR WEIR
CONTROL VALVE SIZING
RELIEF VALVE SIZING FOR LIQUID EXPANSION
STORAGE VESSEL VOLUMES
NPSH
Pressure Drop in Pipeline
TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
MOTORS kVA
MOTORS AMPS ETIMATE
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HP
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HEAD
TEMPERATURE RISE IN COMPRESSION
PUMP EFFICIENCY
PUMP HORSE POWER
RELATION OF HP, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED
RELATION BETWEEN PUMP HEAD, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED
CHANGE IN PUMP CAPACITY WITH IMPELLER DIAMETER
TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER
MOTOR HP OUTPUT
MOTOR TORQUE
GAS EXPANDERS : AVAILABLE ENERGY
POWER FACTOR
SELECTION OF TYPE OF VACUUM EQUIPMENT
FAN / BLOWER OR COMPRESSOR
SPRAY WATER FOR PRDS
MAXIMUM AVAILABLE ENERGY (EXERGY)
FUEL TO AIR RATIO
COOLING TOWERS : WINDAGE LOSSES
COOLING WATER CONCENTRATION RATIO
APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCIES OF COMPRESSORS
Physical Properties
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PIPING PRESSURE DROP

For Raynold's no 2100 to 106 :

viscosity m cp
Flow rate W lb/hr
Density r lb/ft3
internal pipe diameter d Inch
Frictional pressure loss, DPF psi/100 equivalent ft #DIV/0!
of pipe
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EQUIVALENT LENGHTS Globe v/v or ball check v/v

90 miter bend Enlargement Contraction


Nominal pipe size (in)

sudden std sudden

Gate or ball valve


Swing chek valve

Equiv. Length in terms of small d


Angle valve

d/D = 1/4

d/D = 1/2

d/D = 3/4

d/D = 1/2

d/D = 3/4

d/D = 1/4

d/D = 1/2

d/D = 3/4
Elbow 45
Plug cock

Short rad

Long rad

Hard T

2 miter

3 miter

4 miter
Soft T
1.5 55 26 13 7 1 1 3 2 8 2 5 3 1 4 1 3 2 1
2 70 33 17 14 2 2 4 3 10 3 7 4 1 5 1 3 3 1
2.5 80 40 20 11 2 2 5 3 12 3 8 5 2 6 2 4 3 2
3 100 50 25 17 2 2 6 4 14 4 10 6 2 8 2 5 4 2
4 130 65 32 30 3 3 7 5 19 5 12 8 3 10 3 6 5 3
6 200 100 48 70 4 4 11 8 28 8 18 12 4 14 4 9 7 4
8 260 125 64 120 6 6 15 9 37 9 25 16 5 19 5 12 9 5
10 330 160 80 170 7 7 18 12 47 12 31 20 7 24 7 15 12 6
12 400 190 95 170 9 9 22 14 55 14 28 21 20 37 24 8 28 8 18 14 7
14 450 210 105 80 10 10 26 16 62 16 32 24 22 42 26 9 20 16 8
16 500 240 120 145 11 11 29 18 72 18 38 27 24 47 30 10 24 18 9
18 550 280 140 160 12 12 33 20 82 20 42 30 28 53 35 11 26 20 10
20 650 300 155 210 14 14 36 23 90 23 46 33 32 60 38 13 30 23 11
22 688 335 170 225 15 15 40 25 100 25 52 36 34 65 42 14 32 25 12
24 750 370 185 254 16 16 44 27 110 27 56 39 36 70 46 15 35 27 13
30 312 21 21 55 40 140 40 70 51 44
36 25 25 66 47 170 47 84 60 52
2 30 30 77 55 200 55 98 69 64
48 35 35 88 65 220 65 112 81 72
54 40 40 99 70 250 70 126 90 80
60 45 45 110 80 260 80 190 99 92
Contraction

Std

erms of small d
d/D = 1/2

d/D = 3/4

1
1
2
2
3
4 1
5 2
6 2
7 2
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MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FLOW OF STEAM THROUGH PIPE :

In FPS : In SI :
Nominal pipe Maximum lb/hr x 10 at Pressure (psig) Maximum T/hr at Pressure (barg
-3
Nominal pipe
size (in) 600 175 30 size (in) 41
0.88 0.41 0.10 14.08
Density (lb/ft3) Density (kg/m3)
3 7.5 3.6 1.2 3 3.4
4 15 7.5 3.2 4 6.8
6 40 21 8.5 6 18.2
8 76 42 18 8 34.5
10 130 76 32 10 59.1
12 190 115 58 12 86.4
14 260 115 87 14 118.2
16 360 220 117 16 163.6
18 300 166 18
20 227 20
Maximum T/hr at Pressure (barg)
12 2
6.49 1.62

1.6 0.5
3.4 1.5
9.5 3.9
19.1 8.2
34.5 14.5
52.3 26.4
52.3 39.5
100.0 53.2
136.4 75.5
227
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ALLOWABLE VELOCITIES FOR PROCESS FLUIDS

Fluid ft/s m/s


Water 10 3.0
air 100 30.5
Dry gas 100 30.5
wet gas 60 18.3
high pressure steam 150 45.7
low pressure steam 100 30.5
Average liquid process 4 - 6.5 1.2 -2
Pump suction (non-boiling) 1-5 0.3 - 1.5
Pump suction (boiling) 0.5 - 3 0.2 - 0.9
BFW 4-8 1.2 - 2.4
Drain lines 1.5 - 4 0.5 - 1.2
Liquid to reboiler (no pump) 2-7 0.6 - 2.1
Vapor to condenser 15 - 80 4.6 - 24.4
Gravity separator flow 0.5 - 1.5 0.2 - 0.5
Vapours 326 99.4
Hot oil headers 1.5 psi/100 ft

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"


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SONIC VELOCITY

Sonic velocity Vs Ft/s 0


Absolute temperature T R
ratio of sp. Heats (usually = 1.4) K 1.4
Accelearion by gravity g ft/s2 32.2
Universal gas constant R /mol wt 1544

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"


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PERMANENT HEAD LOSS THROUGH ORIFICE :

Do/Dp Permanent loss


0.2 95
0.4 82
0.6 63
0.8 40

Permanent loss = Dh (1-Co)

For orifice :

(Uo2 - Up2)1/2 = Co(2gDh)1/2

Where
Uo = Velocity through orifice (ft/s)
Up = Velocity through pipe (ft/s)
Dh = Orifice pressure drop (ft of fluid)
D= Diameter
Co = Coefficient
(0.6 for typical applns)

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"


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VENTURI Pressure Drop

(Uo2 - Up2)1/2 = Co(2gDh)1/2

Venturi pressure drop (ft of fluid) Dh = #DIV/0!


Permanent Head loss (ft of fluid)* #DIV/0!
Velocity through orifice (ft/s) Uo
Velocity through pipe (ft/s) Up
Diameter D
Coefficient Co
(0.98 for typical applns)

* Permanent head loss @ 3 - 4 % of Dh

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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RECTANGULAR WEIR

Flow over weir ft3/s Fv 0


Width of weir ft L
Height of liquid over weir ft H

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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CONTROL VALVE SIZING

For liquids :
Cv = Q (G/DP)1/2
Hence if control valve specs are known, Q can be calculated as :

Flow rate m3/hr Q 85


Body differential pressure psi DP 3.5
Specific gravity G 1
Liq. Sizing coeff Cv 2

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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RELIEF VALVE SIZING FOR LIQUID EXPANSION

Required capacity (gpm) = #DIV/0! #DIV/0! m3/hr

Heat input (Btu/hr)


Coefficient of volumetric 0.0008 3
expansion per F (Select fluid)
Specific gravity
Specific heat (Btu/lbF)

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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STORAGE VESSEL VOLUMES

For Horizontal Cylindrical vessel :

Choose Type of head : 4

Liquid hold up (m3) = #DIV/0!

Diameter (m)
Height of liquid in vessel (m)
Depth of head (m)
Length of straight portion (m)

* For spherical vessels same formula can be used with length of straight portion = 0

Ref. : Calc & shortcut deskbook, Chemical engg

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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NPSH

Net Positive Suction Head = NPSH #DIV/0!

Where,
Suction head Feet
Vessel abs pressure Psia
Vapor pressure (pumping) Psia
specific gravity
Suction friction losses Ft of fluid

Ref. : Calc & shortcut deskbook, Chemical engg

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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PRESSURE DROP IN PIPELINE

DP = Pressure drop, Pa = #DIV/0!

Laminar flow :
f = Fanning friction factor = #DIV/0!

Enter :
r= Fluid density, kg/m3
m= Fluid viscosity, kg/m-s
D= Pipe diameter, m
L= Pipe length, m
e= Pipewall roughness, m
Q= Volumetric flowrate m3/s

Ref. : Calc & shortcut deskbook, Chemical engg

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

I. Straight tube loss :


viscosity m cp
Flow rate through one tube W lb/hr
Density r lb/ft3
Internal tube diameter d Inch
Length of tube L ft
No. of tubes n
Velo.in pipe leading to & from HE ft/s
Number of tube passes N
Frictional pressure loss in tubes psi #DIV/0!
DP by Entering & exiting the HE psi 0
DP by Entering & exiting the tubes psi #DIV/0!
DP by end losses in tubeside #DIV/0!
bonnets & channels psi
Total tubeside pressure drop psi #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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MOTORS kVA

Current Amps
Line to line voltage V
kVA kVA 0

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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MOTORS AMPS ETIMATE

Motor horse power HP 6900000


Line to line voltage V 11000
Motor efficiency fraction 0.8
Power factor fraction 0.86

Motor amps :

For three phase motor : 393.152183211

For single phase motor : 680.153276956

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HP

Suction temperature T1 R
Suction pressure P1 psia
Discharge pressure P2 psia
Flow W lb/min
Adiabatic efficiency Ea fraction
Avg compressibility factor Z 1
Universal gas constant R /mol wt 1544
Adiabatic component K Cp/Cv 1.4

Adiabatic Head Had (ft) = #DIV/0!

Horse power = #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HEAD

Suction temperature T1 R
Suction pressure P1 psia
Discharge pressure P2 psia
Polytropic efficiency Ep fraction 0.8
Avg compressibility factor Z 1
Universal gas constant R /mol wt 1544
Adiabatic component K Cp/Cv 1.4
polytropic component N =KEp/(KEp-K+1) 1.6

Polytropic Head Hpoly (ft)= #DIV/0!

Adiabatic Head Had (ft) = #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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TEMPERATURE RISE IN COMPRESSION

Suction temperature T1 R
Suction pressure P1 psia
Discharge pressure P2 psia
Adiabatic component K Cp/Cv 1.4

Adiabatic : Disch Temp (C)= #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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PUMP EFFICIENCY

SI units
Developed head m Applicable for :
Flow m3/hr Head = 15 - 92 m
Efficiency % 80 Flow = 23 - 227 m3/hr

fps units :
Developed head ft Applicable for :
Flow GPM Head = 50 - 300 ft
Efficiency % 80 Flow = 100 - 1000 GPM

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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PUMP HORSE POWER

SI units :
Flow rate m3/hr 1.5
Discharge pressure bar 7.5
Suction pressure bar 1
Pump efficiency % 80
Pump power HP 20.0211

FPS units :
Flow rate GPM
Discharge pressure psi
Suction pressure psi
Pump efficiency %
Pump power HP #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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RELATION OF HP, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED

Initial impeller diameter (m) =


Initial speed (rpm) =
Initial HP =
New impeller diameter (m) = #DIV/0! U can
New speed (rpm) = #DIV/0! Calculate any one by specifying
other two parameters in column B
New HP = #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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RELATION BETWEEN PUMP HEAD, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED

Initial impeller diameter (m) =


Initial speed (rpm) =
Initial head (m) =
New impeller diameter (m) = #DIV/0! U can
New speed (rpm) = #DIV/0! Calculate any one by providing
other two parameters in column B
New head (m) = #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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CHANGE IN PUMP CAPACITY WITH IMPELLER DIAMETER

Initial diameter (m) =


Initial capacity (m3/hr) =
New diameter (m) =
New capacity (m3/hr) #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER

viscosity of fluid m cp
Flow rate through one tube W lb/hr
Density r lb/ft3
Internal tube diameter d Inch
Length of tube L ft
No. of tubes n
Number of tube passes N
Frictional pressure loss in tubes psi #DIV/0!
All other losses psi #DIV/0!
Total tubeside pressure drop psi #DIV/0!
Total tubeside pressure drop bar #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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MOTOR HP OUTPUT

Motor power input kW


Motor efficiency fraction
HP output = 0

OR :

Torque
speed rpm
HP output = 0

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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MOTOR TORQUE

Motor power HP
Speed rpm
Full load torque #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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GAS EXPANDERS : AVAILABLE ENERGY

SI units :
Cp Btu/lbC Cp kJ/kgC
Inlet temperature C Inlet temperature C
Inlet pressure psia Inlet pressure barg
Outlet pressure psia Outlet pressure barg
K= Cp/ Cv K= Cp/ Cv
Actual available power Btu/lb #DIV/0! Actual available power kWh/kg

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
#DIV/0!

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POWER FACTOR

kW input kW
kVA input kVA
Power factor #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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SELECTION OF TYPE OF VACUUM EQUIPMENT

Reciprocating piston pump down to 1 torr

Rotary piston pump down to 0.001 torr

Two-lobe rotary pump down to 0.0001 torr


Steam jet ejectors 1 stage down to 100 torr
Steam jet ejectors 3 stages down to 1 torr
Steam jet ejectors 5 stages down to 0.05 torr

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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FAN / BLOWER OR COMPRESSOR ??

Fans For 3% rise in pressure

Blowers For differential of 40 psig

Compressors Higher than 40 psig

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SPRAY WATER FOR PRDS
(Pressure Reduction Desuperheating Stations)

Enthalpy of high pressure steam kJ/kg


Enthalpy of lower pressure steam kJ/kg
Enthalpy of the spray water kJ/kg
Spray water required T/T #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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MAXIMUM AVAILABLE ENERGY (EXERGY)

Receiver temperature To C
Enthalpy at receiver conditions Ho kJ/kg
Enthalpy at source conditions H kJ/kg
Entropy at receiver conditions So kJ/kgC
Entropy at source conditions S kJ/kgC
Maximum available energy Ex kJ/kg 0
Ex kWh/kg 0

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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FUEL TO AIR RATIO

For fuel gas :


Density of fuel gas relative to air (i.e. MW/MWair) 0.78
Fuel gas / air ratio (mass/mass) 2145

For Fuel oil :

% Carbon
% hydrogen
Fuel oil / air ratio (mass/mass) #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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COOLING TOWERS : WINDAGE LOSSES

Type of cooling device Windage loss as per centage of


system circulating rate
Spray pond 3
Atmospheric cooling tower 0.7
Mechanical draft cooling tower 0.2

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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COOLING WATER CONCENTRATION RATIO

Chloride concentration in make-up water


Chloride concentration in blow down
#DIV/0!
Concentration ratio

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
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APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCIES OF COMPRESSORS

Efficiency Compression ratio


Reciprocating 65% 1.5

75% 2

80 - 85% 3.6

Large centrifugal 76 - 78%

Rotary compressor (except liquid liner type) 70%

Liquid liner type rotary 50%

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Physical Properties

Property Units Water Organic Liquids Steam Air

Heat Capacity KJ/kg C 4.2 1.0-2.5 2 1

Btu/lb F 1 0.239-0.598 0.479 0.239

Density kg/m3 1000 700-1500 1.29@STP

lb/ft3 62.29 43.6-94.4 0.08@STP

Latent Heat KJ/kg 1200-2100 200-1000

Btu/lb 516-903 86-430

Thermal Cond. W/m C 0.55-0.70 0.10-0.20 0.025-0.070 0.025-0.05

Btu/h ft F 0.32-0.40 0.057-0.116 0.0144-0.040 0.014-0.029

Viscosity cP 1.8 @ 0 C varies with temp. 0.01-0.03 0.02-0.05

0.57 @ 50C

0.28 @ 100C

0.14 @ 200C

Prandtl Number 1-15 10-1000 1 0.7

Compiled by : Ms Gauri
Organic Vapors

2.0-4.0

0.479-0.958

0.02-0.06

0.116-0.35

0.01-0.03

0.7-0.8

Compiled by : Ms Gauri