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THUMB RULES

Particulars

PIPING PRESSURE DROP : For Raynold's no 2100 to 106

EQUIVALENT LENGHTS for Pressure drop in the system

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FLOW OF STEAM THROUGH PIPE 41, 12 & 2" only

ALLOWABLE VELOCITIES FOR PROCESS FLUIDS

SONIC VELOCITY CALCULATION

PERMANENT HEAD LOSS THROUGH ORIFICE

VENTURI Pressure Drop

FLOW RECTANGULAR WEIR

CONTROL VALVE SIZING

RELIEF VALVE SIZING FOR LIQUID EXPANSION

STORAGE VESSEL VOLUMES

NPSH

Pressure Drop in Pipeline

TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

MOTORS kVA

MOTORS AMPS ETIMATE

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HP

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HEAD

TEMPERATURE RISE IN COMPRESSION

PUMP EFFICIENCY

PUMP HORSE POWER

RELATION OF HP, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED

RELATION BETWEEN PUMP HEAD, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED

CHANGE IN PUMP CAPACITY WITH IMPELLER DIAMETER

TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER

MOTOR HP OUTPUT

MOTOR TORQUE

GAS EXPANDERS : AVAILABLE ENERGY

POWER FACTOR

SELECTION OF TYPE OF VACUUM EQUIPMENT

FAN / BLOWER OR COMPRESSOR

SPRAY WATER FOR PRDS

MAXIMUM AVAILABLE ENERGY (EXERGY)

FUEL TO AIR RATIO

COOLING TOWERS : WINDAGE LOSSES

COOLING WATER CONCENTRATION RATIO

APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCIES OF COMPRESSORS

Physical Properties

Home

PIPING PRESSURE DROP

viscosity m cp

Flow rate W lb/hr

Density r lb/ft3

internal pipe diameter d Inch

Frictional pressure loss, DPF psi/100 equivalent ft #DIV/0!

of pipe

Home

EQUIVALENT LENGHTS Globe v/v or ball check v/v

Nominal pipe size (in)

Swing chek valve

Angle valve

d/D = 1/4

d/D = 1/2

d/D = 3/4

d/D = 1/2

d/D = 3/4

d/D = 1/4

d/D = 1/2

d/D = 3/4

Elbow 45

Plug cock

Short rad

Long rad

Hard T

2 miter

3 miter

4 miter

Soft T

1.5 55 26 13 7 1 1 3 2 8 2 5 3 1 4 1 3 2 1

2 70 33 17 14 2 2 4 3 10 3 7 4 1 5 1 3 3 1

2.5 80 40 20 11 2 2 5 3 12 3 8 5 2 6 2 4 3 2

3 100 50 25 17 2 2 6 4 14 4 10 6 2 8 2 5 4 2

4 130 65 32 30 3 3 7 5 19 5 12 8 3 10 3 6 5 3

6 200 100 48 70 4 4 11 8 28 8 18 12 4 14 4 9 7 4

8 260 125 64 120 6 6 15 9 37 9 25 16 5 19 5 12 9 5

10 330 160 80 170 7 7 18 12 47 12 31 20 7 24 7 15 12 6

12 400 190 95 170 9 9 22 14 55 14 28 21 20 37 24 8 28 8 18 14 7

14 450 210 105 80 10 10 26 16 62 16 32 24 22 42 26 9 20 16 8

16 500 240 120 145 11 11 29 18 72 18 38 27 24 47 30 10 24 18 9

18 550 280 140 160 12 12 33 20 82 20 42 30 28 53 35 11 26 20 10

20 650 300 155 210 14 14 36 23 90 23 46 33 32 60 38 13 30 23 11

22 688 335 170 225 15 15 40 25 100 25 52 36 34 65 42 14 32 25 12

24 750 370 185 254 16 16 44 27 110 27 56 39 36 70 46 15 35 27 13

30 312 21 21 55 40 140 40 70 51 44

36 25 25 66 47 170 47 84 60 52

2 30 30 77 55 200 55 98 69 64

48 35 35 88 65 220 65 112 81 72

54 40 40 99 70 250 70 126 90 80

60 45 45 110 80 260 80 190 99 92

Contraction

Std

erms of small d

d/D = 1/2

d/D = 3/4

1

1

2

2

3

4 1

5 2

6 2

7 2

Home

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FLOW OF STEAM THROUGH PIPE :

In FPS : In SI :

Nominal pipe Maximum lb/hr x 10 at Pressure (psig) Maximum T/hr at Pressure (barg

-3

Nominal pipe

size (in) 600 175 30 size (in) 41

0.88 0.41 0.10 14.08

Density (lb/ft3) Density (kg/m3)

3 7.5 3.6 1.2 3 3.4

4 15 7.5 3.2 4 6.8

6 40 21 8.5 6 18.2

8 76 42 18 8 34.5

10 130 76 32 10 59.1

12 190 115 58 12 86.4

14 260 115 87 14 118.2

16 360 220 117 16 163.6

18 300 166 18

20 227 20

Maximum T/hr at Pressure (barg)

12 2

6.49 1.62

1.6 0.5

3.4 1.5

9.5 3.9

19.1 8.2

34.5 14.5

52.3 26.4

52.3 39.5

100.0 53.2

136.4 75.5

227

Home

ALLOWABLE VELOCITIES FOR PROCESS FLUIDS

Water 10 3.0

air 100 30.5

Dry gas 100 30.5

wet gas 60 18.3

high pressure steam 150 45.7

low pressure steam 100 30.5

Average liquid process 4 - 6.5 1.2 -2

Pump suction (non-boiling) 1-5 0.3 - 1.5

Pump suction (boiling) 0.5 - 3 0.2 - 0.9

BFW 4-8 1.2 - 2.4

Drain lines 1.5 - 4 0.5 - 1.2

Liquid to reboiler (no pump) 2-7 0.6 - 2.1

Vapor to condenser 15 - 80 4.6 - 24.4

Gravity separator flow 0.5 - 1.5 0.2 - 0.5

Vapours 326 99.4

Hot oil headers 1.5 psi/100 ft

Home

SONIC VELOCITY

Absolute temperature T R

ratio of sp. Heats (usually = 1.4) K 1.4

Accelearion by gravity g ft/s2 32.2

Universal gas constant R /mol wt 1544

Home

PERMANENT HEAD LOSS THROUGH ORIFICE :

0.2 95

0.4 82

0.6 63

0.8 40

For orifice :

Where

Uo = Velocity through orifice (ft/s)

Up = Velocity through pipe (ft/s)

Dh = Orifice pressure drop (ft of fluid)

D= Diameter

Co = Coefficient

(0.6 for typical applns)

Home

VENTURI Pressure Drop

Permanent Head loss (ft of fluid)* #DIV/0!

Velocity through orifice (ft/s) Uo

Velocity through pipe (ft/s) Up

Diameter D

Coefficient Co

(0.98 for typical applns)

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

RECTANGULAR WEIR

Width of weir ft L

Height of liquid over weir ft H

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

CONTROL VALVE SIZING

For liquids :

Cv = Q (G/DP)1/2

Hence if control valve specs are known, Q can be calculated as :

Body differential pressure psi DP 3.5

Specific gravity G 1

Liq. Sizing coeff Cv 2

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

RELIEF VALVE SIZING FOR LIQUID EXPANSION

Coefficient of volumetric 0.0008 3

expansion per F (Select fluid)

Specific gravity

Specific heat (Btu/lbF)

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

STORAGE VESSEL VOLUMES

Diameter (m)

Height of liquid in vessel (m)

Depth of head (m)

Length of straight portion (m)

* For spherical vessels same formula can be used with length of straight portion = 0

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

NPSH

Where,

Suction head Feet

Vessel abs pressure Psia

Vapor pressure (pumping) Psia

specific gravity

Suction friction losses Ft of fluid

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

PRESSURE DROP IN PIPELINE

Laminar flow :

f = Fanning friction factor = #DIV/0!

Enter :

r= Fluid density, kg/m3

m= Fluid viscosity, kg/m-s

D= Pipe diameter, m

L= Pipe length, m

e= Pipewall roughness, m

Q= Volumetric flowrate m3/s

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

viscosity m cp

Flow rate through one tube W lb/hr

Density r lb/ft3

Internal tube diameter d Inch

Length of tube L ft

No. of tubes n

Velo.in pipe leading to & from HE ft/s

Number of tube passes N

Frictional pressure loss in tubes psi #DIV/0!

DP by Entering & exiting the HE psi 0

DP by Entering & exiting the tubes psi #DIV/0!

DP by end losses in tubeside #DIV/0!

bonnets & channels psi

Total tubeside pressure drop psi #DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

MOTORS kVA

Current Amps

Line to line voltage V

kVA kVA 0

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

MOTORS AMPS ETIMATE

Line to line voltage V 11000

Motor efficiency fraction 0.8

Power factor fraction 0.86

Motor amps :

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HP

Suction temperature T1 R

Suction pressure P1 psia

Discharge pressure P2 psia

Flow W lb/min

Adiabatic efficiency Ea fraction

Avg compressibility factor Z 1

Universal gas constant R /mol wt 1544

Adiabatic component K Cp/Cv 1.4

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HEAD

Suction temperature T1 R

Suction pressure P1 psia

Discharge pressure P2 psia

Polytropic efficiency Ep fraction 0.8

Avg compressibility factor Z 1

Universal gas constant R /mol wt 1544

Adiabatic component K Cp/Cv 1.4

polytropic component N =KEp/(KEp-K+1) 1.6

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

TEMPERATURE RISE IN COMPRESSION

Suction temperature T1 R

Suction pressure P1 psia

Discharge pressure P2 psia

Adiabatic component K Cp/Cv 1.4

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

PUMP EFFICIENCY

SI units

Developed head m Applicable for :

Flow m3/hr Head = 15 - 92 m

Efficiency % 80 Flow = 23 - 227 m3/hr

fps units :

Developed head ft Applicable for :

Flow GPM Head = 50 - 300 ft

Efficiency % 80 Flow = 100 - 1000 GPM

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

PUMP HORSE POWER

SI units :

Flow rate m3/hr 1.5

Discharge pressure bar 7.5

Suction pressure bar 1

Pump efficiency % 80

Pump power HP 20.0211

FPS units :

Flow rate GPM

Discharge pressure psi

Suction pressure psi

Pump efficiency %

Pump power HP #DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

RELATION OF HP, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED

Initial speed (rpm) =

Initial HP =

New impeller diameter (m) = #DIV/0! U can

New speed (rpm) = #DIV/0! Calculate any one by specifying

other two parameters in column B

New HP = #DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

RELATION BETWEEN PUMP HEAD, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED

Initial speed (rpm) =

Initial head (m) =

New impeller diameter (m) = #DIV/0! U can

New speed (rpm) = #DIV/0! Calculate any one by providing

other two parameters in column B

New head (m) = #DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

CHANGE IN PUMP CAPACITY WITH IMPELLER DIAMETER

Initial capacity (m3/hr) =

New diameter (m) =

New capacity (m3/hr) #DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER

viscosity of fluid m cp

Flow rate through one tube W lb/hr

Density r lb/ft3

Internal tube diameter d Inch

Length of tube L ft

No. of tubes n

Number of tube passes N

Frictional pressure loss in tubes psi #DIV/0!

All other losses psi #DIV/0!

Total tubeside pressure drop psi #DIV/0!

Total tubeside pressure drop bar #DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

MOTOR HP OUTPUT

Motor efficiency fraction

HP output = 0

OR :

Torque

speed rpm

HP output = 0

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

MOTOR TORQUE

Motor power HP

Speed rpm

Full load torque #DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

GAS EXPANDERS : AVAILABLE ENERGY

SI units :

Cp Btu/lbC Cp kJ/kgC

Inlet temperature C Inlet temperature C

Inlet pressure psia Inlet pressure barg

Outlet pressure psia Outlet pressure barg

K= Cp/ Cv K= Cp/ Cv

Actual available power Btu/lb #DIV/0! Actual available power kWh/kg

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

POWER FACTOR

kW input kW

kVA input kVA

Power factor #DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

SELECTION OF TYPE OF VACUUM EQUIPMENT

Steam jet ejectors 1 stage down to 100 torr

Steam jet ejectors 3 stages down to 1 torr

Steam jet ejectors 5 stages down to 0.05 torr

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

FAN / BLOWER OR COMPRESSOR ??

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

SPRAY WATER FOR PRDS

(Pressure Reduction Desuperheating Stations)

Enthalpy of lower pressure steam kJ/kg

Enthalpy of the spray water kJ/kg

Spray water required T/T #DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

MAXIMUM AVAILABLE ENERGY (EXERGY)

Receiver temperature To C

Enthalpy at receiver conditions Ho kJ/kg

Enthalpy at source conditions H kJ/kg

Entropy at receiver conditions So kJ/kgC

Entropy at source conditions S kJ/kgC

Maximum available energy Ex kJ/kg 0

Ex kWh/kg 0

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

FUEL TO AIR RATIO

Density of fuel gas relative to air (i.e. MW/MWair) 0.78

Fuel gas / air ratio (mass/mass) 2145

% Carbon

% hydrogen

Fuel oil / air ratio (mass/mass) #DIV/0!

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

COOLING TOWERS : WINDAGE LOSSES

system circulating rate

Spray pond 3

Atmospheric cooling tower 0.7

Mechanical draft cooling tower 0.2

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

COOLING WATER CONCENTRATION RATIO

Chloride concentration in blow down

#DIV/0!

Concentration ratio

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCIES OF COMPRESSORS

Reciprocating 65% 1.5

75% 2

80 - 85% 3.6

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Home

Physical Properties

0.57 @ 50C

0.28 @ 100C

0.14 @ 200C

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Organic Vapors

2.0-4.0

0.479-0.958

0.02-0.06

0.116-0.35

0.01-0.03

0.7-0.8

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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