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FLOW MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL VALVE 2017

ME2204
ELEMENTS OF ENGINEERING PLANTS

AN ASSIGNMENT REPORT PRESENTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE


REQUIREMENTS FOR ELEMENTS OF ENGINEERING PLANTS

Submitted by
1. DK NUR AMAL BAZILAH BTE PG AHMAD [DIENG(MCH)/06/16/0401]

2. MOHAMMAD HAFIZ BIN ABDULLAH [DIENG(MCH)/06/16/0408]

3. MUHAMMAD FAIQ BIN HAJI MOHAMMAD SALLEH [DIENG(MCH)/06/16/0415]

4. TAUFIQ AL-HAKIM BIN HAJI ABDUL RAHIM [DIENG(MCH)/06/16/0422]

Lecturer:
MS MARDIAH BTE HAJI BACHEE & MS SITI NURFILZAH BINTI HAJI BRAHIM

Date of Submission
Wednesday, 15th February 2017

Session
2017

SEMESTER 2
FLOW MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL VALVE 2017

Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 3
1.1 What is a valve? .................................................................................................................................. 3
2.0 Content ................................................................................................................................................... 4
2.1 Identify the given valve ....................................................................................................................... 4
2.2 Identify cross-section/ parts of the valve ........................................................................................... 5
2.3 Identify the operating principles of the valve ..................................................................................... 6
2.4 Identify how the valves regulate the flow of the fluid........................................................................ 6
2.5 Describe the characteristics of the valve ............................................................................................ 7
2.6 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the valve .................................................................. 7
2.7 Describe the applications where the selected valve is being used..................................................... 7
3.0 References .............................................................................................................................................. 8

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FLOW MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL VALVE 2017

1.0 Introduction
During our first practical session in the Plant Lab UTB, we were given a task to disassemble parts of the
required valve; this is done in order for us to understand further about the parts and working principles
of the valve.

1.1 What is a valve?


A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or
slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are essential
components of a piping system that transport liquids, gases, vapors and slurries.

There are many different types of valve used in industry and they have its own specific features and
functions, for example Gate Valve, Butterfly Valve and Needle Valve. Some valves are self-operated
while others are manually or with an actuator that uses pneumatic or hydraulic.

Figure 2 Gate Valve Figure 1 Butterfly valve Figure 3 Needle Valve

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FLOW MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL VALVE 2017

2.0 Content
2.1 Identify the given valve
Our group chooses to elaborate more about Gate Valve.

Gate valves are primarily designed to start and stop flow, or when a straight-line flow of fluid and
minimum flow restriction is required. During operation, these valves generally are either fully open or
fully closed.

Gate valves are usually divided into two types: parallel and wedge-shaped. The parallel gate valve uses
a flat disc gate between two parallel seats, one is at the upstream and the other one is at the
downstream. While the edge-shaped gate valves uses two inclined seats and a slightly mismatched
inclined gate, this is to allow a tight shut-off.

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FLOW MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL VALVE 2017

2.2 Identify cross-section/ parts of the valve

Gate valves consist of three main parts which is the Body, Bonnet, and Trim. The body is generally
connected to other equipment for example flanged, screwed or welded joints. Since fluid passed
through this valve body when in service, the valve body must be made from a strong material to take
the maximum pressure of the fluid.

The valve bonnet is a removable cover fitted to the body, which contains the moving parts, and it is
attached usually with bolts, this is for maintenance purposes. The valve trim consists of the stem which
connects the actuator to the closing element, gate, disc or wedge and the seat rings that makes a seal
with the closing element when the valve is closed.

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FLOW MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL VALVE 2017

2.3 Identify the operating principles of the valve

Fully closed Partially opened Fully opened

As seen from the figure above, when the valve is closed, the hand wheel will be rotated in clockwise
direction, the stem and gate (wedge) will be moving downwards towards the body. Fluid wont be able
to flow once the valve is closed.

When the valve is open, the hand wheel will be rotated to anti-clockwise direction, it is the vice versa of
opening the valve, the stem and gate will move in wards direction. Once the valve is fully open, fluid can
continue flowing.

The disk of a Gate valve is completely removed when the valve is fully open; the disk is fully drawn up
into the valve Bonnet. This leaves an opening for flow through the valve at the same inside diameter as
the pipe system in which the valve is installed.

2.4 Identify how the valves regulate the flow of the fluid

In gate valve, flow is controlled by lowering or raising the valve stem. But this gate valves are not
suitable for the purpose of regulating or throttling of flow due to its valve design, accurate control of
flow would be difficult to achieve unless it is designed to do so.

Moreover, when valve are partially opened, the high velocity may cause erosion and extensive damage
to the disc and its seating surfaces.

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FLOW MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL VALVE 2017

2.5 Describe the characteristics of the valve

The distinct feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar, so it
provides a complete sealing. Thus, the valve can only completely restrict the flow of fluid or fully allow
it.
Parallel Slide Gate Valve

It has a wide seating area (lower contacting stress).


It is flexible in thermal expansion in valve body.
The torque to seating is stable and smooth.
Longer life time of seats surfaces and gate.

Wedge Gate Valve

It has a narrow seating area (higher contacting stress) than parallel slide gate valve.
It has a brittle in terms of thermal flexibility of the disc.
The lower wedge edges are normally prone to damages.

2.6 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the valve

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
1. It has a good shutoff features 1. Gate valve must be slowly opened or closed
2. Gate valves are bidirectional and therefore they 2. It is not suitable for regulate or throttle flow
can be used in two directions
3. Pressure loss through the valve is minimal. 3. They are sensitive to vibration in the open state
4. It is suitable when on-off service is needed. 4. When the valve seats are damaged, it is difficult to
repair.
5. Can provide a tight shutoff 5. Sealing surfaces are prone to damage.
6. Gate valve is easy to use since it does not involve 6. Gate valves require a large force for operation.
any complex mechanism.

2.7 Describe the applications where the selected valve is being used

Gate valves are primarily used to prevent the flow of liquids by lifting a round or rectangular gate out of
the path of the fluid. It is also used when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum restriction is desired
for the process.

Since gate valve can withstand harsh environment such as high temperature and high pressure, it is
commonly found in Oil and Gas industry. Gate valves are also used in many industrial applications
including the pharmaceuticals, manufacturing, automotive, and offshore applications. The non-rising
stem gate types of valves are commonly used on ships, in underground applications, since they don't
take up large space.

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FLOW MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL VALVE 2017

3.0 References
(2017). Retrieved 11 February 2017, from https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gate_valve

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION for open ended lab.docx - ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS:. (2017).
Coursehero.com. Retrieved 11 February 2017, from
https://www.coursehero.com/file/17952888/ANALYSIS-AND-DISCUSSION-for-open-ended-labdocx/

Characteristics, principle of work and cautions for gate valve - WELCO VALVE - Flow control solution.
(2017). Cnvalveco.com. Retrieved 14 February 2017, from http://cnvalveco.com/structural-
characteristics-principle-of-work-and-cautions-for-gate-valve.htm

Divedi, H., Divedi, H., Divedi, H., & profile, V. (2017). GATE VALVE WORKING PRINCIPLE. Hkdivedi.com.
Retrieved 9 February 2017, from http://www.hkdivedi.com/2016/05/gate-valve-working-principle.html

Gate Valve Types, Construction, Applications and Advantages. (2017). Pipingguide.net. Retrieved 14
February 2017, from http://www.pipingguide.net/2013/10/gate-valve-types-construction.html

Gate Valve, Gate Valve Manufacturer, Gate Valve Exporters, Gate Valve Stockist, Gate Valve Supplier,
Risng Stem Gate Valve India. (2017). Jdvalves.com. Retrieved 13 February 2017, from
http://www.jdvalves.com/gate_valve.htm

Gate Valves Information | Engineering360. (2017). Globalspec.com. Retrieved 13 February 2017, from
http://www.globalspec.com/learnmore/flow_control_flow_transfer/valves/gate_valves

Introduction to valves - Gate valves - Gate valves are primarily designed to start or stop flow.... (2017).
Wermac.org. Retrieved 9 February 2017, from http://wermac.org/valves/valves_gate.html

profile, V. (2017). The Advantages And Disadvantages of Gate Valve. Dkvalve.blogspot.com. Retrieved 11
February 2017, from http://dkvalve.blogspot.com/2012/05/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-
gate.html?m=1

The Benefits of Using Gate Valves | World Wide Metric Blog. (2017). Blog.worldwidemetric.com.
Retrieved 14 February 2017, from http://blog.worldwidemetric.com/products/the-benefits-of-using-
gate-valves/

Valve. (2017). En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 14 February 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valve

Valves. (2017). Emadrlc.blogspot.com. Retrieved 13 February 2017, from


http://emadrlc.blogspot.com/p/blog-page.html

Valves - Transport and Storage - MEL Equipment Encyclopedia 4.0. (2017).


Encyclopedia.che.engin.umich.edu. Retrieved 14 February 2017, from
http://encyclopedia.che.engin.umich.edu/Pages/TransportStorage/Valves/Valves.html

Valves In Industry (Part 2). 1) Control Valve 2) Globe Valve 3) Gate Valve 4) Ball Valve 5) Needle Valve 6)
Diaphragm Valve 7) Solenoid Valve 8) Valve. - ppt download. (2017). Slideplayer.com. Retrieved 14
February 2017, from http://slideplayer.com/slide/4156563/